AYATUL GHADIR

ID Book

Verses of Ghadir

A SEARCH REGARDING THE PROPHET’S SERMONS ON THE

FAREWELL PILGRIMAGE, AND AN EXEGESIS OF QURANIC

VERSES OF GHADIR

AUTHORED BY:

AL-MOSTAFA CENTRE OF ISLAMIC RESEARCHES

UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF THE SUPREME ISLAMIC

AUTHORITY

SAYYID ALI AL-SISTANI

INTRODUCTION

THREE QUESTIONS REGARDING MISSION OF THE

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE BENEFICENT, THE

MERCIFUL

PRAISED BE ALLAH, AND HONORABLE AND PERFECT

PEACE BE UPON MOHAMMED AND HIS INFALLIBLE

IMMACULATE PROGENY.

There are three questions regarding missions of the prophets. These questions

were not regarded adequately by scholars.

First question: Conveying the Lord’s missive is the original mission of the

prophets. It is the pivot on which the prophets’ duties and deeds are grounded.

This is purposed for substantiating the Lord’s claim on His servants.

A prophet, then, is a conveyor of an epistle. He fears the Lord and evades His ire

and torment if he squanders or violates the instructions. For this reason, the

prophets were wont to call people to witness perfection of their conveyance.

In addition, the prophets are not asked to coerce or compel people on admitting

and accepting their missions. By the same token, they are not admitted to submit

people to their missions.

As a second rule, it is to say that coercion and compulsion is rejected in matters

respecting the divine religion. It is obligatory to preserve people’s freedom of

believing or refutation. They are, likewise, free to commit themselves to the

religion or deviate.

This is the very meaning of opening school of life in this world, and testing people

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in guidance or aberrance by giving them the ability of doing good and evil. The

result shall be shown in another stage and another world. Drawing people to the

religion by force contradicts principals of this test, and principals of freedom of

option.

Second question: The prophets’ goals are dedicated to the grand issues of people

and societies. An apostle can be resembled to a divine engineer specialized in

construction of cultures, societies and history. From these points, the prophets’

missions should be looked upon. A scholar must ask himself how people’s culture

and history should have been in case this prophet had not been messaged by the

Lord, and what happened due to that prophet’s conveying the mission. This

wonderment may be addressed in another form; how should paganism be nowadays

if Abraham was not chosen by the Lord for conveying the divine mission, or if he

did not found and plant bases and principals of monotheism in human societies?

And how should the situation of the Arab lands specially, and the whole world

generally, be if the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) was not chosen for

carrying the divine mission and moving this latter prolongation in monotheism and

civilization?

The Prophet’s mission was forming a nation and leading it to occupying an

advanced position, if not the pioneer, amongst the other nations. That formation

was the best in content and structure.

Likewise, the Prophet’s mission was establishing a ship, to find its way in the ocean

of people and currency of history. He was keen on handing the captainship to his

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household, whom were chosen and purified by the Lord Who gave them His Book

in heritage exclusively.

If people reject their captainship, it will be unimportant for captainship to be held

by any, till God manages His affair in this nation, and sends Mahdi, the Expected.

Third question: It is indisputable that the Prophet’s personality is present and

effective in the process of conveyance, but it is very limited and minute. None can

deny that the Prophet is intelligent, genius, author and selective.

Disregarding mechanism, the reciprocator is seeking the Lord’s guidance through

means of satisfaction, faith and worshipping.

The area in which the Prophet is allowed to practice his personal inference forms a

narrow point in proportion to the large area of his practices.

Hence, the Prophet’s like is an engineer whose boss hands him the mission of

giving effects of a large project. This engineer is satisfied that he should contact his

boss frequently for evading any mistake. Meanwhile, he works, thinks and carries

on working. But, he goes on contacting the center so that he receives stages of

planning and consults for avoiding problems. At any rate, this example is a highly

microscopic view of the Prophet’s mission.

Regarding the Center of the Prophet, Allah; the Praised, is unparalleled in entity

and deeds. Depending upon the previous, any study respecting the Prophet’s life

account should regard these three matters. First, the Prophet’s mission is carrying

what is revealed to him. Second, his task is founding a nation to find its way in

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history. Lastly, he is to follow the Lord’s instructions in every deed.

This fact is evidently touched by a scrutinizing look at the Prophet’s life account. It

is obviously seen that Allah; the Exalted, managed the Prophet’s affairs from start

to finish. The Prophet was used to obeying his Lord’s instructions submissively,

dependently and compliantly. Therefore, results of his deeds achieved an

extraordinary attainment that exceeded intellectualities and senses of sociologists,

founders of nations and establishers of civilizations.

The Prophet could create an international civilized ideological extension in a

relative period and the least material and humane casualties. Despite truculence of

the Prophet’s foes who led hard wars against him, casualties of both sides did not

attain the number of two thousand. This was because that Prophet’s management

was instructed by his Lord; the Glorified.

Incessantly, the Quran was revealed to the Prophet since the first day of his Mission

till few days before his decease. Gabriel; the angel, was visitating him frequently

with Quranic Verses, revelation, instructions, directions, answers and the like.

So many are examples on matters of the divine presence and care in big, as well as

small, affairs. All refer to the fact that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his

family) would not have behaved personally except during applying the general

lines and carrying on the detailed orders drawn by the divine revelation and

conveyed by Gabriel, the angel. In many occasions, the Prophet (peace be upon him

and his family) ceased practicing any procedure since he was in wait for the divine

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revelation.

The Prophet is reported to have said, “I have been given the Book and its like.”

Like of the Book stands for the instructions Gabriel carried(1'). This means that his

traditions were revealed to him, like the Quran.(2)

Besides, these instructions included the Prophet’s personal affairs; such as

marriage, divorcement, dressing, eating, sleeping, rousing, ablution and even

brushing the teeth. The Prophet’s endowment, detriment, cherishing, malice,

residence, touring, satisfaction and rage; all were determined by revealed

instructions.

As it is recorded in Al-Kafi; 4/29, that Imam As-Sadiq (peace be upon him) relates

the story of that atheist who disputed, belied, harmed and threatened the Prophet

face to face. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) became so angry that

vein of ire was clearly seen between his eyes. He nodded his head down when

Gabriel came to him and revealed, “Your Lord asked me to carry His compliments

to you and inform that the man in front of you is generous whose characteristic is

feeding people.”

Simultaneously, the Prophet’s ire vanished. He spoke to the man, “I would have

banished you and made you an example unless Gabriel carried my Lord’s

information of your being a generous man whose characteristic is feeding people.”

“Your Lord favors generosity?” said the man. “Yes, He does,” answered the

Prophet. “I do admit there is no god but Allah, and you are being the messenger of

Allah. I swear by Him Who sends you with the truth, I have never rejected a

beggar’s request,” declared the man.

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In Al-Kafi; 1/289, it is recorded that a man asked Imam Al-Baqir whether the

Prophet’s nominating Ali was a personal act or according to a divine mandate.

“Woe is you!” Imam Al-Baqir said angrily, “The Prophet (peace be upon him and

his family) was too reverent to say what God did not order. Like precepts of prayer,

defraying the poor rate, fasting and pilgrimage, Ali’s nomination for the leadership

was a precept of Allah.”

This theme can be taken as a thesis, or a number of theses, of a Ph.D. degree.

***********

(1)Refer to Al-Idhah; page 215.

(2)Refer to Ad-Darimi; 1/145.

THE PROPHET’S SUCCESSION IS A SIMPLE THEME

The Prophet’s succession is a simple, not complicated, matter. The Prophet’s

household and their adherents claim the Prophet’s nominating Ali as the Muslims’

coming leader. Hence, it is unacceptable for the Quraishis, or any others, to choose

another, since the Prophet’s choice was according to the Lord’s instruction.

The Quraishis denied the Prophet’s nominating or willing any for his succession,

and that his (authority) should be distributed among the twenty three clans of

Quraish; his tribe. Therefore, they selected Abu Bakr; one of the Teim Bin Murra,

for leadership. This man nominated Omar; one of the Edi, for holding his position.

By the advisory council, Omar nominated another Quraishi man who belonged to

the Umaya Bin Abd Shams. It was Othman.

They did neither elect any of the Ansars,(I) nor the Hashemites who were more

meritorious than the other clans in this affair. The Quraishis conceived the

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Hashemites’ excessiveness to join leadership to prophecy.

Thus, the matter is very simple. It deals with the question whether the Prophet did

nominate a successor or not. Nevertheless, it is a complicated matter for the

Quraishis who despise opening it since it affixes a big question mark on their

leadership system. However, they warned people against discussing this matter,

claiming its being arduous, complicated and illegal.

THE SIX SERMONS OF THE FAREWELL PILGRIMAGE

Verses of Ghadir(II) are a part of the Quranic texts that considered Ali and the

Prophet’s household (peace be upon them). Particular books discussing the Quranic

and prophetic texts regarding the Prophet’s household were compiled by late and

current Sunni and Shiite authors and exegesists. In this regard, we mention Al-

Hafiz Abu Na’eem Alisfahani’s Ma Nazala Fi Ali Minel Qurani (Quranic Verses

respecting Ali), An-Nisa’i’s Khassaisu Amiril-Muminin Ali (Specifications of Ali

Amirul Muminin). These two books are well known and printed. The two volumed

At-Tabari’s Al-Wilaya is also mentioned, but it has not been printed yet.

Throughout our discussing the three Quranic texts of Ghadir, we notice their firm

relation to the Prophet’s sermons during the Farewell Pilgrimage.(III) These texts are

God’s sayings: (O Apostle! Deliver what had been revealed to you from your Lord;

and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will

protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people,)

(This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you

and chosen for you Islam as a religion) and (One demanding, demanded the

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chastisement which must fall.)

Hence, it became necessary to discuss these six sermons as well, since they

contained the Prophet’s instructing his nation to follow the two weighty things; the

Quran and his household, after him, and the good tidings he carried to his nation in

sermon of Arafat, that Allah; the Exalted, solved the question of leadership and

elected those twelve divine imams (peace be upon them).

Moreover, it seems essential to discuss the relation between the Prophet (peace be

upon him and his family) and the Quraishi chiefs pertaining to the coming

leadership of his household.

For this work, we opt for the title ‘Ayatul Ghadir’ -Verses of Ghadir-, although it

comprises all of the forecited topics. We consider that title as the most appropriate.

However, more than a mere terminological exegesis of the Verses involved is

discussed hereinafter.

We hope these would be useful discussions by which God may reward us in the

Hereafter and embraces us to the intercession of Mohammed and his immaculate

progeny (peace be upon them).

Al-Mostafa Center for Islamic Researches

Ali Al-Kurani Al-Amili

(I)People of Yathrib who supported and received the Prophet and his followers who

immigrated from Mecca.

(II)Ghadir -or Ghadir Khum- is a place between Mecca and Al-Madina where the

Prophet declared the coming leadership and imamate of Ali and his sons.

(III)The Farewell Pilgrimage is the final ritual collective pilgrimage led by the

Prophet.

13 / Rajab / 1419 A.H.

CHAPTER ONE

PRELIMINARY DISCUSSION FOR THE EXEGESIS OF VERSE OF ISMA SUMMARY OF THE THREE VERSES OF GHADIR

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Allah; the Exalted, instructed the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) to guide

his people to the rites of the Pilgrimage after he had guided them to the ritual prayer,

fasting and defraying the poor rate. That was just before starting the Farewell

Pilgrimage.

The Lord also instructed him to lead them to the coming leader, and nominate him

publicly. This was the Lord’s norm with the entire prophets whom were taken to the

Lord only after they had perfected the religion and delivered the divine Book to the

nominated heirs to whom they must have pointed before people.

The Prophet carried the Lord’s instruction when he summoned people to participating in

that final pilgrimage, so that he would teach them the rites, and nominate Ali (peace be

upon him) as the coming leader and imam before them.

Nevertheless, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) anticipated that the

Quraishis would object such a nomination for they had already born envy and malice

against the Hashemites. He also expected that they would criticize his divine prophesy

and accuse him of establishing a monarchy for his household similar to these of

Khosrow and Caesar. If that happened, it would originate an apostasy among Muslims.

At any rate, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) performed the Farewell

Pilgrimage, and addressed five sermons in Mecca, Arafat and Mina. In these sermons,

he guided people to the rites and regulations of the religion, and foretold of the coming

twelve imams from his progeny, and emphasized that people would not be saved against

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deviation unless they would hold fast to the two weighty things; the Quran and the

progeny.

He also warned against the devious leaders and his companions who would avert, and

the Lord should deprive them of joining the Prophet on the Divine Pool on the

Resurrection Day.

Because of the Quraishis’ irritable situation, the Prophet did not emphasize on the

coming leadership of his progeny officially. He also evaded ordering them of swearing

allegiance to Ali (peace be upon him), during ceremonies of the Farewell Pilgrimage.

During the journey back to Al-Madina, Gabriel the angel carried to the Prophet God’s

saying: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord, and if you

do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the

people.)

Immediately, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) stopped the caravans in

Ghadir Khum, and delivered the Lord’s message. He raised Ali to the pulpit, elevated

him from the arm and declared his coming leadership. He also gave orders of

establishing a tent in which Ali would sit and people would offer congratulations on this

leading position. The Muslims offered congratulations and swore allegiance to him.

On that occasion, God revealed: (This day have I perfected for you your religion, and

completed My grace upon you and chosen Islam for you as a religion.) That was on the

eighteenth of Dhu’l-Hijja.

Before and after the Prophet’s arrival in Al-Madina, the Quraishis and hypocrites

started their activities against him. All these plots were foiled by the Lord Who

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protected His Apostle against any movement of mutiny or apostasy during his lifetime.

Various means were used for this purpose. One of these was the heavenly chastisement

inflicted upon those who objected and protested against the Prophet. Jabir Bin An-Nadr

Bin Al-Harith Al-Abdari, whose father was chief of the Abdud-Dar and commander of

the polytheists’ army against the Muslims during the battle of Badr, was one of those

objectors.

Abu Ubeid Al-Harawi’s Gharibul Qur’an:

After the Prophet’s conveying the Lord’s mandate in Ghadir Khum had been

prevailing among people, Al-Harith Bin An-Numan Al-Fihri (or Jabir Bin AnNadr

Bin Al-Harith Bin Kilda Al-Abdari, according to Abu Ubeid’s report) came

to the Prophet and said: “O Mohammed! You have conveyed us the Lord’s

mandates of declaring there is no god but Allah and Mohammed is being the

Apostle of Allah, and performing the prayers, the fasting, the pilgrimage, and

defraying the poor rate. All these, we have admitted, were not enough for you till

you raised your cousin from the arm and preceded to us and said: ‘He whosever

master was I, Ali shall be his master.’ Is this matter originated from your person

or is it God’s mandate?”

“By Allah there is no god but Whom I take the oath, this is surely God’s

mandate,” asserted the Prophet.

Jabir turned his face towards his pack animal while saying: “O Allah! If

Mohammed’s words have been true, then rain us with a heavenly stone, or inflict a

painful chastisement upon us.” Before Jabir could reach his pack animal, the Lord

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rained him with a stone that fell on the head and went out from the anus. He was

killed. Consequently, God reveald: (One demanding, demanded the chastisement

which must befall.)

Despite the fact that a good number of Sunni reference books of Tafsir and hadith*

adopt the same exegeses of the three Verses revealed for the event of Ghadir Khum,

there are others adopted another opinions. Most of such opinions are contradictory and

varied.

The following discussions are introducted as a preliminary entrance to the exegesis of

the three Verses of Ghadir.

*Tafsir is exegesis of the holy Quran, and hadith is the Prophet’s traditions.

providing such a topic for discussion or inquiry before him. Besides, there are various

prophetic texts regarding the Prophet’s referring to imamate of his progeny.

FIRST DISCUSSION

THE PROPHET’S SUCCESSION IS A SUBJECT PROVIDED DURING HIS LIFETIME

There are tangible evidences prove that the Prophet provided question of his succession

since the first stages of the divine mission up to the last of his honorable life. In addition.

logic asserts so. It is also perceptible that the subject of succeeding the Prophet was very

acceptable and normal. This is contrasted to the Sunni reference books that claim the

Prophet’s shunning nominating any for his succession and the Muslims’ evading

The First Evidence

The First Evidence

First evidence is the uninterrupted texts regarding the Prophet’s soliciting his advocacy

before tribes in the beginning of his divine mission, and asking them to protect him in

conveying his Lord’s epistle. Some of these tribes admitted so provided that they would

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have the leadership after him. The Prophet’s answer was that he had been no more than

an apostle who had not had that matter in hands. It was God’s concern to nominate

anyone He desires.

The most evident matter in this regard are stories of the Amir Bin Sa’saa and the Kinda.

Both occurred in the first stages of the Prophet’s solicitation. Story of Amir Bin At-Tufeil

occurred in the last days of the Prophet’s lifetime.

STORY OF THE AMIR BIN SA’SAA

Ibn Husham’s As-Sira, 2/289:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) came to the Amir Bin Sa’saa and offered his mission

before them. A man called Baihara Bin Firas adressed at him, “By God I swear, I will

overcome the Arabs if I assent to this Quraishi young man. Providing we will swear

allegiance to you in this matter and God will give you victory over your opponents,

will you hold us your position thereafter?”

“This is God’s affair,” answered the Prophet, “He holds it to whoever He desires.”

“We will make our necks the target of whatever is thrown at you, and when God gives

you triumph it goes to others? Nay, we are not in need for your affair,” rejected they.

They used to provide what occurs to them during seasons of pilgrimage before a man

who was too old to accompany them. When they were back, they told him that a man

from Quraish and the Abdul-Muttelib had come to them and sought their support in

his claim of prophecy, but they rejected. The old man stroke his head with both hands

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and shouted, “O the Amir! Can you catch him and change your situation? I swear by

Him Who prevails my soul, no single son of Ishmael can lie in this affair. It is the real

truth. Where were your minds when you rejected?!”

The same story is related in At-Tabari’s Tarikh; 2/84 and Ibn Kutheir’s As-Sira; 2/158.

In Al-Ghadir; 7/134, the story is related to Ibn Husham’s As-Sira; 2/32, Ar-Rawdul

Enif; 1/264, Imaduddin Al-Amiri’s Bahjetul Mehafil; 1/128, As-Siretul Halabiya; 2/3,

Zeini Dehlan’s As-Sira; 1/302 (In the Margin of As-Siretul Halabiya) and Heikel’s

Hayatu Mohammed.

STORY OF THE KINDA

Ibn Kutheir’s As-Sira; 2/159:

Abdullah Bin Al-Ajlah:

My father related the story of the Kinda to his chiefs. He said:

As the Prophet sought the Kinda’s support in his advocacy, they stipulated that he

should hold them his position of authority after his death. “Authority is God’s. He

hands it over to whoever He desires,” answered the Prophet (peace be upon him).

Therefore, they rejected his solicitation.

STORY OF AMIR BIN AT-TUFEIL, HEAD OF THE GHATAFAN

Ibn Kutheir’s As-Sira; 4/114:

Ibn Abbas: Arbed Bin Qeis… and Amir Bin At-Tufeil… came to Al-Madina and sat

before the Prophet (peace be upon him). “O Mohammed! What will you give me if I

embrace Islam?” asked Amir. “You will be given what the Muslims are given, and

forbidden from what the Muslims are forbidden,” answered the Prophet (peace be

upon him).

“Will you hold me your position after you if I embrace Islam?” asked Amir. “This

position is not yours or your people’s. I may give you leadership of battles,” said the

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Prophet (peace be upon him).

“Now, I am the commander of armies of Najd. You may give me the leadership of the

Bedouins exclusively,” Amir said, but the Prophet rejected. “I will fill in your area

with horses and fighters,” Amir threatened while he went out.

“God will protect against you,” commented the Prophet (peace be upon him).

On page 112, Ibn Kutheir records:

When Amir Bin At-Tufeil came to the Prophet, he asked for one of three matters;

either governing the Bedouins, being the Prophet’s successor or invading the Prophet

with a two thousand horse army.

Thereafter, Amir was diseased with plague at a house of a woman. He said, “Will I

have a gland like that of a camel and die at a house of a women of (Salul)? Nay.” He

asked for his horse to ride. He was dead on the back of that animal.

The Second Evidence

The second evidence is that Ansar declared fealty to the Prophet on three terms:

First, protecting the Prophet against matters they protect themselves against.

Second, protecting his people and progeny as same as they protect their peoples and

progenies.

Third, avoiding contending with the meritorious of leadership since Muslims are not to

elect for their leadership.

This stands for complying with the man elected by the Lord; the Exalted, for leading after

the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). The third term shows obviously that the

principal of the divine election of the imams following the Prophet (peace be upon him

and his family) was admissibly settled since the first stages of the Prophet’s mission.

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Ansar did keep the first term. Unfortunately, they breached the other two terms very

badly.

The most reliable reference books of hadith mentioned these three terms.

Al-Bukhari’s Sahih; 8/122:

Ebada Bin As-Samit: We swore allegiance to the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon

him) on listening and obeying him in good and bad conditions, and avoiding

contending with the meritorious of leadership, and practicing and uttering the right

wherever we are, and scorning any blame for the sake of Allah.

The same is related in Muslim’s Sahih; 6/16, and An-Nisa’i’s As-Sunan; 7/137, in

various narrations. He compiles them under the title ‘Swearing on avoiding contending

with the meritorious of leadership’.

It is also recorded in Ibn Madga’s As-Sunan; 2/957 and Ahmed’s; 5/316.

On page 415, Ahmed added:

Sufian: Some people added the following statement to the narration: “Unless you see

notorious violation.”

Al-Beihaqi records it in his As-Sunan 8/145.

Hadithists relate other narratives with the addition Sufian suggested.

Al-Bukhari, in 8/88, records:

…The Prophet (peace be upon him) solicited us to swear allegiance. We did. We

submitted to his stipulations of listening and compliance with him in auspicious and

misfortunate situations, preferring him to ourselves, avoiding contending with the

meritorious of leadership unless we see a notorious evidential atheism.

The same is recorded in Al-Beihaqi’s As-Sunan; 8/145.

In Ahmed’s Al-Musnad; 5/321, the following narrative is recorded:

Ebada Bin As-Samit: The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated: “You should listen and

obey in auspicious and misfortunate situations, prefer me to yourself and avoid

contending with the meritorious of leadership even if you conceive it is your right.”

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These two additions are suspicious since swearing of allegiance occurred before the

Prophet’s immigration when there was no single exception from obedience. The question

of preference of the Qurasishis was provided only after declaration of fealty to Abu Bakr,

and Sa’d Bin Ebada’s objection, and the following incidents.

This proves that the two additions were established because of the new climate of the

relation between Ansar and the Quraishi leadership after the Prophet’s decease.

Moreover, no single narrative refers to the Prophet’s stipulating the term of avoiding

contending the meritorious of leadership, on the other Arab tribes.

Majma’uzzawa’id; 6/49:

Ebada Bin As-Samit: As’ad Bin Zurara shouted, “O people! Do you realize what you

are giving Mohammed (peace be upon him)? You are swearing you will battle the

Arabs and the foreigners and the jinn and mankind.”

“We are rivals of his foes, and friends of his adherents,” declared Ansar. Then they

asked the Prophet to show his stipulations. He spoke, “You are asked to admit there is

no god but Allah and I am the messenger of Allah, and perform prayers, and defray the

poor rate, and listen and obey, and avoid contending the meritorious of leadership, and

protect me as same as you protect your souls and people.”

Hussein Bin Ali: In Aqaba, Ansar came to swear fealty to the Apostle of Allah (peace

be upon him).

Ali was ordered of receiving their swearing. “What should they swear for, God’s

messenger?” asked Ali. “You should stipulate obedience of the Lord, protecting the

Prophet (peace be upon him) and his household and progeny as same as they protect

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their souls and progenies,” instructed the Prophet.

It is noticeable that the Quraishi books of hadith affirm the point of avoiding contending

with the meritorious of leadership, so that they would use it as a proof on depriving Ansar

of having any share in the Quraishi leadership. On the other hand, they avoid recording

the term of protecting the Prophet and his household and progeny as same as they protect

their souls, households and progenies, since this contradicts the good of the Quraishi

leaders who attacked the house of Fatima and Ali (peace be upon them), and set fire on it

for blazing it with its abiders if they insist on denying declaring fealty to the imposed

leadership.

In chapter of ‘The Prophet’s mission of conveyance’, narrations of other reference books

will be cited.

The Third Evidence

Third evidence is the famous narrative of ‘Dar’. The reference books of Tafsir and Sira,*

refer to this narrative during passing through God’s saying: (And warn your nearest

relations.)

This holy Verse indicates that the Lord; the Exalted, gave His orders of soliciting the

Hashemites exclusively in the first stages of the Prophet’s solicitation. So, what

procedures did the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) take in this stage?

(There is an important topic to be minded in this regard. Recorders of Sira attempt to

obscure the stage of soliciting the Hashemites exclusively, and invent the stage of pre-

Arqam’s house and post-Arqam’s house, instead, by recording doubtful and authentic,

and irrational and reasonable reports.)

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How long did that private solicitation last? Was it a number of months, or years, till a

divine mandate of expanding the solicitation was revealed?

What is the purport of the divine mandate of dedicating Mohammed’s prophecy to the

Hashemites before it was extended to include the Quraishis, the Arabs and the entire

mankind?

What is the purport of the Quraishi’s decision of blockading the Hashemites who, after

enforcement of this decision, encompassed the Prophet (peace be upon him and his

family) and tolerated that six-year blockade totally? They, despite their various classes of

faithfulness, showed no signal of weakness.

What is the purport of the fact that except for the Hashemites, none could endure the

entire misfortunes the Muslims had suffered?

In the battle of Uhud, the entire Muslims absconded. But the Hashemites struggled alone.

In the battle of Khandaq, no single Muslim had the courage to face that champion who

challenged them, except that Hashemite hero.

In the battle of Hunein, they were ten thousand Muslims when they absconded, while the

Hashemites stood alone.

These facts and events can suggest a satisfactory explanation for the prophetic texts

related in the Shiite reference books of hadith: “I have been sent to my household in

private, and people in general.”

The holy Verse points out that warning the Hashemites was a matter outlined by the

Lord; the Exalted. It refers also to the fact that the Prophet’s nominating his successor

from among them was a step within that divine plan.

As-Suyouti’s Ad-Durrul Manthour; 5/97:

… Ali (God be pleased to him): When the Verse, (And warn your nearest relations,)

p: 19

was revealed, the Prophet summoned me. “O Ali!” said he, “As Allah ordered me of

warning my nearest relations, I was depressed since I realized they would show me

disgraceful matters whenever I provide this affair before them. Hence, I tried to shun

the matter till Gabriel; the angel, came and threatened my Lord’s chastisement if I kept

on shunning. Now, I ask you to prepare some food on which you should cook a leg of

a sheep, and make us a canteen of milk. Then, you should invite sons of Abdul-

Muttelib entirely so that I will speak to them and convey this missive.”

I carried out the Prophet’s orders completely and invited sons of Abdul-Muttelib who

were about forty men. Abu Talib, Hamza, Al-Abbas and Abu Lahab were among that

group. As they all were present, the Prophet asked me to serve them the food I had

prepared. With his teeth, the Prophet incised that piece of meat and threw its parts on

the edges of that trencher, and said, “Have it, by the Name of Allah.”

*Sira is the Prophet’s hisroty and lifetime.

They all ate to excess. By God I swear, each one ate what I had provided to the entire.

Then, the Prophet asked me to serve them with that milk. They all drank from that

canteen. I swear by God, each one drank a full canteen milk.

As soon as the Prophet tried to speak, Abu Lahab interrupted and said, “See how your

man cast witchcraft on you.” Therefore, they left before the Prophet spoke to them.

p: 20

The next day, the Prophet said to me, “You saw, Ali, how that man preceded me in

speaking. Today, you should prepare food as same as yesterday, and invite them

again.”

I did the same and invited them. They ate and drank.

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) spoke, “O sons of Abdul-Muttelib!

By God, I do not know an Arab man who can bring to his people a matter better than

what I am bearing to you. I am conveying to you the welfare of this world and the

Hereafter. God has ordered me of soliciting you to this affair. Who will support me in

this affair?”

I was the youngest among them when I shouted, “I will.”

People began to laugh at me as they left the place.

As-Suyouti relates the same to another series of narrators. He records:

… Al-Bera Bin Azib: When the Verse, (And warn your nearest relations) was

revealed, the Prophet invited sons of Abdul-Muttelib, who were about forty men…etc.

Hence, As-Suyouti interrupts the report at this point, so that he would not mention the

rest of the Prophet’s words. This style is commonly followed by the pro-Quraishis

reporters during referring to narrative of ‘Dar’, since the narrative shows that the Lord

and the Prophet did elected the successor from among the nearest clan, since that day.

Al-Amini’s Al-Ghadir; 1/207:

The following is a literal quotation of At-Tabari’s narration which distinguishes the

right from the wrong.

In his Tarikh; 2/217 (first edition), At-Tabari mentions:

“…Who will support me in this affair, and he will be my brother, successor and

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inheritor amongst you?” said the Prophet. The entire group kept silent when I, the

youngest among them, said, “I will, Prophet of God! I will be your backer in this

affair.” Hence, the Prophet took me from the neck and stated, “This is my brother,

successor and inheritor. You should listen and comply with him.”

The group went out laughing and saying to Abu Talib, “Well, he orders you of

listening and complying with your son.”

Al-Amini’s Al-Ghadir; 2/279:

In this very form, Abu Jafar Aliskafi; the Mutazilite Baghdadi theologist, died in 240,

records the report in his Naqdhul Othmaniya. He affirms authenticity of the narrative.

It is also recorded in Burhanuddin’s Anbau Nujeba Al-Abna; 46-8, and Ibnul-Athir’s

Al-Kamilu Fit-Tarikh; 2/24, and Abul-Fida Imaduddin Ad-Dimeshqi’s Tarikh;

1/116, and Shihabuddin Al-Khafaji’s Sharhu Shifa; 3/37 (This compiler interrupts the

last sentences of the narrative, and says: It is recorded in Al-Beihaqi’s Delailun

Nubuwwa and other reference books in authentic documentation), and Aladdin Al-

Baghdadi’s Tafsirul Khazin; 390, and As-Suyouti’s Jam’u Jawami; 6/392. On page

397, he also relates the narration to the six famous hadithists; Ibn Isaaq, Ibn Jarir, Ibn

Abi Hatem, Ibn Merdawayih, Abu Na’eem and Al-Beihaqi. Ibn Abil Hadid’s Sharhu

Nahjil Belagha; 3/254, records the same report.

Compiler of Al-Ghadir, then, protests against those who distort this narrative for the sake

of seeking the Quraishis’ satisfaction. At-Tabari, who records the narrative in his Tafsir,

relates it in his Tarikh, but he confuses the last words of the Prophet regarding Ali (peace

be upon him). At-Tabari records:

p: 22

… he then said. “This is my brother…” and so on.

Ibn Kutheir imitates At-Tabari. He mentions the narrative in the same previous form, in

his Al-Bidaya Wen-Nihaya; 3/40, and Tafsir; 3/351.

From the margin of Biharul Anwar; 32/272, the following is quoted:

In addition to his bond of fraternity with the Prophet (peace be upon him and his

family), which was concluded according to a divine mandate in the beginning of

approach of Islam when God revealed, (And warn your nearest relations.)(3)

This bond of fraternity was concluded according to a divine mandate, and was fallen in a

form of a covenant. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) would not betake a

brother, vizier, associate and successor other than Ali. Likewise, Ali would not show any

blemish in supporting, backing and advising for the Prophet and the religion. It is as same

as Aaron’s support to Moses (peace be upon him), in the way mentioned in the Holy

Quran. When the Prophet held bonds of fraternity between each couple of his

companions, he took in his consideration the relationship linking each two. He

fraternized Omar and Abu Bakr, Othman and Abdurrahman Bin Awf, Az-Zubeir and

Abdullah Bin Masud, Ubeida Bin Al-Harith and Bilal, Musab Bin Omeir and Sa’d Bin

Abi Waqas, Abu Ubeida Bin Al-Jarrah and Salim; the bond of Abu Hutheifa, Hamza Bin

Abdul-Muttelib and Zeid Bin Haritha Al-Kalbi.(4)

At these moments, he says to Ali, “I swear by Him Who sends me with the truth, I

delayed you so that you will be dedicated to me. For me, your standing is as same as

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Aaron’s to Moses. Yet, no prophet comes after me. You are my brother and inheritor.

You shall be with me in my palace in the Paradise. If any disputes you, say: I am the

servant of Allah, and the brother of His Apostle. Except fabricators and liars, none should

claim of so after you.”(5)

Likewise, when the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) provided his advocacy

before the tribes, none admitted him except the Amir Bin Sa’saa. Their spokesman;

Beihara, stated, “By God I swear, I will overcome the Arabs if I assent to this Quraishi

young man. Providing we will swear allegiance to you in this matter and God will give

you victory over your opponents, will you hold us your position thereafter?”

“This is God’s affair. He holds it to whomever He desires,” answered the Prophet.

“We will make our necks the target of whatever is thrown at you, and when God gives

you triumph it goes to others? Nay, we are not in need for your affair,” they answered.(6)

*********************

(3)Refer to At-Tabari’s Tarikh; 2/321, Ibnul-Athir’s Al-Kamilu Fit Tarikh; 2/24,

Abul-Fida’s Tarikh; 1/116, Ibn Abil Hadid’s Sharhu Nahjil Belagha; 3/254,

Ahmed’s Al-Musnad; 1/159, Jam’u Jawami; 6/408 and Kenzul-Ummal; 6/401.

(4)Refer to Ibn Husham’s; 1/504, Al-Muhabbar; 70-1 and Al-Belathiri’s; 1/270.

(5)Refer to Ar-Riyadun Nedira; 2/168 and Kenzul-Ummal; 5/45-6.

(6)Refer to Ibn Husham’s; 1/424, Ar-Rawdul Enif; 1/264, Bahjetul Mehafil; 1/128,

Zeini Dehlan’s; 1/302 and As-Siretul Halabiya; 2/3.

As a result, supposing the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had not concluded

p: 24

bond of fraternity and inheritance with Ali (peace be upon him) according to a divine

mandate, he would not have wasted this opportunity and refuted them in such despairing

words, while he was in need for support of such tribes.

An-Numan Al-Maghribi’s De’amul Islam; 1/15:

We have already recorded the following narrative of Ali (peace be upon him):

When God revealed, (And warn your nearest relations), the Prophet invited sons of

Abdul-Muttelib to a leg of a sheep and a cup of milk. They were more than forty men.

Among them, there were at least ten men who used to have a whole slaughtered

animal and drink a large pot of drinks. They ate and drank to excess.

After that, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) addressed at them, “O sons

of Abdul-Muttelib! Comply with me and you shall be kings and rulers of the lands.

The Lord selected a successor, vizier, inheritor, brother and supporter for each prophet

He sent. Which one of you should be my successor, vizier, inheritor, brother and

supporter?”

They all kept peace. He passed by them individually, but they all rejected. I was the

youngest among them when he provided the affair before me. “It is I, God’s

messenger!” I said. “Yes, it is you, Ali!” answered the Prophet.

When they left, Abu Lahab addressed at them, “He served you with a single leg of a

sheep and a cup of milk, and you had to excess. This is an enough proof on his

sorcery.”

They also laughed at Abu Talib when they addressed at him, “See how he preferred

p: 25

your son to you.”

Inevitably, the news of the Prophet’s invitation was publicized among the Quraishis and

the Arab. They told each other that the new prophet gathered his relations and warned

them as he solicited them to the new religion. He also asked for a supporter and

successor, but none accepted so except his young cousin; therefore, he betook him as a

supporter and successor.

The previous three evidences undiscussibly assert that the Prophet’s succession was a

matter widely common for people since the earlier stages of his divine mission up to the

last moments of his life. Furthermore, all people recognized that Mohammed’s prophecy

was a practical contrivance of formation of a state governed by him (peace be upon him

and his family), and was in need for a successor. Hence, the entire tribes, from a material

viewpoint, conceived his advocacy as a desirable plan that they should take a part in by

gaining his promise of handing his leadership over after him. These were Yemeni,

Adnani and Najdi tribes.

This leads to the supposition that within the foremost Muslims there were hypocrites

attracted by that contrivance and prophetic movement which seemed to be achieving

victory in the future. Each of them might look forward to obtaining a leading position in

that state.

This is the only way by which we can find a suitable interpretation to God’s saying, (And

We have not made the wardens of the Fire other than angels, and We have not made their

number but as a trial for those who disbelieve, that those who have been given the Book

p: 26

may be certain and those who believe may increase in faith, and those who have been the

Book and the believers may not doubt, and that those in whose hearts is a disease and the

unbelievers may say: What does Allah mean by this parable? Thus does Allah makes err

whom He pleases, and He guides whom He pleases, and none knows the hosts of your

Lord but He Himself; and this is naught but a reminder to the mortals), which was

revealed in Mecca.

From the above, it is irrational for the sane to believe chiefs of Quraish who claim the

Muslims’ avoiding providing the question of the Prophet’s succession during his lifetime,

even in a form of a lawful question and their obligation towards such an issue.

Correspondingly, it is unacceptable to conclude that Muslims, who asked the Prophet

(peace be upon him and his family) frequently about their future and narrated several

reports in this regard, did not ask him about their next leader and leadership.

SECOND DISCUSSION

THE PROPHET FORETELLS OF THE TWELVE SUCCEEDING IMAMS

We believe that the Prophet’s succession was a settled matter for the Prophet (peace be

upon him and his family), since the Lord has given him the orders of conveying the

following leadership of his progeny to people. This is the Lord’s tradition with the

entire prophets whose progenies inherited the divine Book, judgment and prophecy.

Mohammed, our prophet, is indisputably the best and the seal of the prophets. After

him, there should be no prophecy. Hence, imamate and inheritance of the divine Book

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should follow him. in like manner, his household and progeny are the best of the

prophets’ progenies. The Lord; the Exalted, has purified and preferred them, and gave

them the judgment and the divine Book exclusively. This is clear in God’s sayings,

(Offspring one of the other…) and (Then We gave the Book for an inheritance to those

whom We chose from among Our servants.)

As he realized the Quraishis’ envying the Hashemites and planning for taking them

away from leadership after him, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) used

styles of wisdom and graduality in his frequent announcements of the progeny’s

following leadership. A style of a prophetic ire was addressed at the Quraishis as they

used rude practices and sayings against the Hashemites.

The Farewell Pilgrimage was a golden opportunity for the Prophet (peace be upon him

and his family) to carry the divine mandate of his household’s coming leadership, to the

nation, in a massive scope.

After conveying the precepts and rulings, and expansion of the Islamic state, and

narrowness of dangers, and declaration of the Prophet’s imminent departure, nothing

remained but the declaration of the next leadership.

