We dedicate this work to both of our parents to whom we are greatly indebted- our fathers : the Late Mr . Mohammad Mehdi Peiravi, and Mr . Charles Henry Morgan, and our mothers who are alive and whom we and our children love and are still under their spiritual protection and loving support : Mrs . Talat Shaykh Peiravi and Mrs . Betty June Morgan .

Dr . Ali Peiravi

Ms . Lisa Zaynab Morgan


We thank God the Almighty for the opportunity granted to us to undertake the preparation of THE COMPLETE EDITION OF THE TREATISE ON RIGHTS by the fourth religious leader in the line of the Prophet of God, Ali ibn al-Hussein known as Imam Sajjad (a)[1] for his extended prostrations to God . THE TREATISE ON RIGHTS has already been translated by William C . Chittick and published . Mr . Chittick has provided a good translation . However, he has not translated the complete version of the Treatise . As he has stated in his introduction, there exist two transmitted versions . One is in Al-Khisal and Al-Amali, both compiled by Shaykh As-Saduq, and the other one is in Tuhaf al-Uqoul compiled by Ibn Shu’ba . Both versions are provided in Bihar al-Anwar . Mr . Chittick has provided a translation of the earlier edition that is shorter . In this COMPLETE EDITION OF THE TREATISE ON RIGHTS, we have attempted to provide the translation of the second version . However, we have also included what is stated in the other

version in appropriate places in the endnotes- mostly according to Mr . Chittick’s translation with some minor corrections . Thereby we hope that the reader can get a good view of both editions . We have presented this book in a bilingual form with the English side by side with the Arabic . This we hope will enable those who are able to read the original Arabic text to compare the two . We did our best to try to understand the words of the Immaculate Imam (a), and translate them into English in a form we feel most closely represents the original meaning . We have vastly benefited from existing translations from Arabic into both Farsi and English . However, since there were many errors in the existing translations, we tried to do our best to reflect the results of a direct translation from Arabic into English . We kept in line with Mr . Chittick’s translation as much as possible to maintain uniformity with previous works . We must also acknowledge that his translation is the best existing translation of the first version as far as we know . So may God reward him for his sincere efforts and the many others who tried to translate this outstanding document on rights to enable all the people of the world to benefit from it . We also hope God to forgive our mistakes and shortcomings in such an important effort . We are partly indebted to our daughter Maryam Peiravi for her assistance in

the translation from Arabic, and her sister Talat June Peiravi for her poetic contribution to this book .


This book is authored by the fourth Imam who is Ali ibn al-Hussein (a) . He is the son of Imam Hussein (a) and Shah Banu . According to some narrations, he was born on Sha’ban 5, 38 AH and became martyred on Muharram 12, 95 AH by Walid Ibn-e Abdol Malik . When he was born, his grandfather Imam Ali (a) was controlling the affairs . He experienced three years of Alavi caliphate and a short period of Imam Hasan’s government, which lasted for only several months . He witnessed the saga of Karbala that took place in 61 AH and survived the day of Ashura, which took place in 61 AH . In accordance with the Divine decree, Imam Hussein (a) appointed him the people's next leader when Imam Hussein (a) was martyred at Karbala . Imam Sajjad (a) who was also present there was ill and unable to join the fight against the forces of Yazid . Thus he was not martyred . During his journey from Karbala, he delivered speeches in the towns of Kufa and Damascus, and he informed the people of his father's holy intentions . In this way he disgraced Yazid . Imam Sajjad (a) liked orphans, the poor, and the handicapped to come to his house and be his guests . He used to give food and clothing to many families who were poor and needy . Imam Sajjad

(a) was so earnest in worshipping God that he was called "Zayn al-'Abidin", which means "the adornment of the worshippers", while his title "al-Sajjad" means "one who prostrates long and often" . He lived for fifty-seven years, and devoted most of his efforts to revive the spiritual aspects of the society . Hence, Imam Sajjad's life and statements were entirely devoted to asceticism and religious teachings . His religious teachings are in the form of invocations and supplications . Having witnessed the unpleasant social situation of that era during which religious values were deviated and changed, Imam Sajjad (a) attempted to establish a divine relationship between the people and God . Consequently, he was able to touch the hearts of the people and the people were deeply influenced by his words and his life style . His famous supplications are well known as “Sahifeye Sajjadieh . ” About three decades of the Imam's life were devoted to the revival of spiritualism in the society . This book is one of his most outstanding teachings . It is a master document on Islamic human rights, which not only cover human rights, but they also include the rights of God, our parts, and our deeds . To any intelligent reader who ponders deeply about the contents of this valuable document on rights, it immediately becomes clear that Islam has already established the first document on rights nearly fourteen centuries ago . But unfortunately in our modern world there are those who claim to respect human rights but

they do so only superficially .


You should respect everyone’s right

Be they old, young or full of might,

Be they for you an adversary

Or if they ever made you happy

The biggest right is that of God’s

You should obey him and no other gods

Our body parts too have certain rights

Such as not viewing forbidden sights

Our relatives have many rights

Be it our parents, brothers or our wives

There are also rights for our deeds

Be it charity, supplications or holy feeds

All people have certain rights

Be they our teachers, or citizens nation-wide

Ali and Talat June Peiravi

the first part of Imam Ali ibn al-Hussein's treatise on rights

In the Name of Allah, Most Beneficent, Most Merciful

Know ­God have mercy upon you­ that God has rights incumbent upon you and that these encompass you in every motion through which you move, every rest which you take, every waystation in which you reside, every limb which you employ, and every instrument which you use . Some of these rights are greater than others . And the greatest of God's rights incumbent upon you is what He has made incumbent upon you for Himself ­the Blessed and the Exalted­ from His rights . That which is the root of all rights from which others branch out . Then those which He has made incumbent upon you in yourself, from your crown to your foot, according to the diversity of your organs .

He established for your sight a right incumbent upon you, and your hearing a right incumbent upon you, and your tongue a right incumbent upon you, and your hand a right incumbent upon

you, and your legs a right incumbent upon you, and your stomach a right incumbent upon you, and your private part a right incumbent upon you . These are the seven organs through which deeds take place . Then the Mighty and the High established for your deeds rights incumbent upon you . Then He established for your ritual prayer a right incumbent upon you, and your fasting a right incumbent upon you, and your charity a right incumbent upon you, and your offering a right incumbent upon you, and your deeds a right incumbent upon you . Then the rights extend out from you to others who have rights incumbent upon you .

And the most incumbent of them incumbent upon you are the rights toward your leaders, then the rights toward your subjects, and then the rights toward your relations of kin . And from these rights branch out other rights . The rights of your leaders are three-fold : The one most incumbent upon you is the right of him who trains you through authority, then the right of him who trains you through knowledge, then the right of him who trains you through property . And each trainer is a leader . And the rights of your subjects are three-fold : The one most incumbent upon you is the right of those who are your subjects through authority, then the right of those who are your subjects through knowledge, ­for the man of ignorance is the subject of the man of knowledge­

And then the right of those who are your subjects through property, such as wives and those owned by the right hand .

And the rights of your relations of kin are multi-fold : they hold according to the degree of closeness of the relationship . Then the most incumbent one upon you is the right of your mother, then the right of your father, then the right of your child, then the right of your brother, then the next nearest, and then the next nearest, and the most worthy, and then the next most worthy . Then there is the right of your master who favors you , then the right of the slave the servant whose favors reach you , then the right of him who treats you kindly, then the right of your caller to prayer, then the right of your prayer leader, then the right of your sitting companion, then the right of your neighbor, then the right of your companion, then the right of your partner, then the right of your property, then the right of the debtor who must pay you back, then the right of your creditor who demands his debt to be paid back, then the right of your associate, then the right of your adversary who has a claim against you, then the right of your adversary against whom you have a claim, then the right of him who seeks your advice, then the right of him whose advice you seek, then the right of him who

seeks your counsel, then the right of him whose counsel you seek, then the right of him who is older than you are, then the right of him who is younger than you are, then the right of him who begs from you, then the right of him from whom you beg, then the right of him who wrongs you either verbally or physically, then the right of him who does something to make you happy either verbally or physically whether intentionally or unintentionally, then the right of the people of your creed, then the right of those under the protection of Islam, then all rights hold which are incumbent upon you according to the vicissitudes of life and the availability of means . Therefore blessed be the one whom God helps fulfill the rights which He has made incumbent upon him and whom He grants success therein and guides him .

بسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ اعْلَ____مْ رَحِ_____مَكَ اللهُ أَنَّ للهِ عَلَيْكَ حُ____قُوقًا مُحِيطَةً بكَ فِي ك_ُلِّ حَرَكَةٍ تَحَرَّكْتَهَا، أَوْ سَكَ_____نَةٍ سَكَنْتَهَا، أَوْ مَنْزِلَةٍ نَزَلْتَهَا، أَوْ جَارِحَةٍٍ قَلَّبْتَهَا وَآلَةٍٍ تَصَرَّفْتَ بهَا، بَعْضُهَا أَكْبَرُ مِنْ بَعْضٍ . وَأَكْبَرُ حُقُوقِ اللهِ عَلَيْكَ مَا أَوْجَبَهُ لِنَفْسِهِ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى مِنْ حَقِّهِ الَّذِي هُوَ أَصْلُ الْحُقُوقِ وَمِنْهُ تَفَرَّعَ . ثُمَّ أَوْجَبَهُ عَلَيْكَ لِنَفْسِكَ مِنْ قَرْنِكَ إلَى قَدَمِكَ عَلَى اِختِلافِ جَوَارِحِكَ .

فَجَعَلَ لِبَصَرِكَ عَلَيْكَ حَقًّا وَلِسَمْعِكَ عَلَيْكَ حَقًّا وَلِلِسَانِكَ عَلَيْكَ حَقًّا وَلِيَدِكَ عَلَيْكَ حَقًّا وَلِرِجْلِكَ عَلَيْكَ حَقًّا وَلِبَطْنِكَ عَلَيْكَ حَقًّا وَلِفَرْجِكَ عَلَيْكَ حَقًّا، فَهَذِهِ الْجَوَارِحُ السَّبْعُ الَّتِي بهَا تَكُونُ الأَفْعَالُ . ثُمَّ جَعَلَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لأَفْعَالِكَ عَلَيْكَ حُقُوقًا فَجَعَلَ لِصَلاتِكَ عَلَيْكَ حَقًّا

وَلِصَوْمِكَ عَلَيْكَ حَقًّا وَلِصَدَقَتِكَ عَلَيْكَ حَقًّا وَلِهَدْيِكَ عَلَيْكَ حَقًّا وَلأَفعَالِكَ عَلَيْكَ حَقًّا . ثُمَّ تَخرُجُ الْحُقُوقُ مِنْكَ إلَى غَيْرِكَ مِنْ ذَوِي الْحُقُوقِ الْوَاجِب__َةِ عَلَي__ْكَ .

وَأَوْجَبُهَا عَلَيْكَ حُقُوقُ أَئِمَّتِكَ ثُمَّ حُقُوقُ رَعِيَّتِكَ ثُمَّ حُقُوقُ رَحِمِكَ . فَهَذِهِ حُقُوقٌ يَتَشَعَّبُ مِنْهَا حُقُوقٌ : فَحُقُوقُ أَئِمَّتِكَ ثَلاثَةٌ أَوْجَبُهَا عَلَيْكَ حَقُّ سَائِسِ___كَ بالسُّ___لْطَانِ ثُمَّ سَائِسِكَ بالْعِلْ______مِ، ثُمَّ حَقُّ سَائِسِكَ بالْمُلْكِ، وَكُلُّ سَائِسٍٍ إمَامٌ . وَحُقُوقُ رَعِيَّتِكَ ثلاثَةٌ أَوْجَبُهَا عَلَيْكَ حَقُّ رَعِيَّتِكَ بالسُّلْطَان، ثُمَّ حَقُّ رعِيَّتِكَ بالْعِلْمِ، فَإنَّ الْجَاهِلَ رَعِيَّةُ الْعَالِمِ، وَحَقُّ رَعِيَّتِكَ بالْمُلْكِ مِنَ الأَزْوَاجِ وَمَا مَلَكْتَ مِنَ الأَيْمَانِ .

وَحُقُوقُ رَحِمِكَ كَثِيرَةٌ مُتَّصِلَةٌ بقَدْرِ اتِّصَالِ الرَّحِمِ فِي الْقَرَابَةِ فَأَوْجَبُهَا عَلَيْ__كَ حَقُّ أُمِّكَ ثُمَّ حَقُّ أَبيكَ ثُمَّ حَقُّ وَلَدِكَ ثُمَّ حَقُّ أَخِيكَ ثُ_______مَّ الأَقْرَبُ فَالأَقْرَبُ وَالأَوَّلُ فَالأَوَّلُ . ثُمَّ حَقُّ مَوْلاكَ الْمُنْعِمِ عَلَيْكَ، ثُمَّ حَقُّ مَوْلاكَ الْجَارِيَةُ نِعْمَتُكَ عَلَيْهِ، ثُمَّ حَقُّ ذِي الْمَعْرُوفِ لَدَيْكَ، ثُمَّ حَقُّ مُؤَذِّنُكَ بالصَّلاةِ، ثُمَّ حَقُّ إمَامِكَ فِي صَلاتِكَ، ثُمَّ حَقُّ جَلِيسِكَ، ثُمَّ حَقُّ جَارِكَ، ثُمَّ حَقُّ صَاحِبكَ، ثُمَّ حَقُّ شَرِيكِكَ، ثُمَّ حَقُّ مَالِكَ،

ثُمَّ حَقُّ غَرِيمِكَ الَّذِي تُطَالِبُهُ،

ثُمَّ حَقُّ غَرِيمِكَ الَّذِي يُطَالِبُكَ، ثُمَّ حَقُّ خَلِيطِكَ، ثُمَّ حَقُّ خَصْمِكَ الْمُدَّعِي عَلَيْكَ، ثُمَّ حَقُّ خَصْمِكَ الَّذِي تَدَّعِي عَلَيْهِ، ثُمَّ حَقُّ مُسْتَشِيرِكَ، ثُمَّ حَقُّ الْمُشِيرِ عَلَيْكَ، ثُمَّ حَقُّ مُسْتَنْصِحِكَ، ثُمَّ حَقُّ النَّاصِحِ لَكَ، ثُمَّ حَقُّ مَنْ هُوَ أَكْبَرُ مِنْكَ، ثُمَّ حَقُّ مَنْ هُوَ أَصْغَرُ مِنْكَ، ثُمَّ حَقُّ سَائِلِكَ، ثُمَّ حَقُّ مَن سَأَلْتَهُ، ثُمَّ حَقُّ مَن جَرَى لَكَ عَلَى يَدَيْهِ مَسَاءَةٌ بقَوْلٍ أَو فِعْلٍ أَوْ مَسَرَّةٍ بذَلِكَ بقَوْلٍ أَوْ فِعْلٍ عَنْ تَعَمُّدٍ مِنْهُ أَوْ غَيْرِ تَعَمُّدٍ مِنْهُ، ثُمَّ حَقُّ أَهْلِ مِلَّتِكَ عَامَّةً ثُمَّ حَقُّ أَهْلِ الذِّمَّةِ، ثُمَّ الْحُقُوقُ الْجَارِيَةُ بقَدْرِ عِلَلِ الأَحْوَالِ وَتَصَرُّفِ الأَسْبَاب . فَطُوبَى لِمَنْ أَعَانَهُ اللهُ عَلَى

قَضَاءِ مَا أَوْجَبَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ حُقُوقِهِ وَوَفَّقَهُ وَسَدَّدَهُ .



Then the greatest right of God incumbent upon you is that you worship Him without associating anything with Him . When you do that with sincerity, He has made it binding upon Himself to give you sufficiency in the affairs of this world and the next and to keep for you whatever of them that you like . حقوق الله

1 . حق الله الأكبر

فأَمَّا حَقُّ اللهِ الأَكْبَرُ فَإنَّكَ تَعْبُدُهُ لا تُشْرِكُ بهِ شَيْئاً، فَإذَا فَعَلْتَ ذَلِكَ بإخلاصٍ جَعَلَ لَكَ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ أَنْ يَكفِيَكَ أَمْرَ الدُّنْيَا وَالآخِرَةِ وَيَحْفَظَ لَكَ مَا تُحِبُّ مِنْهَما .


And the right of yourself incumbent upon you is that you employ it in obeying God; then you deliver to your tongue its right, to your hearing its right, to your sight its right, to your hand its right, to your leg its right, to your stomach its right, to your private part its right, and you seek help from God in all that .

2 . حق النفس

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ نَفْسِكَ عَلَيْكَ فَأَنْ تَسْتَوْفِيَهَا فِي طَاعَةِ اللهِ فَتُؤَدّي إلَى لِسَانِكَ حَقَّهُ وَإلَى سَمْعِك حَقَّهُ وَإلَى بَصَرِكَ حَقّهُ وَإلَى يَدِكَ حَقَّهَا وَإلَى رِجْلِك حَقَّهَا وَإلَى بَطْنِكَ حَقَّهُ وَإلَى فَرْجِكَ حَقَّهُ وَتَسْتَعِينَ باللهِ عَلَى ذَلِك .


And the right of the tongue is that you consider it too noble for obscenity, accustom it to good, direct it to politeness, do not use it except in situations of needs and benefits of the religion and this world, and refrain from any meddling in which there is little to be gained, and there is no security from its harm that accompanies its small benefits . It is the witness to and the evidence of the existence of the intellect . The demonstration of an intelligent person’s intellect is through his reputation of good speech . And there is no power but in God the High, the Great . 3 . حق اللسان

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ اللّسَان فَإكْرَامُهُ عَنِ الْخَنَى(1) وتَعْوِيدُهُ عَلَى الْخَيْرِ وَحَمْلُهُ عَلَى الأَدَب وَإجْمَامُهُ إلاّ لِمَوْضِعِ الْحَاجَةِ وَالْمَنْفَعَةِ لِلدِّينِ وَالدُّنْيَا وَإعْفَاؤُهُ عَنِ الْفُضُول اُلشَّنِعَةِ الْقَلِيلَةِ الْفَائِدَةِ الَّتِي لا يُؤْمَنُ ضَرَرُهَا مَعَ قِلَّةِ عَائِدَتِهَا . وَيُعَدُّ شَاهِدَ الْعَقْلِ وَالدَّلِيلَ عَلَيْه وَتَزَيُّنُ

الْعَاقِلَ بعَقْلِهِ حُسْنُ سِيرَتِهِ فِي لِسَانِهِ . وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ الْعَلِيِّ الْعَظِيمِ .


And the right of hearing is to keep it pure by not making it the direct pathway to your heart, except for noble words that establish some good in your heart or grant you a noble trait . Indeed hearing is the gateway through which various concepts reach the heart —whether good or evil . And there is no power but in God .

4 . حق السمع

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ السَّمْعِ فَتَنْزِيهُهُ عَنْ أَنْ تَجْعَلَهُ طَرِيقًا إلَى قَلْبكَ إلا لِفُوهَةٍ كَرِيمَةٍ تُحْدِثُ فِي قَلبكَ خَيْرًا أَو تَكْسِبُ خُلُقًا كَرِيمًا فَإنَّهُ بَابُ الْكَلامِ إلَى الْقَلْب يُؤَدِّي إلَيْهِ ضُرُوبُ الْمَعَانِي عَلَى مَا فِيهَا مِن خَيْرٍ أَو شَرِّ . وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of your sight is that you lower it before everything, which is unlawful to you . And that you abandon using it, except in situations in which you can take heed in such a way that you gain insight or acquire knowledge by it . Indeed sight is the gateway to learning .

5 . حق البصر

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ بَصَرِكَ فَغَضُّهُ عَمَّا لا يَحِلُّ لَكَ وتَرْكُ ابْتِذَالِهِ إلاّ لِمَوضِعِ عِبْرَةٍ تَسْتَقْبلُ بهَا بَصَرًا أَو تَسْتَفِيدُ بهَا عِلْمًا، فَإنَّ الْبَصَرَ بَابُ الِاعْتِبَارِ .


And the right of your legs is that you walk not with them toward that which is unlawful to you . And you should not direct them in the way that will lead the person they carry to being debased . Your legs will carry you in the direction of the religion and they will help you go ahead . And there is no power but in God . 6 . حق الرجلين

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ رِجْلَيْكَ فَأَنْ لا تَمْشِي بهِمَا إلَى مَا لا يَحِلُّ لَكَ وَلا تَجْعَلْهُمَ____ا مَطِيَّتَ____كَ فِي الطَّرِيقِ الْمُسْتَخِفَّةِ بأَهْلِهَا فِيهَا فَإنَّهَا حَامِلَتُكَ وَسَالِكَةٌ بكَ مَسْلَكَ الدِّينِ وَالسَّبْقُ لَكَ، وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا بالله .


And the right of your hand is that you stretch it not toward that which is unlawful to you . Should you do so, you will be chastised by God in the future . And you are not secure from the blameful tongue of the people now, either . Do not prevent your hands from performing what God has made obligatory for them . You should honor your hands in such a way as to prevent them from engaging in many of the deeds that are not allowed for them . You should let them engage in many deeds that are not harmful for them . If they are now used by the intellect and with honor now, then they are bound to receive a good reward in the future . 7 . حق اليد

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ يَدِكَ فَأَنْ لا تَبْسُطَهَا إلَى مَا لا يَحِلُّ لَكَ فَتَنَالَ بمَا تَبْسُطُهَا إلَيْهِ مِنَ

اللهِ الْعُقُوبَةَ فِي الآجِلِ، وَمِنَ النَّاسِ بلِسَانِ اللائِمَةِ فِي الْعَ_________اجِلِ، وَلا تَقْبضَهَا مِمَّا افْتَرَضَ اللهُ عَلَيْهَا وَلَكِنْ تُوقّرَِهَا بقَبْضِهَا عَنْ كَثِيرٍ مِمَّا يَحِلُّ لَهَا وبَسْطِهَا إلَى كَثِيرٍ مِمَّا لَيسَ عَلَيْهَا، فَإذَا هِيَ قَدْ عُقِلَتْ وَشُرِّفَتْ فِي الْعَاجِلِ وَجَبَ لَهَا حُسْنُ الثَّوَاب فِي الآجِلِ .


And the right of your stomach is that you make it not into a container for a little of that which is unlawful to you or a lot of it . You should be determined to eat what is lawful and not exceed the bounds of strengthening to the extent of belittling your stomach to the point that you loose your manliness . And you should restrain it whenever you are extremely hungry or thirsty, since getting really full will cause indigestion, sluggishness, indolence, and it will hinder you from nobility and any good deeds . And drinking too much will make you feel drunk, light-headed, ignorant, and take away your manliness .

8 . حق البطن

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ بَطْنِكَ فَأَنْ لا تَجْعَلَهُ وِعَاءً لِقَلِيلٍ مِنَ الْحَرَامِ وَلا لِكَثِيرٍ، وَأَنْ تَقْتَصِدَ لَهُ فِي الْحَلالِ وَلا تُخرِجَهُ مِنْ حَدِّ التَّقْوِيَةِ إلَى حَ_______دِّ التَّهْوِينِ(2) وَذَهَاب الْمُرُوَّةِ، وَضَبْطُهُ إذَا هَمَّ بالْجُوعِ والظمأ فَإنَّ الشَّبْعَ الْمُنْتَهِي بصَاحِبهِ إلَى التُّخمِ مَكْسَلَةٌ وَمَثْبَطَ___ةٌ وَمَقْطَعَةٌ عَنْ كُلِّ برِّ وَكَرَمٍ . وَإنَّ الري الْمُنْتَهِي بصَاحِبهِ إلَى السُّ____كْرِ مَسْخَفَةٌ وَمَجْهَلَةٌ وَمَذْهَبَةٌ لِلْمُرُوَّةِ .


And the right of your private part is that you should protect it from everything that is unlawful for you and help it by lowering your eyes- this is certainly the best way to help it . And you should also remember death often, And threaten yourself with God and try to make yourself fear God . Maintaining one’s decency and receiving help in so doing are possible by God’s help . There is no strength or power but in Him . 9

. حق الفرج

وَأَمَّا حَ_____قُّ فَرْجِكَ فَحِ__فْظُهُ مِمَّا لا يَحِلُّ لَكَ وَالاس____ْتِعَانَةُ عَلَيْهِ بغَضِّ الْبَصَرِ - فَإنَّهُ مِنْ أَعْ___وَنِ الأَعْ___وَانِ- وَكَثْرَةُ ذِكْرِ الْمَوتِ وَالتَّ__________هَدُّدِ لِنَفْسِكَ باللهِ وَالتَّخوِيفِ لَهَا بهِ، وَباللهِ الْعِصْمَةُ وَالتَّأْيِيدُ وَلا حَوْلَ وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا بهِ .



Then the right of your ritual prayer is that you should know that it is an arrival at the threshold of God and that through it you are standing before God . And when you realize that, then you will stand in the station of him who is lowly, vile, beseeching, trembling, hopeful, fearful, and abased, and you will magnify Him who is before you through stillness, and bowing of the head , and humbleness of the limbs, and yielding of the wing , and by saying the best supplications to him by yourself and beseeching Him to save you from the responsibilities which rest on your shoulders-surrounded by your faults and exhausted by your sins . And there is no power but in God . ثم حقوق الأفعال

10 . حق الصلاة

فَأَمَّا حَقُّ الصَّلاةِ فَأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أنّهَا وِفَادَةٌ إلَى اللهِ وَأَنَّكَ قَائِمٌ بهَا بَيْنَ يَدَيِ اللهِ، فَإذَا عَلِمْتَ ذَلِكَ كُنْتَ خَلِيقًا أَنْ تَقُومَ فِي___هَا مَقَ___امَ الذَّلِيلِ الرَّاغِب الرَّاهِب الْخَائِفِ الرَّاجِي الْمِسْكِينِ الْمُتَضَرِّعِ الْمُعَظِّمِ مَنْ قَامَ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ بالسُّكُونِ وَالإطْرَاقِ وَخُشُوعِ الأَطْرَافِ وَلِينِ الْجَنَاحَ وَحُسْنِ الْمُنَاجَاةِ لَهُ فِي نَفْسِهِ وَالطَّلَب إلَيْهِ فِي فَكَاكِ رَقَبَتِكَ الَّتِي أَحَاطَتْ بهِ خَطِيئَتُكَ وَاسْتَهلَكَتْهَا ذُنُوبُكَ . وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of fasting is that You should know it is a veil, which God has set up over your tongue, your hearing and your sight, your private parts and your stomach, to protect you from the Fire . This meaning is asserted in the tradition : “Fasting is an armor against the Fire . ” Thus if your

parts can calm down within the veil of fasting, you have hopes of being protected . But if you leave them agitated behind the veil and let them lift the sides of the veil, then they will look at things that are not lawful for them to look at -that incite lust and powers that are beyond the limits of being God-fearing . It is not safe for you to break through the veil and leave it . And there is no power but in God .

11 . حق الصوم

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ الصَّوْمِ فَأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أَنَّهُ حِج_______َابٌ ضَرَبَهُ اللهُ عَلَى لِسَ___انِكَ وَس___َمْعِكَ وبَصَرِكَ وَفَرْجِكَ وبَطْنِكَ لِيَسْتر'َكَ بهِ مِن النَّارِ وَهَكَذَا جَاءَ فِي الْحَديثِ «الصَّوْمُ جُنَّةٌ مِنَ النّ___َارِ» ف___َإنْ س____َكَنَتْ أَطْرَافُ_________كَ فِي حَجَبَتِهَ____ا(3) رَجَ_______وْتَ أَنْ تَكُونَ مَحْجُوبًا . وَإنْ أَنْتَ تَرَكْتَهَا تَضْطَرِبُ فِي حِجَابهَا وتَرْفَعُ جَنَبَاتِ الْحِجَاب فَتُطّلِعُ إلَى مَا لَيْسَ لَ____هَا بالنَّ___ظْرَةِ الدَّاعِي_____َةِ لِلشَّهْوَةِ وَالقُوَّةِ الْخَارِجَةِ عَنْ حَدِّ التَّقِيَّةِ للهِ لَ______مْ تَأمَنْ أَنْ تَخرِقَ الْحِجَ________ابَ وَتَخرُجَ مِنْهُ . وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of pilgrimage is that you should know that it is an arrival at the threshold of your Lord and a flight to Him from your sins; and through it your repentance is accepted and you perform an obligation made incumbent upon you by God .