In addition to authentic texts, logic proves that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his

family) paid the greatest attention to question of the succeeding leadership during the

Farewell Pilgrimage. The Quraishis recognized the Prophet’s intendment; therefore,

they spared no efforts for intercepting such a declaration. It is also proved that they

augmented their activities in that period for cutting off the declaration of nominating Ali

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and his progeny for the following leadership. Although there is a good deal of evidences

on each point previously mentioned, this discussion is too narrow to cover them all.

We are to stop sufficiently at the Prophet’s sermons in the Farewell Pilgrimage. Abreast

of sermon of Ghadir, reference books prove that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his

family) sermonized in five occasions in that period. Reference books should have

reported these prophetic sermons so completely, since there were thousands of Muslims

who listened to them, but, unfortunately, only parts of these sermons are excerpted,

especially in the reference books authorized by the Quraishi caliphate.

As-Siretul Halabiya; 3/333:

In the Pilgrimage, the Prophet (peace be upon him) addressed five sermons. The first

was in Mecca on the seventh of Dhu’l-Hijja. The second was on day of Arafa. The

third was on day of slaughtering in Mina. The fourth was on day of settlement in

Mina and the five was on day of the first return in Mina, too.

Strange and incredible contrast and discrepancy which refer to the Quraishis’

interference in relating contents of these sermons, were evidently noticed through

reviewing these sermons in more than one hundred reference books of hadith. All that

because these sermons assert the Prophet’s ordering the Muslims of complying with his

progeny after him, and warning them against engaging in discrepancies out of envy,

after they had received knowledge. Finally, the Prophet submitted them to an

impeccable thorough evidence.

Despite firmness of that Quraishi darkening, we could receive some of these texts from

p: 29

the reference books authorized by the ruling authorities themselves. However, these

texts are adequate enough for recognizing the Prophet’s instructions and affirmation on

committing to leadership of his immaculate progeny after him.

HADITH OF THE TWELVE IMAMS

HADITH OF THE TWELVE IMAMS

Unanimously, the entire sects of Islam agree that the Prophet (peace be upon him and

his family) provided the question of the next twelve imams during the Farewell

Pilgrimage.

Later on, contents of these sacred sermons will be cited. They comprise hadith of the

two weighty things; the Quran and the Prophet’s progeny, and hadith of the Prophet’s

Paradisiacal Pool and the companions whom shall be sent to the hell-fire as they were

prevented from having from that Pool.

Al-Bukhari’s; 8/127:

Jabir Bin Samara: I heard the Prophet (peace be upon him) say, “There will be

twelve princes…” Then, he said a word that I could not perceive. So, I asked my

father about it. “All shall be from Quraish,” asserted my father.

Muslim’s; 6/3:

Jabir Bin Samara: I heard the Prophet (peace be upon him) say, “Islam shall be

fortified till twelve successors…” Then, he said a word I could not perceive. I asked

my father about it. “All shall be from Quraish,” asserted my father.

Muslim records a similar narrative in which he states, “Then, he said something I could

not conceive,” instead of “Then, he said a word I could not perceive.”

According to a third narrative recorded by Muslim, the following form is mentioned:

“This religion shall be kept in efficacy and power to twelve successors…” Then, he

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said a word I could not hear due to noise of people. I asked my father about it. “All

shall be from Quraish,” assertedmy father.

Imitated by majority of reference books of hadith, Al-Bukhari does not refer to a signal

point showing that the occurrence fell during sermon of the Farewell Pilgrimage on

Arafat. A number of books, however, refer to this point.

In Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 5/93, 36 and 99, it is written: (Jabir Bin Samara: On Arafat,

the Prophet sermonized…) On page 87: (The Prophet said during the Farewell

Pilgrimage…) and on page 99, (Al-Muqaddemi: During his sermon in Mina, I heard the

Prophet …)

Later on, it will be proved that this remarkable matter had been repeatedly affirmed on

Arafat, Mina and Al-Kheif Mosque before it was declared in a formal obligatory

decisive form in Ghadir Khum.

What is the story of those twelve imams? What for did the Prophet provide their matter

before the greatest mass of Muslims who listened to their prophet while he was bidding

farewell?

Al-Bukhari answers: Those are not imams to follow the Prophet in leadership

obligatorily. They are only virtuous princes who shall be in this nation at a certain

period of time. The Prophet did only convey his Lord’s foretelling to his nation. Indeed,

they are from Quraish, not the Hashemites solitarily. They will be from the twenty

tribes of Quraish. None of Ansar, the Arab tribes or the non-Arab people shall be among

them. This is the whole matter.

What for did the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) convey this matter to his

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people during the Farewell Pilgrimage on Arafat? What is the practical affair ensued

from so?

Al-Bukhari answers: It is a matter of a prediction only. The Prophet wanted to foretell

his people so that they would be cheerful. It is only a journalistic news empty of any

practical element.

Concisely, saving that sole narrative which cannot be perceived, Al-Bukhari does not

refer to this subject. On the other hand, he records numerous clear-cut narratives

respecting the menstruation of Aisha; Ummul-Muminin*, during the Farewell

Pilgrimage. He gives in details how the Prophet revered her and sent a nurse for helping

her perform rites of consecration and Visitation.

Muslim is a little bit fairer that Al-Bukhari. He opts for a narrative leading to the fact

that those twelve successors shall be ruling after the Prophet (peace be upon him and his

family). This narrative should recuperate Muslims since it settles the problem of the

Prophet’s following leadership. Those are imams nominated by the Exalted Lord, via

the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). They deduce their legality from this

divine nomination. Hence, the matter shall not be in need for a secret meeting or

discrepancies leading to a bloody combat on power since the first stage of Islam up to

now, and millions of victims, and dissensions leading to accumulation of weakness of

the Islamic nation, till it was completely collapsed on the hands of the Ottomans.

*Ummul Muminin -mother of the faithful believers- is a name called on the Prophet’s

wives. It is originated from God’s saying: (The Prophet has a greater claim on the

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faithful than they have on themselves, and his are as their mothers. 33:6)

Muslim, however, adds: No, this problem was not solved. The Prophet had just referred

to those successors generally. He did not identify their names and personalities. Any of

the ten thousands at whom this serious matter was addressed, did not ask for an

explanation for that general reference. None of them asked the Prophet: Who are they,

God’s messenger?!

Had the Prophet referred to their names, or only the name of the first one, the entire

clans of Quraish would have accepted and submitted, since they were pious clans who

complied with the Lord and His Apostle.

Muslim repeats the same words of Al-Bukhari: No! They are only godly people by

whom Islam shall be fortified. They are from Quraish… Quraish only!

Thus and so, Al-Bukhari and Muslim can never lead to an acceptable effect in the

question of those twelve imams. They lock the entire doors and repeat the same words

of the Quraishis: Your Prophet did only refer to the smell of those twelve ones, during

the Farewell Pilgrimage. You should only smell and keep peace!

At any rate, there are other reference books of hadith that pay an attention, less than that

paid by Muslim and Al-Bukhari, to policy and politicians during reporting the Prophet’s

news. These books refer to working matters in the question involved. They relate the

word ‘after me’ in a form referring to the fact that those imams should be ruling directly

after the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family).

p: 33

In his Al-Musned; 5/92, Ahmed relates the same narration to Jabir As-Siwai in the

following form: (I heard the Prophet (peace be upon him) say: “After me, there shall

be…”)

On the same page, he refers to another form of the same narrative: (Jabir Bin Samara:

The Prophet said, “After me, there shall be twelve successors. All shall be from

Quraish.” When the Prophet was back home, the Quraishis came and asked about the

age following those successors. “Then, commotion shall be befalling,” asserted the

Prophet .)

The phrase, ‘After me’, which refers to the direct stage after the Prophet, is mentioned

in both narratives. The second, likewise, reveals the Quraishis’ care for the question

regarding those twelve godly imams. It also avers that the story happened in Al-Madina,

not during the Farewell Pilgrimage. This point should be useful for the next points.

The Phrase was repeated in various narratives mentioned in other reference books.

Jabir Bin Samara: The Prophet said, “After me, there shall be twelve princes…” As I

could not perceive the next sentence, I asked some people… Ahmed’s Al-Musned;

5/94.

Jabir As-Siwai: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “After me there shall be

twelve princes…” As I could not hear the next sentence, I asked the man next to me.

“All shall be from Quraish,” clarified he. Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 5/99 and 108.

… Following me, there shall be twelve princes.” As I could not understand the next

sentence, I asked the one next to me. “All shall be from Quraish,” said he. At-

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Tirmithi’s As-Sunan; 3/340.

Jabir Bin Samara: I heard the Prophet say, “After me, there shall be twelve

successors… Al-Bukhari’s Tarikh; 1/446 No. 1426.

Abul-Qasim Al-Baghawi: Abdullah Bin Omar: I heard the Prophet say, “Behind me,

there shall be twelve successors.” Ibn Hajar’s As-Sawaiqul Muhriqa; page 20.

All the previous prove that the Prophet did provide the question of the next leadership

during the Farewell Pilgrimage, and conveyed the Lord’s mandate of those twelve ones’

being the legal leaders of this nation.

This question will cite a number of questions and wonderments before the Quraishis and

their reporters:

First question: Why is it noticeable that narratives of that remarkable question are

almostly restricted to a single narrator -Jabir Bin Samara As-Siwai- who was a ten year

old boy, maybe, during the Farewell Pilgrimage? Is it reasonable that any other

individual could not hear these narratives except this boy? What for did the other

companions attending there, avoid narrating this occurrence?

Jabir’s way of narration might have been attaining satisfaction of the Quraish caliphate

as it was proved as the most suitable. Therefore, its forms were recorded and admitted

under the supervision of the ruling authorities. Most surely, other individuals did

convey this occurrence, but in a style inappropriate to be publicized!

Second question: Muslims were wont to ask the Prophet (peace be upon him and his

family) about the most diminutive features of each matter. They even interrupted his

speeches for addressing indicative questions. The narratives involved inform of the

Prophet’s discussing a matter of a high importance. He (peace be upon him and his

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family) was foretelling of a doctrinal, practical, momentous and futuristic matter. These

narratives claim the Prophet’s obscuring this most remarkable point of the issue.

Finally, they claim that none of the Muslims asked or wondered about those godly

imams, and people’s obligation towards them!!

How is it rational to believe that the Quraishis, who knocked the door of the Prophet’s

house, in Al-Madina, for asking about those twelve imams, as the narrator himself

reported, did not ask him about these imam’s identities and ages?

Does the word ‘Quraish’ stand for Abu Bakr and Omar exclusively, in Al-Madina?

Likewise, how is it rational that any Muslim, who attended the Farewell Pilgrimage,

avoided asking the Prophet about those imams, their ages and people’s obligation

towards them?

Third question: How come could the narrator not perceive the very important word

that defined the identity of those twelve ones; so that he asked the man next to him.

The same word could not be perceived by the narrator who reported the Prophet’s

addressing the same sermon in Al-Madina.

Why do the reference books of hadith, authorised by the Quraishi caliphate, restrict

Samara and Omar Bin Al-Khattab as the only persons who carried the missed word of

the Prophet?

Moreover, there are various questions insisting on revealing the hiddens of this

narration, and urging scholars on scrutinizing in books of hadith and history.

Hereinafter, we aim at focusing lights on the missed word, by providing a number of

notes and questions.

First

Is (All shall be from my household), the origin of the statement (All shall be

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from Quraish)?

What is the reason beyond the absence of the most remarkable statement?

Who was that man the narrator asked about that word?

In Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 5/100 and 107, it is recorded that the narrator himself could

not perceive the statement; therefore, he asked about it:

As I could not perceive the next statement, I asked my father. “He said: all shall be

from Quraish,” asserted my father.

… He then said a word I could not perceive. My father was nearer to the Prophet. I

asked him about that word. He answered, “He said: All shall be from Quraish.” Al-

Hakim’s Al-Mustedrak; 3/617.

In Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 5/90 and 98, it is recorded that the Prophet himself intended to

hide that word:

… He then said a word too silent to be heard. “What did he say?” I asked my father.

“He said: All shall be from Quraish,” answered my father.

… He then said a word with a silent voice. I asked my uncle, who was sitting before

me, about it. “O son! He said: All shall be from Quraish,” answered my uncle. Al-

Hakim’s Al-Mustedrak; 3/618.

Jabir Bin Samara: The Prophet said, “For this nation, there shall be twelve custodians

whom shall never be influenced by those who will frustrate them.” Then said a word

with a silent voice that I could not perceive. “What was that word the Prophet had

spoken quietly?” I asked my father. “It was: All shall be from Quraish,” asserted my

father. At-Tabarani’s Al-Mujamul Kabir; 2/213-4, hadith 1794.

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According to other narrations, it was people, not the narrator or the Prophet, who caused

the word to disappear.

This means that people -who were consecrating for their Lord on Arafat, living the last

moments of their Prophet and waiting for any word he would speak of- were noisy as if

they were in an auction, and some of them disturbed and shouted while the Prophet was

articulating the most sensitive word, so that the faithful believers would not perceive!

People were crying, shouting, speaking loudly, making noise, standing and sitting while

the Prophet was addressing his sermon:

… People began to shout ‘Allahu Akbar’ and make noise. Meanwhile, the Prophet

pronounced a word I could not catch. “What did he say, father?” I asked. “He said:

All shall be from Quraish,” answered my father. Abu Dawud’s As-Sunan; 2/309,

and Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 5/98.

…Then, he pronounced a word I could not hear because of people’s noise. “What

did he say, father?” I asked. “He said: All shall be from Quraish,” answered my

father. Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 5/98.

… People began to shout… Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 5/93.

… People then began to make noise and speak aloud. I could not understand the

word after ‘All…” Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 5/99.

… “This religion shall be kept in efficacy and power to twelve successors who shall

be given victory over their opponents…” Then people began to stand and sit…

Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 5/99.

Regarding those whom Jabir asked about the missed word, most of narrations affirm

that he asked his father; Samara. Hence, the testimony of including the entire clans of

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Quraish with the Hashemites, in the question of the next twelve imams, depends upon

authenticity of Samara. None could not prove that Samara’s being Muslim, even. This

fact is proved by narrations authenticated by Muslim and Al-Bukhari, and others.

However, there are other forms of the narration proves other things:

… As I asked the entire people, they answered, “He said: All shall be from Quraish.”

Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 5/92 and 90.

… I asked people, or the man next to me, “What…” Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 5/108.

… As I could not perceive that word, I asked the one next to me… Ahmed’s Al-

Musned; 5/99 and 108.

At-Tabarani, however, asserts that Jabir claimed people’s alleging that the Prophet said,

“All shall be from Quraish.”:

… I could not understand what he said next; therefore, I asked people. They claimed

his saying, “All shall be from Quraish.” At-Tabarani’s Al-Mujamul Kabir; 2/249,

hadith 2044.

Is it credible that the most remarkable word identifying the twelve imams of whom the

Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) foretold, could be vanished in that quiet

silent circumstance on Arafat, and none would ask the Prophet about?

A scholar may approach the fact when he looks at the other narrations related by Jabir

Bin Samara himself, regarding that the Prophet was riding on his pack animal while he

was declaring these words. This asserts that the Prophet tried to make the entire

attendants hear and listen.

… Then, the Prophet’s voice vanished. I asked my father who was nearer to the

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Prophet’s pack animal… Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 5/87.

They also relate that the Prophet ordered a man of sonorous voice to repeat his words as

aloud as possible, so that people would hear.

… Rabia Bin Khalaf Al-Jamhi was a man of sonorous voice, the Prophet ordered of

repeating his words aloud on day of Arafa. He was standing before the Prophet’s

she-camel. “O people! Do you realize this month?” said the Prophet and ordered

Rabia of declaring aloud. He did. “Yes, it is the sacred month,” people answered

affirmatively. “God has surely deemed your blood and assets amongst you as sacred

as this month, till the day on which you shall meet,” said the Prophet and ordered

Rabia to declare aloud…

Ibn Abbas: … When he halted on Arafa, the Prophet (peace be upon him) ordered

Rabia Bin Umaya Bin Khalaf, the man with a sonorous voice, to stand just before his

she-camel and repeat his words aloud…

At-Tabarani relates this report to authentic narrators. Majmauzzawaid; 3/270.

Although they relate the same narration to the same reporter in various forms, the

missed word, in the entire forms, is invariably the same. This matter contends the claim

that the statement was ‘All shall be from my progeny’ or ‘All shall be from my

household’, not ‘All shall be from Quraish.’

They also relate that the narrator asserted the Prophet’s sermonizing so in Al-Madina,

not Arafat. However, the missed word was the same. It is the identity of those twelve

imams.

Jabir Bin Samara: My father and I came to the Prophet (peace be upon him) who was

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saying, “This affair shall be kept in excellence till there shall be twelve princes…”

Then, he said a word I could not perceive. “What did he say?” I asked my father. “He

said: All shall be from Quraish,” asserted my father. Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 5/97 and

107.

The same narration is moved to the small mosque of Al-Madina. Nevertheless, the

missed word is invariably the same. Jabir Bin Samara could not understand it till he

asked Omar Bin Al-Khattab, the Quraishi caliph. Omar answered!

The Prophet (peace be upon him) was on the pulpit when he addressed, “There shall

be twelve custodians from the Quraishis. They shall not be influenced by their

opponents.” Omar Bin Al-Khattab (God be pleased to him) and my father were

among people. They all asserted the saying as same as I could perceive. At-

Tabarani’s Al-Mujamul Kabir; 2/256, hadith 2073.

The Prophet… (The same previous narration.)

Al-Bezar relates this narration to Jabir Bin Samara alone. He adds: When the Prophet

was back home, I followed him to ask about the stage following those twelve ones.

“Commotion shall be coming next,” said the Prophet.

This narration is related by authentic narrators. Majma’uzzawaid; 5/191.

The text became: ‘Twelve custodians opposed by people.’ A group among whom was

Omar Bin Al-Khattab and the narrator’s father became the attesters of the text. Hence,

place, time and persons of the occurrence were changed. Yet; the missed word is

invariably the same.

A stranger matter is that while they relate the narration to Abu Juheifa, the missed word

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is still invariably the same! Yet, the narrator, here, asks his uncle, not father.

Awn Bin Abi Juheifa: His father: I was accompanying my uncle to the Prophet

(peace be upon him), when he spoke, “Affairs of this nation shall be kept in rectitude

till twelve successors go on…” He then pronounced a word I could not perceive.

“What did he say, uncle? I asked. “He said: All shall be from Quraish,” asserted my

uncle. Al-Hakim’s Al-Mustedrak; 3/618.

Awn Bin… (The same previous narration)

At-Tabarani relates it in his Al-Mujamul Kabir and Al-Mujamul Awsat to authentic

narrators. Al-Bezar also relates it. Majmauzzawaid; 5/190.

Eventually, we find ourselves facing an unprecedented phenomena in the entire

traditions of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). It certainly refers to a

highly exceptional matter. This matter is hidden beyond the statement, ‘All shall be

from Quraish.’

It is also supposable that the original narrator is Omar himself. It was he who affirmed

and corrected to Jabir Bin Samara; the boy.

Al-Khezaz Al-Qummi in his Kifayetul Athar; page 90, relates the same report to Omar

only, without referring to Samara or his son or Abu Juheifa or his uncle.

… Omar Bin Al-Khattab:

I heard the Prophet (peace be upon him) say, “After me, Imams shall be twelve…”

He then pronounced a word so silently that I could hardly perceive. I heard him say,

“All shall be from Quraish.”… Al-Khezaz Al-Qummi in his Kifayetul Athar; page

90.

Depending on this narrative, which is the most authentic for us, it is provable that

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generalizing the identity of those twelve imams to include the entire clans of Quraish,

not the Hashemites dedicately, was invented by Omar. In addition, it coincides his

saying of “The Quraishis reject that the Hashemites join leadership besides prophecy,”

which he frequently addressed at the Hashemites during and after the Prophet’s lifetime.

Second

The divine promise of unknown leadership is an impracticable matter.

The promise of the coming of twelve imams is a divine word of the Wise, the Aware. It

is a traditional promise of imams after a prophet. It was given to the previous nations, as

well. It is seen as a mercy to this nation by which people can settle their entire problems

they will certainly face after their prophet. How is it, then, practicable for the Lord to

promise His Apostle of unknown leaders?

It is understandable that the Exalted Lord did promise the previous nations of the advent

of an Apostle named ‘Ahmed’ after five centuries. This was conveyed by Jesus (peace

be upon him). This reveals the impracticability to admit that the Lord promised the seal

of nations of godly custodians, without naming their leading one at least, or naming

their clan. It is unacceptable for Him to promise of men coming amongst twenty three

clans that are disagreeing with each other on the meanest mundane affairs.

Giving credence to such a lie leads to imputing unwisdom to the Glorified Lord and His

Apostle (peace be upon him and his family). This is a matter cannot be said by any

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Muslim, or any fair orientalist!

It happened sometimes that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) addressed a

general idea or foretelling at people, expecting their inquiry, so that his answer would

be more effective. But, in our question, Muslims’ inquiries, as well as the Prophet’s

answer, are nonexistent. They are existent in reference books of Shias only.

Third

From Quraish, but from the Prophet’s progeny.

Supposing the problematic points of the narration involved are disregarded, and the

Prophet’s nominating those twelve godly Quraishi custodians is acceptable, a question

will be arisen: Which tribe of Quraish is intended?

Clans of Quraish are more than twenty. According to authentic narratives recorded in

the most reliable reference books of hadith, God; the Exalted, has preferred the

Quraishis to the Arabs, and preferred the Hashemites to Quraish. Is it then rational that

God chooses those twelve imams succeeding the Prophet (peace be upon him and his

family) from a clan other than the Hashimites?

The following narrative is recorded in Muslim’s Sahih; 7/58:

Wathila Bin Al-Asqa: I heard the Prophet (peace be upon him) say, “God has chosen

the Kenana amongst sons of Ishmael, and chosen the Quraish amongst the Kenana,

and chosen the Hashimites amongst the Quraish, and chosen me among the

Hashemites.

As he relates the same narration on page 245 part 5, At-Tirmithi decides it as a oneway

qualified narration. On page 243, he decides it as an authentic qualified narrative.

Following this, At-Tirmithi records a number of narratives of the same supposition:

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Al-Abbas Bin Abdil-Muttelib: I told the Prophet that the Quraishis discussed their

lineages, and when they mentioned him, they likened him to a date palm tree

planting in a junkyard. The Prophet (peace be upon him) commented: “When God

created things, He made me with the best party. Then, He made me in the best tribe.

Then, He made me in the best house. Hence, I am the best party, tribe and house.

(This is a qualified narrative.)

Following this, At-Tirmithi writes an alike narrative with another series of narrators. He

decides as a one-way authentic narrative.

Ibn Abbas: House of Imran, mentioned in God’s saying, (Surely Allah chose Adam

and Noah and the descendants of Abraham and the descendants of Imran above the

nations), are the believers among sons of Abraham, Imran, Yasin and Mohammed

(peace be upon him). Al-Bukhari’s Sahih; 4/138.

Quranic and prophetic texts respecting selecting, preferring, favoring and preceding the

Hashemites to the Islamic nation, are too many to be covered in this discussion. This

preference is by the reason that the Prophet’s progeny are being part of them, and they

are the diamond of the Hashemites and their best. Generally, they are the diamond of

sons of Adam.

Taking Al-Bukhari’s testimony, a scholar can conclude, by processing a simple

equation, that those twelve men are being the progeny of Mohammed (peace be upon

him and his family). In the earlier narrative, it is proved that the twelve imams are

chosen amongst the Quraishis. In the latter, it is proved that Mohammed’s progeny are

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chosen, like Abraham’s. Hence, the twelve expected imams should be Mohammed’s

progeny whom are selected by the Lord. At a least criterion, those twelve men should

be among Mohammed’s progeny. This is also advocated by Al-Bukhari’s narrative that

tells of Ali’s being the first complainant on the Resurrection Day. This means that Ali

shall be bearing an important issue preferred to the entire issues of this nation.

The issue, however, can be understood from Ali’s following saying recorded in Nahjul

Belagha; 1/82:

“By God I swear, the Quraishis bear malice against us for one and only reason. It is the

Lord’s preferring us to them. Then, we permitted them to gain entry into our group.

Hence, they are applicable to the poet’s saying:

It is we who endowed you this elevation, and you were not

Elevated, and we encompassed you with swords and spears.”

Al-Bukhari’s Sahih; 5/6.

Qeis Bin Ebada: Ali Bin Abi Talib (God be pleased to him) said, “I will be the first

one who kneels before the Beneficent God for litigation on the Resurrection Day.”

Fourth

Prophetic texts explain the narrative of the twelve men.

It is unanimously agreeable that the Prophet’s texts explicate each other, like the

Quranic. This is a perceptual principal relied upon by the entire nations. Naturally, any

nation should scrutinize the other practical and articulate texts of their prophet for

recognizing the twelve men of whom the prophet had foretold.

A deep look at our Prophet’s words about his progeny; Ali, Fatima, Al-Hassan and Al-

Hussein (peace be upon them), removes any doubt in proving the fact that those

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persons, whom were frequently praised and acclaimed by the Prophet who does never

speak out of desire, are the very intended in the text involved. As a matter of fact,

Muslims agree that those persons were frequently praised by the Prophet in various

occasions. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) declared that those persons

were purified thoroughly by the Lord. This fact is recorded in an evident Quranic text.

He also committed the Muslims to cherishing them and blessing them during their daily

prayers. He deemed unlawful for them to receive alms and, instead, he legislated their

enjoying a share of the one-fifth rate imposed upon Muslims. Finally, the Prophet’s will

was adhering to them besides the Quran. He named them the minor weighty thing after

the Quran; the major one. These matters are proved by authentic reports mentioned in

the most reliable reference books of hadith.

The Prophet’s words of praising and applauding his progeny, and warning against

wronging and opposing them, are too many to be covered in this discussion. At any rate,

these words are good examples for the mindful and the seekers of truths.

Fifth

Twelve imams and twelve months.

Narrations appertained to the Prophet’s sermons during the Farewell Pilgrimage, assert

that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) referred to roundness of time to its

first creation when he mentioned the twelve imams. Thereafter, he recited God’s saying,

(Surely the number of months with Allah is twelve months in Allah’s ordinance since

the day when He created the heavens and the earth, of these four being sacred.)

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Al-Bukhari’s; 5/126 and 204, and 6/235:

Abu Bakra: the Prophet (peace be upon him) stated:

Time has rotated to the first creation of the heavens and earth. A year is twelve

months among which there are four sacred ones. These are Dhu’l-Qada, Dhu’l-Hijja,

Muharram and Rajab. The first three are successive.

Abu Dawud relates the same on 1/435. Ahmed relates it in his Al-Musned; 5/37.

In Majma’uzzawaid; 3/265, the same narration is related in a style more accordant to

the Prophet’s eloquence than Al-Bukhari’s.

…Time has rotated as same as the first day on which the Lord created the heavens

and the earth. (Surely the number of months with Allah is twelve months in Allah’s

ordinance since the day when He created the heavens and the earth, of these four

being sacred. That is the right reckoning; therefore, be not unjust to yourselves.) Do

not apostatize after me that you will be killing each other…

Sunni exegesists cited the custom of postponing the sacred months as the meaning

suggested by the Prophet in this narration. Hence, he suggests a new beginning of time

which leads to canceling that custom.

As a matter of fact, this exegesis is unconvincing since custom of postponing the sacred

month leaves no effect on time and the universe, that its cancellation leads to creating a

new beginning to time. Secondly, there is no single indication to any relation between

rotation of time and the custom of postponing the sacred months. Each is an

independent topic. Hence, exegesists are mistaken when they establish such a relation.

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As the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) was in a situation of bidding his

people farewell and providing the next stage of guidance, aberrance, rulings, beliefs and

paths to the Paradise and the hell-fire, it is most likely that he intended to say that a new

stage of the divine guidance and aberrance would be beginning since that day. He also

intended to say that the material movement of time is based upon the twelve months,

while the mental movement is based upon acceding to the twelve imams. Material and

mental existence of those imams coincides the system of the twelve months which is

effective in the movement of this universe.

This view is supported by sacredness and consecration of number twelve in the Quran.

The Lord identifies twelve chieftains for the Israelites, and twelve apostles for Jesus.

Similarly, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) asked Ansar to elect twelve

chieftains in the earlier stage of their declaration of fealty. He also foretold his people of

the coming of twelve imams. Moreover, holy texts assert that aberrance of this nation is

originated by twelve misleading men from the Prophet’s companions. Consequently, in

the face of each imam there should be a misleading man, and in the face of each prophet

there should be a nefarious enemy whose function is inveigling people.

God; the Exalted, says: (And the day when the unjust one shall bite his hands, saying:

O! Would that I had taken a way with the Apostle. Woe is me! Would that I had not

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taken such a one for a friend! Certainly he led me astray from the reminder after it had

come to me; and the Satan fails to aid man. And the Apostle cried out: O my Lord! My

people have treated this Quran as a forsaken thing. And thus have We made for every

prophet an enemy from among the sinners, and sufficient is your Lord as a Guide and a

Helper.)

Muslim’s Sahih; 8/122-3:

The Prophet stated: “There are twelve hypocrites among my companions. Eight of

them shall never see the Paradise until a camel passes through the eye of a needle.

Eight of them shall be killed by an epidemic. And four shall…” I could not

memorize the rest.

The Prophet stated: “There are twelve hypocrites among my people. They shall never

see or smell the Paradise till a camel passes through the eye of a needle. Eight of

them shall be perished by an epidemic. A flaming lamp shall be emerging between

their shoulders and flowing out of their chests.”

Abut-Tufeil: A sort of inconsistency was arisen between Hutheifa and one of people

of Aqaba cabal. “I adjure you by God to answer me about the number of people of

Aqaba cabal,” the man asked Hutheifa. “You should answer him,” people urged.

Hutheifa spoke, “Well, we were told they had been fourteen men. They should be

fifteen if you were one of them. By God I avow, twelve of them are foes of the Lord

and His Apostle in this world and on that day when witnesses shall be arising.”

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The same in recorded in Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 4/320 and many other hadithists.

Thus and so, it is not unacceptable to regard that the Prophet’s intention was telling

people that the Exalted Lord has established mankind on laws of guidance and

aberrance since the first day of creating the heavens and the earth. These laws are

executed by elements of providing evidences and respiting people to choose either

guidance or aberrance. Like positive and negative, elements of guidance and aberrance

should be befalling together. The Lord then has inspired human souls to distinguish the

right from the wrong. As He descended Adam to this earth, the Lord descended the

Satan with him. With each prophet, there was a single or a number of misleading

people. In this nation, the number of the leading imams is equal to that of the

misleading hypocrites; which is twelve. Hence, a new rotation of guidance and

aberrance has begun in the same way when it began with Adam and the Satan. This is

the meaning of the new beginning of time that leads to termination of an age and

beginning of another.

This idea is supported by the exegesis of the Quranic Verse, (Surely the number of

months with Allah is twelve months in Allah’s ordinance since the day when He created

the heavens and the earth), adopted by the Prophet’s progeny.

Sixth

Jabir As-Siwai; reporter of the narration.

As the Sunni most reliable reference books of hadith relate the narration of the twelve

imams to Abdullah Bin Masud, Abu Juheifa and Jabir Bin Samara As-Siwai, they

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depend upon mainly.

Jabir Bin Samara Bin Jenada. It is said that he is son of Amr Bin Jundub Bin Hujeir

Bin Riab Bin Habib Bin Sawaa Bin Amir Bin Sa’saa As-Siwai. Others say he is one

of Amir Bin Sa’saa’s clan. Ibn Hajar’s Tahthibut Tahthib; 2/35.

Jabir and his father are confederates of the Zuhra. At-Thehbi’s; 3/187.

This matter backs the doubt of Jabir’s being Quraishi. If he had been one of the Amir

Bin Sa’saa, he would not have confederated the Zuhra.

I myself read At-Thehbi’s saying that Jabir was dead during the reign of Abdul-

Melik. Ibn Sa’d alleges that Samara; the father, embraced Islam on day of conquest

of Mecca. None else did mention his death. Ibn Hajar’s Tahthibut Tahthib; 4/206.

This takes us to the fact that Samara was one of the ‘released’. It also points out that At-

Thehbi doubts whether Samara embraced Islam or not. Therefore, he says, “Ibn Sa’d

alleges that…”

Al-Bukhari, in his At-Tarikhul Kabir; 4/177, claims Samara’s being one of the

Prophet’s companions.

Jabir is the child of a ‘released’. He was an infant during conquest of Mecca. His death

was in 76 A.H. He relates that after the day of conquest of Mecca, the Prophet (peace be

upon him and his family) passed his hand over faces of the small boys who were

performing prayer in Al-Madina. He was one of those small boys. This is recorded in

Siyeru Alamin Nubela; 3/187.

Jabir might have lived in the custody of Sa’d Bin Abi Waqas; his maternal uncle, in Al-

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Madina. It was related that he had participated in conquest of Madain before he moved

in Kufa where he built a house for himself.

All the above proves that Jabir was a teenage during the Farewell Pilgrimage. Hence,

the only reliable narrator of this narration is a teenage son of a ‘released’, that was a

confederate of Quraish.

How strange were the chiefs of this nation and masters of the Prophet’s companions!

They had not possessed intellectuality of that teenage ‘released’ boy who cared for the

future of his nation and the coming godly imams! Or how firm were the Quraishi ruling

authorities who had completed full control on the prophetic texts. They disallowed the

Sunnis to record and publicize the narrations appertained to the coming twelve imams

of whom the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had foretold, except that of

this teenage!

Seventh

Marks of authenticity given to the three narratives.

There are three forms and three narrators of the narrative regarding the twelve imams,

in the Sunni reference books of hadith. They agree upon authenticating Jabir Bin

Samara’s narration. Some of them decide the authenticity of Abu Juheifa’s narration

while majority decide it as a qualified with a rather doubtful narrator. Regarding Ibn

Masud’s, they give opposite marks to his narration since, as they claim, Mujalid Bin

Sa’eed, whom is ruled as trustful by An-Nisai and some of specialist scholars only

while others rule his doubtfulness, is within the series of narrators.

As a matter of fact, Samara; Jabir’s father, and Omar Bin Al-Khattab should be added to

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the three previous narrators. Majority of narratives affirm that those two men informed

Jabir of the missed word. Moreover, Omar Bin Al-Khattab should be regarded as a main

narrator according to the forecited narration recorded in Kifayetul Athar.

The following is a number of the hadithists’ opinions in Ibn Masud’s narration.

Majma’uzzawaid; 5/190:

The Twelve Successors:

Masruq: Ibn Masud taught us the Quran when a man asked whether they had asked

the Prophet (peace be upon him) about the number of the successors who would be

ruling this state. “I have never been asked such a question since I was in Iraq,”

asserted Ibn Masud, and went on, “It is yes. We have asked the Prophet (peace be

upon him) this question, and he answered that they would be twelve, like the number

of the Israelites’ chieftains.

(This narration is recorded by Ahmed, Abu Yali and Al-Bezar. One of its narrators is

Mujalid Bin Sa’eed. Except An-Nisai, majority of hadithists rule his doubtfulness.

The other narrators are authentic.)

The same is recorded in Al-Hakim’s Al-Mustedrak; 4/501, who adds: I am too short to

regard narrations of Mujalid and his likes.

Ibn Hajar, in his As-Sawaiqul Muhriqa/20, rules eligibility of the narration. He records:

Ibn Masud relates, in a qualified documentation,…

As-Suyouti, in his Tarikhul Khulefa/13, decides eligibility of the narration, too. He

records: Ahmed and Al-Bezar records the qualified narration of Ibn Masud…

Al-Bussiri, as the compiler of Kenzul Ummal; 6/89 records, rules eligibility of the

narrations. He says: Museddid, Ibn Rahawayih, Ibn Abi Sheiba, Abu Yali and Ahmed

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relate this qualified narration…

The narration is also recorded in the following Sunni reference books of hadith:

Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 1/398 and 406.

Kenzul Ummal; 6/89 (quoted from Ibn Sa’d’s At-Tabaqat and Ibn Asakir’s).

Kenzul Ummal; 12/32 (quoted from Ahmed’s, At-Tabarani’s, Ibn Hemmad’s and

others).

If the excuse of distrusting Ibn Masud’s narration is the existence of Mujalid within the

series of relators, the narration is related, in a number of Shiite reference books of

hadith, to a series of narrations other than Mujalid.

As-Saduq’s Alikhtisas/233 and Al-Khezaz’s Kifayetul Athar/73 and An-Numani’s Al-

Gheiba/106, record the narration intended.

Nevertheless, this matter does make no change for the judgment issued by the Sunnis;

our brothers. The narration is given the degree of (qualified with a rather doubtful

narrator) whatever is proved!

Further, this degree seems to be obscure for the Sunnis, since the original problem of

Ibn Masud’s narration is evading adding ‘All shall be from Quraish.’ Erasure of this

statement makes readers understand that those coming godly imams would obligatorily

be rulers succeeding the Prophet. This fact draws a big red circle on procedures of

Saqifa from which the Hashemites were absent and busy in preparing the funeral of the

Prophet (peace be upon him and his family)!!

Eighth

Contradiction of contexts of the three narrations.

Sunni reference books of hadith record Jabir Bin Samara’s narration in two different

forms, one of which is accordant to Abu Juheifa’s. Ibn Masud had his own form of

narration. On that account, there are three forms of the narration.

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The first form foreordains that those promised men shall be coming after the Prophet

(peace be upon him and his family), and all shall be from Quraish. This context is in

majority of Jabir’s narrations. Sunni scholars, as forecited, decide authenticity of this

form. Al-Albani, likewise, decides authenticity of this form and affixes it under No.

1075 of his series of the authentic prophetic reports.

The second form foretells that those twelve men shall be ruling after the Prophet

(peace be upon him and his family), and all shall be from Quraish. It also tells that Islam

shall be kept in power and protection as long as those men will be ruling. After that, it

will be weak and humble and, finally, collapse.

This form is mentioned by a number of Jabir’s narrations and all of Abu Juheifa’s. Most

of Sunni scholars decide its authenticity. Al-Albani affixes the form narrated by Jabir

Bin Samara under number 376 of his series of authentic hadiths. Abu Juheifa’s narration

is decided as qualified. Ibn Masud’s is cited as a witness on authenticity of the previous.

Finally, Al-Albani refutes Abu Dawud’s additional wording in which he, as well as

other scholars, affirms that the entire people of this nation shall be loyal to those coming

imams, and regards it as deniable.

The third form establishes that those imams shall be coming after the Prophet (peace

be upon him and his family) in a way similar to the situation of apostles of Moses and

Jesus (peace be upon them). This form evades mentioning ‘All shall be from Quraish.’

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This is the form depended by most of Ibn Masud’s narrations.

Divergence and contrast are the most remarkable notes to be recorded on the various

forms of the narrations involved. This is not an easy or acceptable matter, especially in

such a sort of narrations. In addition, this contrast is hardly answerable since it exists in

the different forms of reports of the same narrator.