12 . حق الحج

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ الحَجّ أَنْ تَعْلَ___مَ أَنّه وِفادةٌ إلى رَبّكَ، و فِرارٌ إليه من ذُنوبكَ وفيهِ قبولُ تَوبتِكَ وقَضاءُ الفَرضِ الَّذي أوجَبَه الله عَليك .


And the right of charity is that you should know that it is a storing away with your Lord and a deposit for which you will have no need for witnesses . Then once you know this you will be more confident of it if you donate it in secret than if you donate it in public . It is more appropriate for you to do privately what you now do in public and keep the affairs between you and Him secret under all circumstances . And you should also not take your hearing and sight as witnesses for the donations that you make in charity as if you have the most trust yourself . It should not be as if you are not sure that your donations will be returned to you . Finally you should not remind others of your favors since you have done so for yourself . If you remind them of your favors, you will not be immune from being similarly reminded of others’ favors to you . Moreover this will prove that your intentions were

not pure . If you had pure intentions you would not remind anyone of it . And there is no power but in God .

13 . حق الصدقة

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ الصَّدَقَةِ فَأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أنَّه___ا ذُخرُكَ عِنْ___دَ رَب_______كَ وَوَديعَتُكَ الَّتِي لا تَحْتَاجُ إلَى الإشْهَادِ، فَإذا عَلِمْتَ ذَلِك كُنْتَ بمَا اسْتَودَعْتَهُ سِرًّا أَوْثقَ بمَا اسْتَوْدَعْتَهُ عَلانِيَةً، وَكُنْتَ جَدِيرًا أَنْ تَكونَ أَسْرَرْتَ إلَيْهِ أَمْرًا أَعْلَنْتَهُ، وَكَانَ الأَمْرُ بَيْنَكَ وبَيْنَهُ فِيهَ_______ا سِرًّا عَلَى كُلِّ حَالٍ وَلَمْ تَسْتَظْهِرْ عَلَيْهِ فِيمَ___________ا اسْتَوْدَعْتَهُ مِنْهَ_______________ا بإشْهَادِ الأَسْمَاعِ وَالأَبْصَارِ عَلَيْهِ بهَا كَأنَّهَا أَوْثقُ فِي نَفْسِكَ لا كَأنَّكَ لا تثِقُ بهِ فِي تَأْديَةِ وَديعَتِكَ إلَيْكَ، ثُمَّ لَمْ تَمْتَنَّ بهَا عَلَى أَحَدٍ لأَنّهَا لَكَ فَإذا امْتَنَنْتَ بهَ___________ا لَ____مْ تَأْمَنْ أَنْ تَكُونَ بهَ______ا مِثْلَ تَهْ_____جِينِ(4) حَالِكَ مِنْهَا إلَى مَنْ مَنَنْتَ بهَا عَلَيْهِ لأَنَّ فِي ذلِكَ دَلِيلاً عَلَى أَنّكَ لَمْ تُرِدْ نفْسَكَ بهَ_____ا، وَلَوْ أَرَدْتَ نفْسَكَ بهَا لَمْ تَمْتَنَّ بهَا عَلَى أَحَدٍ . وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of the offering is that through it you purify your will toward your Lord, and expose yourself to His Mercy, and His approval and not the eyes of the observers lower than Him . If this is so, you will neither be hypocritical nor extravagant . You will only intend the offering for God’s sake, and know that God wishes your ease, and does not wish your hardship . He also wishes His creatures to take it easy, and does not wish them to suffer hardships . Likewise, modesty is better than arrogance, for there lies extravagance and falsehood in the arrogant, while there are no formalities or

falsehoods in the humble and the servile, since they are creatures and they exist in nature . There is no power but in God .

14 . حق الهدي

وَأمَّا حَقُّ الهَدْيِ فَأَنْ تُخلِصَ بهَ_______________ا الإرَادَةَ إلَى رَب___كَ وَالتَّعَرُّضَ لِرَحْمَتِهِ وَقَبُولِهِ ولا تُرِيدَ عُيُونَ النَّاظِرِينَ دُونهُ، ف_____َإذَا كُنْتَ كَذَلِكَ لَمْ تَكُنْ مُتَكَلِّفً________________ا ولا مُتَصَنِّعًا وَكُنْتَ إنَّمَا تَقْصِدُ إلَى الله . وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ الله يُرَادُ بالْيَس__ِيرِ وَلا يُرَادُ بالْع________َسِيرِ كَمَا أَرَادَ بخَلْقِهِ التَّيْسِيرَ وَلَمْ يُرِدْ بهِ___________مُ التَّعْسِيرَ، وَكَذَلِكَ التَّذَلُّلَ أَوْلَى بكَ مِن التَّدَهْ________قُنِ(5) لأَنَّ الْكُلْفَةَ وَالْمَئونَةَ فِي الْمُتَدَهْقِنِينَ . فَأمَّا التَّذَلُّلُ وَالتَّمَسْكُنُ فَلا كُلْفَةَ فِيهِمَا وَلا مَئونةَ عَلَيْهِمَا لأَنَّهُمَا الْخِلْقَةَ وهُمَا مَوجُودَانِ فِي الطَّبيعَةِ . وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .



Then the right of the possessor of authority is that you should know that God has established you as a trial for him . God is testing him through the authority God has given him over you . And you should sincerely provide him with your advice . And you should not quarrel with him while he has full dominance over you, for thereby you cause your own destruction and his, too . And you should be humble and courteous for his gifts to attain his satisfaction with you, so that he will not harm your religion . And you should seek God's help in this regard . Do not oppose his power and do not resist him . Should you do so, you would have disobeyed him and disobeyed yourself : thus exposing yourself to encounter his evil and expose him to destruction by you . Thus

you will deserve to be considered to be as his assistant acting against yourself and as his partner in what he does to you . And there is no power but in God . ثم حقوق الأئمَّة

15 . حق سائسك بالسلطان

فأَمَّا حَقُّ سَائِسِكَ بالسُّلْطَانِ فَأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أنّكَ جُعِلْتَ لَهُ فِتنَة وأنَّهُ مُبْتَلىً فِيكَ بمَا جَعَلَهُ اللهُ لَهُ عَلَي_______________ْكَ مِنَ السُّلْطَانِ وَأَنْ تُخلِصَ لَهُ فِي النَّصِيحَةِ وَأَنْ لا تُمَاحِكَهُ(6) وَقَدْ بُس______ِطْتَ يَدُهُ عَلَيْكَ فَتَكُونَ سَبَبَ هَ__لاكِ نفْس______ِكَ وَهلاكِهِ . وتَذَلَّلْ وتَلَطَّفْ لإِعْطَائِهِ مِنَ الرِّضَا مَا يَكُفُّهُ عَنْكَ وَلا يَضُرُّ بدينِكَ وتَسْتَعِينُ عَلَيْهِ فِي ذلِكَ باللهِ . ولا تُعَ___ازَّهُ(7) ولا تُعَانِدَهُ فَإنَّكَ إنْ فَعَلْتَ ذلِكَ عَقَقْتَ___________هُ(8) وَعَقَقْتَ نَفْسَكَ فَعَرَضْتَهَا لِمَكرُوهِهِ وَعَرَضْتَهُ لِلْهَلَكَةِ فِي___________كَ وَكُنْتَ خَلِيقًا أَنْ تَكُونَ مُعِينًا لَهُ عَلَى نفْسِكَ وَشَرِيكًا لَهُ فِيمَا أَتى إلَيْكَ . وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of the one who trains you through knowledge is glorifying him, and respecting his meetings, and listening well to him, and being responsive to him , and helping him for yourself in the knowledge that you need by freeing your mind for him, and presenting your understanding to him, and purifying your heart for him, and fixing your eyes on him by means of abandoning leisures and diminishing lust . And you should know that regarding what he teaches you, you are considered as his messenger to teach when you meet the ignorant ones . Therefore, it is binding upon you to render on his behalf properly, and not cheat in the fulfillment of his mission, and strive to deliver what you

undertake . And there is no power but in God .

16 . حق سائسك بالعلم

وأَمَّا حَقُّ سَائِسِكَ بالعِلْ________مِ فالتَّعْظِيمُ لَهُ والتَّوْقِيرُ لِمَجْلِسِهِ وَحُسْ____نُ الاسْ_____________تِمَاعِ إليهِ وَالإقْبَ______الُ عَلَيْه(9)ِ وَالْمَعُونةُ لَهُ عَلَى نفْسِكَ فِيمَ____ا لا غِنَى بكَ عَنْهُ مِنْ الْعِلْمِ بأَنْ تُفَرِّغَ لَهُ عَقلَكَ وَتُحْضِرَهُ فَهْمَ______________كَ وتُزَكِّي لَهُ قَلْبَكَ وتُجَلِّى لَهُ بَصَرَكَ بتَرْكِ اللّذَّاتِ وَنقْص الشّهَوَاتِ، وَأَنْ تَعْلَ__________مَ أَنَّكَ فِيمَا أَلقَى إلَيْكَ رَسُولُهُ إلَى مَنْ لَقِيَكَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْجَهْلِ فَلَزِمَكَ حُسْنُ التَّأْدِيَةِ عَنْهُ إلَيْهِمْ، ولا تَخُنْهُ فِي تَأْدِيَةِ رِسَ_______________الَتِهِ وَالْقِيَامِ بهَا عَنْهُ إذا تَقَلَّدْتَهَا . وَلا حَوْلَ وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of him who trains you through ownership is similar to the right of the possessor of authority over you . Except this one has a right which that one does not : being that you are bound to obey him in every matter, whether small or big, except for what would lead you to abandon incumbent rights of God, or in what would intervene between you, his rights and the rights of the people . And once you fulfill them, you can commit yourself to his rights and engage in fulfilling them . And there is no power but in God .

17 . حق السائس بالملك

وأمَّا حَقُّ سَائِسِكَ بالمِلْكِ(10) فَنَحْوٌ مِنْ سَائِسِكَ بالسُّلْطَانِ إلاّ أَنَّ هذَا يَمْلِكُ مَ_______________ا لا يَمْلِكُهُ ذاكَ، تَلْزِمُكَ طَاعَتُهُ فِيمَ__________ا دَقَّ وَجَلَّ مِنْكَ إلاّ أَنْ تُخرِجَكَ مِنْ وُجُ_________وب حَقِّ الله، ويَحُولَ بَينَكَ وبَيْنَ حَقِّهِ وَحُقُوقِ الخَلْقِ، فَ______إذَا قَضَيْتَهُ رَجَ__________________عْتَ إلَى حَقِّهِ(11) فَتَشَاغَلْتَ بهِ . ولا قُوَّةَ إلاّ باللهِ .



Then the right of your subjects through authority is that you should know that you have authority over them due to your power over them, and that they have been made your subjects through their weakness and humility . What do they deserve whose weakness and humility made them your subjects, and made your authority over them effective . They do not disobey you by their own might and power . They cannot find a supporter against your power except [by God], by His Mercy and Protection, and patience . How proper it is for you to recognize that

God has granted you this increased might and power with which you have subdued others . You should be thankful to God . And God will increase His Graces to those who thank Him . And there is no power but in God .

ثم حقوق الرعية

18 . حق الرعية بالسلطان

فأَمَّا حُقُوقُ رَعِيَّتِكَ بالسُّلْطَانِ فَأَنْ تَعْلَمَ(12) أَنَّكَ إنَّمَا اسْتَرْعَيْتَهُمْ بفَضْلِ قُوَّتِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ فَإنَّهُ إنَّمَا أَحَلَّهُ___________مْ مَحَلَّ الرَّعِيَّةِ لَكَ ضَعْفُهُمْ وَذُلُّهُمْ، فَمَ____ا أَوْلَى مَنْ كَفَاكَهُ ضَعْفُهُ وَذُلُّهُ حَتَّى صَيَّرَهُ لَكَ رَعِيَّةً وَصَيَّرَ حُكْمَكَ عَلَيْهِ نَافِذاً، لا يَمْتَنِعُ مِنْ_________________كَ بعِزَّةٍ وَلا قُوَّةٍ وَلا يَسْتَنْصِرُ فِيمَا تَعَاظَمَ______هُ مِنْكَ إلا [باللهِ] بالرَّحْمَةِ وَالْحِيَاطَةِ(13) وَالأَناةِ(14)، وَمَ_________ا أَولاكَ إذَا عَرَفْتَ مَا أَعْطَ__________اكَ الله مِنْ فَضْلِ هذِهِ الْعِزَّةِ وَالقُوَّةِ الَّتِي قَهَرْتَ بهَ___________ا أَنْ تَكُونَ لِلّهِ شَاكِراً، وَمَ_____نْ شَكَرَ الله أَعْطَاهُ فِيمَا أَنعَمَ عَلَيْهِ . ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of your subjects through knowledge is that you should know that God established you over them through what He has granted you of knowledge and what He has granted authority over His treasures of wisdom . If you do well in what God has given you authority over and treat them the same as the treatment of the treasurer, a sympathetic counselor who respects his master in the affairs of the slaves, the steadfast good-doer who, when he sees one who is needy, takes some of the property that he has control over to give away . Then you will be matured . And will be hopeful and faithful . Otherwise you will be regarded as betraying Him, and unjust to

His creatures, and exposing yourself to God's seizing His Graces and Power from you .