Distortion in such reports, even said by an ordinary chief of a group, is decisively

adjudged; therefore, we should never accept such reports that assert the Prophet’s

foretelling of the coming of unknown men, especially if we take in consideration stage

and place of addressing that prediction.

The main accusation is distortion of the identity of those twelve imams. The accused is

none other than those who may gain advantage from hiding names and descriptions of

the promised ones. It is the ruling authorities who came to power just after the Prophet,

and banished his progeny from area of competition by holding a secret meeting while

the Prophet’s household were engaged in the funeral of the Prophet (peace be upon him

and his family).

A neutral student may approach the fact by conceiving that divergence and contrast in

forms of these narrations are focused on a definite point, which is descriptions, identity,

divine standing, lineage, age and period of those promised imams.

This matter incites doubtfulness of the entire forms of the narrations depended by the

Sunni reference books of hadith. On the other hand, it involves authentication of the

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concordant unanimous forms of the narration accredited by the Shiite reference books

of hadith. All these forms assert the same matter; those twelve imams shall be his

progeny, and more definitely, they are Ali, Al-Hassan, Al-Hussein and nine men from

Al-Hussein’s offspring (peace be upon them all).

Ninth

The twelve imams are not nominated according to means of election and

declaration of fealty.

This is an indisputable affair. Since the Exalted Lord has chosen them for leadership,

people’s obligation should be only complying with them. God says, (And it behooves

not a believing man and a believing woman that they should have any choice in their

matter when Allah and His Apostle have decided a matter.) Those imams acquire their

legality from the Lord and the Possessor of this nation, as well as the entire creatures.

He is the Wise and the Aware of His servants’ advantage. Positively, the Lord’s choice

is more prosperous and obligatory than the servants’.

Like selecting prophets which does not necessitate election or declaration of fealty, the

twelve imams are selected by the Lord. Accordingly, obeying them is a mandatory duty.

Similarly, even if people ignore, injure or kill a prophet, this should never harm his

being divinely chosen and obligatorily conformed.

People’s general compliance with a prophet, is not more than a matter of

acknowledgment of his obligatory obedience that is divinely mandated, and declaration

of corresponding to the Lord’s instructions.

On that account, people’s swearing allegiance to the prophets and their successors is a

process of submission and obligation to those persons’ right of adherence. People affirm

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that right only. They do never constitute it.

This is the main reason beyond the Prophet’s ordering Muslims of declaring fealty to

him in the most remarkable curves in his nation’s history, so that he would affirm their

obligatory obedience and compliance with him in good and bad, war and peace and

favorable and detrimental circumstances.

For the same reason, the Prophet, after conveying the divine mandate of Ali’s coming

leadership in Ghadir Khum, gave orders of establishing a tent under which Ali would

receive the entire Muslims who should offer him congratulations on this divine

leadership, before they declare fealty to him.

The divine choice has fallen. It does not require a public consultance or fealty. It only

requires admission and congratulations. However, such declaration of fealty would be

obligatory upon people if the Prophet or Ali asked people to provide.

For this cause, the notion that the Prophet’s demand was only offering congratulations,

not swearing fealty, to Ali, is unprofitable, since issuing the divine mandate of

nominating Ali for the next leadership, evacuated the public declaration of fealty from

its effective power, and, in the same time, restricted its value to admitting and

committing to that divine affair whenever the Prophet or his successor asked for it.

The general rule in this regard is that people may have the option to choose their leaders

and rulers -according to boundaries of the Islamic legislation- only in case there is no

previous divine mandate appertained to this point. In case the Lord has elected a leader,

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then the whole matter is settled, and none has the authority of changing or altering. In

other words, choice of the public is meaningless unless they intend to philosophize

before their Glorified Lord or opposes His instructions.

Tenth
Tenth

The narrative’s dedication to Quraish has been thrown away by Omar.

An important notice should be recorded in this regard. Omar Bin Al-Khattab; the caliph,

was the bearer of the slogan that the Prophet’s succession should be in Quraish

exclusively. In Saqifa, Omar disputed Ansar that Quraish; the Prophet’s tribe, were the

most meritorious in holding his position and authority. He aimed at intercepting Ansar,

in whose land and hospitality the Muslim Quraishis were living, from claiming their

most meritoriousness of holding the Prophet’s position and power since they were his

supporters.

By such a tribal disputation, Omar took the round of Saqifa, due to the Ansar’s discord

despite the heavy protestation of Sa’d Bin Ebada; their chief.

This very principal by which Omar gained leadership of Muslims, was abandoned and

thrown away by Omar himself. In his final hours, Omar asserted that he would have

delivered leadership to Salim; the Persian slave of Abu Hutheifa, had this man been

alive!

Tarikhul Madina; 3/140:

Abdullah Bin Bureida: People advised Omar; the moribund stabbed, to nominate his

successor. “Had one of those two men been alive, I would have certainly delivered

him this position with quite tranquillity and satisfaction. They are Abu Ubeida Bin

Al-Jarrah and Salim; the slave of Abu Hutheifa!

Majma’uzzawaid; 4/220:

Abu Rafi: Omar was inclined to Ibn Abbas when he said to his son and Sa’eed Bin

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Zeid: “You must recognize that I had issued no verdict about the ‘Kelala’-inheritance

of a person who has neither fathers nor sons-, and I have named none as my

successor, and that the Arab captives are manumitted from the estates of God -the

public treasury-.”

“Like Abu Bakr, People shall certainly trust your option if you name any as the new

caliph,” suggested Sa’eed. “As I noticed the excess care of my companions, I am to

ascribe this affair to those six individuals who had attained the Prophet’s satisfaction.

I should be secure if I named one of those two deceased; Salim; Abu Hutheifa’s

servant, and Abu Ubeida Bin Al-Jarrah.”

Thus, Omar opened the door to Abu Hanifa and others for canceling the term that a

leader of the Islamic state should be Quraishi. Saljukians and Mamluks used such

verdicts to come to power. For the very reason, the Ottomans adopted Abu Hanifa’s

sect, and publicized his school of jurisprudence. Depending on so, they named

themselves ‘caliphs’ -successors of the Prophet-.

WAHABISM AND TERM OF QURAISHI LEADERSHIP

We, the Imamite Shias, specify being one the Prophet’s progeny as a term of holding

leadership of the Islamic state. This is proved by prophetic texts concerning the names,

as well as the number, of those leaders. For us, leadership is proved by a divine text

only. Hence, the twelve imams are proved by Quranic and prophetic texts as leaders of

the Muslims.

Since the seal of the imams; Al-Mahdi the Expected, is materially absent, leadership of

Muslims in this stage should be determined by his commitment. The imam’s

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representative should enjoy a number of terms of scholarship, justice and others. This

representative is not stipulatorily an offspring of Quraish. In this point only, we agree

practically, not hypothetically, with those who invalidate the term of Quraishi

leadership.

For the Zaidite Shias; our brothers, they do not dedicate imamate to those twelve

imams. They extend it to include any scholar belongs, in lineage, to Ali and Fatima

(peace be upon them). Hence, they specify being a Quraishi and Alawid, as a term of

holding position of leadership of the Islamic state.

Among the Sunni Muslims, there are some present scholars who agree with us on

cancellation of the term of Quraishi leadership, according to verdicts of Omar and Abu

Hanifa. Other non-Arab Sunnis are more fanatic to Quraish than Omar himself. They

are the masters of Wahabism, such as Al-Albani who decides the authenticity of the

narrative reporting specifying the Quraishi leadership as a term. He affixes the narrative

under the number 1552, and comments on page 70, part 4:

If Muslims are honest in working for reviving the Islamic state, they should show

repentance to their Lord and keep hold on their religion and follow rulings of the

Sharia. Among these rulings is the term that leaders of the Islamic state should be

offsprings of Quraish. This term is familiar in books of hadith and jurisprudence.

On page 7 part 3, Al-Albani decides the authenticity of a narration showing obligation

of Quraishi leadership, and affixes it under number 1006. He then comments:

These authentic narrations refute, clearly, claims of the old deviate parties, as well as

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the present authors and Islamic political ones, who invalidate the term of the leader’s

being Quraishi and Arab.

Moreover, a scholar bearing contention of Islamic radicalism, authors a thesis named

‘The Islamic State’ in which he begins with specifying terms of a caliph. He ignores

totally the term of the leader’s being Quraishi and Arab. So, he disregards the entire

prophetic texts and verdicts that emphasized this term. When I reminded him of this

flaw, he just smiled and neglected providing any discussion. I wonder if he is one of

those previously cited, or he is lacking any subjective knowledge in this respect.

At any rate, each writer is required to seek the right in his writings, without being

influenced by any political trend or party. A writer also should disregard accordance

with the public.

Under number 1851, Al-Albani decides the authenticity of another relation which is:

(Caliphate should be to the Quraishis’, and judiciary should be to Ansar’s and

solicitation should be to the Abyssinian.)

This verdict exposes that leaders of the Islamic governments should be the offsprings of

the various clans of Quraish, and the ministers from the Ansar’s offsprings, and the

ministers of religious affairs and mass media should be from Africa and, especially,

Ethiopia! Obligation mentioned in the previous narration, due to which Al-Albani issue

the verdict of the rulers’ being Quraishi, treats leadership, ministration and solicitation

equally.

Al-Albani misses the fact that jurisprudence of a narration is more remarkable and

favorable to its context. The Prophet is too elevated to issue such illogical laws. This

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narrative and its likes, if authenticated, reveals a definite previous stage of Islam. It is

not a perpetual law at all.

Eleventh
Eleventh

Exegesists’ blundering in explaining the twelve imams

Being honest to that prophetic text, it is necessary to say that these twelve imams should

come directly after the Prophet’s decease. This is necessitated by the Prophet’s phrase

‘after me.’ It does in no means refer to that they would rule after him (peace be upon

him and his family). The text foretells of their coming only, apart from being rulers or

ruled. Furthermore, the forecited forms of Jabir and Ibn Masud’s narratives refer to the

matter that those imams would be disappointed and opposed by people that they would

be taken away from power. This matter, as the texts divulge, would not injure them.

In At-Tabarani’s Al-Mujamul Kabir, the following forms are cited:

“For this nation, there shall be twelve custodians whom shall never be influenced by

those who will frustrate them.”

“From Quraish, there shall be twelve custodians whom shall never be injured of enmity

of their opposers.”

This involves that there is no matter intercepts applying these forms to the twelve

imams of the Prophet’s progeny, even if they could not come to power. However, Ali

and Al-Hassan could come to power. Sooner or later, Mahdi; the Expected, shall be

eventually ruling. This fact is predicted by the Prophet; Al-Mahdi’s forefather.

Furthermore, narrations predict the events that would be falling after the ages of those

imams, indicate that they would be lasting for long ages. Some mention that confusion,

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bafflement and hypocrisy, which would be leading to collapse of this nation, would be

falling after their ages. Others refer that their age should be lasting along with the age of

this earth, and that with their termination, the earth would be foundering with its

creatures.

This matter is supported by hypotheses of the extension of those imams’ age to the

termination of this earth. This meaning is mentioned in a number of Shiite narratives.

Ab Salah Al-Halabi’s Taqribul Maarif/173:

… Anas Bin Malik: The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated: This religion shall be

prevailing as long as there will be twelve men from Quraish. If they pass away, the

earth will be perishing with its inhabitants.

The same is recorded in Alamul Wara/364.

This is accordant to the narratives recorded in our reference books of hadith, regarding

the extraordinary importance of the existence of the Lord’s conscript representative on

this earth in every age.

Al-Kafi; 1/179 and 534:

Abu Hamza: I asked Abu Abdillah (peace be upon him) if the earth might proceed

without the existence of an imam. “If the earth may stand without an imam, it shall

be perishing,” answered Abu Abdillah.

Correspondingly, the Prophet’s goal beyond providing the question of the next twelve

imams in the most remarkable congruity of Muslims attending the Farewell Pilgrimage,

was attracting people’s attentions towards those imams, had they only been lucky and

followed them!!

Furthermore, it is most likely to refer to the twelve imams of the Prophet’s progeny as

the only men intended by the Prophet’s prediction. Any other reference is unacceptable

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for the many refuting questions.

Al-Kinji’s Yenabiul Mawadda/446:

A number of scholars state that the Prophet’s prediction of the coming of twelve

successors is proved by the numerous ways of relation. By identifying the ages and

investigating the place, it is provable that the Prophet’s prediction was referring to

the twelve imams of his household and progeny. It is impracticable to refer to the

realistic rulers who came to power as the intended in the Prophet’s prediction, since

their number is less than twelve. In addition, it is impossible to refer to the Umayid

rulers because they were more than twelve and they were excessive unjust and

tyrants saving Omar Bin Abdul-Aziz. Besides, they were not Hashemites. According

to Abdul-Melik’s narration, that is related to Jabir, the Prophet (peace be upon him

and his family) foretold that those imams would be from the Hashemites. The

Prophet’s lowering his voice gives greater weight to this narrative since the Umayids

were too short to resemble the Hashemites in leadership. At length, it is

impracticable to identify the Abbasid kings as the rulers intended. Their number

exceeds the one identified. Secondly, they did not revere God’s saying, (Say: I do not

ask of you any reward for it but love for my near relatives), and the Prophet’s hadith

of Kisa -the cloak-.

Correspondingly, it is constitutive to refer to the twelve imams of the Prophet’s

household and progeny as the intended in that prophetic prediction since they were

the most knowledgeable, religious, godliest and most pious. Moreover, they were of

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the best lineage and the best family tree. They are the most favorable to the Lord…

Hadith of the two weighty things and the innumerable prophetic texts regarding the

Prophet’s progeny’s merits support the meaning we have preceded.

In Nahjul-Belagha, Ali (God honor his face) says:

Where are those who claimed being exclusively rooted in knowledge. It is we who

are firmly rooted in knowledge exclusively. They claim such a fabrication due to

their envying us, since Allah has raised us and humiliated them, and endowed us and

withheld them, and admitted us and dismissed them… By us the guidance is sought,

and by us blindness is discharged. After me, there shall come to you an age during

which nothing shall be more hidden than the right, and nothing shall be more evident

than the wrong, and nothing greater than forging lies against Allah and His Apostle

(peace be upon him and his family). For people of that age, there shall be nothing

more slumping than the Divine Book when written in the most appropriate form, and

there shall be nothing more profitable than it when distorted. In the lands, there shall

be nothing more forbidden than the good, and nothing more acceptable than the evil.

You should know that you will not realize the guidance unless you realize its

neglecters, and you will not keep the covenant of the Divine Book unless you realize

its violators, and you will not adhere to it unless you realize its scorners. Therefore,

look for that at its real people. They are the life of knowledge, and the death of

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ignorance. It is they whose wisdom tells of their knowledge, and whose silence tells

of their eloquence, and whose appearance tells of their hidden. They never transgress

the religion nor do they engage in discrepancies about it. Among them, the religion is

an incessant honest witness, and silent and speaking.

Unfortunately, majority of the Sunni exegesists reject this explanation and warn their

followers against being convinced by the Shias’ claiming that the intended men in the

Prophet’s prediction are the twelve imams of the Prophet’s progeny. They confess

before their partisans that the prediction is wholly authentic, but you should never

accept the Shias’ explanation since we, God willing, will find an authentic one!!

Up to now, Sunnis could not provide any persuasive explanation to the Prophet’s

prediction. They attempted to apply the twelve imams predicted to the caliphs who

ruled after the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). They referred to the four

Rashidite caliphs, Abdullah Bin Az-Zubeir, series of kings of the Sufians, the Marwans,

the Abbasids… etc. They may refer to the Umayid rulers who ruled Andalusia ,

Seljukians, Memluks, Ottomans…etc.

When they feel that the number exceeded the intended one, they turn their faces towards

hypotheses and pick up the best of the Umayid and Abbasid caliphs for giving them the

characteristics of the godly imams. They decide some names and reject others in such a

personal way purposed only for fitting the number predicted. As others could not attain

the number involved, they claim of coming rulers.

Most surely, such applications would never stop or rely upon a ground. It is an

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impossible to take since it is trivial to have the competency of choosing twelve leaders

among tens, and claim their being godly leaders selected by the Exalted Lord and

predicted by the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family).

For the following reasons, Sunni scholars should have not born such an unattainable

task:

First, since those promised godly imams are selected by the Lord, they should be

having the same path and goal. They should be leading to the same path supported by

the guidance of the Lord and His Apostle. The leaders chosen by the Sunni scholars

were so discordant that they fought each other. It is completely impossible for prophets

or divinely selected leaders to fight each other. It is impossible for them to assail, rule of

aberrance or atheism, slay, abbacinate or amputate the limbs of each other.

A reading to history of struggle of power between the Umayids and the Abbasids,

reveals this nullity of the Sunni presuppositions.

Second, Sunni scholars attach a quality to the rulers of which they themselves did not

claim. Hence, they become partisans of that authority. None of those authorities did

claim being a divinely chosen leader.

Had any of them been a godly imam selected by the Lord as a representative or ruler,

they themselves would have referred to this elevated standing. It is impossible to be a

godly choice without realizing this standing. None of those caliphs claimed being

elected by the Lord exclusively. Imams of the Prophet’s progeny affirmed their being

selected and identified by the Lord.

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Third, we have already referred to the point that the Prophet did not mention that those

imams should be ruling or coming to power after him. Therefore, it is unnecessary for

the Sunni scholars to commit themselves to opting for the twelve promised imams from

among the rulers only. Being bound by an unnecessary question leads to engagement in

an unanswerable matter.

Fourth, most of those recorded in the list of the divinely selected imams, of whom it

was predicted, are actually accursed by the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family).

How is it then admissible for the Lord to be represented by individuals accursed by His

Prophet?! Similarly, how is it acceptable for the Exalted Lord to curse individuals and

dismiss them from His mercy for their wickedness, and then select them or their sons as

godly imams that guide His servants and rule His lands?!

In the Sunni reference books of hadith, it is proved that the Prophet (peace be upon him

and his family) had cursed Al-Hakam and his son; Marwan, and banished them out of

Al-Madina till the reign of Othman who canceled the decision. It is also recorded that

the Prophet had cursed Abu Sufian and his two sons when he saw them drive a camel.(7)

As a matter of fact, this is a long matter full of witnesses and evidences. Yet, partisans

of the Umayids cannot stand it; therefore, we’d better leave it.

For the previous reasons, the Sunni scholars had more than thirty contrary sayings

regarding the identification of the twelve godly imams whom were predicted by the

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Prophet (peace be upon him and his family).

It seems that the foremost saying in this regard is that of Abu Hatem Bin Hebban which

is recorded in Awnul Mabud Fi Sharhi Suneni Abi Dawud; 11/361:

Regarding the twelve promised imams, a group, among whom is Abu Hatem Bin

Hebban, suppose that those twelve men are sealed by Omar Bin Abdil-Aziz. They

are the four Rashidite caliphs, Muawiya, Yazid, Muawiya Bin Yazid, Marwan Bin

Al-Hakam, Abdul-Melik, Al-Walid Bin Abdil-Melik, Suleiman Bin Abdil-Melik and

Omar Bin Abdil-Aziz whose death was in 100 A.H.

This ‘Umayid’ exegesis is repealed by the scholars who adored the Abbasids. They

added some of the Abbasid caliphs to the promised imams and deleted some, if not all,

of the Umayids.

**********************

(7)Refer to Majmauzzawaid; 1/113.

It is noticeable that this saying erase the name of Mahdi from the list while he is

promised through prophetic texts authenticated by them. Besides, Mahdi is included in

his forefather’s saying, “After me, there shall come twelve imams.”

They also erased the name of imam Al-Hassan who ruled for six months and admitted

by the entire Muslims except the Syrian. The succeeding scholars added his name to the

twelve imams.

Since the Prophet affirmed that Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein are leaders -imams- whether

they proceed or stand still, those scholars should have added their names to the list.

On the other hand, Ibn Hebban’s supposition affixes the name of Yazid Bin Muawiya in

the list, and reckons him with the godly imams of whom the Prophet foretold!! This

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grade is not expected by Yazid himself, or his sane adorers who, incessantly, spare no

effort for proving his being Muslim and not apostate which is proved by his personal

statements. They also exert all efforts to convince people that Yazid was not deviant,

since he had committed those awful crimes in Karbala, and plundered Al-Madina and

gave orders of demolishing Kaba; the Sacred House of God.

They also entered the name of Muawiya Bin Yazid (Muawiya II). This man was given

the leadership after his father. He addressed only unique sermon in which he acquited

himself from the evildoing of his father and grandfather, and affirmed that leadership is

a legal right of Ali (peace be upon him), and that Muawiya had wronged him and

usurped his right. Finally, he declared his abdication. The Umayids assassinated him.

Had this man realized his being one of the twelve awaited imams, he would not have

abdicated the power and exposed himself to be assassinated by his the tyrant royal

family.

Likewise, this supposition is contrary to Safina’s narration regarding identifying the

Prophet’s succession to thirty years followed by despot kingship. Hadithists and

exegesists authenticate and regard this narration.

Any attempt to pursuing the master scholars’ words respecting this holy prophetic text

takes very much time. However, similarity of their words makes it easier. All of their

words, in fact, have been going round the pivot of the Umayid exegesis.

The following are models of their words and their answers:

As-Suyouti’s Tarikhul Khulefa/10:

Eyadh; the judge says: Probably, the twelve men mentioned in the prophetic texts

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and their narrations are those during whose reigns authority is well preserved, and

Islam is well protected and congruity is well kept. These matters had been falling till

the disorder and sedition in the reign of Al-Walid Bin Yazid up to the Abbasid

revolution and coming to power. The Abbasids massacred the Umayids.

Ibn Hajar: Words of Eyadh are the best and the most preferable essay in this regard.

They are supported by the Prophet’s saying, “All shall be unanimously admitted by

people.” This narration is related to some authentic series of narrators.

(The author) Accordingly, the twelve successors are identified. They are the four

Rashidite caliphs, Al-Hassan, Muawiya, Ibnuz-Zubeir and Omar Bin Abdul-Aziz.

These are eight. Probably, Al-Muhtedi; the just Abbasid caliph, is included since he

was as same as Omar Bin Abdil-Aziz; the Umayid. The two Expected remain. One

of them is Mahdi; the offspring of Mohammed (peace be upon him).

As-Suyouti and Ibn Hajar regard the statement, “All shall be unanimously admitted by

people,” which is an additional unproved remark. Al-Albani; the Wahabist, and many

others decide the doubtfulness of that statement.

Besides, they violate Safina’s narration which is completely authentic for them. In this

narration, the Prophet allocates the period of thirty years as his succession. Accordingly,

eleven rulers in a period of thirty years will be the required, and the process of selecting

among the Umayid and the Abbasid rulers will be void.

Furthermore, As-Suyouti’s referring to the words of Ibn Eyad and Ibn Hajar was not

accurate, in fact. Ibn Hajar’s words, in which he dedicates the first twelve Umayid

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rulers, were neglected. “The twelfth is Al-Walid Bin Yazid Bin Abdul-Melik,” Ibn

Hajar decides. Meanwhile, As-Suyouti stops at eight Umayid rulers only. Two Abbasid

rulers are added.

The errors committed by As-Suyouti in the field of his dishonest excerpt of Ibn Hajar’s

words are evidently shown in the following sections quoted from Fatihul-Bari:

Ibn Bettal: Ibnul-Muhellab: No single scholar could give a definite opinion in this

regard. Some claim succession of the twelve promised successors. Others claim their

being in the same time, each proclaims leadership. The most accepted matter in this

regard is that the Prophet wants to refer to the coming vicissitude that people shall be

following twelve men, each claims leadership, in the same time. This fact is proved

by that the Prophet (peace be upon him) does not mention any of these twelve

leaders’ acts.

(Ibn Hajar) The previous words show that the writer ignores the various ways of

relating the narration, and stops on that precised form mentioned in Al-Bukhari’s.

We have formerly referred to the different forms of relating this narration, recorded

by Muslim and others, in which the characteristic of Islam’s being fortified and

mighty is earmarked.

In other forms, it is said that people, unanimously, shall be obeying those successors.

Abu Dawud records: Jabir Bin Samara: This religion shall be perpetually kept till the

end of the ruling of twelve leaders whom shall be followed by people unanimously.

(Ibn Hajar) At-Tabarani records this form, too. He relates it to Al-Aswad Bin Sa’eed,

to Jabir Bin Samara, with the following addition: (They shall not be injured by the

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malicious ones.)

Eyadh summarizes this perplexity.

Two questions are arisen from the number defined in the Prophet’s saying:

First, the saying is contradicted by the extrinsic meaning of Safina’s narration

admitted and authenticated by the grand hadithists, such as Ibn Habban and others.

The narration says: “For thirty years after me, there shall be my succession. It shall

be followed by monarchy.” These thirty years were ruled by the four Rashidite

caliphs and Al-Hassan Bin Ali.

Second, more than twelve rulers did come to power after the Prophet.

As an answer to the first question, it may be said that the succession intended in

Safina’s narration is dedicated to the Prophet’s succession. While in Jabir Bin

Samara’s, this is not proposed.

About the second, the Prophet’s form does not block the fact that more than twelve

men would be ruling, since the number mentioned leads to peculiarity of persons.

Lest, the intended are the deserved just rulers. Four of them have passed away. The

others shall be indisputably coming before the Judgment Day.

Other forms say that those twelve shall be coming, and each will be followed by a

group of people. This did befall in Andalusia in the fifth century when six men, each

claimed leadership, rose in the same time. at the same time, the ruler of Egypt, the

Abbasid ruler in Baghdad, the other Alawid and Kharijite leaders were claiming

leadership. This explanation is also supported by Muslim’s narration: “There shall be

numerous leaders.”

At any rate, it is probable that the twelve intended are ruling in the golden period of

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Islam. This meaning is supported by some forms of the hadith, such as: “All shall be

unanimously followed by people.” Till Al-Walid Bin Yazid’s reign when people

were engaged in seditious matters, the Prophet’s successors were followed by people

unanimously. This disorder lasted till the Abbasids could come to power and

massacre the Umayids. Correspondingly, the number befell. After all, there are other

probabilities.

(Ibn Hajar) Al-Muhellab opts for the second probability, which is the befalling of the

twelve rulers in the same time. Previously, we have referred to the answer of this

question. Their being coming in the same time is sufficiently enough to prove their

animosity; therefore, their unanimity is not materialized.

The following narrative contradicts Abu Dawud’s inaccuracy:

Ahmed and Al-Bezar: Ibn Masud: We asked the Prophet about the number of his

successors. “They shall be twelve, like the Israelite leaders,” answered the Prophet

(peace be upon him).

This is a qualified hadith, with a rather doubtful narrator.

In his Keshful Mushkil, Ibnul-Jawzi says: I spared no efforts for scrutinizing this

various formed prophetic saying, but, unfortunately, I could not attain a convincing

answer. Undoubtedly, the confusion was caused by the narrators. Later on, I noticed

Al-Khattabi refer to an opinion that I have recently decided. Besides, Abul-Hassan

Bin Al-Munadi and others had their own opinions.

This refers to the incidents falling after the reign of the Prophet and his companions,

since both are interrelated. This is a signal to the number of the Umayid caliphs. This

is the meaning of his saying, “This religion shall be kept fortified till the end of the

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ruling of twelve successors.” Then, he moves to a more rigorous characteristic.

The Umayids begin with Yazid Bin Muawiya and end with Marwan Al-Himar (the

donkey). They are thirteen. Othman, Muawiya and Ibnuz-Zubair are omitted since

they were within the Prophet’s companions. Marwan Bin Al-Hakam is also omitted

since it is doubtful whether he was a companion or not, or since he overcame after

people had been unanimously following Abdullah Ibnuz-Zubair. On that account, the

number is concordant.

As the Umayids lost their control on power, seditious matters and massacres fell till

the Abbasids could rule. Thus, manners came into a new stage.

This opinion is supported by the narration recorded by Abu Dawud and related to Ibn

Masud: The hand-mills of Islam shall be coming around for thirty five -or six or

seven- years. If people perish, they will pursue their formers. If their religion is

constituted, this will last for no more than seven years.*

This opinion is repudiated by the fact that stability of the Umayid region lasted for

more than ninety years, since it began in the year 41 A.H, when Muawiya came to

power unanimously, till the first of the year 132, when Marwan Bin Mohammed was

assassinated.

In the volume in which he compiles reports regarding Mahdi, Abul-Hussein Bin Al-

Munadi supposes that the twelve intended shall be coming after the ruling of Mahdi.

He adds, “In the book of Daniel, I could find the following: ‘As Mahdi is deceased,

*This narrative is ruled as authentic by none other than Al-Albani.

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five men from the offspring of the elder grandson will be ruling after him. They will

be succeeded by five men from the offspring of the younger grandson. Their last

shall be nominating a man from the offspring of the elder grandson as his successor.

His son shall be coming to power after him.’ They shall be twelve kings, each shall

be Mahdi.”

Abu Salih relates the following narration to Ibn Abbas:

Mahdi is named Mohammed Bin Abdillah. He shall be a giant reddish man. By him

God shall relieve every misfortune of this nation. His justice shall be dismissing

every wrong. After him, twelve men shall rule; six from Al-Hassan’s offspring, and

five from Al-Hussein’s. The last shall be from another lineage. When he is deceased,

matters will be corrupted.

Kabul-Ahbar: There shall be twelve Mahdis. Afterwards, the Spirit of Allah shall

descend to kill the Impostor.”

Another probability is that the intended are twelve just rulers who will come along

the period of Islam, no matter their reigns will be successive or not. This opinion is

supported by Abul-Jald’s narration, related by Abu Bahr and recorded in

Musedded’s Al-Musnedul Kabir: “This nation shall not be perished before the ruling

of twelve successors, who will be acting by the divine guidance and the right belief,

befalls. Two of them shall be from Mohammed’s household, one of whom will be

living for forty years while the other will be lasting for thirty.”

Correspondingly, the disorder intended to be controlling after so, is the matters

preceding the Judgment Day, such as the issue of the Impostor, Gog and Magog till

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the end of this world.

These were words of Ibnul-Jawzi, precisely.

(Ibn Hajar) The first and last opinions have been previously discussed by Eyadh.

This seems that Ibnul-Jawzi has not reviewed them.

Generally, a number of opinions can be referred to from the previous discussions.

The third is the most acceptable since it is supported by the authentic forms of the

narrative mentioning that ‘All shall be unanimously followed by people.’

Unanimity intended means that people succumb to their leadership. People, as a

matter of fact, obeyed the leadership of Abu Bakr, Omar, Othman and Ali

respectively, till the incident of the two arbiters in Siffin. As a result, Muawiya was

nominated as the caliph. After the armistice of Al-Hassan, people followed

Muawiya. They followed Yazid; the son, afterwards. Al-Hussein could not attain

leadership since he was killed before that. After Yazid, disorder emerged and lasted

till the assassination of Ibnuz-Zubair and the ruling of Abdul-Melik Bin Marwan. His

four sons; Al-Walid, Suleiman, Yazid and Husham, were followed unanimously.

Omar Bin Abdul-Aziz could come to power after Suleiman and before Yazid. Those

are seven rulers after the four Rashidite ones. The twelfth is Al-Walid Bin Yazid Bin

Abdil-Melik who was unanimously followed after the death of Husham; his uncle.

He ruled for about four years. Then, people mutinied and killed him. Since then,

seditious matters came forth. People did not follow a single caliph after so. Yazid

Bin Al-Walid, who rebelled against Al-Walid Bin Yazid; his cousin, could not

control leadership for a considerable time. Marwan Bin Mohammed Bin Marwan

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revolted against Yazid. Ibrahim, who came to power after Yazid, was defeated by

Marwan. The Abbasids revolted and could kill Marwan.

In addition to the great number of the groups who mutinied against Abul-Abbas As-

Seffah; the first Abbasid caliph, he could not control power for long. Al-Mansur; his

brother, grasped power for a long time despite that he lost the furthest west of his

kingdom which was controlled by the offspring of Marwan in Andalusia. They kept

on controlling these territories till they were formally nominated as caliphs. This was

followed by a disorder all over the kingdom. The caliph became no more than a

name in some territories. This is quite contracted to the reign of Abdul-Melik Bin

Marwan when he controlled the entire countries of the lands conquered by the

Muslims. A look to their history proves these facts.

In due course, the disorder intended stands for the massacres spreadingly committed

due to these seditious incidents. Unfortunately, it has been increasing.

Al-Hussein Bin Al-Munadi’s opinion is, indeed, not that clear since it is contradicted

At-Tabarani’s following narrative related to Qeis Bin Jabir As-Sudefi, who relates it

to his fathers: “After me, there shall be successors followed by rulers. Those rulers

shall be followed by kings whom shall be followed by tyrants. Thereafter, a man

from my household shall approach. He shall fill the lands with justice, as they were

filled in with inequity. Then, son of Qahtan will be given the orders. By Him Who

messaged me with the right I swear, he shall not be less than him.”

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This narrative refutes Ibnul-Munadi’s narrative quoted from Daniel’s book.

Likewise, Abu Salih and Kab’s opinions are extremely inapplicable.

The most appropriate matter in this regard is considering the actual meaning of

‘after’ mentioned in the Prophet’s saying: “After me, there shall be twelve

successors.” Thusly, the entire rulers who succeeded the Prophet (peace be upon

him) were fourteen persons, beginning with As-Siddiq and ending with Omar Bin

Abdul-Aziz. Two of those fourteen were of void leadership and short reign. They

were Muawiya Bin Yazid and Marwan Bin Al-Hakam. The others were twelve, as

the Prophet had predicted. Omar Bin Abdil-Aziz died in 101 A.H. After him, affairs

of the Islamic nation were confused. Hence, the first century, which was the best,

came to its end.

The Prophet’s saying, “They will be unanimously followed by people,” does not

controvert this opinion, since it fits the majority. Except for Al-Hassan Bin Ali and

Abdullah Bin Az-Zubair, this characteristics were existed in the entire successors.

Leadership of these two was valid. Meritoriousness of those who dissented them was

still invalid till Al-Hassan delivered the leadership and Abdullah Bin Az-Zubair was

assassinated. God, however, is the most knowledgeable.

Almostly, affairs of the state were normal during reigns of these twelve leaders

despite the fact that some irregular incidents had occurred. These irregular incidents,

however, are rare if measured to the normal.

Ibn Hebban discusses the meaning of the narrative: “The hand-mills of Islam shall be

coming around…” He states:

The narrative refers to the Umayids’ receiving the leadership. The first point at

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which the Umayids grasped the leadership of Muslims was during Muawiya’s

mutiny against Ali in Siffine and the arrangements of arbitration. Since then, the

Umayids came to power for seventy years. In the year 106, the first waves of the

Abbasids appeared in Khurasan… Ibn Hebban discusses this point so detailedly that

he committed many errors. First, he claims the occurrence of the arbitration in the

last days of 36 A.H. This is unlike what historians agree upon. In fact, the arbitration

occurred few months after the battle of Siffine. That was in 37 A.H…

From the above, we can obviously see Ibn Hajar opt for an opinion different from that

As-Suyouti ascribed to him. Therewith, we should understand that As-Suyouti has not

read the whole words of Ibn Hajar, or rule As-Suyouti’s forging lies. We have also

noticed the perplexity and great number of the contrary probabilities they have shown

during discussing the Prophet’s words about the twelve coming successors. Most of

them have betaken the addition, “they shall be unanimously followed by people,” as an

axis for their discussions. This addition, however, is not authentic. A good deal of

scholars deny it. Eyadh decides nothing. He uses the idioms ‘it is said’ and ‘it is

probable’ in referring to the different probabilities of interpreting the prophetic saying.

Ibn Hajar opts for the third probability. He says, “The third probability discussed by the

judge is the most acceptable…”

In abstract, scholars lead the reader to nowhere while they do their best to explain the

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prophetic prediction which is, for them, authentic that carries a good tidings of the

advent of twelve godly imams, guides and custodians in this nation. Scholars insist on

suiting the saying to the Umayid rulers. They also mix it to an additive inauthentic and

doubtful statement. Besides, the addition is meaningless and far away from the

Prophet’s rhetoric.

For more examples on their misguidance in finding an acceptable exegesis for the

Prophet’s prediction, readers can notice Awnul Mabud; 11/362-4:

Some scholars state that four of the twelve successors passed away. Before the

Judgment day, the number shall be perfected. Others claim those twelve leaders’

occurring in the same time that each shall be followed by a group. At-Turbeshti

states that the only way to interpret this prophetic saying and its likes is considering

the just leaders only, since those are the only persons who deserve to be named

caliphs. It is not necessary for them to be successive, lest, the metaphorical meaning

should be the intended. The previous words are quoted from Al-Mirqat.

In his Qurratul Einein Fi Tafdhili Sheikhein, Waliyullah; the grand scholar states:

A perplexity occurred during explaining the Prophet’s saying, “This religion shall be

kept triumphed till God conveys twelve successors from Quraish.” The problem is

that the saying is concordant to the Ithnasharites who decide twelve imams as their

leaders.

Indisputably, the Prophet’s words are similar to the Quranic texts that interpret each

other. Ibn Masud, authentically, relates the following prophetic saying; “The handmills

of Islam shall be coming around for thirty five -or six or seven- years. If people

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perish, they will pursue their formers. If their religion is constituted, this will last for

not more than seven years.”

Many mistakes have been committed during explaining this prophetic saying. The

following is our inferral conclusion:

This period begins from the second year of Hijra -the Prophet’s immigration to

Yathrib-; year of jihad. Accordingly, the Prophet’s prediction came true. In the thirty

fifth years of jihad, Othman’s assassination befell and Muslims were engaged in

discrepancies. God; the Exalted, adjusted the Muslims’ affairs afterwards, and the

jihad continued till the coming of the Abbasid state, and the eradication of the

Umayids…

Once, the Prophet (peace be upon him) foretells of the succession of the prophecy.

He dedicates thirty years. The next years are named despotic monarchy. Once more,

he foretells of his succession and names it the twelve successors…

For attaining the final result in this question, it is advisable to consider Muawiya,

Abdul-Melik, his four sons, Omar Bin Abdul-Aziz and Al-Walid Bin Yazid Bin

Abdul-Melik after the four Rashidite caliph.

It is said that Malik; the master scholar, considers Abdullah Bin Az-Zubair as more

meritorious in leadership. We have our own opinion in this concern. Omar Bin AlKhattab

and Othman Bin Affan (God please them) mentioned that Abdullah Bin Az-

Zubair’s revolution and violation against the Holy Precinct should be one of the

catastrophes in the Islamic nation. Ahmed records this saying and refers it to Qeis

Bin Abi Hazim:

As Abdullah Bin Az-Zubair asked Omar Bin Al-Khattab’s permitting him to

participate in the battle, the latter said, “Sit in your house! You have participated in

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the Prophet’s battles.” As Abdullah insisted on his demand, Omar said to him, “You

should keep yourself in your house! By God I swear, I am about to see your

companions and you revolt in the boarders of Al-Madina, and you will injure

Mohammed’s companions.”

This narration is recorded by Al-Hakim.

We can conceive that the battle of Jamal is not intended in Omar’s saying, since he

signified ‘in the boarders of Al-Madina.’

This very meaning was clarified in Ali’s words addressed in the story of the answer

of Al-Hassan (God please him). Hence, he could not manage the affairs of the state.

For the unsettlement of his reign and his ill manners, Yazid Bin Muawiya can not be

reckoned with those twelve successors.

Despite the fact that the writer of Qurratul Einein confesses that the Umayid reign was

despotic monarchy and their state was not the Prophet’s succession, he considers them

during interpreting the Prophet’s saying. He applies the prophetic prediction of the

coming of twelve godly imams, who shall be divine custodians on the Prophet’s nation.

Secondly, he erases the names of Al-Hassan Bin Ali and Mahdi from the list. He also

erases the name of Abdullah Bin Az-Zubair while Malik; the master scholar, and others

register him.

At any rate, the man criticizes those who committed mistakes in interpreting the hadith:

“Many mistakes have been committed during explaining this prophetic saying.” As he

promises people to eradicate the problem and solve the question, he makes it worse!

The following are Ibn Kutheir’s words, recorded in his Al-Bidaya Wen Nihaya, 3/248:

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The twelve expected successors, who shall be from Quraish, are not those claimed by

the Rafidites. Except for Ali Bin Abi Talib and Al-Hassan; his son, none of those

could attain the Muslims’ leadership. The last of them is, as they claim, Mahdi the

Expected, who is hiding in a vault in Samarra. He has neither existence, trace nor

pace.

In fact, the twelve predicted successors are the four imams; Abu Bakr, Omar,

Othman and Ali (God please them), and Omar Bin Abdul-Aziz, on whom the two

parties of the scholars agree.

Probably, Ibn Kutheir intends the two opinions about the consecutive ruling of those

successors. However, each party has many opinions he has referred to some. Thereafter,

he refers to the probabilities. He focuses lights on Al-Beihaqi’s discussions in this

regard:

Al-Beihaqi, supported by a group of scholars, opts for the opinion that the twelve

successors are those successively came to power after the Prophet (peace be upon

him). Their seal is Al-Walid Bin Yazid Bin Abdul-Melik; the villainous, the bad

manners of whom we have already discussed.

This is problematic. For discussing so, we should say that the ruling of the first four

caliphs; Abu Bakr, Omar, Othman and Ali are undiscussible for Safina’s narrative:

“My succession shall be lasting for thirty years.” After them comes Al-Hassan Bin

Ali. Ali nominated him as his heir apparent. People of Iraq declared their fealty to

him and accompanied him in the fighting against people of Syria till he signed the

peace treaty with Muawiya. These incidents are proved by the narrative of Abu

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Bakra in Al-Bukhari’s Sahih. Muawiya comes next. Yazid Bin Muawiya, Muawiya

Bin Yazid, Marwan Bin Al-Hakam, Abdul-Melik Bin Marwan, Al-Walid Bin Abdul-

Melik come next successively. These are fifteen persons. Finally comes Al-Walid

Bin Yazid Bin Abdil-Melik. Supposing Abdullah Bin Az-Zubeir’s period of ruling

before Abdul-Melik is considered, they will be sixteen persons. Anyhow, before

Omar Bin Abdul-Aziz, they are twelve. Accordingly, Yazid Bin Muawiya is

considered, and Omar is taken out. The entire Muslims, including the Rafidites,

agree on the fact that Omar Bin Abdul-Aziz’s reign was the best in justice. They

praised him eminently and reckoned him with the Rashidite caliphs.

Providing the leaders unanimously followed by people are considered, Ali Bin Abi

Talib and his son should be taken out. The Syrian entirely did not declare their fealty

to those two men. Similarly, Muawiya, Yazid Bin Muawiya, Muawiya Bin Yazid,

Marwan and Abdullah Bin Az-Zubair should not be considered for the same reason.

On that account, Abu Bakr, Omar, Othman, Muawiya, Yazid Bin Muawiya, Abdul-

Melik, Al-Walid Bin Suleiman, Omar Bin Abdul-Aziz, Yazid and Husham should be

considered. These are ten. They are followed by Al-Walid Bin Yazid Bin Abdil-

Melik; the villainous. This is unacceptable since it leads to taking Ali and Al-Hassan;

his son, out of those twelve predicted successors. This is contrary to the Sunnis’

texts, as well as the Shias’. Furthermore, it is contrary to Safina’s narrative: “For

thirty years after me, there shall be my succession. It shall be followed by

monarchy.” Safina, besides, mentions in detail these thirty years. He allots the reigns

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of the four Rashidite caliphs. The six month period of Al-Hassan’s reign is

considered, too. After that, Monarchy became Muawiya’s. That occurred when Al-

Hassan Bin Ali delivered the leadership to him. This narrative materializes the fact

that Muawiya should not be described as a caliph, and that caliphate was sealed after

the thirty year period. This does not deny the existence of Rashidite caliphs

thereafter. Jabir Bin Samara’s narrative evidences this fact.

…Hutheifa Bin Al-Yeman stated, “After Othman, there shall be twelve kings from

sons of Umaya.” “They are caliphs, aren’t they?” they asked. “No, they are kings,”

answered Hutheifa.

… Abul-Jald states, “This nation shall not be perished before the ruling of twelve

successors, who will be acting by the divine guidance and the right belief, befalls.

Two of them shall be from the household of Mohammed, one of whom will be living

for forty years while the other for thirty.”

Al-Beihaqi then refutes Abul-Jald’s words in unacceptable way and words. This is

strange from Al-Beihaqi. A good deal of scholars agree with Abul-Jald. His saying

seems to be the most preferable among our opinions. The man was wont to read the

old books. This meaning is recorded in the Torah that is with the Jews: “God; the

Exalted, did foretell Abraham of the birth of Samuel. He did foretell that He would

grow and increase his progeny, and would choose twelve great persons from his

offspring.”

Ibn Kutheir refers to what is inscribed in the real Torah - the Old and New Testament

p: 88

1/25-:

18- Abraham said to the Lord: Make Samuel live before Thee.

19- The Lord said: Sara; your lady, will give birth of a son you will call Isaaq. I will

constitute my eternal covenant with him and his offspring.

20- Regarding Samuel, I respond your supplication. I will bless and fruit him. I will

grow him so largely. Twelve chiefs he shall bear. I will make him a great nation.

21- But My covenant I constitute with Isaaq whom will be given birth by Sara, this

time, the next year.

Instead of ‘chief’, Kabul-Ahbar translated the word into ‘custodian’. Others translated it

into ‘imams’.

Hence, the text exists in the Torah, the Sunni’s books and the Shias’ book. It supports

the good tidings of our Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). At any rate, it does

not settle the problem of the Sunni exegesists. On the contrary, it makes it more

complicated.

Ibnul-Arabi; the Malikite, died in 543 A.H., is seen as the smartest and fairest among

the Sunni exegesists. In his Aridhatul Ahwadi Fi Sharhi Sahihit Tirmithi, the scholar

admits that any application of the prophetic prediction takes to a dead-end way. Hence,

he confesses that there must have been an addition to the saying since the present text is

meaningless.

Jabir Bin Samara: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “After me, there shall come

twelve princes; all shall be from Quraish.” This is an authentic hadith.

As we consider the rulers after the Prophet, we find the following: Abu Bakr, Omar,

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Othman, Ali, Al-Hassan, Muawiya, Yazid, Muawiya Bin Yazid, Marwan, Abdul-

Melik, Marwan Bin Mohammed Bin Marwan, As-Seffah, Al-Mansour, Al-Mahdi,

Al-Hadi, Ar-Rashid, Al-Amin, Al-Mamoun, Al-Mutasim, Al-Wathiq, Al-Mutawakil,

Al-Muntasir, Al-Mustain, Al-Mutaz, Al-Muhtadi, Al-Mutadid, Al-Muktafi, Al-

Muqtadir, Al-Qahir, Ar-Radi, Al-Mutteqi, Al-Mustekfi, Al-Muti, At-Taii, Al-Qadir,

Al-Qaim and Al-Muqtedi whom I caught in the year 484. He nominated Al-

Mustedhir; the son, as his heir apparent. He dies in Muharram, 486. Al-Mustedhir

nominated his son; Abu Mansur Al-Fadhl as his heir apparent. That was in 495.

Supposing twelve of them are allotted, the number will stop at Suleiman Bin Abdil-

Melik. Regarding the meaning is considered, we have only five persons; the four

Rashidite caliphs and Omar Bin Abdil-Aziz. Hence, I cannot perceive a definite

meaning for the prophetic saying. Probably, it is a part of a prophetic text.

From the above, we can conclude that the Sunni scholars spared no efforts for the sake

of applying the twelve men whom are promised in the Torah by Abraham, and predicted

by our Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) on the Umayid rulers. As a matter of

fact, they faced three principal unsolved problems:

First, the number of those (successors) is more than twelve. However, they confess that

those men are not the Prophet’s successors. Hence, they had to face the waves of opting

and selecting depending on no objective criterion.

Second, they feel that that divine apparel does never fit their acquaintances. And that

their attempts to defend those rulers’ acrs, who are not real successors of the Prophet,

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and covering up their deeds are nonsense since some of them committed fatal hideous

mistakes and ill deeds. Thus, it is impracticable to consider such persons as godly

leaders and great custodians on this nation that God; the Exalted, has foretold of their

coming by the seal of His prophets.

Third, by this claim, scholars place those rulers in a divine position they themselves did

not claim. Hence, they became as same as that who claims somebody’s prophecy while

that somebody denies it.

Lastly, the Sunni exegesists warn their fellows not to regard the Shiite exegeses. They

promise them to find, sooner or later, an exegesis more suitable than the Shias’.

Previously, we have seen how the Sunni scholars could not forward a single step for

finding a convincing exegesis for the Prophet’s prediction of the twelve imams.

It is rightful for Sunnis to ask the scholars for a persuasive interpretation for the

Prophet’s authentic prediction of the coming twelve godly imams who will be divinely

directed and unique in knowledge, character and behavior, and will be custodians of the

same guidance and trend.

In like manner, we are quite rightful to depend on our own interpretation, which is

defining the immaculate imams of the Prophet’s household as the persons intended in

the Prophet’s prediction. Those imams begin with Ali and ends with the Expected

Mahdi (peace be upon them). The Prophet said, “With us the Lord begins and with us

He seals.” Most truthful are the words of God and His Apostle.

EXEGESISTS’ INVOLVEMENT IN SAFINA’S NARRATIVE

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Safina is the bondservant of Ummu Salama. Scholars decide his uthenticity in

communicating the Prophet’s sayings. Like Al-Bukhari, a many hadithists depend on

his narratives especially those related to the topic involved.

At-Tirmithi’s, 3/341:

Sa’eed: Safina: The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated: “In my nation, the

succession shall be lasting for thirty years, and shall be followed by despotic

monarchy.”

Safina commentates: If you account the reign of Abu Bakr, Omar, Othman and Ali,

they shall be thirty years.

Sa’eed: The Umayids claim their succeeding the Prophet.

Safina: Liars are sons of that Zarqa -blue lady-. They are kings, the most evil kings.

Under the same title, At-Tirmithi records:

Omar and Ali said: The Prophet (peace be upon him) did not will anything about his

succession (next leadership.)

This narrative is qualified but with a rather doubtful narrator. It is related by other

than Sa’eed Bin Jamhan, but we recognize it from this way only.

Ahmed, in his Al-Musned, 5/220-1, records this narrative although he cut off the last

two sentences regarding the Umayids’ reigns. Al-Hakim, in his Al-Mustedrak, 3/71,

decides its authentic documentation.

As he relates it in his Al-Bidaya Wen Nihaya, 3/198, Ibn Kutheir records the following

narrative after it:

Abdurrahman Bin Abi Bakra: I heard the Prophet (peace be upon him) say, “For

thirty years, there shall be the succession of the prophesy. After it, God shall give his

monarchy to whomever He desires.”

Muawiya commented, “We succumb to the monarchy.”

Supposing Safina’s narrative is authentic, the Prophet’s prediction should be regarded

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as a foretelling of this nation’s deviation and illegality after thirty years. As long as

rulers in the period of thirty years were not more than five persons, we understand that

the twelve imams should be others or, at least, they would not come to power. In other

words, Safina’s narrative decides evidently the inaccuracy of considering the rulers as

the twelve expected custodians. Unfortunately, majority of exegesists are sick of

cherishing the Umayid rulers; therefore, they commit every contrasting act for the sake

of changing the Umayid despotic monarchy into godly custody. Likewise, they

attempted to make the Umayid tyrant and criminal rulers be divine imams, predicted by

the Apostle of the Lord of the worlds.

As a support for our opinion, we say that Sunnis admit Safina’s narrative of defining the

Prophet’s succession to thirty years. Safina himself explains the narrative. He denies the

Umayids’ being the Prophet’s successors. He describes them as kings; the most evil

kings. He also accuses them of bastardy. He accuses them of being the illegitimate sons

of a Roman prostitute. (sons of that Zarqa -blue lady-.)

Despite, exegesists decide the Umayids as godly leaders chosen by the Exalted Lord for

leading this nation.

Some scholars, such as Al-Albani, aims at denying Safina’s explanation of the

narrative. They rule its being an inauthentic redundancy. In the same manner, the entire

savage deeds of the Umayid rulers, with which the entire pages of history are filled in,

are not authentic for such scholars.

In his Umdetul Qari, 16/74, Al-Eini records:

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Providing some may claim that Safina’s contradicting Jabir Bin Samara’s (The

Prophet said, “This religion shall be kept in efficacy and power to twelve successors

from Quraish…”), recorded by Muslim, we say that this refers to the succession of

the prophesy. It does not mean that there are no others.

Others say that this prediction of the coming of twelve just Quraishi rulers does not

guarantee consecution. In thirty years after the Prophet, this just leadership fell.

Many ages later, just caliphs; such as Omar Bin Abdil-Aziz and Al-Muhtedi, could

take leadership. Mahdi; the Expected, is within those promised successors.

For nothing more than defending the Umayids, scholars do their best in playing on

words. They divide the legal succession into two types. The first is the prophecy

succession which lasted for thirty years. The second is a non-prophecy succession,

although legal, which came next. This non-prophetic succession was promised by the

Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) when he predicted the coming of twelve

successors or imams!

The pro-Umayid exegesists find their lost in this fabrication; therefore, they adhere to it

since it enables them to play on words of the hadith, and make it applicable to their

rulers!

Ibn Kutheir’s Al-Bidaya Wen Nihaya, 3/198:

As an answer for the question about the way of admitting Safina’s narrative and that

of Jabir Bin Samara in the same time, we say:

Some people claim that this religion is kept in efficacy and power till twelve

successors hold the leading position. After that, confusion befell in the Umayids’

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reigns. Others contradict the previous saying and allege that the hadith was a

prediction of the coming of twelve just Quraishi rulers, no matter they are successive

or not. In a period of thirty years only, the consecutive succession of the Prophet

befell. After that, just caliphs; such as Omar Bin Abdil-Aziz the Umayid, could come

to power. A number of master scholars decides the legality and justice of this man to

the degree that they reckon him with the Rashidite caliphs. Ahmed Bin Hanbal says,

“Except for Omar Bin Abdil-Aziz, the opinion of none of the Prophet’s companions’

followers is admitted.”

Al-Mahdi; the Abbasid, is one of those predicted successors.

Mahdi; the Expected, is also one of those twelve, since he shall be from the

Prophet’s household. He is named Mohammed Bin Abdillah. He is not that one

expected in a vault in Samarra. This one is originally not existed. Only the ill-minded

Rafidites are awaiting him.

Hence, Ibn Kutheir lacks any logical answer for the problem of Safina’s narrative. He

ascribes the opinions to ‘some’ or ‘others’. Had he only recorded Safina’s narrative

completely as it is found in their reference books of hadith!

His applauding Omar Bin Abdil-Aziz and Al-Mahdi; the Abbasid, cannot be taken as an

evidence on their being within the expected godly successors, lest, each praised man

can be regarded. Reckoning a person with the predicted and promised men necessitates

an evident credentials proving his being one of those divine persons chosen by the Lord

and given exclusively a standing unattainable by ordinary people.

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Regarding the repetition of the Shias’ awaiting for Mahdi; the Expected, in a vault in

Samarra is a forged matter. Like him, we; the Shias, expect Mahdi to come forth in

Mecca. The vault of Samarra is no more than the house of his grandfather, father and

him. It is a blessed place in which we pray to God and seek blessedness. Ibn Kutheir,

however, is blabbermouth!

The following text is quoted from the footnote of Awnul Mabud, 11/361:

Sheik Ibnul-Qeyim: As an answer for the question about the way of admitting

Safina’s narrative (After me, the succession shall be lasting for thirty years,) and the

prediction of the coming of twelve leaders, we say: The two are not contrasted since

the thirty year succession is the prophesy succession. This is supported by Abu

Bakra’s narrative.

Neither Ibnul-Qeyim nor could anyone else define the succession other than that of the

prophesy. Then, what a sort of succession was that? How should such a ruling carry a

godly Islamic characteristic after the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had

described it as a despotic monarchy?! This matter is admitted by the writer of Qurratul

Einein and others.

Their admitting the fact that the Umayid reign was no more than a despotic monarchy,

and that it was not Islamic in any means, is an admission of its being a non-Islamic

despotic dominion. How is it applicable for any sane to perceive that the Exalted Lord

and His Apostle (peace be upon him and his family) carry the good tidings of the

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coming of non-Islamic rulers who will injure the nation by their despot?

Had Ibn Hebban, Ibn Hajar, Ibnul-Qeyim and their likes stopped on their fanaticism for

the Umayid, the matter would have been easier. Unfortunately, they insisted on using

the prophetic sayings for their support, and aimed for applying the prophetic good

tidings on their despotic kings.

Al-Albani decides the authenticity of a good deal of prophetic sayings respecting the

deviation of rulers coming to power after the Prophet (peace be upon him and his

family). Under the number 2982, he rules the authenticity of the hadith, “Some of my

companions shall never see me again after my departure.”

Under the number 2864, Al-Albani decides the authenticity of the hadith “After me,

your affairs shall be in the hands of men who will extinguish my traditions and inject

heresies.”

The hadith, “I am holding you from the neck so that you will not fall in the hell-fire you

are pushing yourselves in like butterflies and locust. I am about to fling your necks,” is

given the number 2865.

The hadith, “A man from sons of Umaya shall be taking initiative in changing my

traditions,” is authenticated by Al-Albani who lists it under number 1749 of the title

‘The Prophet’s prediction.’ Al-Albani commentates, “This hadith stands for the change

that occurred to the Islamic system from elections into succession. God, however, is the

most knowledgeable.”

Under the number 744, Al-Albani decides the authenticity of the hadith, “As soon as

sons of Al-Aas attain thirty, they will betake the Lord’s religion as a instrument and the

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Lord’s servants as slaves and the Lord’s fortunes as treasures.”

As he decides the authenticity of Safina’s narrative, Al-Albani gives it the number 459

under the title, ‘the prophesy succession’.

Nevertheless, Al-Albani defends the Umayids. He says:

This does not oppose the coming of other caliphs since they are not seen as the

Prophet’s successors. Evidently, those are the only intended in the hadith involved.

This matter is supported by the following wording of Sheikul-Islam:

It is licit to call those who came -to power- after the Rashidite caliphs as caliphs

although they were kings…

Pursuing Ibn Teimiya; his master, Al-Albani rules that the twelve divinely custodian

imams of whom the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had foretold, are

Muawiya, Yazid and sons of Al-Hakam Bin Abil-Aas at whom tens of frank, decisive

and authentic sayings of censure were addressed!

See how fanaticism in cherishing the Umayids incites this man to put himself in a

position deserving the Exated Lord’s censure, and His Apostle’s curse.

Such a person will not find an answer if an orientalist addresses at him that Muslims

confess that their Lord and His Apostle are of fluctuating tempers! They curse, censure

and condemn persons, and then, please them and declare before Muslims that those

previously accursed persons and their offspring will be the choice among people, and

will be the divinely sinless custodians of this nation!!

The wicked orientalists, Selman Rushdi and his likes found themselves a hole for

reviling at Islam through such false narratives respecting fanaticism to Quraish and the

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Umayids and Kabul-Ahbar.

Twelfth

Models of our narratives respecting the twelve imams.

In his Al-Khissal, As-Saduq records the following on pages 466-7:

Ibn Masud’s forecited narrative is related in different ways of narration, all related to

Mujalid Bin Sa’eed. At any rate, there is a number of ways in which Mujalid Bin

Sa’eed is not a party.

…Qeis Bin Abd: We were encompassing Abdullah Bin Masud when a Bedouin

came and asked about him. “I am Abdullah,” answered he. “Did your prophet tell

you about the number of his successors?” asked the Bedouin. “Yes, he did. They are

twelve, like the number of the Israelite disciples,” answered Abdullah.

… We were accompanying Abdullah Bin Masud in the mosque when a Bedouin

came and asked about him. “I am Abdullah. What is your need?” answered he. “O

Abdullah! Did your prophet tell you about the number of his successors?” asked the

Bedouin. “Well, you have asked me about a matter I have never been asked before

since I arrived in Iraq. Yes, he did. They are twelve, like the number of the Israelite

disciples,” answered Abdullah.

Abu Aruba: (Abdullah answered,) “Yes. Like the number of the Israelite leaders.”

Jarir: Al-Ashath Bin Masud: The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) stated,

“After me, the successors are twelve, like the number of the Israelite leaders.”

In the same documentation, the narratives are recorded in Kemaluddin We

Temamun Nima, 271.

Among the comparative objective writings, I can recognize the precious book of

Kifayetul Athar Elel Eimmetil Ithnei Ashar, compiled by the expert hadithist Ali Bin

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Mohammed Bin Ali Al-Khezzaz Al-Qummi Ar-Razi. He is one of the grand scholars in

the fourth century. This work is considered as the most remarkable respecting the

Prophet’s traditions.

In the introductory of the book, the compiler defines his course. On page 7, he records:

The main reason that urged me on compiling narrators of the Prophet’s companions

and his truthful progeny respecting the texts dealing with the immaculate imams, is

that I found some ordinary people of the Shias perplexed in this regard. They

doubted due to the firmness of the anthropomorphists and the Mutazilites who aimed

at confusing their credits. The matter attained its climax when those people denied

the divine texts regarding the imamate. Some exceeded when denied the entire

traditions of the prophet’s companions in this regard… Therefore, I committed

myself to scrutinizing in this field and clarifying whatever evidences I can obtain. I

intended to repeal the antagonizts’ heresies. Finally, I seek the Lord’s offers and the

satisfaction of the Prophet and the imams succeeding him.

First, I am to mention the narratives dealing with this topic, that are related to the

familiar companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), such as

Abdullah Bin Abbas, Abdullah Bin Masud, Abu Sa’eed Al-Khidri, Abu Therr Al-

Ghefari, Selman Al-Farisi, Jabir Bin Samara, Jabir Bin Abdillah, Anas Bin Malik,

Abu Hureira, Omar Bin Al-Khattab, Zaid Bin Thabit, Zaid Bin Arqam, Abu Umama,

Wathila Bin Al-Asqa, Abu Ayoub Al-Ansari, Ammar Bin Yasir, Hutheifa Bin

Asyed, Imran Bin Al-Hussain, Sa’d Bin Malik, Hutheifa Bin Al-Yeman, Abu Qetada

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Al-Ansari, Ali Bin Abi Talib and his two sons; Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein (peace be

upon him).

Among women, I compiled the texts related by Ummu Salama, Aisha and Fatima the

daughter of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family).

Thereafter, I am to record the imams’ reports concordant to the Prophet’s

companions’. I am to mention each imam’s nominating his successor. This work is

purposed for making people realize the real situation and take it as their religion,

evading being like those described in God’s saying, (And those did not show

opposition but after knowledge had come to them, out of envy among them.)

Such narratives remove doubt and hesitancy, and repeal every excuse. In fact, the

matter is more genuine than what they thought.

The compiler (God bless his soul) collates the narrative of each companion he has

already mentioned under a definite title. He also records the narrative and its

documentation and series of narrators up to the Prophet (peace be upon him and his

family). This work saved a great deal of narratives that have been, totally or partially,

lost in the reference books of the Sunnis; our brothers.

The following are models from the book:

On page 23, Title: Narratives of Abdullah Bin Masud, the writer records:

… Abdullah Bin Masud: I heard the Prophet (peace be upon him) say: The imams

after me shall be twelve. Nine of them shall be from Ak-Hussein’s offspring. Their

ninth is their Mahdi.

On page 37, Title: Narratives of Anas Bin Malik, the writer records:

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… Anas Bin Malik: After leading the collective prayer, the Prophet (peace be upon

him and his family) orated, “O my companions! He shall be grouped with us that

whoever loves my household. He is adhering to the firmest handle that whoever

adheres to my coming successors.” Abu Therr stood erect and asked, “O God’s

messenger! How many will be the imams after you?” “Their number is the like of the

Israelite leaders’,” answered the Prophet. “All shall be from your household?” asked

Abu Therr. “All shall be from my household. Nine shall be from Al-Hussein’s

offspring. Mahdi is one of them,” answered the Prophet (peace be upon him and his

family).

On page 133, Title: Narratives of Abu Ayoub Al-Ansari, Khalid Bin Zaid, the writer

records:

… Abu Ayoub Al-Ansari: I heard the Apostle of God (peace be upon him and his

family) say, “I am the master of the prophets. Ali is the master of the prophets’

successors. My grandsons are the best of the grandsons. The sinless imams are from

us. They are from Al-Hussein’s offspring. Mahdi of this nation is from us.”

A Bedouin stood up and asked about their number. “Their number is the like of the

grandsons -of Abraham- and the Disciples of Jesus and the Israelite leaders,”

answered the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family).

On page 120, Title: Narratives of Ammar Bin Yasir, the writer records:

… Ammar: I was with the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) during a

battle when Ali (peace be upon him) killed bearers of the pennons; Amr Bin Abdillah

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Al-Jumjumi and Sheiba Bin Nafi. I came to the Prophet and expressed that Ali had

fought for the sake of God in the very proper way. “This is because he is being a part

of me and I am a part of him,” answered the Prophet, and added, “He is the heir of

my knowledge and the settler of my debts and the keeper on my promises. He is the

leader after me. Without him, the pure believers are never recognized. Confronting

him is as same as confronting me. And confronting me is as same as confronting

Allah. Consenting to him is as same as consenting to me. And consenting to me is as

same as consenting to Allah. He is really the father of my two grandsons. The imams

are from his offspring. From him, God; the Exalted, shall bring the prudent imams.

Mahdi of this nation is being one of them.”

“My father and mother be sacrificed to you, God’s messenger! Who is that Mahdi?”

I wondered.

“O Ammar!” answered the Prophet, “Allah; the Blessed the Elevated, has given me

the covenant that He shall create nine persons from Al-Hussein’s offspring. Their

ninth shall be invisible for them. This is God’s saying, (Say: Have you considered if

your water should go down, who is it then that will bring you flowing water?) His

invisibility shall take a long time that some people will apostatize while others shall

be firm. In the last of time he shall come forth to fill in this world with justice and

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equity. He shall fight for the sake of the interpretation as same as when I fought for

the sake of the revelation. He shall bear my name. He shall be the most similar to me.

O Ammar! After me, there shall come a heresy. When that occurs, you should follow

Ali and his party. He is being with the right, and the right is being with him.

O Ammar! After me, you shall be fighting with Ali two categories of people; the

breachers and the deviants. Then, the despotic party will kill you.”

“O God’s messenger!” I asked, “Will that be for the satisfaction of God and yours?”

“Yes, it will be for the satisfaction of God and mine. The last meal you will have in

this world shall be a drink of milk,” predicted the Prophet.

On the day of battle of Siffine, Ammar Bin Yasir came to Ali Amirul-Muminin, and

asked his permitting him to fight. “Slow down, God may be merciful to you!”

answered Ali. An hour later, Ammar came and repeated the same demand. Ali

answered him the same answer. In the third time, Amirul Muminin wept and said, “It

is the day the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had described to me.”

Hence, Ali (peace be upon him) rode off his pack animal, hanged Ammar and saw

him off. He then said, “O Abul-Yaqdan! God reward you excellently for your

defending God and His Apostle. You have been the best brother and the best

acquaintance.” Ali and Ammar wept for a while. “O Amirul Muminin!” worded

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Ammar, “By God I swear, I followed you due to my being certain. I heard the

Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) address at me on the day of Kheibar, ‘O

Ammar! After me, there shall be a heresy. You should follow Ali and his party. He is

being with the right and the right is being with him. You will be fighting the

breachers and the deviants.’ O Amirul-Mumminin! May God reward you excellently

for your defending Islam. You have truly consummated, conveyed and advised.”

Ammar then went to the battlefield. He asked for some water. A man from Ansar

gave him a drink of milk since they had no water. As he drank it, Ammar shouted,

“This is the prediction of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) to me. He

told that my last drink in this world would be a drink of milk.”

He attacked the enemies and could kill eighteen persons. Two Syrian men faced him

and could stab him. He was killed.

That night, Amirul-Muminin (peace be upon him) passed by the casualties of the

battle. He found Ammar’s body among them. He took his head and placed it on his

thigh and wept. He then cited a couple of verses in which he expressed his grief for

the departure of his dear people.

On page 180, Title: Narratives of Ummu Salama, the writer records:

… Seddad Bin Aws: On the battle of Jamal, I decided not to join any of the two

parties. To the midday, I did not participate in the fighting. That afternoon, the Lord

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inspired my heart to fight with Ali. Therefore, I fought in his lines till the end of the

battle. When I was back in Al-Madina, I visited Ummu Salama. “From where have

you come?” asked she. “From Basra,” I answered. “Which party did you join?” she

asked. “O Ummul-Muminin!” I expressed, “I retired the fighting for half a day.

Then, the Lord inspired me to fight with Ali.”

“You have done the very right thing,” she praised, and added, “I heard the Prophet

(peace be upon him and his family) state, ‘He is fighting me that whoever fights Ali.

And he is fighting the Lord that whoever fights me.’”

“You see that Ali is the right, do you not?” I asked. “Yes, by God,” she affirmed,

“Ali is being with the right and the right is being with him. By God I swear,

Mohammed’s nation did violate their prophet when they preceded those whom are

detained by the Lord and His Apostle, and detained those whom are preceded by the

Lord and His Apostle. They kept their harem in their houses and took out the

Prophet’s lady to the deserts. By God, I heard the Prophet (peace be upon him and

his family) say, ‘My nation shall be in a concordance and in discrepancy. You should

join them when they are concordant. And you should choose for the middle situation

when they are engaged in discrepancy. You are to focus your eyes on my household.

If they fight, you should fight with them. If they opt for peace, you should follow

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them. The right is being with them whenever they are.’”

“Who are his household?” I asked.

“They are those we are mandated to adhere to. They are the imams after him. Their

number is as same as the Israelite leaders’. They are Ali and his two sons, and nine

persons from the Al-Hussein’s offspring. They are the immaculate and the sinless

imams,” answered Ummu Salama.

“What a pity! People are perishing, then!” I expressed.

“Every sect rejoicing what they had with them,” she commented.

THIRD DISCUSSION

THE ISLAMIC PRINCIPALS IN SERMONS OF THE FAREWELL PILGRIMAGE

Previously, we have proved that the Prophet’s sermon of Arafat, in the Farewell

Pilgrimage, included his prediction of the coming of the twelve imams. It also included

his recommendations in this regard.

Now, we are to discuss contents of the other five sermons; sermon of Mecca on day of

Tarwiya, sermon of the second day, sermon of Al-Kheif Mosque on day of Nafr and

sermon of Ghadir.

Although the references of narrations communicated, confusedly, a few reports about

contents of these sermons, it is possible to infer that the Prophet (peace be upon him and

his family), through these sermons, provided the entire affairs needed by his nation after

him. These prophetic sermons included statements dealing with the following five

bases:

1. Base of the humanitarian equity:

- Principal of the humanitarian unity among mankind, and the eradication of the racial

discrimination.

- Principal of acting good toward women and the impermissibility of wronging them.

2. Base of unity of the Islamic nation:

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- Principal of eradicating the traces, practices and regulations of the pre-Islamic era that

are violating the Islamic laws.

- Principal of the Muslims’ fraternity and equity.

- Principal of noticing the private ownership, and illegality of violating the Muslims’

properties.

- Principal of regarding the Muslims’ souls, and illegality of shedding the Muslim’s

blood.

- Principal of regarding the Muslims’ honor and dignity, and illegality of abusing each

other.

- Principal of maintaining properties and souls of those who speak out the creed of

Islam; ‘There is no god but Allah.’

- Principal of sealing prophesy with the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family),

and sealing the nations with his nation.

- Principal of the Prophet’s being the witness on his people in the Hereafter, and their

joining him on the Divine Pool.

- Principal of necessity of accuracy in acting, and admonishing against committing the

insignificant actions that lead to deviation.

- Principal of warning against forging lies against the Prophet (peace be upon him and

his family), and insisting on investigating whatever is ascribed to him.

3. Base of the unity of the Islamic law -Sharia- and the Muslims’ culture.

- Principal of fulfilling the trusts.

- Regulations of the heritage.

- Regulations of the blood money and the retaliation.

- Laws of the rites of the pilgrimage. “From me you should learn the rites.”

4. Bases of the political affairs and the leadership after the Prophet:

- Principal of the prediction of the coming of the twelve imams of the Prophet’s

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progeny.

- Principal of the importunate adherence to the Quran and the Prophet’s progeny; the

two weighty things.

- Principal of nominating Ali as the next leader of this nation, and the first of the twelve

imams.

- Principal of keeping on performing the obligatory rites and compliance with the

leaders.

- Principal of immortalizing the treaty of Quraish and Kenana on blockading the

Hashemites.

- Principal of warning the Quraishis against playing the tyrant after the departure of the

Prophet (peace be upon him and his family).

- Principal of warning the Prophet’s companions against breaking faith and struggling

on power.

5. Base of punition of the dissenters against the prophetic course:

- Principal of cursing those who ascribe themselves to other than their fathers or

masters.

Detailed discussion of these bases and principals is inapplicable. Therefore, we are to

mention models of these blessed sermons before we refer to topics and examples

related.

It is quite clear that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) referred to each of

these bases and principals in many occasions before the Farewell Pilgrimage. As a

matter of fact, these bases and principals, together with the six sermons, form a

coalescing topic that is inseparable. The Prophet’s wording is a revelation completes

and explains each other. In every topic, that wording formulates a perfect doctrinal and

legislative unity that is contributing in constructing the divine comprehensive edifice of

Islam.

FIRST BASE

THE HUMANITARIAN EQUITY

This base is too evident to need any further discussion. Previously, we have referred to

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a number of related texts of the Prophet’s sermons.

MODELS OF THE PROPHET’S SERMONS IN THE FAREWELL

PILGRIMAGE

Ibn Shuba Al-Harrani -died in 350- records on page 30 of his Tuheful Uqoul:

The Prophet’s Sermon In The Farewell Pilgrimage:

Praised be Allah. We praise Him and seek His support and forgiveness. We repent to

Him and seek His protection against evils of our souls, and sins of our acts.

He Whomsoever Allah guides, there is no misleading for him, and he whomsoever

Allah causes to err, there is no guide for him. I do admit there is no god but Allah,

lonelily without any associate, and admit that Mohammed is being His servant and

apostle.

O servants of Allah! I do advise you to keep god-fearing. I urge you on acting in the

field of His obedience. I seek the Lord’s opening the good before me.

O people! Listen to what I am elucidating to you. I cannot guarantee whether I shall

meet you the next year in this situation.

O people! Till you shall meet your Lord, your blood and honor are prohibited to be

abused among you, and sanctified as same as the degree of sanctification of this day

in this country. Have I conveyed? O Allah! Be the witness.

He whoever has a trust in hand, should defray it to the depositor.

Usury of Jahilism* is revoked. The first usury I am to revoke is Al-Abbas Bin Abdul-

Muttelib’s.

Retaliation of Jahilism is revoked. The first retaliation I am to revoke is Amir Bin

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Rabia Bin Al-Harith Bin Abdil-Muttelib’s.

Except for custody of the Kaba and watering the pilgrimages, all the practices of the

Jahilism are revoked.

Retaliation is the ruling of murders. What is killed by a stick or a stone is decided as

a quasi-murder. Its blood money is one hundred camels. Any increase on that

quantity is a Jahilite deed.

*Jahilism is the pre-Islamic era.

O people! The Satan despaired of being obeyed in this land. But he pleased to be

obeyed in other acts. They are your insignificant sins.

O people! Postponing (of the sacred months) is only an addition in unbelief,

wherewith those who disbelieve are led astray, violating it one year and keeping it

sacred another, that they may agree in the number of months that Allah has made

sacred.

Time has rotated as same as the first day on which the Lord created the heavens and

the earth. Surely number of months with Allah is twelve months in Allah’s ordinance

since the day when He created the heavens and the earth, of these four being sacred.

Three are consecutive and the fourth is independent. They are Dhu’l-Qada, Dhu’l-

Hijja, Muharram and Rajab that comes between Jumada and Shaban. Have I

conveyed? O Allah! Be the witness.

O people! Your women enjoy rights imposed upon you. You also enjoy rights

imposed upon them. Your rights imposed upon them are that they should not let any

take your places in your beds, and not permit those whom you dislike to be in your

houses unless your permissions are obtained, and not to commit any ill deed. If they

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do, the Lord allows you to prevent them and abandon them in the beds and discipline

them by unharmed beating. If they desist and obey, you then are obliged to bind

yourselves to save their alimony and clothing in an acceptable way. You have taken

them by the trust of God, and you have consummated their privates by the God’s

Book. Hence, beware of your deeds respecting your women, and advise each other

for their good.

O people! The believers are brothers. It is illicit for any believer to take from his

brother’s property unless the satisfactory permission is obtained. Have I conveyed?

O Allah! Be the witness.

Do not break your faith and return to unbelief by killing each other. I am leaving

among you what protect you against deviation if only you accede to. It is the Book of

Allah and my people; my household. Have I conveyed? O Allah! Be the witness.

O people! Your Lord is one, and your father is one. You all are from Adam, and

Adam was created of mud. Surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the most

caterful of his duty. Except by means of god-fearing, no Arab is preferable to any

non-Arab. Have I conveyed?

“Yes. You did,” said they.

The witness should carry these to the absent.

O people! God has partitioned the portions of each heir. It is illicit for heirs to will

more than the one-third. Babies are the bed’s, and the prostitutes’ share is the stone.

Curse of the Lord, the angels and the entire people be on that whoever ascribes

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himself to other than his father or master. God be not accept his excuse or

compensation. Peace and God’s mercy be upon you.