19 . حق الرعية بالعلم

وأمَّا حَقُّ رَعِيَّتِكَ بالعِلْمِ فَأَنْ تَعْلَ__مَ أَنَّ اللهَ قَدْ جَعَلَكَ لَهُمْ (15) فِيمَ_______ا آتاكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ وَولاّكَ مِنْ خَزَانةِ الْحِكْمَةِ، فَ__________إنْ أَحْسَنْتَ(16) فِيمَ______ا ولاّكَ اللهُ مِنْ ذلِكَ وَقُمْتَ بهِ لَهُمْ مَقَامَ الخَ_____ازِنِ الشَّفِيقِ النَّ_______اصِحِ لِمَ___ولاهُ فِي عَبيدِهِ، الصَّ______ابرِ الْمُحْتَسِب الَّذِي إذَا رأَى ذا حَ_____اجَةٍ أَخرَجَ لَهُ مِنَ الأَمْوَالِ الَّتِي فِي يَدَيهِ كُنْتَ رَاشِدًا، وَكُنْتَ ل_____________ِذَلِكَ آمِلاً(17) مُعْتَقِدًا وَإلاّ كُنْتَ لَهُ خَائِنًا وَلِخَلقِهِ ظَالِمًا وَلِسَلْبهِ وَعِزِّهِ مُتَعَرِّضًا .


And the right of your subject through matrimonial contract is that you should know that God has made her repose, a comfort and a companion, and a maintainer for you . It is incumbent upon each of you to thank God for the other and realize that the other one is God's blessing for you . It is obligatory to be a good companion for God's Blessing, and to honor her and treat her gently . Yet, your right over her is more incumbent and she must obey you in every matter that you like or detest- except in acts of disobedience to God . She should enjoy the rights of mercy and intimacy, as she is an object of tranquility . You should care for her through consummation of the lust that must be consummated . And that is surely great . And there is no power but in God .

20 . حق الزوجة

وَأمَّ______________ا حَقُّ رَعِيَّتِكَ بمِلْكِ النّكَاحِ فَأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ جَ_عَ_لَ_هَ_ا سَكَنًا وَمُسْتَرَاحًا وَأُنْسً_________ا وَوَاقِيةً، وَكَذَلِكَ كُلُّ

وَاحِدٍ مِنْكُمَا يَجِبُ أَنْ يَحْمَدَ اللَّهَ عَلَى صَاحِبهِ، ويَعْلَ_____________مَ أَنَّ ذَلِكَ نِعْمَةٌ مِنْهُ عَلَيْهِ . وَوَجَبَ أَنْ يُحْسِ__________نَ صُحْبَةَ نِعْمَةِ اللَّهِ وَيُكْرِمَهَا ويَرْفَقَ بهَا وَإنْ كَانَ حَقُّكَ عَلَيْهَا أَغْلَظَ(18) وَطَاعَتِكَ بهَا أَلْزَمَ فِيمَا أَحْببْتَ وَكَرِهْتَ مَا لَمْ تَكنْ مَعْصِيةً، فإنَّ لَهَا حَقُّ الرَّح________ْمَةُ وَالْمُؤَانَسَةِ، وَمَوْضِعُ السُّكُونِ إلَيهَا قَضَاءَ اللَّذَّةِ الَّتِي لا بُدَّ مِنْ قَضَائِهَ________ا وَذَلِكَ عَظِي_____مٌ . وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of your subject through being your slave is that you should know that he is a creature of your Lord and is made of the same flesh and blood . And you only own him, but you are much too inferior to God and you have not created him . And you have not created his hearing and sight, nor do you provide his daily sustenance; rather it is God who gives you sufficiency for that . Then He subjugated him to you, entrusted him to you, and provisionally consigned him with you . So protect him there , and treat him well just as well as he has treated you, and feed him with what you eat yourself, and clothe him with what you clothe yourself . And do not burden him with what he cannot withstand . And if you dislike him, you ought to let him go and replace him, but do not torment God’s creature . And there is no power but in God .

21 . حق الرعية بملك اليمين

وَأمَّا حَقُّ رَعِيَّتِكَ بمِلْكِ اليَمِينِ فَأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أنَهُ خَلْقُ رَبكَ، وَلَحْمُ____كَ وَدَمُ____كَ وَأَنَّ___________كَ تَمْلِكُهُ لا أنْتَ صَنَعْتَهُ

دُونَ اللَّهِ وَلا خَلَقْتَ لَهُ سَمْعً_____ا وَلا بَصَرًا وَلا أَجْرَيتَ لَهُ رِزْقًا وَلَكِنَّ اللَّهَ كَفَاكَ ذَلِكَ، ثُمَّ سَخَّرَهُ لَكَ وَائْتَمَنَكَ عَلَيْهِ وَاسْتَوْدَعَكَ إيَّ_____اهُ لِتَحْفَظَهُ فِيهِ وتَسِيرَ فِيهِ بسِيرَتِهِ فَتُطْعِمَهُ مِمَّا تَأْكُلُ وَتُلْبسَهُ مِمَّا تَلْبَسُ وَلا تُكَلِّفَهُ مَ_________ا لا يُطِيقُ، فَإنْ كَرِهْتَ[هُ] خَرَجْتَ إلَى اللَّهِ مِنْهُ وَاسْتَبْدَلْتَ بهِ وَلَ_مْ تُعَذِّبْ خَلْقَ اللَّهِ وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .



Then the right of your mother is that you should know that she carried you where no one carries anyone, and she fed you with the fruit of her heart -that which no one feeds anyone, and she protected you with her hearing and sight, and her hands and legs, and her hair and skin and all her other organs . She was highly delighted to do so . She was happy and eager, enduring the harm and the pains, and the heaviness and the grief until the Mighty Hand expelled you out of her and delivered you out to the earth . She did not care if she went hungry as long as you ate, and if she was naked as long as you were clothed, and if she was thirsty as long as you drank, and if she was in the sun as long as you were in the shade, and if she was miserable as long as you were happy, and if she was deprived of sleeping as long as you were resting . And her abdomen was your abode, and her lap was your seat, and her breast was your supply of drink, and her

soul was your fort . She protected you from the heat and the cold of this world . Then you should thank her for all that . You will not be able to show her gratitude unless through God's help and His granting you success .

حقوقّ الرّحم

22 . حق الأم

فَحَقُّ أُمِّكَ، فَ_________أَنْ تَعْلَمَ أَنَّهَا حَمَلَتكَ حَيْثُ لا يَحْمِلُ أَحَدٌ أَحَدًا وَأَطْعَمَتكَ مِنْ ثَمَرَةِ قَلْبها مَا لا يُطْعِمُ أَحَدٌ أَحَدًا، وَأَنَّهَا وَقَتكَ بسَمْعِهَ_______ا وبَصَرِهَ______ا ويَدِهَ____ا وَرِجْله_____ا وَشَعْرِهَا وبَشَرِهَا وَجَمِيعِ جَوَارِحِهَ_____ا مُسْتَبشِرَةً بذَلِكَ، فَرِحَ___________ةً مُوَابلَةً(19)، مُحْتَمِلَةً لِمَ_________ا فِيهِ مَكْرُوهُه__ا وأَلَمُه___ا وثِقْلُه___ا وَغَمُّهَا حَتَّى دَفَعَتهَا عَنْكَ يَدُ ال_____________قُدْرَةِ وَأَخرَجَتكَ إلَى الأَرضِ فَرَضِيَتْ أَنْ تَشْبَ______عَ وتج____________ُوعُ هِيَ، وَتَكْسُوكَ وَتعْرَى، وَتُرْوِيكَ وَتَظْمَ_________أُ، وَتُظِلُّكَ وتَضْحَى، وَتُنَعِّمَ_______كَ ببُؤْسِهَ_______________ا، وَتُلَذِّذُكَ بالنَّوْمِ بأَرَقِهَا، وَكَانَ بَطْنُهَ______ا لَكَ وِعَاءً، وَحِجْرُهَ___ا لَكَ حِوَاءً(20)، وثَدْيُهَا لَكَ سِقَاءً، ونَفْسُهَ___ا لَكَ وِقَ____________اءً، تُبَاشِرُ حَرَّ الدُّنيَا وبَرْدِهَ___________________ا لَكَ وَدُونَكَ، فَتَشْكُرَهَا عَلَى قَدْرِ ذَلِكَ وَلا تَقْدِرُ عَلَيْهِ إلاّ بعَونِ اللَّهِ وَتَوفِيقِهِ .


And the right of your father is that you should know that he is your root and you are his branch . And without him, you would not be . Whenever you see anything in yourself which pleases you, you should know that your father is the root of its blessing upon you . So praise God and thank Him in recognition of that . And there is no power but in God .

23 . حق الأب

وَأمَّا حَقُّ أَبيكَ فَتَعْلَ__________مَ أنَّهُ أَصْلُكَ، وَأنَّكَ فَرْعُ______هُ، وَأَنَّكَ لَوْلاهُ لَمْ تَكُنْ . فَمَهْمَ__________ا رَأيْتَ فِي نفْسِكَ مِمَّا يُعْجِبُكَ فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ أَبَاكَ أَصْلُ النِّعْمَةِ عَلَيْكَ فِيهِ وَاحْمَ__________________دِ اللَّهَ وَاشْكُرْهُ عَلَى قَدْرِ ذَلِكَ وَلا قُوَّةَ

إلاّ باللهِ .


And the right of your child is that you should know that he is from you and he will be ascribed to you in this world through both his good deeds and his evil deeds . And you are responsible for what has been entrusted to you in teaching him good conduct, and guiding him toward his Lord and helping him to obey Him on your behalf and for himself . Then you will be rewarded for so doing, and you will be punished . Then regarding his affairs, act like one who will be proud of bringing him up in this world, and one who is excused by His Lord for what is between you and him for taking good care of him, and the good results you achieved . And there is no power but in God .

24 . حق الولد

وَأمَّا حَقُّ وَلَدِكَ فَتَعْلَمَ أنَّهُ مِنْكَ وَمُضَافٌ إلَيكَ فِي عَاجِلِ الدُنْيَ_________ا بخَيْرِهِ وَشَرِّهِ، وَأَنَّكَ مَسْئولٌ عَمَّ______ا ولِّيتَهُ مِنْ حُسْنِ الأَدَب وَالدّلالَةِ عَلَى رَب_________هِ وَالْمَعُونةِ لَهُ عَلَى طَاعَتِهِ فِيكَ وَفِي نفْسِهِ، فَمُثابٌ عَلَى ذلِكَ وَمُعَاقَبٌ، فَ_________اعْمَلْ فِي أَمْرِهِ عَمَلَ الْمُتَزَيِّنِ بحُسْنِ أَثرِهِ عَلَيْهِ فِي عَاجِلِ الدُّنْيَا، الْمُعْذِرِ إلَى رَبهِ فِيمَ_______ا بَيْنَكَ وبَيْنَهُ بحُسْنِ الْقِيَامِ عَلَيْهِ وَالأَخذُ لَهُ مِنْهُ . وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of your brother is that you should know that he is your hand that you extend, and your back to whom you seek refuge, and your power upon whom you rely, and your might with which you compete . Take him not as a weapon with which

to disobey God, nor as a means with which to violate God's rights . And do not neglect to help him against his own self and support him against his enemy, and intervene between him and his devils, and give him good counsel, and associate with him for God's sake . Then if he obeys his Lord and is responsible towards Him properly it is fine . Else God should be more preferable and more honorable to you than he is .

25 . حق الأخ

وَأَمّا حَقُّ أَخِيكَ فَتَعْلَمَ أَنّهُ يَدُكَ الَّتِي تَبسُطُهَ______ا، وَظَهْرُكَ الَّذِي تَلْتَجِئُ إلَي___________هِ، وَعِزُّكَ الَّذِي تَعْتَمِدُ عَلَيهِ، وَقُوَّتُكَ الَّتِي تَصُولُ بهَ___ا، فَلا تَتَّخِذْهُ سِلاحًا ع___َلَى مَ__ع__ْص__ِي_ةِ اللَّهِ ولا عُدَّةً لِلظُّلْمِ بحَ__________قِّ اللَّهِ، ولا تَدَعْ نُصْرتَهُ عَلَى نفْسِ________هِ وَمَعُونتِهِ عَلَى عَدُوِّهِ وَالْحَوْلَ بَيْنَهُ وبَيْنَ شَيَاطينهِ وتَأْديَةِ النَّصِيحَةِ إلَيهِ والإقبَالِ عَلَيْهِ فِي اللَّهِ فَ__________إنْ انقَادَ لِرَبهِ وَأَحْسَنَ الإجَابَةَ لَهُ وَإلاّ فَلْيَكُنِ اللهُ آثرَ عِنْدَكَ وَأَكْرَمَ عَلَيْكَ مِنْهُ(21)



Then the right of your master who has favored you is that you should know that he has spent his property for you and has brought you out of the abasement of slavery and its desolation, and has brought you into the honor of freedom and its sociability . And he has freed you from the captivity of his own possession and has released the bonds of his slavery from you . And he has led you to smell the scent of honor, and has brought you out of the prison of subjugation, and has repelled hardship from you, and has extended to you the tongue of

fairness, and has liberated you to freely move about in the whole world, and has given you ownership of yourself, and has freed you from captivity, and has given you the freedom to worship your Lord . And for this he has suffered a decrease in his fortune . Then you should know that he is the closest creature to you after your relations of kin, in your life and after your death, and that he is the most meritorious creature to receive your assistance and support, and your help for God’s sake . Therefore do not prefer yourself to him regarding any of his needs .

حقوق الآخرين

26 . حق المنعم على مولاه

وَأَمّ____________ا حَقُّ الْمُنْعِمِ عَلَيْكَ بالْولاءِ(22) فَ__أَنْ تَعْلَمَ أَنّهُ أَنفَقَ فِيكَ مَالَ___هُ، وَأَخرَجَكَ مِن ذُلِّ الرِّقِ وَوَحْشَ______________تِهِ إلَى عِزِّ الحُرِّيةِ وأُنسِه_____ا، وَأَطْلَقَكَ مِنْ أَسْرِ الْمِلْكَةِ، وَفَ_____كَّ عَنْكَ ح_____ِلَقَ الْعُبُودِيَّةِ(23)، وَأَوْجَدَكَ رَائِحَة الْعِزِّ، وَأَخرَجَكَ مِنْ سِجْنِ القَهْرِ، وَدَفَ___________عَ عَنْكَ الْعُسْرَ، وبَسَطَ لَكَ لِسَ___________انَ الإنْصَافِ، وَأَبَاحَكَ الدُنْيَ________ا كُلَّهَا فَمَلَّكَكَ نفْسَ______كَ، وَحَلَّ أَسْرَكَ، وَفَرَّغَكَ لِعِبَادَةِ رَبكَ، وَاحْتَمَلَ بذَلِكَ التَّقْصِيرَ فِي مَالِهِ، فَتَعْلَ___________مَ أَنّهُ أَوْلَى الخَلْقِ بكَ بَعْ_____دَ أُولي رَحِمِكَ فِي حَيَاتِكَ وَمَوْتِكَ، وَأَحَقَّ الخَ______________لْقِ بنَصْرِكَ وَمَعُونَتِكَ وَمُكَانفَتِكَ فِي ذَات اللَّهِ، فَلا تُؤثِرْ عَلَيْهِ نفْسَكَ مَا احْتَاجَ إلَيْكَ .


And the right of the slave whom you have favored is that you should know that God has established you as his supporter, and shelter and assistant, and refuge, and He has established him for you as the means and as a mediator between you and Him . Then by freeing him, he will protect you from the Fire

. And this is the reward you get from him in the future . And your immediate reward is to inherit from him if he does not have any relations of kin . There is a compensation for the property you have spent for him, and respecting his rights after you spent your property . Then if you do not respect his rights, there is the fear upon you that his inheritance would not be purified for you . And there is no power but in God .

27 . حق المولى الجارية عليه نعمتك

وَأَمَّ_________________ا حَقُّ مَوْلاكَ(24) الْجَارِيَةِ عَلَيْهِ نِعْمَتُكَ فَأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أَنَّ اللهَ جَعَلَكَ حَ__امِيَةً عَلَيْهِ، وَوَاقِيَ____________ةً وناصِرًا وَمَعْقِلاً، وَجَعَلَهُ لَكَ وَسِيلَةً وَسَبَباً بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَهُ فَبالْحَرِيِّ أَنْ يَحْجُبَكَ عَنِ النَّ______________ارِ فَيَكُونَ فِي ذَلِكَ ثَوَابٌ مِنْهُ فِي الآجِلِ، ويَحْكُمُ لَكَ بمِيرَاثِهِ فِي الْعَاجِلِ إذَا لم يَكُنْ لَهُ رَحِ__________________مٌ، مُكَافَأَةً لِمَ___________ا أَنفَقْتَهُ مِنْ مَالِكَ عَلَيْ__________هِ وَقُمْتَ بهِ مِنْ حَقِّ_____هِ بَعْدَ إنفَاقِ مَالِكَ، فَإنْ لَمْ تَقُمْ بحَقِّهِ خِيفَ عَلَيْكَ أَنْ لا يَطِيبَ لَكَ مِيرَاثُهُ . وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of him who treats you kindly is that you should thank him and acknowledge his kindness; and spread the good word around about him, and sincerely pray for him between you and God the Praised One . Then if you do that, you have thanked him both in private and in public . Then if you are able to practically recompense him, Do recompense him . Otherwise you should be determined to do so later .

28 . حق ذي المعروف

وَأمّا حَقُّ ذِي المَعْرُوفِ عَلَيكَ فَ_______أَنْ

تَشْكُرَهُ وتَذْكُرَ مَعْرُوفَهُ وتَنْشُرَ لَهُ الْمَقَ__________الَةَ الْحَسَنَةَ، وَتُخلِصَ لَهُ الدُّعَ_____اءَ فِيمَ____ا بَينَكَ وبَيْنَ اللَّهِ سُبْحَانَهُ، فَإنّكَ إذَا فَعَلْتَ ذَلِكَ كُنْتَ قَدْ شَكَرْتَهُ سِرًّا وَعَلانِيَ_ةً . ثُمَّ إنْ أَمْكَنَ مُكَافَأَتَهُ بالْفِعْلِ كَافَأتَهُ وإلاّ كُنْتَ مُرْصِدًا لَهُ مُوطِّنًا نَفْسَكَ عَلَيْهَا .


And the right of your caller to prayer is that you should know that he is the one reminding you of your Lord, and is calling you to your good fortune, and is your greatest helper in fulfilling an obligation that God has made incumbent upon you . Therefore thank him for that just as you thank one who does some good to you . And if you are upset with him at home due to this, you should not accuse him for this since his act is for God . And you should know that he is one of the Blessings of God to you . There is no doubt about it . Then you should kindly treat God’s Blessing, by praising God for him under all circumstances . And there is no power but in God .

29 . حق المؤذن

وَأمّا حَقُّ الْمُؤَذِّنِ فَأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أنّهُ مُذَكِّرُكَ برَبكَ وَدَاعِ_____يكَ إلَى حَظِّكَ وَأَفْضَلُ أَعْوَانِكَ عَلَى قَضَ___________اءِ الْفَرِيضَةِ الَّتِي افتَرَضَهَا اللهُ عَلَيْكَ فَتَشْكُرَهُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ شُكْرَكَ لِلْمُحْسِنِ إلَيكَ . وَإنْ كُنْتَ فِي بَيْتِكَ مُهْتَمًّا لِذَلِكَ لَمْ تَكُنْ للهِ فِي أَمْرِهِ مُتَّهِم______اً وَعَلِمْتَ أنَّهُ نِعْمَةٌ مِن اللَّهِ عَلَيْكَ، لا شَكَّ فِيهَ____ا، فَ____________أَحْسِنْ صُحْبَةَ نِعْمَةِ اللَّهِ بحَمْدِ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهَ______ا عَلَى كُلِّ حَالٍ . وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of your leader in your ritual prayer is that you should know that he has taken on the role of a mediator between you and God and appeared in the presence of your Lord on your behalf . And he speaks for you, but you do not

speak for him; and he supplicates for you, but you do not supplicate for him; and he has beseeched for you and you do not beseech for him . And he has spared you the anxiety of standing before God and the question of interrogation for your prayer, but you do not spare him that . Should he perform the prayer imperfectly, he is held responsible for that not you; and if he makes a mistake during the prayer, you will not be his partner in it, and there is no superiority in this for him over you . Then he protected you through himself, And he protected your prayer through his prayer . Therefore thank him for this . And there is no power nor any strength but in God .

30 . حق الإمام في الصلاة

وَأمّا حَقُّ إمَامِكَ فِي صَلاتِكَ فَ__________________أَنْ تَعلَمَ أنّهُ قَدْ تَقَلَّدَ السِّفَارَةَ فِيمَ____ا بَيْنَكَ وبَيْنَ اللَّهِ وَالْوِفَادَةَ إلَى رَبكَ، وتَكَلَّمَ عَنْكَ وَلَمْ تَتَكَلَّ_____مْ عَنْهُ، وَدعَا لَكَ وَلَمْ تَدْعُ لَهُ، وَطَلَبَ فِيكَ وَلَ_________________مْ تَطْلُبْ فِيهِ، وَكَفَاكَ هَمَّ الْمَقَ________امِ بَينَ يدي اللهِ وَالمُسَ_________اءَلَةَ لَهُ فِيكَ وَلَمْ تَكْفِهِ ذَلِكَ، فَ____________إنْ كَانَ فِي شَيْءٍ مِنْ ذَلِكَ تَقْصِيرٌ كَانَ بهِ دُونَكَ، وَإنْ كَانَ آثِم_____________اً لَمْ تَكُنْ شَرِيكَهُ فِيهِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ عَلَيكَ فَضلٌ، فَوقَى نَفْسَكَ بنَفْس_______________ِهِ، وَوَقَى ص_َلاتَكَ بصَلاتِهِ، فَتَشْكُرَ لَهُ عَلَى ذلِكَ . ولا حَوْلَ ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of your sitting companion is that you should treat him gently, and warmly welcome him, and be fair while talking with him, and do not take your eyes off of him

when you are looking at him, and pronounce your words clearly to help him understand what you say . And if you are the first one to go and sit with him, you can leave him when you wish . However, if he is the first one to come and sit with you, he can leave you when he wishes to . And you should not leave him without his permission . And there is no power but in God .

31 . حق الجليس

وَأمّ____ا حَقُّ الجَلِيسِ فَأَنْ تُلِينَ لَهُ كَنَفَكَ(25)، وَتُطِيبَ لَهُ جَانِبَكَ، وَتُنْصِفَهُ فِي مُجَارَاةِ اللَّفْظِ(26) ولا تُغْرِق(27) فِي نَزْعِ اللَّحْ__ظِ إذَا لَحَظْتَ وتَقْصُدَ فِي اللَّفْظِ إلَى إفْهَ________امِهِ إذَا لَفَظْتَ . وَإنْ كُنْتَ الْجَلِي__________________سَ إلَيْهِ كُنْتَ فِي الْقِيَ_______________امِ عَنْهُ بالْخِيَارِ وَإنْ كَانَ الجَالِسَ إلَيكَ كَانَ بالخِيَ_________ارِ . ولا تَقُومُ إلا ب__إذْنِهِ . (28) وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of your neighbor is that you should be as a guardian for him when he is absent, and you should honor him when he is present, and you should assist and support him in both situations . You should not pursue any of his imperfections, and you should not seek any of his faults . But if you should discover any of his faults unintentionally, you should take the role of -regarding what you know- a fortified stronghold and a veiling screen . You should guard them in such a way that none of his defects can be discovered even if they are thoroughly inspected through spears . And you should not eavesdrop

on him, and you should not forsake him during times of hardship . And you should not envy him when he receives a blessing . Pardon his deviation and forgive his mistakes . And do not lose your temper when he behaves out of ignorance with you . And do not stop to be his supporter, and answer those who scold him . And divulge for him the deception of those who counsel him, and associate with him in an honorable manner . And there is no power nor any strength but in God .

32 . حق الجار

وَأمّ__ا حَقُّ الجَارِ فَحِفْظُهُ غَائِبًا وَكَرَامَتُهُ شَاهِدًا ونُصْرَتُهُ وَمَعُونتُهُ فِي الحَ_الَينِ جَمِيع__اً . (29) لا تَتَّبعْ لَهُ عَوْرَةً ولا تَبحَثْ لَهُ عَنْ سَوْءَ[ةٍ] لِتَعْرِفَهَ__________ا، فَإنْ عَرَفْتَهَ______ا مِنْهُ عَنْ غَيْرِ إرَادَةٍ مِنْكَ وَلا تَكَلُّفٍ كُنْتَ لِمَ____ا عَلِمْتَ حِصْن___اً حَصِين___اً وَسِتْرًا سَ____________تِيرًا، لَوْ بَحَثتِ الأَسِنَّةُ عَنْهُ ضَمِيرًا لَمْ تَتَّصِلْ إلَيْه لانطِوَائِهِ عَلَيهِ . لا تَسْ__تَمِعْ عَلَيهِ مِنْ حَيْثُ لا يَعْلَ___مُ . لا تُسَلِّمْهُ عِنْدَ شَ___________ديدَةٍ، ولا تَحْسُدْهُ عِنْ___________دَ نِعْمَةٍ . تُقِيلُ عَثْرَتهُ وتَغْفِرْ زَلَّتَ_________هُ . ولا تَدَّخِرْ حِلْمَكَ عَنْهُ إذَا جَهِلَ عَلَيْ__________________كَ، ولا تَخرُجْ أَنْ تَكُونَ سُلَّمًا لَهُ . تَرُدُّ عَنهُ لِسَانَ الشَّتِيمَةِ، وَتُبْطِلُ فِيهِ كَيْدَ حَ___________امِلِ النَّصِيحَةِ، وَتُعَ______اشِرَهُ مُعَاشَرَةً كَرِيمَةً . وَلا حَوْلَ وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of the companion is that you should act as his companion with nobility as much as you can . You should at least treat him with fairness and honor him as he honors you, and guard him as he guards you, and do not let him be the

first one to deal with the other one with honor . And if he does so, you should do something for him in return . And you should not neglect the friendship that he deserves in the least bit . You should commit yourself to advise him, care for him, and help him perform the acts of obedience to his Lord, and help him restrain himself from any act of disobedience of his Lord that he might attempt . Then be like a mercy upon him, and not as a chastisement . And there is no power but in God .

33 . حق الصاحب

وَأم_____________ّا حَقُّ الصَّاحِب فَأَنْ تَصْحَبَهُ بالفَضلِ مَ_______ا وَجَدْتَ إلَيهِ سَبيلاً وإلا فَلا أَقَلَّ مِنَ الإنصَ________افِ، وَأَنْ تُكْرِمَهُ كَمَا ي_ُكْرِمُكَ، وَت_حْفَظَ_________________هُ كَمَا ي_َحْفَظُكَ، ولا يَسْبقَكَ فِيمَ__ا بَينَكَ وبَينَهُ إلَى م_َكْرَمَةٍ، فَ_____________إنْ سَبَقَكَ كَافَ___أتَهُ . ولا تُقَصِّرَ بهِ عَمَّا يَسْتَحِقُّ مِنَ الْمَوَدَّةِ . تُلْزِمُ نفْسَكَ نصِيحَتَهُ وَحِيَ_________اطَتَهُ وَمُعَاضَدتَهُ عَلَى طَ_____اعَةِ رَبهِ وَمَعُونتَهُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ فِيمَ________ا لا يَهُمُّ بهِ مِنْ مَعْصِيةِ رَبهِ، ثُمَّ تَكُونُ [عَلَيْهِ] رَحْمَةً ولا تَكُونُ عَلَيهِ عَذَاباً . ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of the partner is that you should take care of his affairs in his absence . And you should treat him equally when he is present . And you should not make any decisions on your own without considering his opinion . And you should not act according to your own opinion before discussing it with him . You should safeguard his property, and advise him against cheating whether there is honor or disdain in it,

since it has been transmitted to us : “God’s hand is with partners as long as they do not cheat . ” And there is no power but in God .