Al-Kafi: 1/403:

… a man from Quraish: With Sufian Athawri I went to Jafar Bin Mohammed. We

found him on his pack animal. Sufian addressed at him, “O Abu Abdillah! Would

you please relate to us the Prophet’s sermon in Al-Kheif Mosque?” The imam

apologized since he had already ridden, and promised he would answer Sufian’s

question as soon as he would be back. “I adjure you by your kinship to the Apostle of

God (peace be upon him and his family) to relate it to me,” insisted Sufian. The

imam rode off. Sufian asked for a pen and a paper to record the imam’s wording. The

imam spoke, “In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. This is the sermon

of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) addressed in Al-Kheif Mosque:

God may bloom the servants who will listen and understand my words, and convey

them to the absent.

O people! The witness should carry this to the absent. A bearer of a knowledge may

happen to be illiterate, and a bearer of a knowledge may happen to carry it to the

more knowledgeable.

Hearts of Muslims should never act unfaithfully in three matters; sincere

performance of God’s duties, providing the advice to the Muslims’ imams and

committing to their congruity. Their congruity is binding.

The believers are brothers of equal blood. They are one hand against their enemies.

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The least among them can bear their situation.”

After he had recorded these statements, Sufian provided them before the imam.

Hence, Abu Abdillah rode the pack animal and went.

Halfway, I told Sufian that Abu Abdillah had bound him with an everlasting duty.

“What is that?” asked Sufian. “It is the three things in which a Muslim should never

act unfaithfully,” I said, “Sincere performance of God’s duties is a clear matter.

Regarding providing the advice to the Muslims’ imams, who are those imams? Are

they Muawiya Bin Abi Sufian, Yazid Bin Muawiya, Marwan Bin Al-Hakam and the

other rulers, the collective prayers led by whom are invalid? About committing to

their congruity, who are those congruous people? Are they the deferrers who believe

that persons who did not perform a single obligatory prayer, and did not fast a single

day, and did not perform the obligatory bathing, and demolished the Kaba and marry

their mothers, are bearing the same degree of faith born by Gabriel and Michael; the

angels? Or are they the fatalists who believe that the Satan’s desire can be

materialized while God’s cannot? Or are they the Harurites who deny Ali Bin Abi

Talib and decide his atheism? Or are they the Jahmites who claim that faith is

knowing God only?”

As he became perplexed, Sufian asked me an explanation of the Prophet’s saying

reported by Abu Abdillah; the imam. “Ali Bin Abi Talib, by God, is the only imam

before whom we are mandated to provide the advice. And the congruity stands for

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his household,” I answered.

Sufian tore the paper and asked me to keep it secret.

Ali Bin Ibrahim’s Tafsir: 1/171:

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) performed the Farewell Pilgrimage

which was the tenth since he immigrated to Al-Madina. In Mina, he orated:

“Praised and thanked be Allah.

O people! Listen and understand my coming wording. I cannot guarantee whether I

shall meet you the next year.

Do you realize which day is the most sanctified?”

“It is this day,” answered people.

“Do you realize which month is the most sanctified?”

“It is this month,” answered they.

“Do you realize which land is the most sanctified?”

“It is this land,” answered they.

“Your souls, estate and honors are as sanctified among you as this day in this month

in this land till you shall meet your Lord Who will examine your deeds. O people!

Have I conveyed?”

“Yes, you have,” shouted they.

“O Allah! Be the witness,” commented the Prophet. After a while, he added, “Every

regulation, heresy, revenge and debt that were founded in Jahilism, are under my

feet. None is preferable to another but by criteria of god-fearing. Have I conveyed?”

“Yes, you have,” declared they.

“O Allah! Be the witness,” said the Prophet, and added, “Every usury that was

concluded in the Jahilism is revoked. The first usury I am to revoke is Al-Abbas Bin

Abdil-Muttelib’s. Every revenge that was in the Jahilism is revoked. The first

revenge I am to revoke is Rabia’s. Have I conveyed?”

“Yes, you have,” shouted they.

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“O God! Be the witness,” said the Prophet, and added, “The Satan despaired of being

obeyed on this land. But he pleased to be obeyed through your insignificant deeds. If

the Satan is obeyed, he is then served.

O people! A Muslim is the brother of Muslims. It is illicit for a Muslim to shed the

blood of the other Muslim, or to have from his estate unless satisfaction is obtained. I

am given the orders of fighting people till they say: There is no god but Allah. As

they speak this statement out, they will protect their souls and estate except in the

rightful ways. The Lord shall be their judge. O people! Have I conveyed?”

“Yes, you have,” shouted they.

“O Allah! Be the witness,” said the Prophet and added, “O people! Keep my wording

and you will harvest its benefits later on. Perceive my sayings and you will be

prosperous. Break not your faith after me, and be not unbelievers by beheading each

other for the sake of mundane affairs. If you do so, and you shall do it, you will find

me in a phalanx between Gabriel and Michael; the angels, striking your faces with

the sword…” For a while, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) kept peace

while he was turning to his right. Then, he continued, “…or Ali Bin Abi Talib, God

willing. I am leaving among you the two things that will enduringly protect you

against deviation. They are the Book of Allah and my people; my household. The

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Knower of subtleties, the Aware has informed me that these two things shall never

separate until they will join me on the Divine Pool. He shall be saved that whoever

accedes to them. And he shall be perishing that whoever dissents them. Have I

conveyed?”

“Yes, you have,” shouted they.

“O Allah! Be the witness,” said the Prophet and added, “Men among you shall be

occluded from joining me on the Divine Pool. I will say they are being my

companions. I will be answered, ‘You lack knowledge of what they committed after

you.’ I will comment, ‘Far away! Far away!’”

On the last day of Tashriq, God revealed Sura of Nasr. The Prophet (peace be upon

him and his family) understood that his death was about to fall. He declared people

to gather in Al-Kheif Mosque for the prayer. When people came there, he orated:

“Praised and thanked be Allah.

God may bloom the servant who will listen and understand my words, and convey

them to the absent.

A bearer of knowledge may happen to be illiterate, and a bearer of knowledge may

happen to carry it to the more knowledgeable.

Muslim’s hearts should never act unfaithfully in three matters; sincere performance

of God’s duties, providing the advice to the Muslims’ imams and committing to their

congruity. Their congruity is binding.

The believers are brothers of equal blood. The least among them can bear their

situation. They are one hand against their enemies. O people! I am leaving among

you the two weighty things.” “What are the two weighty things, God’s messenger?”

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wondered people. The Prophet explained: “They are the Book of Allah and my

people; my household. The Knower of subtleties, the Aware has informed me that

these two things shall never separate until they will join me on the Divine Pool.

Their joining shall be like the joining of the forefingers of my two hands, not the

joining of the forefinger and the next one, since there is a little space may be left.”

Some of the Prophet’s companions spoke to each other that Mohammed intended to

dedicate the leadership to his household. Four of them traveled to Mecca and entered

the Kaba where they concluded an agreement on preventing the Prophet’s household

from holding any position of leadership as soon as Mohammed would be dead or

assassinated. Hence, God revealed to his Prophet: (Or have they settled an affair?

Then, surely We are the settlers. Or do they think that We do not hear what they

conceal and their secret discourses? Aye! And our messengers with them write

down.)

Al-Bukhari’s: 5/126:

Abu Bakra: The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated:

“Time has rotated as same as the first day on which the Lord created the heavens and

the earth. A year contains twelve months, four of them are sanctified. Three are

successive; Dhu’l-Qada, Dhu’l-Hijja and Muharram. And the fourth is Rajab which

falls between Jumada and Shaban. Which month is this?”

“God and His Apostle are the most knowledgeable,” we answered.

The Prophet paused for a considerable while that we thought he would call another

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name to that month.

“Is it not Dhu’l-Hijja?” asked the Prophet.

“Yes, it is,’ we replied.

“Which land is this?’ asked he.

“God and His Apostle are the most knowledgeable,” we answered.

The Prophet paused for a considerable while that we thought he would call another

name to it.

“Is it not Al-Balda?” asked the Prophet.

“Yes, it is,” we replied.

“Which day is today?” asked the Prophet.

“God and His Apostle are the most knowledgeable,” we answered.

The Prophet kept peace for a considerable while that we thought he would call

another name to it.

“Is it not the Nahr Day?” asked the Prophet.

“Yes, it is,” we answered.

The Prophet spoke, “Your souls and estate (Mohammed: He might said, “and your

honor…”) are sanctified among you as same as the sanctification of this day in this

month on this land. You shall meet your Lord, and He shall examine your deeds.

After me, return not to deviation by beheading each other. The witness should inform

the absent. It may happen that an indirect receiver is being more committed than the

direct.”

It is noticeable that the narrator uses ‘deviation’ instead of ‘unbelief’ which was

mentioned in the other ways of narration.

Al-Bukhari’s: 1/24:

… The Prophet (peace be upon him) sat on the back of his camel while a man was

catching to its bridle. “Which day is today?” asked the Prophet. We kept peace for a

considerable while that we thought he would call another name to that day.

“Is it not the Nahr Day?” asked the Prophet.

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“Yes, it is,” we replied.

“Which month are we in?” asked the Prophet.

We kept peace for a considerable while that we thought he would call another name

to that month.

“Is it not Dhu’l-Hijja?” asked the Prophet.

“Yes, it is,” we replied.

The Prophet added, “Your souls, estate and honor are sanctified among you as same

as the sanctification of this day in this month on this land. The witness should inform

the absent. A witness may convey to a more committed.”

Muslim’s: 4/41:

… The Prophet (peace be upon him) descended the valley and orated:

“Your souls and estate are sanctified among you as same as the sanctification of this

day in this month on this land. Every affair of the Jahilism is being under my feet.

Revenge of the Jahilism is revoked. The first revenge I am to revoke is Rabia Bin Al-

Harith’s; ours. He was suckling in the quarter of Bani Sa’d, and the Hutheil killed

him.

Usury of Jahilism is revoked. The first usury I am to revoke is Al-Abbas Bin Abdil-

Muttelib’s; ours.

Watch your Lord during treating your women. You have taken them by the trust of

God. And you have consummated their privates by the word of God. Your rights

imposed upon them are that they should not permit any you dislike to sit on your

furniture. If they do so, you are permitted to beat them not heavily. Their rights

imposed upon you are to save their alimony and clothing in an acceptable way. I am

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leaving among you what will protect you against deviation as long as you commit

yourselves to. It is the Book of Allah. You shall be asked about me. What will you

answer?”

“We do confess you have conveyed, accomplished and advised,” shouted people.

As he raised his forefinger to the heavens and shook it towards people, the Prophet

said thrice, “O Allah! Be the witness.”

Ibn Madga relates the same previous narrative with an addition.

Al-Hakim’s Al-Mustedrak; 1/77:

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) orated:

“O People! I will precede you to the Divine Pool. It is a pool of a distance as same as

it between Kufa and the Black Stone -of the Kaba-. His vessels are as much as stars.

As some people from my nation will approach, a man will come out and occlude

them from being close to me. Another group shall be occluded, too. None shall

escape but a few groups like the scattered animals in a cattle.”

“Am I one of them, God’s prophet?” asked Abu Bakr.

“No, you are not,” answered the Prophet, “They are people of the coming

generations who will move backward.”

(Al-Hakim) According to the criteria of the two Sheiks -Muslim and Al-Bukhari-,

this is an authentic narrative. Yet, they did not record it. Al-Hejjaj Bin Mohammed

relates it to Al-Leith.

Ibn Madga’s As-Sunan; 2/1016:

… Abdullah Bin Masud: While he was on the back of his she-camel in Arafat, the

Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Do you realize which day, month and land are

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these?”

“These are sanctified day, month and land,” answered they.

“Your estate and souls are sanctified among you as same as the sanctification of this

month, land and day,” said the Prophet, and went on, “I will precede you to the

Divine Pool, and I will take pride in you before the other nations. Blacken not my

face. I will save some people, and some will be taken away from me. I will say, ‘O

Lord! Those are my companions.’ I will be answered, ‘You lack knowledge of what

they did after you.’”

In Majma’uzzawaid, this is an authentic report.

Ibn Madga’s As-Sunan; 2/1300:

Title: After Me, Return Not To Atheism By Beheading Each Other:

Jarir Bin Abdillah: During the Farewell Pilgrimage, the Prophet (peace be upon him)

asked people to keep silent. He said, “After me, return not to atheism by beheading

each other.”

Ibn Omar: The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated, “Woe is you! After me, return

not to atheism by beheading each other.”

As-Sennaj Al-Ahmesi: The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated, “I will precede you

to the Divine Pool. I will take pride in you among the other nations. After me, do not

fight each other.”

In Majma’uzzawaid, this is an authentic report with trustful narrators.

At-Tirmithi’s As-Sunan; 2/62:

… Abu Umama: During the Farewell Pilgrimage, I heard the Prophet (peace be upon

him) say, “Beware of your duty to Allah, and perform the five prayers, and fast on

that month, and defray the poor rate, and comply with your leaders and you shall be

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taken to the Paradise of your Lord.”

Abu Umama confesses that he heard this prophetic saying when he was thirty years

old.

Abu Isa: This narrative is qualified with a rather doubtful narrator. It is, however,

decided as authentic.

Ahmed’s Al-Musnad; 5/412:

… A man from the Prophet’s companions: The Prophet (peace be upon him) was on

the back of his red she-camel when he asked, “Do you realize which day is today?”

“It is the Nahr Day,” answered we.

“You are true,” replied the Prophet, “It is the Grand Pilgrimage Day. Which month is

it?”

“It is Dhu’l-Hijja,” expressed we.

“You are true,” commented the Prophet, “It is the palatial month of God. Do you

know which land is this?”

“It is the Holy Precinct,” answered we.

“You are true,” stated the Prophet, and added, “Your souls and estate are sanctified

among you as same as the sanctification of this day in this month on this land. (Or: as

same as the sanctification of this day, month and land.”)

I will precede you to the Divine Pool. I will look at you as I will take pride in you

among the other nations. Blacken not my face. You have seen and listened to me.

You shall be asked about me. He whoever deliberately forges lies against me, should

seek himself a place in the hell-fire. I will save some people, and others will be taken

away from me. I will say, ‘O Lord! They are my companions.’ I will be answered,

‘You lack knowledge of what they did after you.’”

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Majma’uzzawaid; 3/265:

Title: Sermons Of The Pilgrimage:

Abu Harra Ar-Reqqashi: His uncle: In the middle of the Tashriq days, I was catching

the riddle of the Prophet’s she-camel. The Prophet spoke, “O people! Do you realize

which day, month and land are these?”

“They are sanctified day, month and land,” answered peole.

“Your souls, estate and honor are as sanctified among you as this day in this month

on this land, till the day on which you shall meet your Lord. Listen to me and you

will live. Wrong not each other. Wrong not each other. Wrong not each other. It is

illicit for any to have from a Muslim’s property unless satisfaction is obtained.

Every blood and estate of Jahilism should be under my feet till the Resurrection Day.

The first revenge I am to revoke is Rabia Bin Al-Harith Bin Abdil-Muttelib’s. He

was a baby at the Leith when the Hutheil killed him. Every usury that was in

Jahilism is revoked. The Exalted Lord mandates that the first usury to be revoked is

Al-Abbas Bin Abdil-Muttelib’s. You possess your capital, neither wronging nor

wronged.

Time has rotated as same as the first day on which the Lord created the heavens and

the earth. Surely the number of months with Allah is twelve months in Allah’s

ordinance since the day when He created the heavens and the earth, of these four

being sacred. That is the right reckoning; therefore, wrong not each other during

them.

After me, return not to atheism by beheading each other.

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The Satan despaired of being obeyed by the performers of prayers; but he is working

on creating antagonism among you.

Fear God during treating your women. They are restrained at you. They have rights

imposed upon you and you have rights imposed upon them. The rights imposed upon

them are that they should not permit any to take your places in your beds, and they

are not allowed to permit any you dislike to enter your houses. If you expect

desertion of a women, you should admonish, and desert in the bed, and beat

ineffectively. Their rights are that you should save their alimony and clothing. You

have taken them by the trust of God, and you have consummated their privates by the

word of God.

He whoever had a trust, should deliver it to the depositor.”

The Prophet then opened his hand and said, “Have I conveyed? Have I conveyed?

The witness should inform the absent. An indirect receiver may happen to be more

receptive than a direct hearer.”

(Abu Dawud dedicates this narration to the statements of beating women.)

(Ahmed and Abu Harra Ar-Reqqashi relates the narration. Abu Dawud rules its

authenticity, while Ibn Muin decides its doubtfulness. One of the narrators is Ali Bin

Zaid about whom there are some points noted by experts.)

Abu Nadra: A man heard the Prophet’s sermon addressed in the middle of the

Tashriq days:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated, “O people! Your Lord is one. Your father is

one. An Arab should not be preferred to a non-Arab, and a black should not preferred

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to a white except by criteria of god-fearing. Have I conveyed?”

“Yes, the messenger of God has conveyed,” people shouted.

“Which day is today?” asked the Prophet.

“It is a sanctified day,” people answered.

“Which land is this?” asked the Prophet.

“It is a sanctified land,” people shouted.

“God; the Exalted, has made your souls and estate (The Prophet might have added

‘and honor’ to his statement.) as sanctified as this day in this month on this land.

Have I conveyed?” said the Prophet.

“Yes, the messenger of God has conveyed,” people admitted.

“The witness should inform the absent,” ordered the Prophet (peace be upon him).

(To a series of authentic narrators, Ahmed relates the previous report on page 72 of

part 5.)

Ibn Omar: When this sura was revealed to the Prophet (peace be upon him) in Mina

in the middle of the Tashriq days, he recognized the imminence of his death. He rode

his pack animal; Al-Qaswa, and stood among people in Al-Aqaba. A great number of

Muslims encompassed him. He orated:

“Praised and thanked be Allah.

O people! Every revenge that was in Jahilism is annulled. The first revenge I am to

annul is Rabia Bin Al-Harith’s. The Hutheil killed him when he was a baby at the

Leith.

Likewise, every usury that was concluded in the Jahilism is revoked. The first usury

I am to revoke is Al-Abbas Bin Abdil-Muttelib’s.

O people! Time has rotated as same as it was when the Lord created the heavens and

the earth. Number of months with Allah is twelve, four of which are sanctified. They

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are Rajab which falls between Jumada and Shaban, and Dhu’l-Qada and Dhu’l-Hijja

and Muharram. That is the right reckoning; therefore, wrong not each other during

them.

Postponing of the sacred months is only an addition in unbelief, wherewith those

who disbelieve are led astray, violating it one year and keeping it sacred another, that

they may agree the number of months that Allah has made sacred. They were

violating Safar a year and keeping Muharram sacred the other. That is the postponing

of the sacred months.

O people! He whoever had a trust, should deliver it to the depositor.

O people! The Satan despaired of being obeyed on this land in the last of time, but he

pleased to be obeyed in your insignificant deeds. Take care of your religion against

your insignificant deeds.

O people! Women are in your hands. You have taken them by the trust of God, and

consummated their privates by the word of God. You have right imposed upon them

and they have rights imposed upon you. Within your rights is that they should not let

any take your places in your beds, and they should not disobey you in acceptable

matters. If they do so, then you have no authority on them. They should enjoy their

alimony and clothing in an acceptable way. If you beat them, you should not injure.

It is illicit for any to have from his brother’s property unless satisfaction is obtained.

O people! Among you, I am leaving what will protect you against deviation if you

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adhere to. It is the Book of Allah. You should follow it.

O people! Which day is today?”

“It is a sacred day,” answered they.

“Which land is this?” asked the Prophet.

“It is a sacred land,” answered they.

“Which month is this?” asked the Prophet.

“It is a sacred month,” answered they.

“Allah; the Blessed the Elevated, has made your souls, estate and honor as sacred as

this day in this month on this land. The witness should inform the absent. There shall

be no prophet after me, and there shall be no nation after you.”

The Prophet then raised his hands to the heavens and said, “O Allah! Be the

witness.”

(In the Sahih books -the most acceptable books of hadith-, a part of this report is

recorded. Al-Bezzar relates it, too. Musa Bin Ubeida; the doubtful, is within the

series of the narrators.)

Majmauzzawaid; 3/272:

… Al-Adda Bin Khalid Bin Amr Bin Amir: In the Farewell Pilgrimage, I was sitting

under the pulpit from which the Prophet (peace be upon him) sermonized. He said:

“Praised and thanked be Allah. God says, (O you men! We have created you of a

male and a female, and made you tribes and families that you may know each other;

surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the one among you most careful of his

duty.) An Arab should not be preferred to a non-Arab, and a non-Arab should not be

preferred to an Arab, and a black should not be preferred to a white, and a white

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should not be preferred to a black except on criteria of god-fearing.

O the Quraishis! Do not shoulder the mundane affairs, while people shoulder the

Hereafter. I will not avail you in the least before God.”

(In his Al-Mujamul Kabir, At-Tabarani relates this narration to doubtful narrators.

Previously, we have referred to an authentic documentation of this report.)

Abu Qabila: In the Farewell Pilgrimage, the Prophet sermonized:

“There shall be no prophet after me, and there shall be no nation after you. Revere

your Lord, and perform the five prayers, and fast the month, and comply with the

leaders and you shall be entering the Paradise of your Lord.”

(In his Al-Mujamul Kabir, At-Tabarani relates…)

Ad-Darimi’s As-Sunan; 2/47:

…The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated: “Your blood and estate are as sanctified

as this day in this month on this land. Every matter that was regulated in Jahilism is

under my feet. Revenge of Jahilism is revoked. The first revenge I am to revoke is

the Rabia Bin Al-Harith’s. The Hutheil killed him when he was a baby at the Sa’d.

Usury of Jahilism is revoked. The first usury I am to revoke is Al-Abbas Bin Abdil-

Muttelib’s.

Watch the Lord during treating your women. You have taken them by the trust of

God, and consummated their privates by His word. Your rights imposed upon them

are that they should not let any take your places in your beds. If they do, you are to

beat them ineffectively. Their rights imposed upon you are that you should save their

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alimony and clothing in an acceptable way.

You shall be asked about me, what shall you answer?”

“We acknowledge you have conveyed, accomplished and advised,” shouted people.

The Prophet raised his forefinger to the heavens and shook it at people while he said

thrice, “O Allah! Be the witness.” …

Ad-Darimi’s As-Sunan; 2/67:

Abdurrahman Bin Abi Bakra: His father: … “Which day is today?” asked the

Prophet (peace be upon him).

We kept silent for a considerable while that we thought he would call another name

for that day.

“Is it not the Nahr Day?” asserted the Prophet.

“Yes, it is,” answered we.

“Which month is this?” asked the Prophet…etc.

SECOND BASE

UNITY OF THE ISLAMIC NATION

For a preliminary sight on the texts relating the Prophet’s last sermons, a reader believes

that the first five principals of this base: unity of the Islamic nation, are the only and the

most important topic. Muslims repeated paragraphs of the Prophet’s sermons dealing

with this topic so over again. This is by the reason that the society in which the Prophet

(peace be upon him and his family) lived, was of an extreme racial discrimination. It

was prevailed by laws of predominance and power. The dominant, whether a ruler, a

tribe, a knight or a vagrant, is always the right since he could overcome even if he used

means of invasion, assassination, robbery, usurpation or trickery.

The Islamic legislation repealed all these and declared equity of people before the law.

The entire sorts of abusing the private rights were prohibited. A concentration on

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respecting souls, estate and dignity of people was legislated. This is why they

memorized these words in a way distinguished from the other prophetic topics and

words. They were highly admired by these ethics and principals. For the believing

Muslims, these principals formed the radical solution of the issue of invasion and

murder suffered in the pre-Islamic era.

These instructions, formed in a highly eloquent divine and prophetic style, had a great

influence on regulations of respecting personal character, estate and opinion after the

Prophet’s decease. Without these instructions, the Muslims’ society would have been

engaged in a situation extremely worse than what had actually occurred. In the same

manner, the Jahilite regulations, regarding association with humanity, would have

floated to the surface anew.

It is noticeable that the Prophet’s immaculate household were preceding people in the

field of regarding humans and their legal freedom. Ali (peace be upon him) was the

only ruler after the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), who did not use the

emergency or the martial laws or any exceptional law, even with his rivals and those

who abstained from declaring fealty to his leadership. Moreover, although Ali was

engaged in three wars that covered the entire period of his ruling, he did not resort to

violence or any exceptional policy.

On the other hand, Abu Bakr and Omar reverted to means of power and surmounting

against Ansar in Saqifa of Bani Saida. They were about to kill Sa’d Bin Abada. Later

on, they attacked the group who refrained from swearing allegiance to their leadership.

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Those people were gathering in the Prophet’s house for providing their consolation to

the Prophet’s family. Furthermore, the Prophet’s funeral had not been put in the grave

yet, when the band threatened them setting the house on fire if they insist on confining

themselves there, and evade swearing fealty to the new leadership. When the group

were late in going out and leaving the house, that band encompassed the house with

firewood and set the door on fire…

The sixth principal of this base, which is the principal of maintaining properties and

souls of those who speak out the creed of Islam; ‘There is no god but Allah’, was

related in this form: “I am given the orders of fighting people to say ‘There is no god

but Allah.’ If they speak it out, they will protect their souls and estate against me except

in lawful states. God then will be the Judge.” Ali Bin Ibrahim Al-Qummi relates this

form.

As a matter of fact, this principal is of three dimensions:

First all, he whoever speaks out the creeds of Islam, apart from his religion or national

belongness, is reckoned with Muslims whose souls, estate and honor is kept in

sacredness. In case regulations of being the despotic party, an evil in the land, a

murderer, an apostate, a fornicator or the like are applicable to that person, his soul will

be lawfully violated.

Second, Jews and Christians are exempted from this rule. They enjoy private

regulations in case of peace or war.

Third, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) informed his people that he had

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restricted himself to the divine orders of jihad -struggling for the Lord’s sake-. His

mission from this jihad was completing the revelation of the Quran and materializing

the declaration of the two creeds of Islam. In other words, his mission was forming the

general appearance of this nation. He was not given the orders of fighting the deviate or

those who mislead the Muslims, since this sort of fighting is reckoned with jihad for

interpreting the Quran. This sort of jihad came after the Prophet’s decease.

The seventh principal is sealing prophesy with the Prophet (peace be upon him and his

family), and sealing the nations with his nation. The following wording of the Prophet

has been previously forecited during providing the narration of Majmauzzawaid. It is

his saying, “There shall be no prophet after me, and there shall be no nation after you.

Beware of your duty to Allah, and perform the five prayers, and fast on that month, and

defray the poor rate, and comply with your leaders and you shall be taken to the

Paradise of your Lord.”

It is the principal of the prevalence of Mohammed’s doctrine over doctrines of the

previous prophets. It also refutes the misclaims of prophesy a part of which emerged

during his reign while others came forth thereafter.

Furthermore, this principal grants the Islamic nation the honor of sealing the prophets’

nations. It confines it with the responsibility of guiding the other nations. The Prophet

(peace be upon him and his family) outlined the general strings of worshipping the

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Lord, performing the prayers, fasting and complying with the leaders. It is not unlikely

that the reporter related only the paragraphs he could memorize, and that he missed the

Prophet’s reference to others, such as the poor rate and the ritual pilgrimage.

The most distinguishable point in this principal is that the Prophet (peace be upon him

and his family) refers to complying with the rulers. When God mandates compliance

with a person without citing conditions, this shall mean that this person is sinless that he

does not wrong any, and does not say but the truth. Since this prophetic instruction is

empty of any conditions and qualifications, it is most surely that he refers to the twelve

imams whom are divinely nominated, and prophetically predicted.

The eighth principal; principal of the Prophet’s being the witness on his people in the

Hereafter and their joining him on the Divine Pool, is mentioned in various narrations.

Some mention the form of, “I will precede you to the Divine Pool, and I will take pride

in you before the other nations. Blacken not my face.” In other narrations, the following

form is recorded: “I will take pride in you among the other nations. After me, do not

fight each other.”

This is a unique prophetic style persisting that people shall join their Prophet before

their Lord, and each shall be in need of a drink from the Kawthar Pool. That drink will

save him against any further thirst and make his body fit to enter the Paradise.

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This instruction is similar to a father’s saying to his sons, “O sons! Fulfill my will. I am

leaving you. You shall join me when I will be having a great fortune. You will be living

in a poverty. I will surely realize the persons among you who will keep my will, and,

similarly, I will realize the dissidents.”

The ninth principal; principal of necessity of accuracy in acting, and admonishing

against committing the insignificant actions that lead to deviation, attracts attentions to

a remarkable rule in individual and social behaviors. It is the rule that deviation begins

with an insignificant deed or a group of simple deeds seen as meaningless and

unimportant. These deeds shall lead to others, till they lead to the abyss of the mundane

or the supernal devastation.

This matter is practicable in individual and collective situations.

A Muslim may permit himself to gaze at a foreign lady he liked, and gives himself the

license to exchange conversation with her, and to participate her in some acts, and,

finally, this will lead him to perpetrate the obscenity.

A man may permit himself to befriend a bad man. He neglects the sounds of his

religious consciousness and the advise of his associates. This will lead him to sink in the

ocean of wronging people and deviation and corruption.

A nation may overlook assails of their enemies in states of political, economic or

cultural power. This concern will lead the enemies to predominate and prevail this

nation.

A society may overlook an aspect of corruption that first occurs in a certain point or

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among a certain group.

A society may overlook a law dictatorially issued by the ruler or his men. This will lead

to a comprehensive injustice that drives the society towards putrescence.

The insignificant sins are those tiny situations and behaviors forming the invisible seeds

of the giant trees of evil on individual and social levels. Consequently, reference books

Muslims insist on referring to this affair.

Al-Kafi; 2/288:

Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (peace be upon him):

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) resided in waste land. He asked his

companions to fetch firewood. They apologized that the land had been barren. “Try

to find as much as possible,” ordered the Prophet. They fetched a good quantity and

provided the sum before him. As he saw the view, the Prophet (peace be upon him

and his family) commented, “This is the way how sins gather. Beware of the

insignificant sins. Everything has an observer. The observer of these sins records

whatever they acted and their deeds, and everything is registered in a clear

recording.”

Al-Baiheqi’s As-Sunan; 10/188:

Abdullah Bin Masud: The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated, “Beware of the

insignificant sins. They accumulate against a man till they cause him to perish. Their

like is a people who resided in a barren land. Each could fetch a small single wood

till they gathered a considerable quantity sufficient for making fire and cooking their

food.”

The previous prophetic sayings deal with the quantitative accumulation of the

insignificant ill deeds and sins. They show how these deeds change into a great danger

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against the lives of individuals and societies.

The following prophetic sayings deal with the qualitative accumulation of the

insignificant sins in the core and personality of the individuals and societies:

Al-Kafi; 2/287:

Imam Jafar As-Sadiq stated: “Beware of the insignificant sins. They are

unforgivable.” “What are the insignificant sins?” I asked. Imam explained, “A man

commits a sin and wishes if he had not committed others.”

Ibn Madga’s As-Sunan; 2/1417:

Aisha: The Prophet (peace be upon him) addressed at me, “O Aisha! Beware of the

insignificant sins. They have an interrogator from the Lord’s side.”

It is also recorded in Ad-Darimi’s; 2/303, and Ahmed’s; 6/70 and 151.

One of the remarkable bases, inferred form this prophetic instruction, is that the Satan,

when despairs of controlling a nation through misguiding them in the grand issues,

takes the road of ruining and deviating through the insignificant deeds. This is the

Prophet’s saying, “The Satan despaired of being obeyed on this land. But he will be

obeyed in some sins you deem insignificant. He will be pleased by them.” This saying is

recorded in Ibn Madga’s As-Sunan; 2/1015.

The Satan despaired of demolishing the fortified castle and the handsome structure of

Islam erected by the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family); therefore, he went

towards prevailing on the individuals to drag a single brick of that building incessantly.

This process resulted in dragging the entire constituents of that great structure.

Another outstanding matter, deduced from Ali Bin Ibrahim’s narration, is that obeying

the Satan in the insignificant sins is reckoned as an adoration to him. This means that

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those who commence aberration in a society are serving the Satan, not the Lord. As a

result, they carry the advocacy to changing from serving the Lord into serving the

Satan. This is the Prophet’s saying, “But he is pleased to be obeyed through your

insignificant deeds. If the Satan is obeyed, he is then served.”

The Prophet’s declaring that the Satan is pleased to be obeyed through the insignificant

sins is an information telling the Satan’s satisfaction for the success progressed in his

project of deviating people and destructing their castles. This accords the exegesis of

God’s saying, (And certainly the Satan found true his conjecture concerning them, so

they follow him, except a party of the believers.)

The Prophet’s household regarded people’s struggle on power after the Prophet’s

decease as the most menacing insignificant sin.

Biharul Anwar; 28/217:

Imam Al-Baqir (peace be upon him), through explaining God’s saying, (Corruption

has appeared in the land and the sea on account of what the hands of men have

wrought,) said, “By God, that commenced when Ansar suggested to elect a leader

from them, and the Quraishis elect another from them.”

The tenth principal; principal of warning against forging lies against the Prophet, and

insisting on investigating whatever is imputed to him, is referred to through the two

forecited narrations of Ahmed. In the Sunni and Shiite reference books of hadith, this

question is mentioned importunately, that means the existence of a serious trouble

during the Prophet’s lifetime. The Prophet insists that this problem shall find a larger

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scope after his final departure. The number of fabricators shall increase after him.

A deep look in this problem leads to an abhorrent feeling towards such fabricators since

their satanic action defames and deforms Islam, and precludes the next generations from

receiving its genuineness. A more serious matter is the fact that the Prophet (peace be

upon him and his family) was not given the orders of unmasking and punishing such

fabricators for their past or coming forgery. As an acceptable treatment of this problem,

the procedure of warning them against forging lies, and warning people against

receiving such falsification, was taken.

It is evident that such a procedure affects only in a quantitative reduction of the

problem. Hence, the Prophet’s recognition of the problem existence, and prediction of

its continuity and increase are evidences on the fact that he constitutes a sufficient

treatment for the problem, by means of divine instructions.

This treatment was the obligation of presenting every text ascribed to him, before the

two weighty things he left in his nation and ordered of adhering to; the Book of Allah

and his household. Any text that contradicts the Book of Allah must be decided as

worthless, since the Prophet does never belie the Quran. Correspondingly, every text

that contradicts whatever is asserted by his progeny, who are being incessantly with

Quran, is worthless, too. The Prophet’s household are being perpetually with the Quran,

since they are the heirs of the Prophet and the explicators of his knowledge.

THE THIRD BASE

Through various paragraphs of the Prophet’s sermons of the Farewell Pilgrimage,

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principals of this base are mentioned. Previously, we have referred to fulfillment of

trusts and laws of heritage, blood money and pilgrimage. At any rate, there are other

laws in the prophetic sermons involved.

In spite of the countering factors, the main element in the materialization of the cultural

unity of the Islamic nation, disregarding racial and national difference, was the unity of

their creed and legislation. It is an undeniable fact that Islam could achieve a unity of

conceptions and behavior among people in a form unattainable for the entire states and

civilizations.

THE FOURTH BASE

PRINCIPALS OF THE POLITICAL AFFAIRS, AND

THE NEXT LEADERSHIP

- Principal of the prediction of the coming of twelve imams of the Prophet’s progeny.

- Principal of the importunate adherence to the Quran and the Prophet’s progeny; the

two weighty things.

- Principal of nominating Ali as the next leader of this nation, and the first of the twelve

imams.

- Principal of keeping on performing the obligatory rites and compliance with the

leaders.

- Principal of immortalizing the treaty of Quraish and Kenana on blockading the

Hashemites.

- Principal of warning the Quraishis against playing the tyrant after the Prophet’s

departure.

- Principal of warning the Prophet’s companions against breaking faith and struggling

on power.

Formerly, we have referred to this discussion through rendition of the prophetic texts

regarding the twelve imams. It is provable that this point has been remarked by the

Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) during the Farewell Pilgrimage sermons.

It is inadmissible for the sane to accept that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his

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family) had concealed the identity of those divinely nominated imams, or that the

Prophet provided this matter for predicting of their coming. These claims are originated

by the Quraishis and their hired narrators.

Shiite reference books of hadith attest that the second principal of the Prophet’s

persisting on the adherence to the two weighty things; the Quran and his progeny, relate

that he referred to this matter through sermon of Ghadir, the Al-Kheif Mosque sermon

and, presumably, the others. This fact is forecited through Ali Bin Ibrahim’s narration.

Comprehensively, the Sunni reference books of hadith record the Prophet’s assertion on

adherence to the two weighty things; the Quran and the Prophet’s progeny, during

sermon of Ghadir only. They decide the authenticity of the reports relate this affair. At-

Tabari compiled a two-volumed book in this regard. He refers to the various series of

narrators and ways of documentation of the sermon involved.

Regarding the other sermons of the Farewell Pilgrimage, At-Tirmithi, in his As-Sunan;

5/328, records:

Jabir Bin Abdillah: I saw the Prophet (peace be upon him) on the pack of his shecamel;

Al-Qaswa, on day of Arafa, orate:

“O people! I am leaving among you what will constantly protect you against

deviation if only you adhere to; the Book of Allah and my people; my household.

(The same is related by Abu Tharr, Abu Sa’eed, Zaid Bin Arqam and Hutheifa Bin

Useid. The narration is decided as strange and qualified, but with a rather doubtful

narrator. Sa’eed Bin Suleiman and many other scholars, however, relate Zaid Bin Al-

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Hassan’s narrations.)

It is also noticeable that a number of Sunni reference books record the Prophet’s will of

the Quran only, disregarding his household.

Muslim’s; 4/41:

… I am leaving among you what will protect you against deviation as long as you

commit yourselves to. It is the Book of Allah.

The same is recorded in Abu Dawud’s; 1/427, and Al-Beihaqi’s; 5/8. Ibn Madga

records a similar thing on page 1025 of part 2. The following form is recorded in

Majma’uzzawaid; 3/265:

…“O people! I am leaving among you what will perpetually protect you against

deviation if you only adhere to. It is the Book of Allah. Apply its instructions.”

Through a scrutinizing look at the narratives involved, it is easily understood that

mentioning the Prophet’s household is deleted in such reports due to the narrators’

oblivion or the firm supervision the Quraishis imposed upon the prophetic texts. This is

evidenced by the fact that the same reference books relate the same text completely in

other positions. As a rule, the imperfect should be compared to the perfect.

Muslim, Al-Beihaqi, Ibn Madga and Al-Heithami record various narratives regarding

the Prophet’s repetitive importunate recommendation of adhering to the Quran and his

progeny together.

Muslim’s Sahih; 7/122:

Zaid Bin Arqam: In a place called ‘Khum’ and situated between Mecca and Al-

Madina, the Prophet (peace be upon him) addressed at us:

“Praised and thanked be Allah…

O people! I am not more than a human. The apostle of my Lord is about to come to

me, and I will respond. I am leaving among you two weighty things. First is the

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Book of Allah that contains the guidance and the illumination. Hold fast on the Book

of Allah and adhere to it. Second is my household. I bind you with the Lord in the

question of my household. I bind you with the Lord in the question of my household.

I bind you with the Lord in the question of my household.”