34 . حق الشريك

وَأمّ__ا حَقُّ الشَّرِيكِ، فَإنْ غَابَ كَفَيْتَ_________________هُ، وَإنْ حَضَرَ سَ____________اويْتَهُ، ولا تَعْزِمْ عَلَى حُكْمِكَ دُونَ حُكْمِ_____هِ، وَلا تَعمَ__________________لْ برَأْيكَ دُونَ مُن____اظَرَتهِ، وتَحْفَظُ عَلَيْهِ مَالَهُ وَتنْفِي عَنْهُ خِيَانتَهُ فِيمَ_ا عَزَّ أَو هَانَ فَإنَّهُ بَلَغَنَا أَنَّ «يَدَ اللهِ عَلَى الشَّرِي_كَيْنِ مَ__________________ا لَمْ يَتَخاوَنا» . ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of your property is that you should not attain it except by legitimate means and you should only spend it for legitimate causes . You should not spend it improperly, you should not use it wrongfully, and you should not use what is from God in ways other than in His way and make it as a means to approach God . And you should not prefer to use it for one who does not show gratitude instead of using it for yourself . It is better that you do not leave it for others as inheritance who might use it not to obey your Lord, and then your wealth may be considered to be as an assistance for them in so doing . Or you may bequeath your property to one who spends it in the way of obedience to God in ways better than you do . Then he will gain the benefits, and you will be left with the sins, and the regret, and blame yourself for the ill consequence

. And there is no power but in God .

35 . حق المال

وَأمّا حَقُّ المَالِ، فَأَنْ لا تَأْخُذَهُ إلاّ مِنْ حِلِّهِ، ولا تُنْفِقَهُ إلاّ فِي حِلِّهِ، وَلا تُحَرِّفْ__________________هُ عَنْ مَ_________وَاضِعِهِ، ولا تَصْرِفَهُ عَنْ حَقَ_______________ائِقِهِ، ولا تَجْعَلْهُ إذا كَانَ مِنَ اللَّهِ إلاّ إلَيهِ وَسَبَباً إلَى اللَّهِ . ولا تُ_________ؤثِرَ بهِ عَلَى نفْسِ_______كَ مَنْ لَعَلَّهُ لا يَحْمَدُكَ، وَبالْحَرِيِّ أَنْ لا يُحْس_______________ِنَ خِلافَتَ________هُ فِي تَرِكَتِكَ(30) ولا يَعْمَلُ فِيهِ بطَ_________اعَةِ ربكَ فَتَكُونَ مُعِينًا لَهُ عَلَى ذلِكَ أَو بمَ_______ا أَحْدَثَ فِي مَالِكَ أَحْسَنَ نَظَرًا لِنَفْسِهِ، فَيَعْمَلَ بطَاعَةِ رَبهِ فَيَذْهَبَ بالْغَنِيمَةِ وتَبُوءَ بالإثمِ وَالْحَسْرَةِ وَالنَّدَامَةِ مَعَ التَّبعَةِ . (31) وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of him to whom you owe is that you should pay him back if you have the means to do so . You should meet his need, make him rich, and avoid putting him off and procrastinating . The Prophet, may God’s peace be upon him and his household, said : “Procrastination is oppression for the rich . ” But if you are in hardship you should satisfy him by using good words . You should gently ask him and send him away with gentleness . You should not take his property and mistreat him too . That will surely be mean . And there is no power but in God .

36 . حق الغريم الطالب

وَأمّا حَقُّ الغَرِيمِ الطَّالِب لَكَ،(32) فَإنْ كُنْتَ مُوسِرًا أَوفَيتَهُ وَكَفَيتَهُ وَأَغْنَيتَهُ وَلَ___________مْ ترْدُدْهُ وتَمْطُلْهُ فَإنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ - قَالَ – «مَ_طَلُ الغَنِيَّ ظُلْ_______________مٌ» . وَإنْ كُنْتَ مُعْسِرًا أَرْضَيتَ______________هُ بحُسْنِ القَوْلِ وَطَلَبتَ إلَيهِ طَلَباً جَ___مِيلاً وَرَدَدتَهُ

عَنْ نفْسِكَ ردًّا لَطِيفًا، وَلَمْ تَجْمَعَ عَلَيْهِ ذهَابَ مَالِهِ وَسُوءَ مُعَامَلَتِهِ فَإنَّ ذلِكَ لؤمٌ . ولا قُوَّةَ إلاّ باللهِ .


And the right of the associate is that you should not mislead, or cheat him, lie to him or fool him, and you should not trick him . And you should not treat him as an enemy does -who alienates all his friends . If he trusts you, you should be very careful of yourself for his sake, and realize that cheating the intimate ones is like usury . And there is no power but in God .

37 . حق الخليط

وَأمّ______ا حَقُّ الخَلِيطِ(33) فَأَنْ لا تَغُرَّهُ ولا تَغُشَّ_هُ ولا تُكَذِبَهُ ولا تُغَفِّلَهُ ولا تَخ________دَعَهُ ولا تَعمَلْ فِي انتِقَ___اضِهِ عَمَلَ الْعَدُوِّ الَّذِي لا يُبقِي عَلَى صَ_______احِبهِ وَإنِ اطْمَأَنَّ إلَيكَ اسْتَقْصَيتَ لَهُ عَلَى نفْسِ_كَ(34) وَعَلِمْتَ أَنَّ غَبْنَ الْمُسْتَرْسِلِ رِِبًا . ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .



And the right of the adversary who has a claim against you is that if his claim against you is true , you should not nullify his proof and not abolish his claim . And you should dispute against yourself on his behalf and be a fair judge against yourself, and give witness to his right against you without the witnessing of any witnesses . This is the right of God that is made incumbent upon you . But if what he claims against you is false, treat him with patience and remind him to fear God, and implore him to his religion . And by reminding him of God you should help reduce his fury against you . Avoid using indecent words and yelling at him since this will not eliminate

the animosity of your enemy but it will result in your suffering from the sin he commits against you . And it will also result in his sharpening of the sword of animosity towards you, since indecent words will cause evil but good words will eradicate evil . And there is no power but in God .

38 . حق الخصم

حق الخصم المدعي عليك

وَأمّ________ا حَقُّ الخَصْمِ المُدَّعِي عَلَيْكَ، فَإنْ كَانَ مَا يَدَّعِي عَلَيكَ حَقّ________اً لَمْ تنفَسِخ فِي حُجَّتِهِ وَلَمْ تَعمَلْ فِي إبطَ_____الِ دَعْوَتِهِ وَكُنْتَ خَصْ__________مَ نفْسِكَ لَهُ والحَ___اكِمَ عَلَيْهَا والشَّ___اهِدَ لَهُ بحَقِّهِ دُونَ شَهَادَةِ الشُّهُودِ، فَ_________إنَّ ذلِكَ حَقُّ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكَ، وَإنْ كَانَ مَ___ا يَدَّعِيهِ بَ_________اطِلاً رَفَقْتَ بهِ وَرَوَّعْتَهُ (35) ون_____اشَدتهُ بدِينِه(36) وَكَسَرْتَ حِدَّتهُ عَنكَ بذِكْرِ اللهِ وَأَلْقَيْتَ حَشْوَ الْكَلامِ وَلَغَطَ_______هُ(37) الَّذِي لا يَرُدُّ عَنْكَ عَ___________اديَةَ عَدُوِّكَ بَلْ تبُوءُ بإثمِهِ وَبهِ يَشْحَذ سَيفَ عَدَاوَتِهِ(39) لأَنَّ لَفْظَةَ السُّوءِ تَبعَثُ الشَّرَّ . وَالخَيْرُ مُقْمِعَةٌ لِلشَّرِّ . وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of the adversary against whom you have a claim is that if your claim against him is true , you should use pleasant words while you are filing your claim, since hearing the claim is harsh for the defendant . And you should provide your evidence with lenience, and respite, and with the clearest statements, and with absolute gentleness . And you should not dispute with him over gossip lest your proofs will be voided and you will lose the opportunity to prove them . And there is no power but in God . حق الخصم المدعى عليه

وَأمّ______ا حَقُّ الخَصْمِ الْمُدَّعَى عَلَيهِ فَإنْ كَانَ مَ________ا

تدَّعِيهِ حَقًّا أَجْمَلْتَ فِي مُقَ_____اوَلَتِهِ(40) بمَخرَجِ الدَّعْوَى، فَإنّ لِلدَّعْوَى غِلْظَةً فِي سَ______________مْعِ الْمُدَّعَى عَلَيهِ . وَقَصَ________________دْتَ قَصْدَ حُجَّتِكَ بالرِّفْقِ وَأَمْهَلِ الْمُهْلَةِ وَأبْينِ الْبَيَ_______انِ وَألطَفِ اللُّطْفِ ولَمْ تَتشَ_______اغَلْ عَنْ حُجَّتِكَ بمُنازَعَتِهِ بالقِيلِ وَالقَ________________الِ فَتَذهَبْ عَنْكَ حُجَّتُكَ ولا يَكُونَ لَكَ فِي ذَلِكَ دَرْكٌ . ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of him who seeks your advice is that you should exert all efforts to advise him if you can provide him with a good opinion, and suggest to him to choose what you would have chosen if you were in his shoes . You should do so with mercy and with lenience since lenience will eliminate fear while rudeness will eliminate friendliness . But if you do not have any good advice for him, you should refer him to someone else whom you know and trust his advice yourself . You should spare no efforts to guide him towards the good and do your best to advise him . And there is no power but in God . 39 . حق المستشير

وَأمّ____________ا حَقُّ المُسْتَشِيرِ، فَإنْ حَضَرَكَ لَهُ وَجْهُ رَأْىٍ جَهَدْتَ لَهُ فِي النَّصِيحَ_________ةِ، وَأَشَرْتَ عَلَيهِ بمَا تَعْلَمُ أَنَّكَ لَوْ كُنْتَ مَكَانهُ عَمِلْتَ بهِ، وَذَلِكَ لِيَكُنْ مِنْكَ فِي رَحْمَةٍ وَلِينٍ، فَإنَّ اللِّينَ يُؤْنِسُ الْوَحْشَةَ وَإنَّ الْغِلْظَ يُوحِشُ مَوضِعَ الأنْسِ . وَإنْ لَمْ يَحْضُرْكَ لَهُ رَأيٌ وَعَرَفْتَ لَهُ مَنْ تثِقُ برَأيِهِ وَترْضَى بهِ لِنَفْسِكَ دَلَلْتَهُ عَلَيْهِ وَأَرْشَدتَهُ إلَيْهِ، فَكُنْتَ لَمْ تَ_____________ألُهُ خَيرًا(41) وَلَمْ تَدَّخِرْهُ نُصْحاً . ولا حَوْلَ ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of him whose advice you seek is that you should not accuse him when he gives you advice which does not conform to your own opinion . It is quite natural that opinions are divergent and people have various views about their affairs in which they disagree . You are free not to accept his advice if you

doubt it . However, you are not permitted to accuse him of providing you with ill advice as long as you consider him to be of those worthy of consultation . Do not stop thanking him for the thoughts and the good advice he has given you . And if it was appropriate for you, you should thank God for it, accept it from your religious brother with gratitude, and be ready to act similarly for him should one day he seek your advice . And there is no power but in God .

40 . حق المشير

وَأمّ_________ا حَقُّ المُشِيرِ عَلَيْكَ فَلا تتَّهِمْهُ فِيمَا لا يُوافِقُكَ عَلَيهِ مِنْ رَأْيِهِ إذا أَشَ______ارَ عَلَيْكَ فَإنَّمَا هِيَ الآرَاءُ وَتصَرُّفُ النَّ____اسِ فِيهَ______ا وَاختِلافُهُمْ . فَكُنْ عَلَيهِ فِي رَأيِهِ بالخِيَارِ إذا اتَّهمْتَ رَأْيَهُ، فَأَمّا تُهْمتُهُ فَلا تَجُوزُ لَكَ إذَا كَانَ عِنْدكَ مِمَّنْ يَسْتَحِقُّ الْمُشَاوَرَةَ . وَلا تَدَعْ شُكْرَهُ عَلَى مَ_ا بَدَا لَكَ مِن إشْ________خاصِ رَأْيِهِ وَحُسْنِ وَجْهِ مَشُورَتِهِ، فَإذا وَافَقَكَ حَمِدتَ اللَّهَ وَقَبلْتَ ذلِكَ مِن أَخِيكَ بالشُّ________________________كْرِ والإرْصَادِ بالْمُكَافَأَةِ فِي مِثلِهَ_____ا إنْ فَزِعَ إلَيْكَ . (42) وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of him who seeks your counsel is that you should give him your counsel as much as you think he can bear . And you should talk with him with such gentle words that he listens to you and you should use such words that his intellect can understand . This is because for each person’s intellect there is a certain way of talking, which he can comprehend and respond to . You should choose having mercy

as your course of action . And there is no power but in God .

41 . حق المستنصح

وَأمّ__ا حَقُّ المُسْتَنصِحِ فَإنَّ حَقَّهُ أَنْ تُؤَدِّيَ إلَيهِ النَّصِيحَةَ عَلَى الحَقِّ الَّذِي تَرَى لَهُ أنّهُ يحْمِلُ وَتخرُجَ المَخرَجَ الَّذِي يَلينُ عَلَى مَسَ_____________امِعِهِ، وتُكَلِّمَهُ مِنَ الْكَلامِ بمَا يُطِيقُهُ عَقلُهُ، فَإنَّ لِكُلِّ عَقْلٍ طَبقَ__________________ةً مِنَ الْكَلامِ يَعْرِفُ________هُ ويَجْتَنِبُهُ، وَلْيَكُنْ مَذهَبَكَ الرَّحْمَ___ةَ . ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of your counselor is that you should treat him gently, then you should be whole-heartedly attentive to him, and open you ears for him so that you understand his counsel . And then study it deeply and if what he presents to you is right, you should praise God for it, and accept it from him and acknowledge his favor . But if what he presents to you does not agree with you, you should be kind to him and make no accusations against him; and you should know that he spared no efforts to provide you with the best advice, but he made a mistake . Unless he deserves to be accused in which case you should not trust him under any circumstances . And there is no power but in God .