Hussain asked Zaid: “O Zaid! Who are his household? Are his women included?”

“Yes, his women are reckoned with his household,” answered Zaid, “But his

household are exclusively those whom are prohibited from receiving alms.”

“Who are they?” wondered Hussain.

“They are sons of Ali, Aqeel, Jafar and Abbas,” identified Zaid.

“All those are prohibited from receiving alms?” asked Hussain.

“Yes, they all,” replied Zaid.

Al-Beihaqi relates the same narration in his As-Sunan; 7/30 and 10/114.

Majma’uzzawaid; 1/170:

Zaid Bin Thabit: The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated:

“I am leaving among you two successors; the Book of Allah and my household. They

shall never leave each other till they join me on the Divine Pool.”

(In his Al-Mujamul Kabir, At-Tabarani records this narrative the narrators of which

are trustful.)

He also records it on page 162 of part 9, and commentates that Ahmed records it in an

acceptable documentation.

Abu Dawud does not refer to a clear narrative respecting the two weighty things. Yet,

he writes an independent title given the name of ‘Al-Mahdi’, in his As-Sunan; 2/309, in

which he records hadith of the twelve imams and the Prophet’s prediction of the coming

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of Imam Al-Mahdi and his being from the offspring of Ali and Fatima (peace be upon

them). He also relates the Prophet’s saying, “Even if there will be only a single day

from the age of this earth, God shall send a man from my household, who shall fill in it

with justice, as it is filled in with wrong.”

We provide the following point as an evidence on our claiming the Prophet’s ordering

people, during the Farewell Pilgrimage sermons, of adhering to his household besides

the Quran.

The prophetic statements are the most eloquent and articulate since they enjoy unique

specifications. One of these specifications is that there are definite structures dedicated

to definite occasions. This point is common between the Quran and the prophetic texts.

The prophetic structure, “…protect you against deviation if only you adhere to…” is

dedicated to his instructing his nation to adhere to the Quran and his household. The

Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had never used this structure in any

occasion except the recently concerned.

In the same manner, the structure, ‘I am leaving among you the two weighty things,’

had never been used in a situation other than the concerned.

When the Prophet gave his orders of fetching a pen and a paper so that he would record

a document ‘protecting them perpetually against deviation,’ during his final disease, the

Quraishis perceived that he had intended to commit the Muslims to complying with the

imams of his progeny in a written form. So, they rejected this order very frankly and

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insolently.

In six positions of his Sahih, Al-Bukhari refers to this incident. The other reference

books of hadith report Omar’s taking pride in playing the greatest role in the process of

depriving the Prophet of recording his will.

At any rate, we aim only for attracting attentions to the fact that isolating the Prophet’s

household from the Book of Allah, during reporting some narratives respecting sermons

of the Farewell Pilgrimage, violates the prophetic style and his unequaled expression

during referring to his instruction of adhering to the two; the Book of Allah and his

household, together. At-Tirmithi, moreover, relates the two together.

In abstract, none can deny the authentic truth that the Prophet predicted the coming of

the twelve imams, and instructed people to adhere to the two weighty things and

considered his immaculate household; Ali, Fatima, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein, as equal

to the Quran in the field of the obligation of complying with them. All these matters

were asserted through the prophetic sermons of the Farewell Pilgrimage. These fact may

be denied only by those who intend to be fanatic to the Quraishis in the face of the

Exalted Lord and His Apostle (peace be upon him and his family).

The third principal of this base, which is the declaration of Ali’s being the next religious

and political leader, is evident through hadith of Ghadir. We lack enough scope to refer

to the numerous documentations and texts concerning this topic. A great deal of

reference books of theology and hadith, beginning with At-Tabari’s Al-Wilaya and

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ending with Allama Al-Amini’s Al-Ghadir, discuss this topic thoroughly.

The fourth principal of this base; principal of keeping on performing the obligatory rites

and compliance with the leaders, has been discussed during mentioning paragraphs of

the second base. Al-Fakhr Ar-Razi, as well as many others, admits that God shall never

instruct us to comply with other than sinless people without specifying conditions,

otherwise, this shall be an instruction of a disobedience. This admission comes through

discussing God’s saying, (O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Apostle and

those in authority from among you.) Hence, men in authority intended in the Holy

Verse, must be sinless. Similarly, the intended in the Prophet’s sermon of the Farewell

Pilgrimage, as well as other occasions, must be sinless.

The fifth principal is immortalizing the treaty of Quraish and Kenana on blockading the

Hashemites. This is recorded in Al-Bukhari’s; 5/92:

Abu Huraira: The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated, “God willing, we shall reside

in Al-Kheif, the place where they concluded the treaty of atheism and swore it.”

On pages 246 and 194 of parts 4 and 8, Al-Bukhari records narratives concerning the

same matter. On page 158 of part 2, he records a narrative with a more evident point:

Abu Huraira: On the Nahr day, the Prophet (peace be upon him) was in Mina when

he stated, “Tomorrow, we shall reside in Al-Kheif of Bani Kenana, where they

concluded the treaty of atheism and swore it.” He meant Al-Muhassab. The

Quraishis and Kenana concluded a treaty against the Hashemites, sons of Abdul-

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Muttelib and sons of Al-Muttelib. They agreed upon abstaining from giving in

marriage or marrying any individual belonging to these houses, and abstaining from

selling them anything unless they give up the Prophet (peace be upon him).

The same is recorded in Muslim’s Sahih; 4/86, Ahmed’s; 2/322, 237, 263, 353 and 540.

It is also recorded in Al-Beihaqi’s As-Sunan; 5/160, in another form, in which he

commentates, “This report is recorded in Al-Bukhari’s and Muslim’s who relate it to

Al-Awzai.”

Muslim does relate it to Al-Awzai, while Al-Bukhari relates it to Abu Huraira. It seems

that Al-Beihaqi errs in this point, or the report is not found in the copy of Al-Bukhari’s

Sahih we depend upon.

In any event, the following addition exists in Muslim’s report related to Al-Awzai:

…“They should not give marriage or marry any individual of these houses, and no deal

should be concluded between the two parties till they give up the Prophet (peace be

upon him).”

Furthermore, in the two forms of the report, there is a difference in the place of the

Prophet’s residence. Al-Bukhari mentions that the Prophet (peace be upon him)

declared so while he was in Mina, after performing the rites of Arafat. At-Tabarani

mentions that it occurred in Mecca, before the commencement of the pilgrimage rites.

This is more acceptable, since it accounts for the Prophet’s concern in the subject and

his caring for concentrating it in the Muslim’s mentalities. Moreover, the Prophet had

resided in that place and passed the night before performing rites of Arafat there when

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he was in his way to that mountain.

This matter has been previously mentioned during discussing Ad-Darimi’s narration.

All the Tashriq days, the Prophet (peace be upon him) resided in that place.

Majma’uzzawaid; 3/250:

Ibn Abbas: A day before Tarwiya day, the Prophet (peace be upon him) stated, “God

willing, we shall reside in Al-Kheif, the place where the atheists concluded their

treaty and swore it.”

(In his Al-Mujamul Kabir and Al-Mujamul Awsat, At-Tabarani relates this narrative

to trustful narrators.)

The most remarkable point in this discussion is the Prophet’s purpose beyond reminding

the Quraishis and Muslims generally, of a great incident took place in that place

fourteen years ago. The Quraishis aimed at burying that incident, and make people

forget it. Allah; the Exalted, and His Apostle intend to eternalize it in the Muslims’

mentalities and history. The entire incident brings humiliation to the Quraishis, and

elevates proudly, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) and the Hashemites. It

is a sketch showing the ceaseless efforts of the pharaonic Quraishi masters who could

achieve unanimity of the clans, and convince tribes of Kenana, who were lodging near

the Holy Precinct, to put the Hashemite under a complete blockade. This blockade

lasted for long years. They practiced a comprehensive economic and social blockade

against the Hashemites for coercing them on giving Mohammed up, so that they would

be able to kill him, or making him retreat from his divine mission.

Those pharaonic masters felt in sublime cheer for their achieving the great success of

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congregating clans of Quraish and Kenana for that satanic purpose. Their conference

was held in Al-Muhassab in Al-Kheif of Bani Kenana where they swore, by Lat and

Uzza, keeping on achieving their purpose. The document they wrote was signed by

eighty chiefs and celebrities. The next day, they went on applying its paragraphs.

Hence, that blockade lasted for four years, and ended few days before the Prophet’s

immigration.

The Hashemites, including the unbelieving, combined with the Prophet (peace be upon

him and his family) and tolerated years of blockade, poverty, hurt and insult. That

occurred in col of Abu Talib. Till God relieved their suffering by a miracle, none of the

Muslims participated with them.

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) aimed at opening the new Muslims’

minds on the history of their religion and prices of the divine revelation, in order that

they may appreciate the value. Besides, he wanted them to pay attention to the core of

Islam and the core of atheism, so that they may recognize each. Another purpose is that

the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) aimed at sending a practical message to

the rest of the pharaonic masters of Quraish, who were still alive, to inform them that

they shouldered the offense of that atheism and shame. Nevertheless, they committed

greater sins afterwards. They did not change their situation till the Prophet (peace be

upon him and his family) gathered them under swords of the Hashemites and Ansar on

day of conquest of Mecca. Only then, they evaded being killed by declaring their

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embracing Islam. Thereafter, they planned for prevailing the heritage of the Islamic

state that had been constructed by Allah and His Apostle, against their desires.

Death and sword of Ali Bin Abi Talib were the Lord’s means of killing a few number of

the masters of that satanic treaty of Al-Kheif conference. A considerable number of

them; such as Suheil Bin Amr, Abu Sufian, Ikrima Bin Abi Jahl, Safwan Bin Umaya

Bin Khalaf, Hakeem Bin Hizam, Suheib Bin Sinan, Abul-Awar As-Selemi and others

were still alive. They accompanied the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) in

the Farewell Pilgrimage. They were listening to his statements and could remember

their near past. They were admired by his pardoning them and stopping at submitting

them to his full evidences.

Their extrinsic and hidden behavior, induction, the Prophet’s household’s testimony,

course of history; all these things proved their delight for the Prophet’s declaring his

imminent final departure. They were preparing for a new method of blockading the

Hashemites in the next stage.

Hence, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) purposed for reminding them of

their old plan, and how the Lord foiled it, and He would foil the coming ones.

The seventh principal of this base, which is warning the Quraishis against playing the

tyrant after departure of the Prophet, is recorded in our reference books of hadith. The

forecited narration recorded in Al-Heithami’s Majma’uzzawaid and related to Fahd Bin

Albahiri who listened to the sermon of Arafa Day and related the Prophet’s saying, “O

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the Quraishis! Do not shoulder the mundane affairs, while people shoulder the

Hereafter. I will not avail you in the least before God,” asserts this principal.

Thanks God, Fahd was a Bedouin. Had he been from Quraish or Kenana, he would have

substituted the Hashemites for the Quraishis!

The Quraishi narrators were wont to remove every statement that might injure or

censure the Quraishis. Therefore, the Sunnis’ reference books of hadith, are full of such

‘authentic’ reports regarding the Prophet’s blaming and censuring the Hashemites and

sons of Abdul-Muttelib. In like manner, we could see tens of narratives dealing with the

Prophet’s praising the Quraishis and ordering of selecting the leadership from them. No

single prophetic saying concerning blaming or criticizing the Quraishis was saved from

distortion into a prophetic blame addressed at the Hashemites, or repealing it by

inventing another saying, or changing it into a prophetic praise for the Quraishis.

Son of Albahiri’s narrative respecting the Prophet’s forewarning the Quraishis during

sermon of the Farewell Pilgrimage, comes in its proper time and place. The Quraishis

occupied a distinctive location among the Arabs. They were the leading of people the

Arab Peninsula during and after the Prophet’s lifetime. Consequently, any danger that

might face the Prophet’s household would certainly be originated by the Quraishis. As

well, any movement of averting Islam, and any wrongdoing Muslims may suffer would

certainly be originated by the Quraishis. Other people would always be following them.

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) is not more than a bearer of the Lord’s

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message, and a materializer of His claim on people. His mission is warning and

admonishing so that he who would perish might perish by clear proof, and he who

would live might live by clear proof.

The eighth principal of this base; warning the Prophet’s companions against breaking

faith and struggling on the power, is recorded in the reference books of hadiths of the

two sects directly and indirectly.

The indirect way of relating this principal is the Prophet’s saying, “After me, return not

to deviation by beheading each other.”

In his As-Sunan; 2/1300, Ibn Madga dedicates an independent chapter to the prophetic

sayings regarding this topic. He titles it, ‘After Me, Return Not To Deviation By

Beheading Each Other.’ He records the Prophet’s sayings, “Woe is you! After me,

return not to atheism by beheading each other,” and “Kill not each other after me,” and

the like.

This foreordains that this process would be falling after him. As a matter, the Prophet

(peace be upon him and his family) frankly foretold them of their struggle after him. He

used the maximum degree of his eloquence, as well as sympathy, and applied the entire

styles of forewarning and admonition for materializing the Lord’s evidence on them; so

that they will not provide their unfamiliarity of the topic when they shall be submitted

before the Lord.

Those forewarned and admonished people were none other than his companions. They

were not the Jews, or the other Arab tribes, or chiefs of Quraish exclusively.

The Islamic state prevailed and affected its centering all over the Arab Peninsula.

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Hence, the Prophet’s anticipation of struggle for power was not addressed at the tribes

that were, coercively or voluntarily, submitted to Islam, such as the Hawazin and the

Ghatafan, since these tribes had nothing to do with the leadership of the Islamic state.

Supposing they did, they would not obtain any unless the Prophet’s companions

permitted.

Regarding the Jews, they were defeated, and a part of them was banished out of the

Arab Peninsula. They had no considerable military power at that period. Despite the

firmness and effectiveness of their trickeries, they would not thrive unless they passed

by the Prophet’s companions.

Chiefs of Quraish lacked the dare to demand with a position of leadership in the Islamic

states although they had the predominance upon majority of Quraishi tribes, as well as

two thousand warriors. That was because of their being the Prophet’s ‘released’

individuals whose souls had already been in the hand of the Prophet. This meant that the

Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had had the right to kill or enslave them.

Hence, he opted for the second when he released them afterward. They would have no

hope to hold a position of leadership unless that small number of the Quraishi Muhajirs

permitted so.

This proves that the Prophet’s forewarning against struggling for the power after him, is

restricted to his companions, Muhajirs, and Ansar exclusively.

Here comes the role of the direct forewarning which lacks the personal names only. It

came in the form of a portrait from the unseen world. It provided the end result of those

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deviating and deviate companions.

This portrait was the Lord’s, Who committed Gabriel the angel, to carry it to the

Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). It showed the coming day on which the

Lord shall choose Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family) for chiefship of the

grand assemblage. Gabriel shall hand him the pennon of Hamd. The Prophet shall

deliver that pennon to Ali Bin Abi Talib, since this man is the bearer of the Prophet’s

pennon in this world and the Hereafter. The entire assemblage will be under the

leadership of Mohammed in whom Adam will take pride. He will be called ‘Abu -father

of- Mohammed.’

The Lord shall give Mohammed exclusively the right of intercession and the Divine

Pool of Kawthar. Then, delegations of the entire nations will approach him for seeking

intercession. He will intercede and grant the card of drinking from that Divine Pool.

That water will change their physiological structure so that they will be fit to abide in

the Paradise forever.

When it will be his companions’ role, a surprise will occur. The Lord’s order of

disallowing the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) to intercede for those

individuals and grant them the card of drinking from that Pool will come. Then, the

angels of anguish will be ordered of taking them to the hell-fire.

This is the morrow of those companions, communicated by the ever most true-tongued

individual on this earth.

It is indeed a terrible scene. Gabriel; the Chaste, carried it to the Prophet, so that he

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would inform his people,during the Farewell Pilgrimage, of its destined occurrence.

It is the gravest catastrophe to the companions of the greatest prophet. The reason

beyond this is certainly their causing the Prophet’s nation falling in the greatest

catastrophe in the morrow.

Excepting the like of scattered animals of a cattle, none of those companions will

escape. This picture is recorded in the most authentic narratives of the most adoring to

those companions. It is an extraordinary expression. Those scattered animals are those

escaping the cattle.

This means that the entire group of the Prophet’s companions shall be in the hell-fire,

and only few shall escape.

Moreover, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) explained that the

companions, who should be in the hell-fire, are of two groups. This indicates that there

are two lines taken by two parties of the companions.

This is proved through the forecited report recorded by Al-Hakim, who decides it as

authentic on the criterion depended by the two Sheiks -Muslim and Al-Bukhari-. In this

report, he records, “Another group shall be occluded, too. None shall escape but a few

groups like the scattered animals in a cattle.”

It is a distressing question, indeed. It is hardly acceptable and credible, especially for

the Muslims who are brought up on cherishing the entire companions of the Prophet;

the best century, the unique generation, the statement of “My companions’ like are the

stars, you will be guided if you follow any,” and the splendid representations and

examples of those companions. It will be a great shock for such a Muslim if he is faced

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by that horrible satanic picture of those companions.

Had it been any person other than the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) who

uttered these words, they would have reckoned him with the enemies of Islam, who aim

at ruining this religion by means of maligning the Prophet’s companions.

It is most surely the Prophet himself who uttered these words. His words, as an

undeniable reality, are not produced due to his personal caprice and not spoken out of

desire. Nevertheless, the Quraishis claim the Prophet’s speaking in states of satisfaction

and rage. And his words in states of rage are not decided as evidences.

As a matter of fact, the Prophet’s words involved, are a revelation of the Lord of the

worlds!!

This truth is grievous. However, it is not necessary for truths to be always delightful.

Similarly, the right is not always designed as we like or inherit.

How can we behave before the fact that the prophetic texts regarding the companions

whom shall be deposed, rejected and precluded from having from that Divine Pool,

occupy numerous situations in the most authentic Sunni reference books of hadith?!

Furthermore, they occupy more numerous situations in the other reference books of

hadith. All these say that none of those companions shall escape except a few like the

scattered animals of a cattle.

According to the Arabic-Arabic dictionary compiled by Al-Jawhari, the Prophet’s

wording refers to the animals of a cattle that lost their supervisor.

At any rate, the most remarkable point in this discussion is recognizing the reason

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beyond the Prophet’s submitting that topic during the Farewell Pilgrimage.

Primarily, the reason is that the Exalted Lord had given him the orders of submitting

this topic in that very time. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) does never

speak out of desire, and lacks awareness of his companions’ next deeds and their

coming judgment on the Resurrection Day unless he is informed by the Lord.

The following questions can be provided here. What did those companions commit after

the Prophet’s decease? Did they return to atheism? Or did they apostatize, as the

prophetic text describes? Did they misrepresent this religion? Did they kill each other

for power?

A simple answer for all these questions can be said here. You should admit what your

Prophet said, and keep peace, and evade being Rafidite -rejecter and protester-.

Another question is cited. What for did the Lord opt for this style in forewarning? What

for did He not extinguish those individuals, who will deviate thereafter, or give His

Prophet the order of killing them, or scandal them before the entire Muslims so that they

would be avoided?

The answer is that this is being the Lord’s policy in materializing the claim thoroughly

on His slaves, and leaving them to their free deeds, so that he who would perish might

perish be clear proof, and he who would live might live by clear proof. God, at length,

is not to be asked for an explanation for His deeds, while people shall be asked for

theirs. The Exalted Lord is the Owner of His servants, and He enjoys the full freedom to

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interrogate them. The Elevated Lord does not make errors; therefore, He is not

submitted to inquiry. He; the Praised, is the most Knowledgeable. The non-most

knowledgeable is not applied to inquire or impeach the most knowledgeable.

Another question is cited here. What were the consequences of that prophetic

forewarning? Did Muslims, as well as the companions, hurry up towards the Prophet

asking for showing the straight path? Did they ask him to nominate a man they would

follow thereafter, so that those dangerous companions would not lead them astray?

The answer is that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) did nominate the two

weighty things for people to follow. He named the Book of Allah and his household. He

also foretold of the coming of twelve godly imams.

Before and after the Farewell Pilgrimage, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his

family) defined his household several times. He named them; Ali, Fatima, Al-Hassan

and Al-Hussein (peace be upon them).

Reports of the most authentic reference books of hadith declare that the Prophet did

identify them materially when he covered them with a Yemeni cloak, and declared,

“Those are my people; my household.”

Sufficed not by these procedures and declaration, the Prophet (peace be upon him and

his family) caused the Muslims to halt under the harsh heat of sun in Al-Juhafa in

Ghadir Khum, and took Ali from the arm to announce his being the next religious and

political leader. He then installed a tent for him, so that the entire Muslims would greet

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him confessing his being the prince of the believers, and congratulate him on his being

nominated, by the Lord, as the next leader. They all congratulated and acclaim him. The

Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) then ordered his women to congratulate Ali

for gaining that position. They approached the tent and offered congratulations. They

admitted their loyalty to Ali’s chiefship of the nation.

In his final disease, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) aimed at attesting

that evidence on his nation in a written form. He asked the retinue to fetch him a pen

and a paper so that he would record a document protects them against deviation

perpetually. Unfortunately, they rejected unrelentingly. They said to him, “Well!

Thanks, Apostle. We decided to deviate after you. This decision is taken while we are

enjoying full awareness, intention and option. We do not want you to record a document

that we should comply with Ali, Hassan, Hussein and nine individuals from Hussein’s

offspring; their progeny. Hence, shamelessly, they said, “Fetch not any pen or paper!!”

How can the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) provide a more consistent

evidence?

THE FIFTH BASE

PUNITION OF THE DISSIDENTS OF THE PROPHET’S

INSTRUCTION OF ADHERING TO HIS HOUSEHOLD

This punition shall befall in the Hereafter. It fits the Prophet’s responsibility of

conveying and witnessing his nation’s acts. The expression of this punition is firm and

unbending. It came in the form of a divine decision of cursing and condemning the

dissidents of the Prophet regarding his instruction of revering his household. It indicated

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that the repentance of such individuals shall never be admitted, and they shall be

deserving the eternal torment in the hell-fire.

Its being the last paragraph in the Prophet’s sermon might give it another dimension

referring to its firmness and decisiveness.

In the report recorded in Tuhaful Uqoul; the Shiite reference book, this paragraph is

cited. A good deal of Sunni reference books of hadith refer to this topic. They assert that

it was mentioned during the Prophet’s sermon in the Farewell Pilgrimage.

Ibn Madga’s As-Sunan; 2/905:

Amr Bin Kharija: The Prophet (peace be upon him) was on the back of his pack

animal, while it was breathing heavily due to the hot weather, when he sermonized:

“… Curse of the Lord, the angels and the entire people be on those who ascribe

themselves to other than their fathers or masters. God be not accept their excuse or

compensation.”

At-Tirmithi’s As-Sunan; 3/293:

Abu Umama Al-Bahili: I hear the Prophet (peace be upon him) say, in his sermon

addressed during the Farewell Pilgrimage, “Ceaseless curse of the Lord be on those

who ascribe themselves to other than their fathers or masters.”

Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 4/239:

Amr Bin Kharija: The Prophet (peace be upon him) was in Mina, riding his pack

animal which was breathing heavily due to the hot weather, when he sermonized:

“Curse of the Lord, the angels and the entire people be on who ascribe themselves to

other than their fathers or masters, as a desire to neglect them.”

Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 4/187:

“… Curse of the Lord, the angels and the entire people be on those who ascribe

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themselves to other than their fathers or masters. God be not accept his excuse or

compensation.”

Ahmed relates the same meaning in different reports and records them in the same

previous page book and the preceding ones. He also records it on pages 238 and 186.

For Ad-Darimi, he records it in his As-Sunan; 2/244 and 344. In Majma’uzzawaid;

5/14, the narration is related to Abu Masud. Al-Bukhari records the reports in his

Sahih; 2/221 and 4/67.

The reader may wonder the relationship between such a prophetic statement and the

Prophet’s instruction of adhering to his household. The forecited paragraphs emphasize

that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) cursed those who ascribe

themselves to other than their fathers, and the slaves who deny their loyalty to those

who manumit them and ascribe it to another master.

As an answer of this wonderment, we have to cite that as a jurisprudential ruling, it is

that if a son disavows his father and claims another man’s filiation, then he regrets and

returns to his real father, his repentance is admissible. In like manner, if a slave leaves

his master and claims of his slavery to another man, but he repents and returns to his

master after a while, his repentance is jurisprudentially acceptable.

These jurisprudential rulings contradict the Prophet’s asserting that the divine curse, in

its harshest form, is ceaselessly poured on those who ascribe themselves to other than

their fathers or masters.

Such a divine punition is admitted in cases of serious excess, such as apostasy and the

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like. It is unfit to issue such a judgment against an ignorant son or slave who disavow

their father or master.

Moreover, some reports refer that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) ruled

the atheism and apostasy of such individuals. This reports are recorded in Al-Beihaqi’s

As-Sunan; 8/26, Majma’uzzawaid; 1/97, Kenzul Ummal; 5/872 and many others. As

an example we cite that the following report is recorded in Kenzul Ummal; 10/324, 326,

327 and 16/255 respectively:

“He whoever disavows his masters is ripping the bind of Islam out of his neck.”

“He should find himself a place in the hell-fire that whoever disavows his masters.”

“He is an atheist that whoever disavows his masters.”

“He is decided as a disbeliever of what the Lord has revealed to his Apostle, that

whoever disavows his masters.”

The recent authentic prophetic sayings support the fact that such decisive rulings do in

no means relate those who disavow their fathers or masters, unless fathers and masters

intended in such sayings are not the proper ones.

This meaning is also supported by the forecited reports and many others, in which the

Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) does not refer to fathers and sons at all, but

he stops at mentioning masters and their servants. Naturally, a son’s disavowal of his

father is more serious than a slave’s disavowal of his master. Nevertheless, such reports

informed of a more serious punition.

In addition, this meaning is supported by the fact that this ruling, in a good number of

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reports communicating the Prophet’s sermons during the Farewell Pilgrimage, is

mentioned directly after referring to the dedicate competency given exclusively to the

Prophet’s household and progeny. This is the one-fifth rate. The Prophet’s progeny are

prohibited from receiving the alms and the poor rate.

Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 4/186:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) was on his pack animal when he sermonized:

“Alms is not allowed for my household and me. Any sum of alms even if it was as

much as this.” Meanwhile, the Prophet (peace be upon him) took a single hair from

the back of his pack animal, and went on: “God curse that whoever ascribes himself

to other than his father or master.”

The same is recorded on page 293 of part 5 of Kenzul Ummal. On page 235 of part 10

of the same book, the following form is recorded:

“… He should find him a place in the hell-fire that whoever ascribes himself to other

than his master.”

In the Shiite reference books of hadith; the Prophet’s progeny’s reports, this prophetic

wording is frequently and authentically recorded during mentioning the Prophet’s

sermons of the Farewell Pilgrimage. Besides, it is a part of the Ghadir sermon

Biharul Anwar; 37/123:

Al-Mufid’s Al-Amali: … Zaid Bin Arqam: I hear the Prophet (peace be upon him

and his family) say in Ghadir Khum: “Alms is not licit for my household and me.

God curse those who ascribe themselves to other than their fathers or masters. The

baby is the bed owner’s. The prostitute’s share is the stones. An heir is not to will.

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You have heard and seen me. He must find him a place in the hell-fire that whoever

forges lies against me.

I will be preceding you to the Divine Pool. I will take pride in you before the other

nations on the Resurrection Day. Blacken not my face. I will save men from the hellfire,

and others shall be taken from my hands and sent to the hell-fire.

Allah is my Master, and I am the master of each male and female believer.

He whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master.”

An alike report is recorded on page 186 of the same book, and quoted from Bisharetul

Islam.

In his Al-Umda/344, Ibnul Bitriq, the Shiite, comments:

Reports recorded in the most authentic books of hadith, that regarded the Prophet’s

saying, “God curse those who ascribe themselves to other than their fathers or

masters,” do intend the great urge on adhering to Amirul Muminin Ali after the

Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). The clear evidence on this fact is the

most authenticated saying of the Prophet: “He whosever master was I, Ali shall be

his master.”

As he asserts so, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) adds, “O Allah!

Accede to whomever accedes to him, and antagonize whomever antagonizes him,

and support whomever supports him, and disappoint whomever disappoints him.”

These assure the most acceptable matter that Ali is being the master of those whose

master was the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). Likewise, Ali is being

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the master of the believers entirely, this is proved by Omar Bin Al-Khattab’s saying

to Ali after that prophetic declaration, “Congratulations, Ali! You have become the

master of every male and female believer.” Other narratives report Omar’s saying to

Ali in the same occasion, “You have become my master, and the master of every

male and female believer.”

This position is the Lord’s exclusively. He; the Exalted, gave it to his Apostle;

Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family) and ordered him of dedicating it to

Ali Amirul Muminin after him. This meaning is supported by God’s saying, (Only

Allah is your Master and His Apostle and those who believe, those who keep up

prayers and pay the poor rate while they bow.)*

On that account, the Prophet’s saying, “…those whoever ascribe themselves to other

than their fathers,” stands for those who disavow loyalty to Amirul Muminin Ali Bin

Abi Talib (peace be upon him). We can refer this to the Prophet’s saying, “O Ali!

You and I are fathers of this nation.” Curse of the Lord be on the disobeyer of his

father.

Reference books of hadith of both sects relate that the forecited saying was a part of the

script hanged to the Prophet’s sword given to Ali in heritage. In his Sahih; 4/67, Al-

Bukhari records this narrative. Similarly, Muslim, in his Sahih; 4/115 and 216, records

this narrative in various ways of narration. Like many others, At-Tirmithi also records it

in his As-Sunan; 3/297. As a matter of fact, they insist on these narratives since they

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contained, as they claim, Ali’s confession that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his

family) had not inherited his household any knowledge except a copy of the Holy Quran

and that paper hanged to his sword. The narratives, however, assure the Prophet’s

cursing those who disavow their masters.

In the Shiite reference books of hadith, we could find a fourth occasion inciting the

Prophet’s uttering this wording of curse. The Quraishi ‘released’ individuals moved to

Al-Madina and partook the hypocrites in their efforts against the Prophet’s household.

Once, they uttered, “Regarding his existence among the Hashemites, Mohammed’s like

is a date-palm tree planted in a junkyard.” When he was informed of this saying, the

Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) ordered Ali to ascend the pulpit and answer

them.

Biharul Anwar; 38/204:

… Al-Isbigh Bin Nebata: Ali Bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him):

Once, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) summoned me and ordered of

ascending his pulpit and declaring the following statements: Curse of Allah, and

curse of His favored angels and messaged prophets, and my curse be on that whoever

disavows his father or master, and that whoever wrongs his hireling.

As I did the mission, none commented except Omar Bin Al-Khattab. “O Abul-

Hassan! You have conveyed. But they were unclassifiable words,” said he.

I was back to the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) to inform of this

commentation. The Prophet asked me to convey the following words:

O people! We should never communicate words to you unless we have their

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interpretation. It I who is your father. It is I who is your master. It is I who is your

hireling.

A fifth occasion of this wording we found through a narrative recorded in Furat Bin

Ibrahim Al-Kufi’s Tafsir/392:

*This is a word-for-word translation of the Verse. The following is the meaning of

the Verse:

Only Allah and His Apostle and the believer who gave alms while he was in the

ritual genuflection of a prayer, are your masters.

… Fatima Bint Al-Hussein: Al-Hussein Bin Ali: When the Prophet (peace be upon

him and his family) was in Al-Madina, some Muhajirs offered him a part of their

estate to help in managing any unexpected matters he might counter.

For a while, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) nodded his head down

and, finally, refused their offer saying, “I am not ordered of taking any of your

properties.”

Soon after that, Gabriel; the angel, descended carrying God’s saying, (Say: I do not

ask for you any reward for it but love my near relatives.)

As the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) conveyed this Verse to them,

Muhajirs went out grumbling at this mandate, and saying to each other that the

Prophet had intended only to submit them to sons of Abdul-Muttelib forever.

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) summoned Ali Bin Abi Talib and

ordered of ascending his pulpit and addressing at people the following statements:

O people! He should seek himself a place in the hell-fire, that whoever wrongs a

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hireling in his wage. He should seek himself a place in the hell-fire, that whoever

disavows his master. He should seek himself a place in the hell-fire, that whoever

denies his parents.

A man stood up and asked for an interpretation for these words.

Ali was back to the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) for conveying that

man’s commentation. “Woe is the Quraishis from the interpretation of these words,”

the Prophet repeated thrice. “O Ali!” ordered the Prophet, “Go and tell them that I

am the hireling whose commitment is mandated in the heavens. You and I are

masters of the believers. You and I are fathers of the believers.”

FOURTH DISCUSSION

THE PROPHETS’ NEED FOR PEOPLE’S PROTECTION DURING CONVEYING THEIR MISSIONS

During their explaining the Verse of Isma; (O Apostle! Deliver what had been

revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His

message, and Allah will protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the

unbelieving people,) the advocates of the Quraishi caliphate committed two principal

mistakes:

First, they misrepresented the actual conception of the prophets’ missions, including

Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family).

Second, they attempted to conceal the Quraishis’ actuality after conquest of Mecca.

They intended to draw the Verse away from these incidents. They also tried to

persuade the Muslims that the Quraishis; that polytheist clan and center of the devils,

changed into those pious people who received god-fearing in a period of a single

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night and day, and that they went on leading people to Islam and the right path.

QURANIC SENSE OF CONVEYANCE

The Holy Quran carries a simple meaning of conveyance. It means the messengers’

explicating the divine mission, and leaving the option for people, and the Lord, not

the prophets, shall be the judge and the remunerator.

A number of principals can be concluded from this deep base.

First, a prophet is in great exigency for guaranteeing the right of free expression of

opinions, so that he will be able to transmit and convey his Lord’s mission to the

servants. This was the prophets’ preliminary demand from their nations.

Second, the prophets’ mission is nothing more than conveyance. Before Abraham

(peace be upon him), jihad was not imposed upon the prophets. God; the Exalted,

imposed it upon Abraham and the coming prophets.* This jihad was purposed for

removing the obstacles that impeded the process of conveyance, or facing the

atheists’ assaults against the believers who opted for the divine religion and

organized their lives according to it.

Third, none should be coerced on embracing the religion. It is quite free to choose

any course. Hence, law of guidance and deviation ought to be effective, and

capability of doing good and evil ought to be available.

Fourth, the purpose beyond practicing the conveyance of the divine missions is

providing the Lord with clear, complete and perfect claims on people, in order that

they will not have acceptable excuses when they shall be resurrected for judgment.

Hence, providing claims in the divine religions is an original and perpetual pivot in

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the tasks of prophets, whether on level of the atheists or the believers.

When a prophet conveys creeds and rulings to people, and explicates clearly their

beliefs and duties; he will prompt his Lord’s claim. This will perfect the mission and

release him from any responsibility.

Their positive or negative response to that prophet, and their deeds and behavior are

their own concern. A prophet is not responsible in this regard at all. This is God’s

interest.

God says: (Say: Then Allah’s is the conclusive argument; so if He pleased, He would

certainly guide you all.)

*The entire prophets who came after Abraham are his sons and progeny.

We are to refer to some evidences on the forecited discussion, quoted from the Holy

Words of God.

Noah; the prophet, says to his people: (I deliver to you the messages of my Lord, and

I offer you good advise and I know from Allah what you do not.)

Shueib; the prophet, says to his people: (So he turned away from them and said: O my

people! I delivered to you the messages of my Lord and I gave you good advice; how

shall I then be sorry for an unbelieving people?)

Hud; the prophet, says to his people: (But if you turn back, then indeed I have

delivered to you the message with which I have been sent to you, and my Lord will

bring another people in your place, and you cannot do Him any harm; surely my Lord

is the Preserver of all things.)

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God, as He refers to the common point in the prophets’ missions, says: (Is then aught

incumbent upon the apostles except a plain delivery of the message?)

(They said: Our Lord knows that we are most surely messengers to you. And nothing

devolves on us but a clear deliverance of the message.)

In fact, concepts and rulings of the divine conveyance are too many to be discussed in

this discussion. As they are cited from Quranic and prophetic texts, concepts and

rulings of conveyance form a perfect hypothesis. God; the Exalted, describes His

religion and Book as a conveyance. He says, (This is a conveyance for people and

that they may be warned thereby, and that they may conceive that He is One God and

that those possessed of understanding may mind.)

The Quran is also described as a conveyance for the coming generations who will

receive Islam. God say: (Say: what is the weightiest in testimony? Say: Allah is

witness between you and me; and this Quran has been revealed to me that with it I

may warn you and whomsoever it reaches.)

The Lord praised His prophets for their trust and courage in conveying His messages

in spite of people’s resistance and mockery. He says: (Those who deliver the

messages of Allah and fear Him, and do not fear any one but Allah; and Allah is

sufficient to take account.)

God; the Praised, reckons the process of receiving and conveying the divine

revelation as one of the most serious and critical deeds that require distinctive

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personalities and precise divine guardianship. He says: (The Knower of the unseen!

So He does not reveal His secrets to any except to him whom He chooses as an

apostle; for surely He makes a guard to march before him and after him so that He

may know that they have truly delivered the messages of their Lord, and He

encompasses what is with them, and He records the number of all things.)

MISSION OF OUR PROPHET IN CONVEYANCE

The most interesting concern in this regard in the conveyance acted by our Prophet;

Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family). God describes his mission and

responsibility by saying: (And obey Allah and obey the Apostle and be cautious; but

if you turn back, then know that only a clear deliverance of the message is incumbent

on Our apostle.)

(Say: Obey Allah and obey the Apostle; but if you turn back, then on him rests that

which is imposed on him and on you rests that which is imposed on you; and if you

obey him, you are on the right way; and nothing rests on the Apostle but clear

deliverance of the message.)

(so, if they submit then indeed they follow the right way; and if they turn back, then

upon you is only the delivery of the message, and Allah sees the servants.)

(But if they turn aside, We have not sent you as a watcher over them. On you is only

to deliver the message.)

Hence, the Lord sent our Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) on bases of the

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divine message formulation and conveyance with which the entire prophets were

sent. It is the rule of substantiating the Lord’s claim and instituting it upon people and

avoiding coercing them to admit it. This is the very meaning of God’s saying: (On

you is only to deliver the message.)

The Prophet said: “I have given the orders of fighting people till they utter ‘There is

no god but Allah.’ As soon as they utter, they will guard their souls and estate against

me.”

The coercion carried by the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) is compelling

Christians and Jews to live peacefully with the Muslims, not embrace Islam, and

compelling the paganists and polytheists to enter the general frame of Islam.

Whatever else is people’s concern, in the limits of this frame. When an individual

obeys, another disobeys, another takes the right path and another deviates, this is

God’s concern, since He is the Judge.

On that account, it is naturally that the conveyance of the divine message will be in

need for protection, otherwise the Quraishis would assassinate him, defame his

advocacy or preclude people from listening to him as soon as possible, because they

realized the real size of danger caused by this advocacy on their authority and gods.

Despite the fact that the secret, as well as the seen, divine attention to the prophets is

of various forms and sorts, the Lord’s norm in His apostles is leaving their protection

for the natural factors, in addition to that divine attention.

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As a matter of fact, there is no single proof on the claim of the Lord’s guaranteeing

His prophet’s safety from injuries or assassination, as well as the other sorts of harm

he countered in his lifetime.

Previously, we have referred to reports respecting the continuity of guarding the

Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) to the end of his honorable life. It is to

add that he asked the Arab clans to guarantee his protection for conveying his Lord’s

message.

Ibn Husham’s As-Sira; 2/23:

Rabia Bin Ebbad: I was a young boy when I accompanied my father in Mina

where the Prophet (peace be upon him) was used to attending in the quarters of the

Arab clans, and addressing at them: “I am the messenger of Allah to you. I instruct

you to worship Allah alone, and avoid considering any associate with Him, and

give up the adoration to what you are worshipping except Him, and believe in me,

and give me credence and protect me so that I will be able of carrying my Lord’s

message.”

The same is recorded in At-Tabari’s Tarikh; 2/83 and Ibn Kutheir’s As-Sira; 2/155.

Al-Yaqubi’s Tarikh; 2/36

The Prophet was wont to provide his advocacy before the Arab tribes every year

during seasons of pilgrimage. He used to speak to chiefs of these tribes, asking for

nothing other than protection and guard. He was saying, “I do not coerce any on

admitting my advocacy. But I only want you to protect me against assassination,

so that I can deliver my Lord’s messages.”

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None admitted him. They used to excuse that his people are more knowing in this

regard.

Moreover, reports assert that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), during

the declaration of fealty of Al-Ansar, asked them to protect his household and him as

same as they protect their families and souls.

Ibn Husham’s As-Sira; 2/38:

After he recited some Quranic Verses and invoked Islam, the Prophet said to Al-

Ansar: “I conclude with you a covenant that you should protect me as same as you

protect your sons and women.”

Al-Bera Bin Muarwir took the Prophet’s hand and shouted, “Yes, by Him Who

sent you with the right. We will protect you as same as we protect our people.

Confirm your covenant with us, God’s messenger! We are, by God, men of wars

and heroism. We have been inheriting so from our great fathers.”*

This matter arranges the topic involved. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his

family), according with norms occurred to the previous prophets, asked for protection

so that he would be able to carry the divine message.

Al-Ansar contributed this protection. The Lord gave victory to His Prophet who

defeated his enemies; the polytheists and the Jews. He prevailed the Arab Peninsula,

Yemen, Bahrain and the Gulf. His state extended to the edges of Syria, and the

Islamic military forces went on threatening the Romans in Syria and Palestine.

In the tenth year of his immigration, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family)

was about to depart to the Exalted Associate. That was during the Farewell

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Pilgrimage. In these final moments, he received sura of Maida, in which he was

ordered of conveying the message. In addition, he was relieved that he would be

protected against people.

What changes occurred? What incited on the revelation of orders of conveying in the

last stage of conveyance? What made the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family)

in need for protection against people after he had been ruling that great state?

For scholars, it is inapplicable to suppose that the Prophet was in need for a physical

protection, since the Exalted Lord had already willed that such a material protection

would endure naturally. Furthermore, it was available so acceptably. Hence, the

protection intended in this regard, should be mental.

Secondly, a student is bound by the conclusion that conveyance intended in the Verse

should contemplate such a remarkable matter that it was very much difficult for

people to accept. It is also binding to name the hypocrites that declared their being

Muslims, as the only indication of ‘people’ intended in the Verse. This is by the

reason that the entire serious matters had been already communicated to the atheists,

and the mission had no other serious matter to convey. Besides, after the revelation of

that Verse, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) did not declare any

expected remarkable matter.

*The same report is recorded in At-Tabari’s Tarikh; 2/92, Usdul Ghaba; 1/174,

Uyounul Athar; 1/217, Ibn Kutheir’s As-Sira; 2/198 and Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 3461.

As he records it in his Majmauzzawaid; 6/44, Al-Heithami comments that Ahmed

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and At-Tabarani recorded it. Ahmed relates it to narrators admitted in the most

authentic reference books of hadith except Ibn Isaaq.

The report is also registered in Kenzul Ummal; 1/328 and 8/29.

Consequently, except for protection against doubting the prophesy, the revealed

protection in this Verse was meaningless. At any rate, definite people would doubt

Mohammed’s prophesy after they would have listened to him when he would

nominate his household as the coming political and religious leaders of this nation.

This is the only meaning coincides the general text of the Verse.

As an interpretation, we are to explain the Verse as follows:

O Apostle! You are only a conveyor and messenger. You are not responsible for the

coming events or the result. This is your Lord’s concern.

Deliver what had been revealed to you from your Lord; by Gabriel in the matter

concerning Ali; the matter you have frequently intended to refer to, but the hypocrites

prevented you.

And if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, or substantiated

your Lord’s claim. Leadership of your progeny is not a personal matter, as the

hypocrites think. It is a basic part of this sealing united epistle. When a part fails, the

mass will fail. Similarly, when a part of the claim fails, the entire claim will fail.

And Allah will protect you from the people; the Quraishis who may doubt your

prophesy due to your conveying this matter that is very difficult for them to admit.

This process will be completed peacefully. No interruption and no apostasy will

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occur. Hence, you shall be seen as a perfect conveyor of your Lord’s message, and

you will complete your Lord’s claim on you nation as well. However, Ali shall be in

need for fighting these people for the sake of interpreting the Quran, in the same

course you fought for the sake of its revelation.

Surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people, who will wrong your progeny

after you, and subsequently, will wrong your nation. They will change God’s favor

into atheism, and drive this nation into combats and collapse.

FIFTH DISCUSSION

THE QURAISHIS ARE THE REASON BEYOND THE PROPHET’S NEED FOR AN ADDITIONAL PROTECTION

From the Holy Verse and various narratives, we can conclude that the Prophet’s

conveyance of his Lord’s message regarding the leadership of his progeny might

have caused a grave quake in the nation, and a serious threat against his prophecy.

What are the reason and circumstances that might have caused such a sweeping

catastrophe?

Neither the Arab tribes, the Jews nor could the Christians have any opinion nor

intrude themselves in the matter of the Prophet’s nominating his progeny for the

coming leadership. The only source of danger that might have precluded this affair

was the Quraishis.

It seemed that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) despaired of executing

this affair. This matter is evidenced by the fact that the Prophet anticipated people’s

dissenting Islam as soon as he would declare this affair frankly and formally. The

reason beyond this are the character and the tribal structure of Quraish.

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QURAISH IS ROOT OF VILLAINS

The Quraishi chiefs are the evil side of Samuel’s offspring. Yet, the Prophet (peace

be upon him and his family) and Abu Talib; his uncle, doubted those chiefs’

belonging to Samuel; the prophet. They joined the intricate characters of the Jews;

their cousins, to tyranny of the violent chiefs of the Bedouin tribes.

Excepting the Hashemites and few others, the Quraishis are the source of tyranny

and Satanism.

The Exalted Lord decides those chiefs as a perfect assembly of Pharaohs. God says:

(Surely We have sent to you an Apostle, a witness against you, as We sent an apostle

to Pharaoh. But Pharaoh disobeyed the apostle, so We laid on him a violent hold.)

As he was watching the victims of the battle of Badr, the Prophet (peace be upon him

and his family) stated, “God may reward you; the evil band, badly. You belied me

while I was true-tongued, and imputed treachery to me while I was trustworthy.”

As his eyes fell on the dead body of Abu Jahl Bin Husham, the Prophet said, “This

one is more tyrant than Pharaoh. As Pharaoh despaired of his life, he recognized the

oneness of Allah. But when this one despaired of his life, he called forth Lat and

Uzza; the idols.”*

On page 207 of part 3 of his book, Ibn Husham records the following saying of Abu

Jahl:

Sons of Abd Menaf and we competed on honor. We served food when they served

it. We combated when they combated. We bestowed when they bestowed. When

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we both had the same scale and became like two race horses, they claimed the

coming of a prophet receives revelation from the heavens among them. How can

we ever have such a privilege? Nay, by God. We will never believe him, nor will

we give credence to him.**

Al-Qummi’s Tafsir; 1/276:

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) addressed at the Quraishis: “The

Lord has sent me to destroy kings of this whole world and drag their realms to

you. Respond to what I am calling forth, and you shall be kings of the Arabs, and

the non-Arabs shall submit to you and you shall be kings in the Paradise.”

Out of his envy to the Prophet, Abu Jahl spoke: “O Allah! If Mohammed’s words

are being the right of Thee, then rain skyey stones upon us or inflict painful agony

upon us.” He then added: “The Hashemites and we were like two race horses. We

*This report is recorded in Hilyetul Abrar; 1/127 and At-Tusi’s Al-Amali; 1/316,

from which the compiler of Biharul Anwar quotes the report and registers it on page

272 of part 19, under number 11. It is also recorded in Majmauzzawaid; 6/91.

**The same is recorded in Uyounul Athar; 1/146 and Ibn Kutheir’s As-Sira; 1/506.

combated when they combated, and speared when they speared, and cooked when

they cooked. When they and we were of the same scale, they claimed prophesy

among them. Nay, we will never admit such a thing among the Hashemites, or

sons of Makhzum.”

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In his Al-Mustatraf; 1/58, Al-Abshihi records:

“What ill minded people are yours, when they selected a woman for their

leadership!” Muawiya addressed at a Yemeni. “But I know people more ill

minded,” replied the Yemeni, “they are your people. When the Prophet (peace be

upon him and his family) called them to embrace Islam they answered, ‘O Allah!

If this is being the truth of Thee, then rain us with skyey stones, or inflict painful

agony upon us.’ They should have said, ‘O Allah! If this is being the truth of

Thee, then guide us to it.’”

In his As-Siratul Mustaqim; 3/49, Al-Beyadi records:

Muawiya spoke, “Allah favored the Quraishis in three things. They are his

sayings, (And warn your near clans,) and (Surely it is a remembrance for you and

your people,) and (For the protection of the Quraish)”

A man from the Ansar answered, “Slow down, Muawiya! God said, (And your

people belied it,) and you are one of his people. And said, (Your people precluded

against it,) and you are one of those people. And said, (My people deserted this

Quran,) and you are one of his people. These are three for your three. We are to

add if you add.” Thus, Muawiya was ashamed.

When God inflicted years of agony upon Pharaoh and his people, they asked Moses;

the prophet, to implore the Lord for alleviating the anguish they had suffered.

Analogously, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) cursed the Quraishis

and supplicated God to inflict years of agony upon them. The Lord responded. They

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were impoverished and suffered famine till they had to have ‘Alhaz’, which is a meal

of camel hair and blood. Nevertheless, they neither submitted to their Lord nor did

they implore Him.

Al-Hakim’s Al-Mustedrak; 2/394:

Ibn Abbas: Abu Sufian came to the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family):

“O Mohammed! I adjure you by the Lord and the kinship. We have had Alhaz.”

Hence, God revealed, (And already We overtook them with chastisement, but they

were not submissive to the Lord, nor do they humble themselves.)

Recruits of the Umayid caliphate are not admired by this report, nor do they exert

any effort for interpreting this Verse. They claim the opposite. They assert that the

Quraishis were actually submissive to their Lord, and humbled themselves to Him.

Furthermore, they claim the Prophet’s blessing them.

The following narrative, recorded in Ibn Kutheir’s As-Sira; 6/101, is cited as an

example:

When the Prophet execrated the Quraishis, they suffered such a harsh year that

removed everything. They had to have bones, dogs and Alhaz. Abu Sufian came

to the Prophet and adjured him for supplicating God to relieve their crisis. The

Prophet did, and the crisis was relieved.

The problem is that Ibn Kutheir was fond of Abu Sufian’s smell. As a historian, Ibn

Kutheir did realize that Abu Sufian’s attendance at the Prophet (peace be upon him

and his family) occurred only after the latter had felt pity for the Quraishis, and sent

them food stuff and some money. The Prophet expected them to submit to the Lord

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and believe in Him and His Apostle. The Quraishis exploited that prophetic mercy

and compassion when they selected Abu Sufian to be before him and provide a plan

of reconciliation that was as same as plans of reconciliation frequently suggested by

the Israelites nowadays. This plan was rejected. As a second attempt, Abu Sufian

sought Ali and Fatima to intercede for his good, but they rejected, too. Yet, Abu

Sufian suggested that the intended treaty of reconciliation would be recorded in the

names of Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein so that they would take pride in this among the

Arabs. The replication of Ali and Fatima was that they would never protect any

against the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family).

CLANS OF QURAISH.

Quraish was more than twenty clans. They are sons of Hashim Bin Abd Menaf, sons

of Umaya Bin Abd Shams, sons of Abduddar Bin Qusay, sons of Makhzoum Bin

Yaqada Bin Murra, sons of Zuhra Bin Kelab, sons of Asad Bin Abdul-Uzza, sons of

Al-Harith Bin Fihr Bin Malik, sons of Amir Bin Luay, sons of Sahm Bin Amr, sons

of Jamh Bin Amr, sons of Anmar Bin Bugheid, sons of Teim Bin Murra Bin Ka’b,

sons of Edi Bin Ka’b and others.

As a matter of fact, affairs and influence were in the hands of the most remarkable

clans and chiefs. They are few clans. To great extent, the rest were mere followers.

As he describes the meeting of Darun-Nidwa -house of congress- which was held for

discussing the matter of Mohammed Bin Abdillah Bin Abdil-Muttelib Bin Hashim’s

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prophesy, Ibn Husham, in his As-Sira; 2/331, records:

The meeting was attended by the celebrities of Quraish. Utba Bin Rabia, Sheiba

Bin Rabia and Abu Sufian Bin Harb represented sons of Abd Shams. Tueima Bin

Edi, Jubeir Bin Mutim and Al-Harith Bin Amir Bin Nawfal represented sons of

Nawfal Bin Abd Menaf. An-Nadr Bin Al-Harith Bin Kilda represented sons of

Abdud-Dar Bin Qusay. Abul-Bukhtari Bin Husham, Zumma Bin Al-Aswed Bin

Al-Muttelib and Hakim Bin Huzam represented sons of Asad Bin Abdul-Uzza.

Abu Jahl Bin Husham represented sons of Makhzum. Nabih Bin Al-Hejjaj and

Munebbih, his brother, represented sons of Sahm. Umaya Bin Khalaf represented

sons of Jamh.

Many other individuals were attendant there. Some spoke, “You have clearly seen

concerns of this man. I cannot guarantee that he will not lead his followers against

us. You should decide something in this regard.”

As they consulted the matter, some suggested that they should detain him and

wait… etc.

As he refers to those who endures the disbursements of the polytheists’ army in the

battle of Badr, Ibn Husham, on page 488 of part 2 of his As-Sira, records:

The Quraishi benefactors were Al-Abbas Bin Abdil-Muttelib Bin Hashim from

the Hashemites. And Utba Bin Rabia Bin Abd Shams from sons of Abd Shams

Bin Abd Menaf. And Al-Harith Bin Amir Bin Nawfal and Tueima Bin Edi Bin

Nawfal from sons of Nawfal Bin Abd Menaf. And Abul-Bukhteri Bin Husham

Bin Asad and Hakim Bin Huzam Bin Khuweilid Bin Asad from sons of Asad Bin

Abdul-Uzza. And An-Nadr Bin Al-Harith Bin Kilda Bin Alqama Bin Abd Menaf

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from sons of Abdul-Dar.

The following is the order of Quraishi clans, depended by Omar; the caliph, in

records of his state during contribution of the imports. It is to mention that this order

evidences the complicated structure of these clans, and the precedence of the

Hashemites.

Al-Beihaqi’s As-Sunan; 6/364:

When he registered the records of his government, Omar (God be pleased to him)

decided to begin with the Hashemites. He commented, “I saw the Prophet (peace

be upon him) precede them and sons of Al-Muttelib.” Hence, their names were

recorded in the top of the list. He contributed them equally.

As he noticed the lineage of sons of Abd Shams and Nawfal, Omar added, “Sons

of Abd Shams are the Prophet’s full brothers. Sons of Nawfal are half brothers.

Hence, the previous should be preceded.”

Then, he looked upon sons of Abdul-Uzza and Abdud-Dar. “Sons of Asad Bin

Abdul-Uzza are the prophet’s maternal relatives. They were within ‘the

odorizers.” Thus, Omar preceded them to sons of Abdud-Dar. Sons of Zuhra

followed sons of Abdud-Dar, as Omar saw.

Sons of Teim and Makhzum came next. “Sons of Teim were a party in the treaty

of ‘Fudoul’. Besides, they were within ‘the odorizers among whom was the

Prophet (peace be upon him). Finally, they enjoyed favors.” Accordingly, sons of

Teim were preceded to sons of Makhzum.

Sons of Sahm, Jamh and Edi Bin Ka’b came therewith. Some suggested that he

should begin with sons of Edi. “No, I should settle myself in its place. Sons of

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Sahm and we were of the same affair when Islam came forth. You should choose

between sons of Jamh and Sahm in precedence.” Finally, sons of Jamh were

preceded.

Sons of Sahm and Edi were recorded under the same name. When they were

separated, Omar shouted, “Allah is the greatest! Praised be Allah Who bestowed

me my share from His Apostle.”

Then came sons of Amir Bin Luay. Abu Ubeida Bin Abdillah Bin Al-Jarrah Al-

Fihri objected and blamed Omar for preceding all those to him. “Well, Abu

Ubeida,” Omar answered, “you either succumb, like what I had done, or you

should discuss this matter with your people. I will accept their decision if they

precede you to themselves. For me, I am to precede you to sons of Edi; my

people.”

In the reign of Muawiya, sons of Al-Harith Bin Fihr were preceded and located

between sons of Abd Menaf and Asad Bin Abdul-Uzza.

In the reign of Al-Mahdi; the Abbasid caliph, a quarrel occurred between sons of

Sahm and Edi. Therefore, they separated. For their standing, Al-Mahdi preceded

sons of Edi.

It is generally admissible that the Hashemites were distinctive among the other

Quraishi clans, due to their unique mentality, behavior, activities and values. It is

also evident that the other tribes and kings respected them exclusively. This was the

reason beyond the other Quraishi clans’ envying them. Since days of Hashim and

Abdul-Muttelib, the Hashemites were antagonized. It was Hashim who constituted

Summer journey to Syria, Palestine and Egypt for the Quraishis. He toured in deserts

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and countries, and negotiated chiefs and kings of tribes and countries by which their

caravans had to pass. He concluded treaties of nonaggression for conserving safety

of the Quraishis’ caravans who expressed their delight for this achievement and took

initiative in benefiting it. Nevertheless, they envied Hashim and hoped had that been

their own achievement so that they would have obtained that pride.

Hashim was deceased in Ghaza in obscure circumstances that a historian may doubt.

Hashim’s house, however, was not extinguished. Abdul-Muttelib; the son, proved his

active existence and could dominate his people, continuing his father’s qualities. He

constituted the Winter journey to Yemen. He concluded treaties of nonaggression

with chiefs and kings of tribes and countries by which the Quraishis’ caravans

passed. Like his father, Abdul-Muttelib took pride in this act.

From the mental side, clans of Quraish noticed that the Hashemites generally, and

Abdul-Muttelib particularly, were used to taking pride in their being Samuel’s sons

and followers of Abraham’s creed, as if they were the only offspring of Samuel and

Abraham and, in more concentrating vision, as if they suspected the others’ lineage.

Abu Talib and the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) applied this idea in

the most tangible view.

The chasm between the Hashemites and the other Quraishi clans increased largely

when Abdul-Muttelib claimed receiving divine inspiration via the true coming

dreams. Once, he informed his people of the Lord’s ordering him of digging well of

Zamzam which was derelict long time ago. When he dug, water sprang anew by the

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permission of God; the Exalted, and he could find two golden statues on the form of

gazelle there. Abdul-Muttelib adorned the gate of Kaba with these two golden

statues. This added a new feature to Abdul-Muttelib who exclusively took the task of

serving the pilgrims with food. He was named ‘waterer of pilgrims and the Holy

Precinct’ due to scarcity of water.

When the Abyssinian army were in their way towards Kaba, Abdul-Muttelib told

people that they would never touch it since God; the Elevated, would defeat them.

This prophesy came true when God rained the army of Abyssinia with tiny birds that

cast them with backed stones; hence, He caused them to be like a ruined nest.

As if he was a prophet, or an introducer for a prophet, Abdul-Muttelib legislated a

number of laws and regulations. He issued that the ritual Circumambulation of the

pilgrimage should be seven times. As some of the Arab were used to going around

Kaba naked, because they presumed the profanity of their clothes, Abdul-Muttelib

prohibited this practice. He warned people against burying the she-babies alive. He

issued the obligation of fulfilling the vows and reverencing the holy months. He

prohibited consuming intoxicating drinks. He prohibited fornication, and constituted

a definite punition for the perpetrators of such a sin. He banished the notorious

prostitutes out of Mecca. He prohibited marriage of the blood relations. He issued the

provision of amputating the larceners’ hands. Finally, he constituted unmerciful

regulations against the murderers. He identified one hundred camels as the blood

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money of bloodshed. All the previous regulations and laws are legislated in Islam.

Abdul-Muttelib occupied the greatest status among Quraish, as well as the other

Arab tribes. This standing caused the Quraishi chiefs to envy him excessively. They

dragged him to be the other party in a contest for showing the most honorable by the

governance of priests. Through a new property, God caused Abdul-Muttelib to

overcome twice. This increased his standing and good reputation among people.

The most matter that arouse the Quraishi chiefs against Abdul-Muttelib was his

providing one of his sons as a corban for the Lord of Kaba, like Abraham (peace be

upon him); his forefather…

The Quraishi chiefs could not enjoy a moment of relief. As soon as Abdul-Muttelib

was deceased, Abu Talib; the son, mastered his people, Quraish and the entire tribes

of the Arab. He took the place of his father and forefather. He kept his father’s

maxims. During the reign of Abu Talib, the grandest dole on the Quraishi chiefs took

place. It is when Mohammed; Abu Talib’s nephew, claimed prophesy and demanded

with believing and complying with him. The dole expanded when a number of the

Hashemites and sons of Al-Muttelib gave credence to this prophesy, and Abu Talib

declared his responsibility of protecting Mohammed (peace be upon him and his

family) during his mission of conveying his Lord’s message freely. He also

threatened the Quraishis a comprehensive war if they touch a single hair of

Mohammed.

Sparing no efforts for supporting his nephew, Abu Talib stood in the face of the

p: 189

cabals managed by the Quraishi chiefs. He also composed poems through which he

divulged the ill intentions of the Quraishi chiefs, and suspected their being belonging

to Samuel; the prophet. His poems of glorifying Mohammed (peace be upon him and

his family); his nephew, and slurring the Quraishi chiefs, were carried to the other

Arab tribes. Abu Talib named Abul-Hakam; chief of the Makhzum, ‘the tiny

ignorant of the Makhzum’, while the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family)

named him ‘Abu Jahl -man of ignorance-’.

In spite of their various attempts to incite and threaten Abu Talib and his nephew, the

Quraishis failed to achieve any progress in the process of defeating that divine

prophesy.

They decided to persecute any Muslim they catch; therefore, most of the Muslims

fled to Abyssinia. This was another failure for the Quraishi chiefs.

Accompanied by sons of Kenana, the Quraishi chiefs determined to blockade and

besiege the entire Hashemites comprehensively. They arrested them in a col for three

or four years. Through a miracle, the Lord undid their blockade.

When the Hashemites lost Abu Talib, the Quraishis issued a decision of assassinating

Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family) since he lost the protector and

backer. God defected their consensus, and moved His Apostle to Yathrib; the city

that most of its people embraced and admitted Islam.

Besides the Jews, means of beseeching and menace were taken by the Quraishi

chiefs for pressing people of Al-Madina. They failed since that city, which lied on

the main way of their economic exchange with Syria and the neighboring territories,

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was prevailed by the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family).

In conclusion, they decided to declare war against son of the Hashemites. They

battled him in Badr, Uhud and Al-Khandaq. As usual, they failed.

They also failed when they used the Jews, the Romans and the Persian against him.

Unexpectedly, Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family) surprised them when

he conquered their capital; Mecca, with great numbers of unbeatable soldiers. That

was in the eighth year of his immigration to Yathrib. So, the Quraishis had to

surrender and succumb to the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family).

People of Mecca formed two lines to watch the parade of the Prophet and his army.

The pennon of conquest was raised by Abdullah Bin Ruwaha, the young man from

Al-Khazraj; the Yemeni tribe. He was shouting:

O sons of atheists! Clear the way to him

Today, we shall strike you for the revelation

So abruptly that your heads will be removed

And friends will be engaged against their revered

My Lord! I do believe his maxim.

“O son of Ruwaha! Is it before the Prophet and in God's Precinct you are poetizing?”

Omar said unto him. “Leave him alone, Omar!” said the Prophet, “These verses are

more piercing than spear-heads.”*

Omar intended to alleviate the Quraishi chiefs and relieve the chock of their defeat.

He also intended to avoid challenging them in their capital. It is to keep in mind that

Omar was son of that worthless clan of Edi. He was brought up on revering and

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respecting the Quraishi chiefs. For the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family),

those pharaonic chiefs understood nothing other than the prose of swords and spears,

and that Abdullah Bin Ruwaha’s act had been quite correct and highly appreciated

by the Exalted Lord since it was more piercing upon foes of the Lord than spearhands.

CONQUEST OF MECCA BEWILDERS THE JURISPRUDENTS

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had secured the Quraishis before he

gathered their chiefs in the Holy Mosque, under swords of God’s soldiers. He

reminded them of many things; their arrogance, tyranny, belying the miracles and

portents of God, dissenting God and His Apostle, persecuting the Hashemites and the

Muslims and their conflicts and cabals against Islam and its embracers.

At-Tabari’s Tarikh; 2/337:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) stood on the gate of Kaba and orated:

“There is no god but Allah, lonelily with no associate. He fulfilled His promise,

triumphed His servant and defeated the parties alone. Any claimed revenge or

estate should be under my feet excepting custody of House of God and watering

of the pilgrims.

O the Quraishis! God has saved you from practices of Jahilism and taking pride in

the forefathers. People are from Adam, and Adam was created from mud. (O

people! We have created you from male and female, and We have made you

peoples and tribes so that you will associate each other. The most honorable of

you to Allah is being the most careful of his duty.)

O the Quraishis and people of Mecca! What do you expect me to do with you?”

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“Good! You are but a generous brother, and son of a generous brother,” answered

they.

“Go free! You are released,” responded the Prophet (peace be upon him). After

they had been within the spoils of war the Prophet possessed, they were

manumitted and released. Hence, people of Mecca are called ‘the released’.

This matter perplexed the pro-Quraishi jurisprudents. A release is materialized only

after capture and enslavement. This proposes that those people were manumitted by

the Prophet who had enslaved them. Accordingly, they should be followers and loyal

to his family for good. Their islamization saved them from being sentenced to death

*This narration is recorded on page 228 of part 10 of Al-Beihaqi’s As-Sunan, and

217 of part 4 of At-Tirmithi’s, and 235 of part 1 of At-Thehbi’s Siyeru Alamin

Nubela.

penalty only. It did not cancel legitimacy of being enslaved. This rulings are applied

to the Quraishis exclusively. In rulings of jihad and Islamic conquest, these rulings

are nonexistent. The following is a depiction of the Prophet’s practices:

Ten thousand Muslims under the Prophet’s leadership surrounded Mecca. The

Quraishis were too frightened to counter that army. As an Islamic rule, people of

Mecca, if they were Jews or Christians, should choose one of three; embracing Islam,

fighting or defraying the tribute and keeping their religion.

As they were polytheists, they had only two choices; either to islamize or to fight.

They opted for the former under the menace of swords. They should have been

treated as Muslims. But the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) submitted

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them to rulings of the prisoners of war, and released them.

As a matter of fact, this sort of release is unfamiliar for the jurisprudents. A prisoner

of war should be either killed, released or compensated. The ruling of release without

manumission or compensation is dedicated to the Quraishis during conquest of

Mecca.

Another jurisprudential unsolved problem comes to the surface. It is the Prophet’s

statement of security benefit to every individual keeps himself beyond his doors, or

throws his weapon, or confines in Abu Sufian’s house. This decision of security was

given to the polytheist foes without specifying their converting to Islam as a term.

A third question is provided in this regard. It is the rulings respecting lands of

Mecca. There is a number of probabilities. These lands are prohibited to be

possessed because they are within the holy House of God. These lands are

conquered, and the entire Muslims have rights in them forever. These lands were

possessed to the Quraishis since they islamized. People then purchased some from

the owners.

As much as a personal viewpoint is concerned, lands of Mecca should be out of

possession, since they are under the custody of the Prophet and the imams (peace be

upon them). The security benefit was no more than an order of saving polytheist foes

from killing.

Their release supposes that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) did

capture and enslave them according to laws of Islam. He did not manumit them. He

released them, as if a master says to his slaves; ‘Go and do whatever you like.’

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However, they, as well as their progeny, are still decided as slaves of that master and

his heirs. In other words, he did not make them choose either islamization or

fighting. They were compelled to choose for the latter. Hence, they were overcome

and captured.

The Prophet regarded their islamization when he ordained them to take part in the

battle of Hunein. Besides, he committed their women to declaring fealty to him. On

other occasions, they were regarded as polytheists when their sons and slaves, who

could find their way out to the Prophet after conquest of Mecca, were not given back

to them.

It is too sufficient to add to this topic. Hence, we are to refer to a number of texts of

our imams in this respect.

Nahjul-Belagha; 3/30

Imam Ali’s answer for Muawiya’s words:

… How come do you intrude yourself in the matter of categorizing the leading

and the late, and the follower and the guide? How should the ‘released’ and sons

of the ‘released’ have a concern in the question of discerning the foremost

Muhajirs and classifying and identifying them?…

Al-Kafi; 3/512:

Lands of those who islamize willingly should be kept in their hands. Whatever is

seized by sword should be belonged to the imam who conducts what he sees. This

is the Prophet’s procedures in respect to lands of Kheibar… When people of Taif

islamized, they were imposed to pay the tithe and its half. Mecca was conquered

by the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family); therefore, people of Mecca are

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his prisoners. He manumitted them and said, “Go free! You are released.”

Sunni jurisprudents rule that the Quraishis embraced Islam; therefore, they are under

its rulings.

When they are asked about the name ‘released’ and application of rulings of fighting

to people and lands of Mecca, the Sunni jurisprudents claim that these right of

applying these rulings was given exclusively to the Prophet.

Ashafii’s Kitabul-Umm; 7/382:

Al-Awzai: The Prophet (peace be upon him) conquered Mecca by force. He

permitted Muhajirs to occupy their own lodges and lands there. He did not decide

them as spoils.

Abu Yousuf: The Prophet (peace be upon him) pardoned people of Mecca when

he declared that security is given to each individual keeps himself in his house or

joins the mosque or Abu Sufian’s house. He asked his army not to kill but definite

names, or when defending. He gathered them in the mosque and said, “What do

you expect me to do with you?” “Good. You are the generous brother, and son of

that generous brother,” replied they. “Go free! You are released,” said the

Prophet.

He did not regard any part of their possessions as spoils. I have already explicated

that the Prophet in this very regard is not like others. The Prophet’s norms should

be carefully understood, since they bear various meanings.

This indicates that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) disregarded

rulings of Islam when he neither reckoned lands of Mecca with spoils of war, nor did

he take its people as servants and slaves. He pardoned them and admitted their

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converting to Islam. It is a ruling dedicated to the Prophet. It is illicit for any

conqueror to take such procedures to polytheist foes.

Thus, they claim the Prophet’s respecting the Quraishis when he distinguished and

applied them to particular rulings.

At any rate, an immovable obstacle stands there. It is the name of ‘released’ the

Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) stamped on necks of the Quraishis and

their partisans. This name befits the slaves only.

Some of the Nassibites* understand that problem of Quraish with the Prophet’s

progeny would enduringly remain unsettled as long as the name of ‘released’ is kept

as a prophetic mark on their foreheads. This name means that the Quraishis have

become legitimate slaves of the Prophet and his household and progeny, and that he

had only released, but not manumitted them from slavery. Even if they were

manumitted, their loyalty should be kept for the Prophet and his household.

*Nassibites are antagonists of the Prohet’s progeny and their adherents.

They spare no efforts for eradicating the name of ‘released’, in order that they might

release the Quraishis from their slavery to the Prophet and his household.

Sheik Nasiruddin Al-Albani exposes his reluctant fanaticism to the Quraishis when

he decides doubtfulness of the narrative involved on page 307 of part 3 of his

Selselatul Ahadithil Dhaeefa. He lists it under number 1163. He adds:

This doubtful narrative is recorded in Ibn Isaaq’s As-Sira; 4/31-2. At-Tabari, in

his Tarikh; 3/120, relates it.

As he records it in his Al-Bidaya Wen Nihya; 4/300-1, Ibn Kutheir does not

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comment on the report.

Its documentation is doubtful and suspended since Ibn Isaaq did not name the man

from whom he received. In addition, he was not one of the Prophet’s

companions…

It is evident that this (hadithist) shows shortcoming in reviewing the other principal

reference books of hadith in which this report is registered. Similarly, he could not

perceive that hadithists and jurisprudents dealt with this report as an undeniable fact.

We wonder if it was such an extreme historical blemish, or it was such a fanaticism

to the Quraishis that made this hadithist attempt to deny this fact. It might be an

attempt to save them from that everlasting name of slavery to the Prophet and his

household.

Question of the released Quraishis is so certain and famous to the entire Islamic

sects. The name ‘released’ is called exclusively on the Quraishis. It is frequently

used in the reference books of hadith. This name had definite rulings discussed by

the master Muslim jurisprudents.

Al-Bukhari’s; 5/105-6:

… Ten thousand warriors, besides the released, were with the Prophet (peace be

upon him) during the battle of Hunein. They all absconded…

Muslim’s; 3/106:

… The released were with him. They absconded and he remained alone…

The same is recorded in Muslim’s; 5/196 also, and Ahmed’s; 3/190 and 279. The

truth is that the Hashemites were the only persons who stood firm and fought with

the Prophet in the battle of Hunein.

Ahmed’s; 4/363:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Muhajirs and Ansar are wardens of each

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other. The Quraishi released and the manumitted of Thaqif are wardens of each

other till the Resurrection Day.

Al-Hakim, in his Al-Mustedrak; 4/80, and Al-Heithami, in his Majmauzzawaid;

10/15, decide the authenticity of the previous report.

The same report is authenticated in the following reference books:

Ibn Qudama’s Al-Mughni; 7/321.

As-Serkhesi’s Al-Mabsutt; 10/39.

Ahmed’s Al-Musnad; 3/279.

Al-Beihaqi’s As-Sunan; 6/306, 8/266 and 9/118.

Kenzul-Ummal; 12/86 and 5/735:

Omar stated, “This affair should never be held by the released and sons of the

released…

THE QURAISHIS AFTER CONQUEST OF MECCA

The rest of the Quraishi tyrants and ‘released’ were coerced on converting to Islam.

Feelings of malice and arrogance were confined in hiddens of most, if not all, of

them. On the other side, they adopted the claim that Mohammed’s state was theirs,

since Mohammed was that generous man and son of that generous man, and his state

is Quraish’s. Similarly, they adhered to the statements that Mohammed’s nobility

and pride were theirs, since he was son of Quraish, and his state was more prevailing

and superior than state of Quraish.

At any rate, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) pardoned them and

permitted celebrities of Quraish to enter his state; therefore, it is illogical for them to

fight or stand against or leave that state in the hands of the strangers; people of the

Aws and the Khazraj. Likewise, the question of Mohammed’s succession is

discussible since it was seen as a municipal issue.

It is quite understandable that the Quraishis directed their efforts towards the coming

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stage; after Mohammed’s departure. The most significant aim they had to treat was

precluding him from nominating the Hashemites for the next leadership. They

expressed this trend in few words; forbidding the Hashemites from joining leadership

to prophesy. They decided that leadership should be the share of the Quraishi clans

other than the Hashemites who had already enjoyed prophesy restrictively.

Furthermore, there are many texts and confessions leading to the fact that the

Quraishis spared no single effort, whether on the external or internal fronts, for

achieving the previous plan. Yet, most of them despaired of the Prophet’s granting

them any amount in the leadership. This because he had been working industriously

for preparing his household for the next leadership of his state.

On that account, they plotted for assassinating the Prophet. They did commit such

endeavors as soon as they had an opportunity. That commenced during the battle of

Hunein.

The Quraishi pharaohs have never practiced faithfulness, as if they would feel sick if

they evaded exploiting any scope of betraying that who pardoned them benevolently.

After they had declared their being Muslims, and volunteered for joining the Prophet

in his war against the Hawazin and the Ghatafan in Hunein, they absconded at the

initial throw of spears in the battlefield. They were two thousand and the Prophet’s

army were ten thousand. Nevertheless, they were the main reason beyond the beating

of the Prophet’s army in that battle. They caused the rest to abscond, just like what

had happened in the battle of Uhud.

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Predictably, the Hashemites were the only warriors who stood fast with the Prophet.

They fought so courageously that they could repulse the attack. Only then, a few

number of the absconding Muslims returned to the battlefield. God gave them

victory.

At the same time as the Muslims were absconding, the Quraishis plotted a number of

processes aimed at assassinating the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family).

This matter drags to the matter that they had already planned for many things with

the Hawazin.

Ibn Kutheir; the affectionately fond of the Quraishis and the Umayid, records the

following saying of his dearest; An-Nudeir Bin Al-Harith, chief of sons of Abdud-

Dar.

As-Sira; 3/691:

…An-Nudeir Bin Al-Harith Bin Kilda was a famous foe of the Prophet (peace be

upon him). During the battle of Hunein, he joined his people who were still

keeping their beliefs. An-Nudeir spoke: “We intended to attack Mohammed as

soon as the Hawazin would beat him. But, we could not do it. When we resided in

Jarana, the Prophet (peace be upon him) called at me while I was still keeping my

beliefs. “O An-Nudeir! May I guide you to a practice more beneficial for you than

that you had intended during the battle of Hunein, and the Lord stopped you?”

offered the Prophet. I came to him so hurriedly. “Now, it is the proper time to

understand the infirmity of your previous intention,” added he. I confessed: “Yes,

indeed. I do realize that had there been a god other than Allah, he would have

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influenced. I do declare there is no god but Allah, lonelily without associate.”…

It is noticeable that the previous words of this Quraishi chief involved his declaration

and claim of believing in God; the Exalted. A man’s declaration is a sufficient

evidence. It is also noticeable that he declared the first creed of Islam only, and

neglected the other, which is the declaration of Mohammed’s divine prophesy and

apostleship. A claim is not provable unless others testify it.