42 . حق الناصح

وَأمّ______ا حَقُّ النَّاصِحِ فَأَنْ تُلِينَ لَهُ جَنَاحَكَ ثُمَّ تشرأب لَهُ قَلبَكَ(43) وَتفْتَحَ لَهُ سَ_________مْعَكَ حتَّى تَفْهَمَ عَنهُ نصِيحَتَهُ، ثُمَّ تنْظُرَ فِيهَ_____ا، فَإنْ كَانَ وُفّقَِ فِيهَا لِلصَّوَاب حَمِدْتَ اللَّهَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ وَقَبلْتَ مِنْ___________________هُ وَعَرَفْتَ لَهُ نَصِيحَتَهُ، وَإنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ وُفّقَِ لَهَا فِيهَا رَحِمْتَهُ وَلَمْ تتَّهِمَهُ وَعَلِمْتَ أَنَّهُ لَمْ يألُكَ نُصْحًا إلا أنَّهُ أَخطَ_____أَ إلا أَنْ

يَكُونَ عِنْدَكَ مُسْتَحِقًّا لِلتُّهْمَةِ فلا تَعْبَ_____أْ(44) بشيء مِنْ أَمْرِهِ عَلَى كُلِّ حَالٍ . ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of him who is older than you are is that you should respect him because of his age, and honor his submission to God if he is one of the noble ones in Islam . You should recognize his seniority and stop confronting him in disputes and should not surpass him or walk ahead of him, and you should not treat him foolishly . If he should treat you foolishly, you should put up with him and honor him to respect his being an older Muslim . This is because the respect for one’s age is according to how long he has been a Muslim . And there is no power but in God .

43 . حق الكبير

وَأمّا حَقُّ الكبيرِ فَإنَّ حَقَّهُ تَوقِيرُ سِنِّهِ وَإجْلالِ إسْلامِهِ إذَا كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْفَضلِ فِي الإسْلامِ بتَقْدِيمِهِ فِيهِ وتَرْكِ مُقَابَلَتِهِ عِنْدَ الْخِصَ__________امِ ولا تَسْبقْهُ إلَى طَرِيقٍ، ولا تَؤُمَّهُ فِي ط_رِيقٍ(45) ولا تَسْ_______تَجْهِلْهُ . وَإنْ جَهِلَ عَلَيْكَ تحَمَّلْتَ وَأَكْرَمتَهُ بحَقِّ إسْلامِهِ مَعَ سِنِّهِ فَإنّمَ_______ا حَقُّ السِّنِّ بقَدْرِ الإسْلامِ . ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of him who is younger than you are is to be friendly with him, train and educate him, pardon him, and cover up his faults, be patient with him and help him, cover up the guilts of his juvenility because this will make him repent; treat him with patience, and stop quarrelling with him . This will lead him to more sensible conduct .

44 . حق الصغير

وَأمّ_________ا حَقُّ الصَّغِيرِ فَرَحْمتُهُ وتَثقِيفُهُ(46) وتَعْلِيمُهُ وَالعَفْوُ عَنْهُ وَالسِّترُ عَلَ_______________يهِ وَالرِّفْقُ بهِ وَالمَعُونَةُ

ل________________َهُ وَالسِّترُ عَلَى جَرَائِرِ حَدَاثتِهِ فَإنّهُ سَبَبٌ لِلتَّوبَةِ وَالْمُدَارَاةُ لَ___________هُ وتَرْكُ مُمَاحَكَتِهِ، فَإنَّ ذَلِكَ أَدنى لِرُشْدِهِ .


And the right of him who begs from you is that you should give him charity if you are certain that he is honest and you are able to fulfill his need . You should also pray to God to relieve him from what has befallen upon him, and help fulfill his needs . But if you doubt his honesty and he has already been accused of (dishonesty), but you are not convinced about this, you will not be sure whether this is one of the plots of Satan who is trying to deprive you from your fortune and cause a blockage between you and your approach to your Lord . Then you should leave him and overlook and should turn him down gently . But if you can overcome yourself in this respect and grant him what he has asked for despite what is presented to you regarding him, then this is due to your resolution in the conduct of affairs .

45 . حق السائل

وَأمّا حَقُّ السَّائِلِ فَإعْطَاؤُهُ إذا تَيَقَّنتَ صِدْقَهُ وَقَدَرْتَ عَلَى سَدِّ حَاجَتِهِ، وَالدُّعَاءُ لَهُ فِيمَ_ا نزَلَ بهِ، وَالْمُعَاوَنةُ لَهُ عَلَى طَلِبَتِهِ، وَإن شَكَكْتَ فِي صِدْقِهِ وَسَبَقْتَ إلَيهِ التُّهْمَةُ لَهُ وَلَمْ تَعْزِمْ عَلَى ذَلِكَ لَمْ تَأْمَنْ أَنْ يَكُونَ مِنْ كَيْدِ الشَّيْطَانِ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَصُدَّكَ عَنِ حَظِّكَ ويَحُولَ بَيْنَكَ وبَينَ التَّقَرُّب إلَى رَبكَ فَتَرَكْتَ_____________هُ بسِترِهِ وَرَدَدتَهُ رَدًّا جَ_______مِيلاً . وَإنْ غَلَبتَ نفْسَ________________كَ فِي أَمْرِهِ وَأَعْطَيتَهُ عَلَى مَ_____ا عَرَضَ فِي نفْسِكَ مِنْهُ، فإنَّ ذلِكَ مِنْ عَزْمِ الأُمُورِ



And the right of him from whom you beg is that you should accept from him whatever he grants you with gratitude and acknowledges his nobility . And you should accept his excuse if he withholds and think well of him . And you should realize that if he withholds, he is withholding his own property, and that he could not be blamed for withholding his own property . If he is doing wrong, “then man is certainly wrong-doing and unbelieving . ”

46 . حق المسؤول

وَأمّ________ا حَقُّ المَسئولِ فَحَقُّهُ إنْ أَعْطَى قُبلَ مِنْهُ مَ_____________ا أَعْطَى بالشُّكْرِ لَهُ وَالمَعْرِفَةِ لِفَضْلِهِ وَطَلَبَ وَجْهِ الْعُذْرِ فِي مَنعِهِ، وَأَحْسَنَ بهِ الظَّنَّ . وَاعْلَمْ أنَّهُ إنْ مَنِعَ [فَ]مَالَهُ مَنَعَ وَأَنْ لَيْسَ التَّثرِيبُ فِي مَ__________الِه،(47) وَإنْ كَانَ ظَالِمًا فَإنَّ الإنسَانَ لَظلُومٌ كَفَّارٌ .


And the right of him through whom God makes you happy is that if he intentionally made you happy, you should first praise God and then you should thank him accordingly, and reward him for initiating a nobility and be determined to return his favor . But if he made you happy unintentionally, you should praise God, thank Him, and realize that He chose you exclusively for that, and you liked it . He has been one of the means of God’s Blessings descending upon you . You should only wish him well since the means of desension of Blessings are themselves Blessings wherever they be, even if unintentionally . And there is no power but in God .

47 . حق من سرك الله به وعلى يديه

وَأمّا حَقُّ

مَنْ سَرَّكَ اللهُ بهِ وَعلَى يَدَيهِ، فَ_____________إنْ كَانَ تَعَمَّدَهَا لَكَ حَمِدْتَ اللهَ أَوّلاً ثُ________مَّ شَكَرْتَهُ عَلَى ذلِكَ بقَدْرِهِ فِي مَوْضِ___________عِ الجَزَاءِ وَكَافَأتَهُ عَلَى فَضْ________________لِ الابْتِدَاءِ وَأَرْصَ______________دْتَ لَهُ الْمُكَافَأَةَ، وَإنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ تَعَمَّدَهَا حَمِدْتَ اللهَ وَشَكَرتَهُ وعَلِمْتَ أنَّهُ مِنْهُ، تَوَحَّدَكَ بهَا وأَحْبَبتَ هذا إذ كَانَ سَبَباً مِنْ أَسْبَاب نِعَ_______مِ اللهِ عَلَيْكَ وَترْجُو لَهُ بَعْدَ ذلِكَ خَيرًا، فإنَّ أَسْبَابَ النِّعَمِ بَرَكَةٌ حَيثُ مَا كَانتْ وَإنْ كَانَ لَمْ يَتَعَمَّدَ . ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of him who wrongs you whether verbally or physically is that it is more appropriate for you to pardon him if it was done intentionally . This would eliminate bad feelings and is the polite way to treat most such people . Indeed God says : “But indeed if any do help and defend themselves after a wrong (done) to them, against such there is no blame . The blame is only against those who oppress men with wrongdoing and insolently transgress beyond bounds throughout the land, defying right and justice : for such there will be a Penalty grievous . But indeed if any show patience and forgive, that would truly be an exercise of courageous will and resolution in the conduct of affairs . ” The Almighty the High also says : “And if ye do catch them out, catch them out no worse than they catch you out . But if ye show patience, that is indeed the best (course) for those who are patient . ” This is so if it was intentional . But if

he who wrongs you has done it unintentionally, then you should not oppress him by intentionally insisting on retaliation, lest you would be punishing him intentionally for what he has done unintentionally . You should also be friendly with him and treat him as gently as you can . And there is no power but in God .

48 . حق من ساءك القضاء على يديه بقول أو فعل

وَأمّ______ا حَقُّ مَنْ سَاءَكَ القَضَاءُ عَلَى يَدَيهِ بقَوْلٍ أَوْ فِعْلٍ فَإنْ كَانَ تَعَمَّدَهَا كَانَ العَفْوُ أَوْلَى بكَ لِمَا فِيهِ لَهُ مِن القَمْعِ وَحُسْنَ الأَدَب مَعَ كَثِيرِ أَمْثالِهِ مِنَ الخَلْقِ، فإنَّ اللهَ يَقُولُ (وَلَمَنِ انتَصَرَ بَعْ____________دَ ظُلْمِهِ فَأُولئِكَ مَا عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ سَبيلٍٍ . إنمَّا السّبيلُ عَلى الَّذين يظْلِمونَ النَّاسَ ويَبغونَ في الأرْضِ بغَيرِ الحَقِّ، أُولئِكَ لهُم عَذابٌ أليِمٌ . وَلمَنْ صَبَرَ وَغَفَرَ إنَّ ذلِكَ لََمِنْ عَزْمِ الأُمُورِ ) وَقَ__________________الَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ {وَإنْ عَاقَبْتُمْ فَعَاقِبُوا بمِثلِ مَ______________ا عُوقِبتُمْ به وَلَئِنْ صَبَرْتُمْ لَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لِلصَّابرِينَ} هَ_________ذا فِي الْعَمْدِ فَإنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ عَمْدًا لَمْ تَظْلِمْهُ بتَعَمُّدِ الانتِصَارِ مِنْهُ فَتَكُونَ قَدْ كَافَأتَهُ فِي تَعَمُّ__دٍ عَلَى خَطَ________________أٍ . وَرَفِقْتَ بهِ وَرَدَدتَهُ بأَلْطَفِ مَا تقْدِرُ عَلَيْهِ . ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .


And the right of the people of your creed is that you should whole-heartedly provide safety for them, and gently show them mercy, and treat their wrong-doers with patience, and treat them with friendliness, and seek their welfare, and thank those of them who do good to you and to themselves . Their doing good to themselves is considered to be the same as doing good to you . This is because (by

so doing) they have not bothered you and have not put you to any trouble . Then you should pray for all of them, and back all of them up with your support . And you should respect each one of them as he deserves : their old men hold the position of your fathers, and their children hold the position of your children, and their youths hold the position of your brothers . You should gently and compassionately care for those of them who come to you . And you should treat your brethren as brothers deserve to be treated .

49 . حق أهل ملتك عامة

وَأمّ__________ا حَقُّ أَهْلِ مِلَّتِكَ عَامَّةً فَإضْ___________مَارُ السَّلامَةِ وَنشْرِ جَنَ________________احِ الرَّحْمَةِ وَالرِّفْقِ بمُسِيئِه____________________ِمْ وَتأَلُّفُهُمْ وَاسْتِصْلاحُهُمْ وَشُكْرُ مُحْسِنِهِمْ إلَى نفْسِهِ وَإلَيْكَ، فَإنَّ إحْسَانهُ إلَى نفْسِهِ إحْسَانهُ إلَيكَ إذا كَفَّ عَنْكَ أَذاهُ وَكَفَاكَ مَئونتَهُ وَحَبَسَ عَنكَ نفْسَهُ فَعَمِّهِمْ جَمِيعًا بدَعْوَتِكَ وَانصُرْهُمْ جَمِيع_اً بنُصْرَتِكَ وَأَنزَلتَهُمْ جَمِيع_______________اً مِنْكَ مَنَ___________ازِلَهُمْ، كَبيرَهُمْ بمَنْزِلَةِ الْوَالِ___________دِ وَصَغِيرَهُمْ

بمَنْزِلَةِ الْوَلَدِ وَأَوْسَ_____________طَهُمْ بمَنْزِلَةِ الأَخِ . فَمَ_نْ أَت_______________اكَ تَعَاهَدْتَه بلُطْفٍ وَرَحْمَةٍ . وَصِلْ أَخَاكَ بمَا يَجِبُ لِلأَخِ عَلَى أَخِيهِ .


And the right of those under the protection of Islam is that you should accept from them what God has accepted from them, and fulfill what God has established for them under His protection and covenant, and entrust them to Him in what they are required to carry out, and are obliged to do . And you should judge among them with the judgments of God that He commanded for you regarding the conditions of dealing with them, and do not wrong

them as long as they honor God's covenant and fulfill their pledge . And the pledge of the Prophet, may God’s peace be upon him and his household, is a barrier since it is reported that he said : “I am the adversary of whoever oppresses one who has a treaty . " Therefore fear God . And there is no power but in God . These are the fifty rights that surround you and you cannot evade under any circumstances . It is incumbent upon you to honor them and exert all efforts to fulfill them . You should seek God the Majestic’s help in this respect . And there is no power but in God . And all praise is due to God the Lord of the Two Worlds .

50 . حق أهل الذمة

وَأمّ______________________ا حَقُّ أَهْلِ الذِّمَّةِ فَالحُكْمُ فِيهِ_____مْ أَنْ تَقبَلَ مِنْهُمْ مَا قَبِلَ اللهُ، وَتَفِي بمَا جَعَلَ اللهُ لَهُمْ مِنْ ذِمَّتِهِ وَعَهْدِهِ وَتكِلُهُمْ إلَيهِ فِيمَا طَلبُوا مِنْ أَنْفُسِهِ______________مْ وَأُجْبرُِوا عَلَيْهِ وَتحْكُمَ فِيهِمْ بمَ_________________ا حَكَمَ اللهُ بهِ عَلَى نفْسِكَ فِيمَا جَرَى بَيْنَكَ [وَبيْنَهمْ] مِنْ مُعَامَلَةٍ وَلْيَكُنْ بَينَكَ وَبيْنَ ظُلْمِهِمْ مِنْ رِعَايَةِ ذِمَّةِ اللَّهِ وَالْوَفَاءِ بعَهْ______________دِهِ وَعَهْدِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ – حَائِلٌ فَإنَّهُ بَلَغَنَا أنَّهُ قَالَ «مَنْ ظَلَمَ مُعَاهِ___دًا كُنْتُ خَصْمَهُ» فَاتَّقِ اللَّهَ . ولا حَوْلَ ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ .

فَهذِهِ خَمْسُونَ حَقًّا مُحِيطًا بكَ لا تَخرُجْ مِنْهَ________ا فِي حَالٍ مِن الأَحْ_______________وَالِ، يَجِبُ عَلَيْكَ رِعَايَتُهَا وَالْعَمَلُ فِي تَأْدِيَتِهَا وَالاسْتِعَانَةُ باللهِ جَلَّ ثَنَاؤُهُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ . وَلا حَوْلَ وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ وَالْحَمْدُ للهِ رَب العَالَمِينَ .



1 . slaves

2 .

by freeing you from slavery

3 . by the fact that you free him

4 . The pleasures of this world and the life to come

5 . In the other version we read : “and refrain from any meddling in which there is nothing to be gained, express kindness to the people, and speak well concerning them . ” And then the rest follows .

6 . The tongue

7 . His tongue and good speech are like an ornament for his intellect

8 . In the other version it is followed by : “The right of your hearing is to keep it pure from listening to backbiting and listening to that to which it is unlawful to listen”

9 . In the other version it is followed by : “You have no escape from standing upon the narrow bridge (al-sirat [over Hell]), so you should see to it that your legs do not slip and cause you to fall into the Fire . ”

10 . The hands

11 . If the hands are not opened to engage in what is forbidden .

12 . by over-eating and over-drinking

13 . In the other version it is followed by : “The right of your private part is that you protect it from fornication and guard it against being looked upon . ”

14 . And fix your eyes looking down to the ground . In the other version it is followed by : “You will approach the prayer with humbleness, deep from your heart and you will perform it according to its bounds and its

rights . “ Then it continues .

15 . Being humble

16 . of Hell

17 . from the Fire of Hell

18 . If you abandon the fast, you will have torn God's protective covering away from yourself .

19 . This right has not been mentioned in the version transmitted in Tuhaf al-Uqoul

20 . In the other version it is followed by : “You should know that it repels calamities and illnesses in this world and it will repel the Fire from you in the Hereafter .

21 . That your donations in charity will be returned to you

22 . The animal sacrificed during the holy pilgrimage

23 . In the other version it continues : “you desire God and you do not desire His creation; through it you desire only the exposure of your soul to God's mercy and the deliverance of your spirit on the day you encounter Him . ”

24 . In the other version it is followed by : “Through it you desire only the exposure of your soul to the Exalted, and the High- God’s Mercy, and the deliverance of your spirit on the Day you encounter Him .

25 . In the other version it is followed by : “You should not raise your voice toward him . You should never answer anyone who asks him about something, in order that he may be the one who answers . You should not speak to anyone in his session nor speak ill of anyone with him . If anyone ever speaks ill of him in your

presence, you should defend him . You should conceal his faults and make manifest his virtues . You should not sit with him in enmity or show hostility toward him in friendship . If you do all of this, God's angels will give witness for you that you went straight to him and learned his knowledge for God's sake, not for the sake of the people . ”

26 . In the other version it is followed by : “property is that you should obey him and not disobey him, unless obeying him would displease God, for there can be no obedience to a creature when it is disobedience to God . ”

27 . you are his slave

28 . In the other version it continues : “they have been made subjects through their weakness and your strength . Hence it is incumbent upon you to act with justice toward them and to be like a compassionate father toward them . You should forgive them their ignorance and not hurry them to punishment and you should thank God for the power over them which He has given to you . ”

29 . that they do not have

30 . In the other version it continues : “in teaching the people, not treating them roughly or annoying them, then God will increase His bounty toward you . But if you withhold your knowledge from people or treat them roughly when they seek knowledge from you, then it will be God’s right to deprive you of the knowledge and its

splendor and to make you fall from your place in people’s heart . ”

31 . your wife

32 . In the other version it is followed by : ”you must treat her with compassion, since she is your prisoner whom you feed and clothe . If she is ignorant, you should pardon her . ”

33 . as you are

34 . God created him

35 . in your shelter

36 . if you fail

37 . in the other version it continues with : “And there is no power but in God . ”

38 . by freeing you from slavery

39 . by freeing him

40 . In the other version it is followed by : “God has made your freeing him a means of access to Him and a veil against the Fire . Your immediate reward is to inherit from him- if he does not have any relatives-as a compensation for the property you have spent for him, and your ultimate reward is the Garden . ”

41 . of Hell

42 . In the other version it continues : “reminding you of your Lord, calling you to your good fortune, and helping you to accomplish what God has made obligatory upon you . So thank him for that just as you thank one who does good to you . ”

43 . In the other version it is followed by : ” You should forget his slips and remember his good qualities, and you should tell nothing about him but good . ”

44 . in guarding these secrets

45 . In the other

version it continues : “a debt is that, if you have the means, you pay him back, and if you are in straitened circumstances, you satisfy him with good words and you send him away with gentleness . ”

46 . for more time

47 . In the other version it continues : “you give witness to it against yourself . You do not wrong him and you give him his full due . If what he claims against you is false, you act with kindness toward him and you show nothing in his affair other than kindness; you do not displease your Lord in his affair . And there is no strength save in God . ”

48 . In the other version it continues : “you maintain polite moderation in speaking to him and you do not deny him his right . If your claim is false, you fear God, repent to Him, and abandon your claim . ”

49 . his advice

50 . Islam

51 . In the other version it continues : “is that you give to him in the measure of his need . ”

52 . his dishonesty

53 . In the other version it continues : “is that you accept from him with gratitude and recognition of his bounty if he gives, and you accept his excuse if he withholds . ”

54 . In the other version it continues : “you first praise God, then you thank that person . ”

55 . In the other version it continues : “is that you pardon him .

But if you know that your pardon will harm him, you should defend yourself . God says : “Whosoever defends himself after he has been wronged- against them there is no way . ” [The Holy Quran, Shura 42 : 41]

56 . The Holy Quran, Shura 42 : 41-43 A . Yusuf Ali’s translation

57 . The Holy Quran, Nahl 16 : 126 A . Yusuf Ali’s translation

58 . In the other version it continues : “And keeping harm away from them . You should love for them what you love for yourself and dislike for them what you dislike for yourself . Their old men stand in the place of your father, their youth in the place of your brothers, their old women in the place of your mother, and their young ones in the place of your children . ”

59 . protecting them

60 . The Prophet Muhammad (may God bless him and his household)


1 الخنى : الفحش في الكلام

2 التهوين : الاستخفاف . يقال : هَوَّنَ الشيء : استخفّ به .

3 الحجبة : جمع حاجب

4 لتقبيح والتحقير

5 تدهقن أي صار دهقانا وهو رئيس القرية وزعيم الفلاحين والمراد به ضد التمسكن والتذلل .

6 لا تماحكه : لا تخاصمه ولا تنازعه .

7 لا تعازه : لا تعارضه في العزة

8 عققته : عصيتَه وآذيته .

9 في المكارم الأخلاق : و أن لا تَرْفَعَ صوتَكَ عليهِ و لا تُجيبَ أحداً يَسْألُه عن شَي ءٍ حتى يكونَ هو الذي يُجيبُ و لا تُحدَّثَ في مَجْلِسِه (أحداً) و لا تَغْتَابَ عِنْدَه أحداً و أن تَدْفَعَ عنه إذا ذُكِرَ عِندَكَ

بسُوءٍ و أن تَسْتُرَ عُيوبَه و تُظْهِرَ مَناقِبَهُ و لا تُجالِسَ لَهُ عَدوَاً و لا تُعادي له وَليّاً، فإذا فَعَلْتَ ذلكَ شَهِدَتْ لَكَ مَلائِكَةُ اللّه بأنَّكَ قَصَدْتَه و تَعَلَّمْتَ عِلْمَه للّه جَلَّ اسْمُه لا لِلنَّاسِ

10 في المكارم الأخلاق : فأن تُطيعَهُ و لا تَعْصيَهُ إلاَّ فيما يَسخَطُ اللّه عز وجل فإنَّه لا طاعَةَ لِمَخلوقٍ في مَعصيَةِ الخالِقِ

11 أي قضيت حق اللَّه فارجع إلى أداء حق مالكك .

12 في مكارم الأخلاق : أنَّهُم صارُوا رَعيتَكَ لِضَعْفِهِم و قُوَّتِكَ فيَجِبُ أنْ تَعدِلَ فيهم و تَكونَ لَهم كالوالِدِ الرَّحيمِ،و تَغْفِرَ لَهم جَهْلَهُم و لا تُعاجِلَهُم بالعُقوبَةِ، و تشكر الله عزَّ وجَلَّ علي ما آتاكَ مِنَ القُوَّةِ عليهِم

13 الحياطة : الحفاظة والحماية والصيانة

14 الأناة : الوقار والحلم وأصله الانتظار .

15 هنا لعله قد سقطت كلمة "خازنا" من قلم النسّاخ

16 في المكارم الأخلاق : فَإنْ أحْسَنْتَ في تعلُّّمِ الناسِ و لَم تَخرِقْ بهم و لَم تَضْجُرْ عليهم زادَكَ الله مِنْ فَضلِهِ، و إنْ أنت مَنَعْتَ الناسَ علمَكَ أو خَرَقْتَ بهم عِنْدَ طَلَبَهِم العِلمَ مِنكَ كانَ حقاً عَلي اللّهِ عز وجل أن يَسْلِبَكَ الْعِلْمَ و بَهاءَهُ و يَسقُطَ مِنَ القلوب مَحَلَّكَ

17 الآمل : خادم الرجل وعونه الذي يأمله .

18 في مكارم الأخلاق : فانَّ لَها عَلَيْكَ أنْ تَرْحَمَها لأَنَّها أسيرُكَ و تُطْعِمُها و تَكْسُوها،فِإذا جَهِلَتْ عَفَوْتَ عَنْها

19 موابلة : مواظبة

20 الحواء : ما يحتوي الشيء من حوى الشيء إذا أحاط به .

21 في بعض النسخ " وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ . "

22 الولاء : النصرة والملك والمحبة والصداقة والقرابة

23 الحلق : جمع "حلقة" . ويجمع أيضا على حلق - بفتحتين على غير قياس .

24 في مكارم الأخلاق : وأمَّا حَقُّ مَولاكَ

الَّذي أنعَمتَ عليهِ فأنْ تَعْلَمَ أنَّ اللّهَ عز وجل جَعَلَ عِتقَكَ لَهٌ وَسيلَةً إليهِ و حِجاباً لَكَ مِنَ النَّار، و أنَّ ثوابَكَ في العاجِلِ مِيراثُهُ إذا لَم يَكُنْ لَه رَحِمٌ مُكافَأَةً بما أنفَقْتَ مِنْ مالِكَ، و في الآجلِ الجَنَّةَ

25 الكنف : الجانب والظل .

26 يقال " تجاروا في الحديث" أي جرى كل واحد مع صاحبه ومنه مجاراة من لا عقل له أي الخوض معه في الكلام .

27 لا تغرق : لا تبالغ في أمره

28 في مكارم الأخلاق : و تَنسي زَلاَّتَهُ و تَحْفَظَ خَيراتَه إلاََّ خَيراً

29 المراد بالحالين : الشهود والغياب .

30 أي ميراثك ، والتَّرِكة : الشيء المتروك أي تركة الميّت .

31 التبعة : ما يترتب على الفعل من الشّر وقد يستعمل في الخير .

32 الغريم : الدائن ويطلق أيضا على المديون .

33 الخليط : المخالط كالنديم والشريك والجليس ونحوها .

34 استقصى في المسألة : بلغ الغاية .

35 روعته : أفزعته

36 ناشدته بدينه : حلّفته وطلبته به .

37 اللغط : كلام فيه جلبة واختلاط ولا يتبين .

38 عادية عدوّك : حدّته وغضبه ؛وعادية السّم : ضرره

39 يشحذ عليك أي يغضب ، وأصله من شحذ السكين ونحوه : أحَدّه .

40 المقاولة : المجادلة والمباحثة .

41 لم تأله : لم تقصره من ألا يألو .

42 أي إذا استشار هو منك .

43 اشرأبّ : مدّ عنقه لينظره . والمراد أن تسقي قلبك من نصحه .

44 فلا تعبأ : لا تثقل .

45 أي لا تتقدّمه .

46 ثقَّف الولد : هذّبه وعلّمه .

47 التثريب : التوبيخ والملامة .


[1] (a) stands for alaihissalaam : Peace be upon him .

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