The point here is this chief’s recognition that their declaration of converting to Islam

during conquest of Mecca had been false. Two thousand warriors were under the

commandment of this chief during the battle of Hunein, while he was planning for

assassinating the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). This indicates that the

whole warriors were parties in this plot. In addition, these words revealed that they

had actually implemented processes of assassinating the Prophet, but their activities

were failed by the Lord; the Exalted, and communicated to the Prophet (peace be

upon him and his family).

Other narratives attest that the Quraishi chiefs, during the flight of the Muslims in the

battle of Hunein, could no longer keep the secret; therefore, they shouted of their

rooted atheism and divulged their intentions.

Ibn Husham’s As-Sira; 4/46:

… When Muslims fled, some the Quraishis could no longer hide malice that

disturbed their hearts. Abu Sufian Bin Harb shouted, while pieces of pagans were

kept in his bag: “Let them be thrown in the sea.”

Jibilla Bin Al-Hanbal and Safwan Bin Umaya; the polytheists, shouted: “Sorcery

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has failed!”

Sheiba Bin Othman Bin Abi Talha, whose brother was killed in the battle of

Uhud, cried: “Today, I will retaliate Mohammed. Today, I will kill Mohammed.”

He, later on, narrated, “I searched for the Prophet as I intended to kill him. But

something strange locked my heart; therefore, I realized that I would never have

the ability of carrying out my intention.”

Moreover, Sheiba; the Muslim leader and son of Quraish (the striving faithful and

Muslim tribe), conceded that he went around the Prophet several time as he intended

to kill him. That was after the flight during the battle of Hunein.

A deep look in the identities, ways of thinking and interests of the Quraishi chiefs

clearly exposes their hypocrisy, and that they had decided to belie the entire portents

and miracles introduced by Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family), and

gainsay the whole humanitarian values and norms he called for and installed. They

also decided not to join his religion in any case except when they would be

threatened by swords or when his state would be in their hands.

No single means did they save during their fighting the Prophet (peace be upon him

and his family). Regardless, they had to show shortcoming and, finally, were

defeated. As a second stage, they kept on plotting cabals and attempting to

assassinate him. But they had to show shortcoming, too. Then, they specified terms

of holding leading positions in his state. They were defeated.

At length, they claimed their right to control his state, since they were his people.

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Structure of this sort of people who predominated the Islamic state and precluded the

Prophet’s household from holding their proper positions of leadership, necessitates a

discerning study.

Menaqibu Ali Abi Talib; 2/239:

In his Tanzihul Anbiya (page 167), Asharif Al-Murteda comments:

As soon as the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) nominated Ali Bin Abi

Talib for the next leadership, a group of Quraishi people came and stated: “O

God’s messenger! People have no long span in Islam. They displease that your

cousin; Ali Bin Abi Talib, will hold the leadership while you held the prophesy.

You’d better have another decision.”

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) replied: “That was not my

decision that I may alter. It was the Lord’s. It is He Who ordered me of and

imposed it upon me.”

They suggested: “Well then. You may conjoin a man of Quraish to him, so that

people will be satisfied, and your affairs will be affirmative.”

Soon afterwards, God revealed: (Surely, if you associate, your work would

certainly come to naught and you would certainly be of the losers.)

Imam As-Sadiq (peace be upon him): The Quraishis were under the leadership of

a man from the Edi when they appeared before the Prophet and said: “O God’s

messenger! We have abandoned our paganism and followed you. Conjoin us in

the leadership you have given to Ali exclusively.”

Gabriel; the Angel, descended to the Prophet and revealed: (Surely, if you

associate, your work would certainly come to naught and you would certainly be

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of the losers.)

THE QURAISHIS EMBRACE THE LEADERSHIP OF SUHEIL BIN AMR

Despite the unfaithful situations shown by the Quraishis after conquest of Mecca, the

Prophet put forth efforts for acquiring their loyalty by dignifying and welcoming

them. He donated them the greatest share of the spoils. He also promised to donate

more in the future provided that they would show fidelity and good manners.

Not for their appreciation, the Lord advised His Apostle of using illumination of

tranquillity and benevolence in facing the intricacy and narrow-mindedness of those

tyrant people. That was particularly taken for the sake of the coming generations and

the march that will be arising in this world.

Meanwhile, chiefship of Abu Sufian retracted, and he could keep nothing other than

his false fame of combating Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family). Abu

Sufian’s chiefship was fit in wars and trade only. It was unsuitable in situations of

peace and political activities. After he had been defeated in conquest of Mecca, Abu

Sufian resided in Al-Madina and asked the Prophet (peace be upon him and his

family) to appoint him as a tax collector of some tribes.

Suheil Bin Amr was selected as the very thinker and politician who might

materialize the Quraishi people’s outlining after their military downfall.

Not too long, Suheil Bin Amr became the only pivot around whom the Quraishis

circumambulated, and the only heir of those chiefs whom were killed or perished by

Mohammed or his Lord.

Although he was one of sons of Amir Bin Luay who were a grade lower than sons of

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Kab Bin Luay, as Ibn Husham asserts in his As-Sira; 2/489, Suheil Bin Amir Bin

Abd Shams Bin Abd Wudd was a full-blooded Quraishi. He had long stories with

Mohammed. He was one of the chiefs who negotiated Abu Talib in respect of

Mohammed’s prophesy. He was a member in An-Nidwa conference when they

issued the decision of imposing a comprehensive blockade upon the Hashemites. He

was also a member of the cabal of assassinating the Prophet during his journey to At-

Taif. He also participated in making the decision of banishing Mohammed out of

Mecca and menacing killing him if he had to return. He also rejected protecting the

Prophet so that he would be in Mecca for conveying his Lord’s messages.

At-Tabari’s Tarikh; 2/82:

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) asked Al-Akhnes Bin Shureiq to

convey his request of protection, so that he would convey his Lord’s messages, to

Suheil Bin Amr. “Sons of Amir Bin Luay should never protect those whom are

wanted by sons of Kab.” This was Suheil’s answer.

Furthermore, Suheil was one of those chiefs who showed no drawback in planning

processes for killing Mohammed after Abu Talib’s decease, till his Lord saved him

through immigration.

He was also one of those who detained and tortured the earlier Muslims. Abu Jandal

was one of those Muslims who suffered torment on the hands of his father; Suheil.

He was also within commanders of the battle of Badr, and the wealthy who saved

the alimony of the polytheists’ army. He exerted efforts for harming the Prophet’s

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heart through practicing ill activities; therefore, God cursed him and ordered His

Prophet of cursing and mentioning him by name in disfavor and commination during

the prayers.

Besides battles of Uhud and Al-Khandaq, Suheil spent his wealth on enlisting people

against the Prophet during wars.

At-Thehbi’s Siyeru Alamin Nubela; 1/194:

Suheil Bin Amr was the best eloquent orator among the Quraishis, and one of

their celebrities. He could escape when he was captured in the battle of Badr.

In Mecca, he harangued and urged people on partaking in the wars against the

Prophet. He said, “O sons of Ghalib! Are you going to let Mohammed and the

apostate who followed him seize your caravans?! This wealth I am providing is

for those who lack wealth. This power I am providing is for those who lack

power.”

However, Suheil was benevolent, generous and well-spoken.

Addressing words similar to those addressed by Abu Bakr As-Siddiq in Al-

Madina,* Suheil orated in Mecca after the Prophet’s decease. His words

contributed in appeasing people and enhancing Islam.

*The underlined words of At-Thehbi should be affixed in mind for more

understanding for the coming topics.

The Quraishis elected Suheil Bin Amr for representing them in the peace treaty of

Hudeibiya. He protested against writing down ‘the Apostle of God’ as the Prophet’s

signature. He signed on it on behalf of the entire Quraishis.

At last, he was one of the leaders of polytheism intended by God’s saying, (Fight

leaders of polytheism.)

As-Sanani’s Tafsir; 1/242:

Qetada: Leaders of polytheism intended in God’s saying, (Fight leaders of

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polytheism,) are Abu Sufian Bin Harb, Umaya Bin Khalaf, Utba Bin Rabia, Abu

Jahl and Suheil Bin Amr.

After conquest of Mecca and the Prophet’s predominance, Suheil Bin Amr preferred

to keep his lodging in Mecca, and declined the idea of moving to Al-Madina, like

most of the released. Due to his arrogance and long history of struggle against the

Prophet, he dared not ask for a position in the Prophet’s state.

While he rejected the Prophet’s philanthropic present during years of desiccation and

starvation suffered by the Quraishis by virtue of the Prophet’s cursing, Suheil Bin

Amr accepted the one hundred camels presented to him as spoils of the battle of

Hunein.

This long history was seen as bright as daylight sun for the Quraishi people, while it

is seen as black as gloomy night for God and His Apostle.

The (Muslim) Quraishis voted for Suheil Bin Amr’s leadership after conquest of

Mecca, for the previous lineage, history and situations.

How miserable the historians are! And woe is adorers of the Quraishis in this regard.

Whereas the Prophet did nominate Ettab Bin Useid Al-Umawi and a man from Ansar

as rulers of Mecca, the Quraishis preferred and complied with Suheil.

This fact is evidenced by the story that as soon as the Prophet (peace be upon him

and his family) was deceased, the Quraishis dissented and relinquished Islam.

Although, he was a Quraishi individual, Ettab had to hide since he anticipated

assassination. A few days later, they received the tranquil news of swearing

allegiance to Abu Bakr; son of the Teim, as the new leader. They calmed as they

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understood that none of the Hashemites would hold position of leadership. That

repose incited Suheil Bin Amr on repeating the same words of Abu Bakr, in Mecca.

The intendment of these words was that he whoever worshipped Mohammed, must

understand that his worshipped had died. We; the other party, do not worship

Mohammed who was no more than a messenger that carried the message and passed

away. Mohammed was son of Quraish, and his authority should be held by the

Quraishis who selected the new leader; Abu Bakr. They all should listen and obey.

Suheil assuaged the Quraishis’ revolt by carrying the news that leadership would be

in their hands, away from the Hashemites and Ansar who worshipped Mohammed.

Thus, they should not have apostatized Islam.

Accordingly, the Quraishis listened, and that was the conclusion of the apostasy

project.

Suheil secured Ettab and ordered him of ruling Mecca in the name of the new

Quraishi, non-Hashemite, leader; Abu Bakr Bin Abi Qehafa, son of the Teim Bin

Murra.*

*Refer to Ibn Husham’s As-Sira; 4/1079, who added: Then, people were calmed and

regained settlement. Only then, Ettab Bin Useid appeared.

SUHEIL WORKS FOR INDEPENDENCE

After conquest of Mecca, the Quraishis directed their entire activities towards the

orderly political and secret action aimed at keeping the Prophet’s household away

from the leadership and dedicating it to the other Quraishi individuals. They

understood that any open activities against the Prophet, in that stage, were

unavailing.

They had to counter the problem of the Prophet’s progressive arrangements for

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bringing Ali, followed by Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein, to power. Neither Ali nor were

any of the Hashemites welcomed by the Quraishi people. Thereupon, they, headed

by Suheil Bin Amr, planned for practicing a number of bold procedures with the

Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). They sent him various missives in

which they demanded with repatriating their sons and slaves who left Mecca and the

farms of At-Taif, and joined him for receiving knowledge of the religion.

Suheil addressed at the Prophet: “Today, we are your allies. We came to terms after

we had been engaged in combats. It was I who concluded the peace treaty with you

in Hudeibiya. Our sons and slaves fled their hometowns and places of work and

joined you. They lied when they claimed intending to receive knowledge of the

religion. Besides, we are responsible for teaching them their religion if they are

honest. Accordingly, you should repatriate them.”

This simple appeal of the new chief of Quraish does mean that the Quraishis, even if

they had to give up arms and surrender under shades of swords, do not recognize the

ruler of Mecca assigned by the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family).

Moreover, they required the Prophet’s recognition of their being an independent

political entity, in the face of the Prophet, his state and religion.

On page 298 of part 5 of At-Tirmithi’s As-Sunan, the following report is written

down:

… Ali Bin Abi Talib: After the conclusion of the peace treaty of Hudeibiya, some

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polytheist chiefs and individuals, including Suheil Bin Amr, came and addressed

at the Prophet (peace be upon him): “O God’s messenger! Some of our sons,

brethren and slaves joined you. Their claim of receiving knowledge in the religion

was false. They only intended to get rid of their obligations and duties. Repatriate

them and we will teach them their religion if they are honest.”

The Prophet (peace be upon him) answered: “O the Quraishis! Keep up such

demands and God shall send a man whose heart is filled up with believing in God,

to behead you by his sword for the sake of this religion.”

They, as well as Abu Bakr and Omar, asked the Prophet to identify that man.

“He is that repairer of the sandal,” the Prophet referred to Ali between whose

hands was the sandal of the Prophet (peace be upon him).

Abu Dawud’s As-Sunan; 1/611:

… Ali Bin Abi Talib: Some slaves joined the Prophet. (That was before the

conclusion of the peace treaty of Hudeibiya.) The masters sent missives in which

they demanded with repatriating them, since their claim of receiving knowledge

in the religion was false.

A number of people encompassing the Prophet attested that demand, and advised

the Prophet to respond.

The Prophet became irate, and spoke: “O the Quraishis! I see you will never give

up such demands before the Lord shall send a man who will behead you for this.”

Hence, the Prophet rejected their demand and manumitted those slaves.

The reader must be aware that mentioning the peace treaty of Hudeibiya in the

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previous report, was only a style of contorting facts, usually followed by the Quraishi

reporters and narrators. The incident befell after conquest of Mecca. Had it occurred

before that, Suheil Bin Amr would have demanded the Prophet with fulfilling the

term of repatriating the individuals who would join the Prophet. The Prophet’s

obligation of repatriating whomever joins him and flees the line of the polytheist,

was one of the terms specified during the conclusion of the peace treaty of

Hudeibiya. By the way, the polytheists were not bound with the same term.

The Prophet would not have shown such an intense ire if this demand, which would

have been so normal since it was specified as a term of the treaty, had been provided

before conquest of Mecca. The Prophet’s ire is always cast in situations of

wrongdoing. It is pursuing the Lord’s ire.

The released Quraishis would not have suggested to the Prophet that they should

teach those sons and slaves the religion, if their demand had been issued before

conquest of Mecca and convertion to Islam. The suggestion of teaching Islam cannot

be said by other than Muslims or claimers of being Muslims.

Finally, some narratives attest that the incident occurred after conquest of Mecca.

Al-Hakim’s Al-Mustedrak; 2/138:

… Ali Bin Abi Talib (God be pleased to him): After the Prophet (peace be upon

him and his family) had conquered Mecca, some Quraishis came and said: “O

Mohammed! We are your allies and people. Our slaves joined you not for

receiving knowledge of Islam, as they claim, but for giving up their duties and

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obligations. Repatriate them.”

Abu Bakr and Omar attested the demand when their advice was sought.

The Prophet stated: “O the Quraishis! God shall send a man from among you,

whose heart is filled up with faithfulness, to behead you for the sake of the

religion.”

Abu Bakr and Omar expected themselves to be the intended. “No,” asserted the

Prophet, “It is the repairer of the sandals in the mosque.” The Prophet had already

given his sandals to Ali to repair.

(According to the criterion of Muslim, this report is authentic.)

On page 298 of part 4, Al-Hakim records a similar report and decides its

authenticity:

After conquest of Mecca, some the Quraishis came to the Prophet… He said: “O

the Quraishis! Avoid keeping up prayers and defraying the poor rate and I will

send a man who will behead you for the sake of this religion. This man shall be I,

or the repairer of the sandals.” Meanwhile, Ali was repairing the Prophet’s

sandals.

The same is recorded on page 174 of part 13 of Kenzul Ummal.

Many remarkable and consequential points can be inferred from this incident:

First, the Quraishis attended in Al-Madina to see the Prophet. They came to

Mohammed’s capital for demanding with his recognizing their political

independence. Such an awkward impudence occurred just after conquest of Mecca,

and their humiliation and concession to Islam under the menace of swords, and their

being released by the Prophet, and their shameful deeds in the late battle of Hunein.

As Al-Hakim and Abu Dawud authenticate, the Quraishis addressed at the Prophet:

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“O Mohammed!!” At-Tirmithi, however, distorts it into ‘O God’s messenger!’

Ahmed’s Al-Musnad; 3/82:

Abu Said Al-Khidri: … The Prophet’s sandal was cut when he handed it to Ali

Bin Abi Talib to repair. We stood with the Prophet who spoke, “One of you shall

fight for the sake of the interpretation of the Quran, as same as I have fought for

its revelation.”

Each, including Abu Bakr and Omar, expected himself to be the one intended.

“No,” asserted the Prophet, “He shall be the repairer of the sandal.”

We hurried to Ali for carrying this good tidings. As if he had already known it,

Ali paid no attention.

On page 133 of part 9 of Majmauzzawaid, the author decides authenticity and

truthfulness of the report and its narrators.

The narration maintains that the incident occurred in Al-Madina.

Second, the Quraishis understood that conquest of Mecca and their having to accept

Islam as a religion had not been considered as a submission to the Prophet (peace be

upon him and his family) and melting in the Islamic state. They saw it as an alliance

with the Prophet against the tribes not included to his state yet. The Romans and the

Persian were the main foes of the Prophet’s state and the Quraishis as well. They

regarded it as an alliance against the common foe although they had to be a party by

swords.

Furthermore, the Quraishis considered that they had practically applied that alliance

when they fought in the Prophet’s line against his foes during the battle of Hunein.

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On that account, it is now his turn to recognize their independent entity.

Their commencing demand was repatriating their fleeing sons and slaves. This meant

that the Prophet should deliver those individuals to the authorities of the Quraishi

state; their homeland.

Third, excepting the Hashemites, the Quraishis, who had immigrated with the

Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), attested that demand. It is proved that

Abu Bakr Bin Qehafa and Omar Bin Al-Khattab supported the demand completely.

Narrations vary in exposing the scope of Abu Bakr and Omar’s supporting the

Quraishi demand. Some, such as Al-Hakim’s authentic previous one, elucidate that

Abu Bakr answered: “They have said the truth, God’s messenger! Repatriate them.”

Omar repeated the same words of Abu Bakr.

Other narrations, such as that recorded in At-Tirmithi’s and Al-Hakim’s Al-

Mustedrak; 3/122 and Majmauzzawaid; 9/134 and 5/186, evade referring to the two

men’s attesting and admitting the Quraishi demand, and stop at mentioning their

expectation to be the party whom shall be selected by the Lord and His Apostle for

disciplining the Quraishis.

Smartly, the word ‘men’ was substituted for the names of Abu Bakr and Omar. Such

narratives are recorded in Al-Hakim’s Al-Mustedrak; 2/125 and; 10/473.

Mentioning the two men was totally eradicated in some narrations such as that

recorded in Abu Dawud’s As-Sunan and the various narrations of; 11/613.

Fourth, a wonderment should be provided here. It is respecting the sort of

relationship between Suheil Bin Amr and the two men; Abu Bakr and Omar, and the

reason beyond their attesting the Quraishi demand.

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Another wonderment should be provided. It is the reason beyond the Prophet’s

seeking advice of Abu Bakr and Omar after he had comprehended the Quraishis’ real

intendment. Moreover, he became irate, and rejected their demand, and menaced

another war, and foretold of its imminent falling.

In any case, texts aver, in the least level, that chiefship of Quraish was represented

by those four stars of the incident. They are Mohammed Bin Abdillah; the Prophet,

Suheil Bin Amr Al-Amiri; the polytheists’ past chief and the Quraishis’ present

chief, Abu Bakr and Omar; sons of the most worthless clans of Quraish. However,

characters of these two men were remarkable for their accompanying the Prophet

(peace be upon him and his family).These two men attested Suheil’s demand.

From the above it is comprehensible that there is a sort of relationship and an earlier

arrangement between the delegation of Quraish and the two men. Some narratives

divulge more: Suheil and his delegation resided at Omar’s house when they were in

Al-Madina. Abu Bakr accompanied them to the Prophet as an intercessor.

Fifth, four elements can be assumed from the Prophet’s reaction in the incident

involved:

1. The prophetic ire owing to the awkward impudence and the way of thinking

enjoyed and adopted by the Quraishis. Narratives did not refer to this point

detailedly.

2. The Prophet’s despairing of the Quraishis’s modifying their courses of tyranny,

and spreading on instructions of Islam. Moreover, the Prophet despaired of their

evading arrogance and despotism. He perceived that the sword would be the only

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device that may cause them to abide the right.

A number of narratives, such as those recorded in Al-Hakim’s Al-Mustedrak; 2/125,

Abu Dawud’s; 1/611, Al-Beihaqi’s As-Sunan; 9/229 and Kenzul Ummal; 10/473,

referred evidently to this point. (The Prophet said: “O the Quraishis! I see you will

never cease unless the Lord shall send a man who will behead you for the sake of

Islam.”) This prophetic wording asserts that the Quraishis will never submit to Islam

by means other than swords.

3. The Prophet’s naming Ali Bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him); sword of the Lord

and His Apostle, in threatening the Quraishis. They do scare this man to death, since

they suffered the harshest days of their lifetime on his hands. Ali, alone, was the

terminator of half of the polytheist heroes whom were the victims of the Prophet’s

battles. The other Muslims, groupably, killed the second half or less!

It is noticed that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) mentions Ali

indirectly when he refers to the man whom shall be sent for beheading the Quraishis

for the sake of the religion. Once, as it is recorded in Majmauzzawaid; 9/133, he

expresses: “A man belongs to me or I…”

When Abu Bakr and Omar asked him to name that man, the Prophet (peace be upon

him and his family) stated, “It is I or the repairer of the sandal.” This is written down

on page 326 of part 7 of Kenzul Ummal.

This prophetic general wording is aimed for obstructing the wheel of the Quraishi

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disproportionate hopes as they would understand that this question may occur as

early as possible. Moreover, the Quraishis should anticipate an order of invading

Mecca and terminating the tyrants there, that would be issued to Ali as close as

morning.

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) proposes to evince Ali’s standing.

He also wanted to make the Quraishis know that that man they are threatened, should

be believer and one of the Hashemites; the people they were still envying and

detesting.

Had the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) foretold that Ali would fight the

Quraishis for the sake of the interpretation of the holy Quran twenty five years later,

they would have been sure that they should have a twenty year period to apply their

plans.

In Majmauzzawaid, a narrative decided as authentic is recorded. The reporter declare

that since the Prophet’s reign, Ali (peace be upon him) had been threatening the

Quraishis and everybody who would think of apostasy. He swore he would fight

them to the last moments.

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) was the director of this threat aimed

at precluding the Quraishis from practicing any process of dissenting Islam.

Majmauzzawaid; 9/134:

Ibn Abbas: during the Prophet’s lifetime, Ali was used to saying, “God; the

Powerful the Glorified, says, (Mohammed is no more than an apostle; the apostles

have already passed away before him; if then he dies or is killed, will you turn

back upon your heels?) Nay, by Allah! We will never turn back upon our heels

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after we have been guided by Allah; the Exalted. By God I swear, if Mohammed

will die or be killed I will definitely fight for the sake he has been fighting for, till

the last of my life. Nay, by God! It is I who is his brother, successor, cousin and

heir. Who then is more meritorious than me?”

Following the previous narrative, the same compiler writes down another in which

he exposes that immediately after conquest of Mecca, the Prophet (peace be upon

him and his family) menaced the Quraishis with Ali (peace be upon him).

Abdurrahman Bin Awf: Immediately after conquest of Mecca, the Prophet went

towards At-Taif… He orated: “O people! I will be your leading. I urge you on

being benevolent with my household. You shall meet me on the Divine Pool. By

the Prevailing of my soul I utter the oath, if you evade performing prayers and

defraying the poor rates, I will send upon you a man belongs to me. He will be

beheading your warriors and capturing your posterity.”

People thought that Abu Bakr or Omar had been the intended. The Prophet took

Ali from the hand and said, “He shall be this.”

This prophetic threat carries evident evidences on the actual intendments of those

fresh Muslims. It is completed by Ali’s threatening fighting if they would show

apostasy after the Prophet’s decease.

4. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) rules atheism of claimants of that

demand. As a matter of fact, their atheism is sufficiently proved as soon as they

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provided that demand. Besides, the Prophet’s sayings, “I see you will not stop, O the

Quraishis…” and the threat with a man who will behead them for the sake of the

religion, and his ire; all are evidences of those people’s atheism. In the first saying,

the Prophet meant that they would not stop their atheism and antagonism against the

Lord and His Apostle. In the latter, the Prophet’s words meant that they should not

be following the religion, and that they would not cease their activities against Islam

unless they would be treated by swords.

Scholars and jurisprudents ask for a more manifest proof. The Prophet provided so

when he rejected their demand with repatriating their slaves, and declared that he had

manumitted them.

In case these ‘released’ were Muslims whose properties must be respected and

inviolate, it should be illegal for the Prophet, the ever best pious, to violate such

properties. He (peace be upon him and his family) was used to saying: “It is illicit for

any to have from others’ properties unless their satisfaction is obtained.” He was also

saying: “Your properties and souls are as sanctified as… etc.

Jurisprudents were confused as they tried to solve this problem. Some reckoned it

with the potencies exclusively given to the Prophet (peace be upon him and his

family). This is incorrect. It is irrational to regard violating the consecrated

properties of Muslims, as a prophetic potency.

CONSEQUENCE OF THE INCIDENT

Apparently, that incident hindered the Quraishi people’s attempts to harvest the

Prophet’s recognition of their political independence, in the form of an alliance or an

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autonomy under the pennon of the Islamic state.

Any view at the history written with the ink of the Quraishi caliphate and Islam

designed with the scissors of the pro-Quraish narrators, will conclude that the

Quraishis, soon after the incident involved, repented, and embraced Islam so piously,

and gave alms, and manumitted their slaves, and pilgrimaged, and fasted and

performed the prayers so consummately.

In contrast, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) said: “I see you will

never stop, O the Quraishis!”

From nature of the Quraishi people in general and their chiefs in specific, it is

understood that they must have kept up their activities on the entire possible fronts.

They could conclude many results. They understood that the Prophet had still been

attentive of their movements. They also figured out that it had been a great mistake

to think of a political independence in the Prophet’s state. Thirdly, they recognized

that Mohammed; the leading Hashemite knight, had been unmatched, especially

when he was supported by his cousin; terminator of the Arabs, and people of the

Aws and the Khazraj who dared, for the first time in their lives, to fight the Quraishis

and kill a number of their heroes.

The issue of a political independence was retracted as a substitute came forth. The

Quraishis were confident that Mohammed’s state covered the entire territories, and

Muslims were readying for contesting the Romans and Persia. Mohammed did

promise his followers of defeating these two great powers. Muslims looked forward

to achieving so. On that account, any demand of autonomy was seen as meaningless.

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It became so necessary to be oriented to the new general situation through

industrious political activities and processes of systematic violence. By such

activities could the Quraish people only fall heir to Mohammed’s state. Mohammed,

at any rate, is son of Quraish. Hence, his people are more meritorious than others in

receiving his heritage. Neither Ansar; the Yemenis, nor can any other tribe protest or

provide an opinion.

Supposing that will be achieved, there will come one problem only, that necessitates

any possible treatment, no matter how it will be. That is the problem of the

Hashemites whom are called ‘the progeny’ and ‘the near of kin’, and about whom

frequent Quranic texts have been revealed and many prophetic texts have been

worded. Mohammed has endowed them exclusively the fifth of the public budget.

Indeed, that was the conclusion attained by the Quraishis whom were released from

killing and slavery on the hands of the Prophet. That was their reward for the Prophet

during his lifetime. All these were practiced through the great aid provided by a good

deal of the Prophet’s companions.

OMAR THE CALIPH ATTESTS TERGIVERSATION OF THE QURAISHI

At-Tabari’s Tarikh; 3/426:

Al-Hassan Al-Basri: Omar was informed that the Quraishi celebrities had

complained his decision of detaining them in Al-Madina unless a permission is

gotten and a deadline is instituted. He ascended the pulpit and orated:

“I describe Islam as a camel. In its emergence, Islam was the like of a one year

old camel. It became two year old, four year old, six year old and, in the final, it

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became senile. Nothing but decrease comes after senility. Islam is going towards

senility. The Quraishis are aiming at having God’s wealth entirely for themselves.

This shall never be as long as son of Al-Khattab is alive. I am to keep standing on

the entrance of the city for intercepting the Quraishis from falling in the fire.”*

A similar report is recorded on page 401 of part 2 of the same book.

This situation includes a number of points we are to refer to few of them.

1. These were words of a Quraishi chief whose tribal loyalty was beyond any

dispute. It was he who carried the pennon of Quraish and called for their

meritoriousness in succeeding the Prophet, in the face of Ansar and the Hashemites.

He also was engaged in many forbidding struggles, till he could extricate the

leadership from the Prophet’s household and Ansar. He then served the Quraishi

chiefs with that pure leadership, and they named him ‘core of Quraish.’

2. These words were a testimony averring that the Quraishi Muhajirs were deviate,

that they should be detained in Al-Madina in order not to mislead the Muslims.

After assuming the actuality of the Quraishi Muhajirs, it became more evident to

understand hiddens of the Quraishi ‘released’ whom should never cease -their

trickeries against Islam- unless Ali’s sword would play on their heads, as the Prophet

(peace be upon him and his family) predicted.

3. These words comprise a picture of Omar’s imagination respecting the short period

of Islam, and its imminent termination. Omar likened Islam to any political circle

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that passed on the Arab Peninsula and other territories, and would be vanquished

soon.

Through various texts, it was corroborated that Omar; the caliph, believed that Islam

would not last for more ages. He also believed that other nations would soon invade

the Muslims’ territories, especially Mecca the people of which would desert and

cause it to be ruined.

Kabul-Ahbar might be the originator of such false prophesies.

*The same report is recorded on page 75 of part 13 of Kenzul Ummal and page 779

of part 2 of Ibn Shebba’s Tarikhul Madina, on which the last sentence of the report

is written down in the following form: “I am to keep standing on the entrance of the

city for intercepting the Quraishis from leading Mohammed’s nation to atheism.”

CHAPTER TWO

VERSE OF ISMA

ORDER OF THE VERSE

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

And the Jews say: The hand of Allah is tied up! Their hands shall be shackled

and they shall be cursed for what they say. Nay, both His hands are spread out,

He expends as He pleases; and what has been revealed to you from your Lord

will certainly make many of them increase in inordinacy and unbelief; and We

have put enmity and hatred among them till the day of resurrection; whenever

they kindle a fire for war Allah puts it out, and they strive to make mischief in

the land, and Allah does not love the mischief makers.

And if the followers of the Book believed and guarded against evil, We would

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certainly have covered their evil deeds and We would certainly have made them

enter gardens of bliss.

And if they had kept up the Torah and the Bible and that which was revealed to

them from their Lord, they would certainly have eaten from above them and

from beneath their feet; there is a party of them keeping to the moderate

course, and as for most of them, evil is that which they do.

O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do

it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from

the people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people.

Say: O followers of the Book! You follow no good till you keep up the Torah and

the Bible and that which is revealed to you from your Lord; and surely that

which has been revealed to you from your Lord shall make many of them

increase in inordinacy and unbelief; grieve not therefore for the unbelieving

people.

Surely those who believe and those who are Jews and the Sebeans and the

Christians whoever believes in Allah and the last day and does good- they shall

have no fear not shall they grieve. Certainly We made a covenant with the

children of Israel and We sent to them apostles; whenever there came to them

an apostle with what that their souls did not desire, some of them did they call

liars and some they slew.

LOCATION OF THE VERSE

Two matters should be taken in consideration if the Quranic setting is regarded.

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First, the Verse falls in sura of Maida; the seal of the revealed suras.

Second, the Verse falls among Verses respecting manners of the Jews and the

Christians.

Correspondingly, the Verse carries the following meaning to the Prophet: Convey,

and fear not the Jews and the Christians. We are to protect you against them. They

shall be too short to injure you.

Neither the Sunnis nor do the Shias admit this exegesis. For the Prophet (peace be

upon him and his family), it added nothing new concerning the Jews and the

Christians during the two months he lived after the revelation of the Verse involved.

Besides, danger caused by those two parties had been removed before its revelation,

and they were submitted to the Prophet’s regulations.

From this cause, it is scrupulous to probe whether the current situation of the Verse

is original, or one of the Prophet’s companions pursued a personal illation in opting

for it.

We; the Shias, deny clearly any supposition claiming the occurrence of any form of

distortion in the Holy Quran. Yet, reports assert that some companions pursued their

personal inference in choosing for situations of some Verses in some suras.

Accordingly, situation of the Verse intended had been subjectively, if not

unintentionally, chosen.

THE SUNNI SCHOLARS’ OPINIONS

The following six opinions are the most remarkable among the various theses related

to the Verse, and assumed by the Sunni exegesists and scholars. Hitherto, there is a

seventh opinion accords the Shias’.

First opinion: The Verse was revealed in the preliminary stage of the Prophet’s

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divine mission. When the Exalted Lord ordered him of conveying the message, the

Prophet hesitated. He abstained or showed drawback. Hence, the Lord loomed and

relieved. Only then, the Prophet conveyed.

This proposes that the Verse were revealed twenty-three years before the revelation

of sura of Maida.

As if he deterred it, Ashafii used ‘it is said’ before he had referred to the previous

opinion.

Ashafii’s Kitabul Umm; 4/168:

…It is said that when Gabriel first carried the divine instructions of informing

people of the angelic revelation, and soliciting them to the new religion, the

Prophet became harassed as he anticipated people’s belying and maligning him.

Hence, God revealed: O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed…

Many points can be adopted in repudiating this claim. First, the claim is contrary to

situation of the Verse. We have already provided that sura of Maida was the seal of

suras. Ashafii, himself, suspects that claim. He narrates it indirectly. He neither

adopted nor did he refer it to the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). In

conclusion, it is inadmissible to concede such an accusal of abstinence or hesitation

during carrying the Lord’s messages, for avoiding being belied, injured or killed, till

a divine menace and tranquillity were revealed.

This picture does not fit an ordinary faithful believer. How is it then for the sinless

Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), who was the most faithful and

courageous?! A good deal of Quranic texts attested that he (peace be upon him and

his family) was bettering in conveying the Lord’s instructions, and was exceedingly

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interesting in guiding people to the right path.

ASHAFII’S INDIRECT REPORTS

As-Suyouti’s Ad-Durrul Manthour; 2/298:

Al-Hassan Al-Basri: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: I showed detestation

for my Lord’s giving me the orders of conveying His message to people, since I

realized that people would belie me. The Lord threatened if I decline, He would

subdue. That is His saying: O Apostle! Deliver…”*

Ibn Jureij: The Prophet (peace be upon him) feared people of Quraish till the

revelation of the Verse: O Apostle!…and Allah will protect you from the people.

Only then, he was relieved. He said frequently, “Let them disappoint.”

Mujahid: When God revealed: Deliver what has been revealed to you from your

Lord…, the Prophet supplicated: “O my Lord! I am alone. How should I behave

when people unite against me?” Then, God revealed: And if you do it not, then

you have not delivered His message…**

An-Nisapuri’s Al-Waseet; 2/208:

Al-Anbari: During his dwelling in Mecca, the Prophet was used to declaring only

a part of the Quranic texts revealed to him, due to anticipating the polytheists’

injuring his companions and him…

The previous reports lack documentation. They are mere sayings of Al-Hassan Al-

Basri, Mujahid and their likes. Next, we are to prove that Al-Hassan Al-Basri aims at

achieving something private through publicizing such wording, and that he cited his

saying from the Prophet’s sermon of Ghadir, but he was too coward to report the

truth.

THE INDIRECT REPORTS ARE ESTIMABLE OPINIONS

Exegesists realize that the Verse was revealed during the Prophet’s last days, and

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realize that allocating an incident occurred in the prefatory stage of his advocacyto

the exegesis of the Verse was no more than wordings of the false scholars of the

Umayid reign or reports of doubtful documentation. Notwithstanding, they flagrantly

take the Verse twenty-three years back. It is quite odd to see considerate names, such

as Az-Zamakhshari and Al-Fakhr Ar-Razi, lay among such exegesists.

All that is taken for nothing other than evading allocating the exegesis of the Quranic

text to the Ghadir declaration of fealty. In truth, they had two choices only; either

allocating the former incident to the exegesis, or adopting the false reports respecting

cancellation of the watch on the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). This

fable is violated by sequence of the historical events, as well as context of the Verse

intended.

Az-Zamakhshari’s Al-Keshaf; 1/659:

*The same is recorded in Al-Wahidi’s Asbabun Nuzoul; 1/438.

**The same is recorded on page 139 of part 1 of Al-Wahidi’s Asbabun Nuzoul, and

page 198 of part 6 of At-Tabari’s Tafsir.

The meaning of God’s saying, (And Allah will protect you from the people), is

that the Lord provides a promise of protecting the Prophet.. against being killed

only! It is also narrated that the Prophet said:

I showed detestation for the Lord’s ordering me of conveying His message to

people. He then threatened a punition if I abstain. He also guaranteed protecting

me. Only then I regained vigor.

The same is recorded in Al-Waseet; 2/208.

Ar-Razi’s Tafsir; 6:12/48-50:

Exegesis of God’s saying: O Apostle! Deliver what has been…

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Al-Hassan: The Prophet said: I showed detestation for my Lord’s giving me the

orders of conveying His message to people, since I realized that people, including

the Jews and the Christians, would belie me, and the Quraishis would threaten me.

When the Lord revealed: (O Apostle! Deliver…,) my entire apprehensions were

removed.

Regarding God’s saying: (And Allah will protect you from the people,) it be may

be asked how it is possible to regard this statement when it is well known that the

Prophet’s face was scratched during the battle of Uhud.

There are two answers for this wonderment. First, the Verse intends protection

against being killed. Second, the Verse was revealed after the battle of Uhud.

Ar-Razi is not accurate in relating Al-Hassan’s wording. He adds the statement:

‘including the Jews and the Christians,’ since he intends to specify the protection

against aggressions of the Jews and the Christians, so that he would be able to take

away the Quraishis’.

At any rate, we should not blame him for cherishing the Quraishis generally, and his

forefather; Abu Bakr Bin Abi Qehafa specifically. We only demand with the

objective honesty. No single indication to the Jews and the Christians is shown in the

whole reference books that record Al-Hassan’s previous wording. Later on, the

reader will learn that Al-Hassan excerpted his wording from the Prophet’s sermon of

Ghadir.

Excelling Ar-Razi and the others, Ibn Kutheir outdoes exceedingly when he records

the following in his Al-Bidaya Wen-Nihaya; 3/53:

… Ali: “When God revealed: (And warn your nearest relations,) the Prophet

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(peace be upon him) asked me to cook a … The Prophet spoke: “Which one of

you is to settle my debts and he will be my successor among my people?” As he

anticipated loss, Al-Abbas kept silence. I had to keep silence as I revered Al-

Abbas’s being elder. In the second time I spoke after I had seen Al-Abbas keep

silent. The Prophet attested…”

The Prophet (peace be upon him) anticipated being killed as soon as he would

convey the Lord’s message to the Arab polytheists. Therefore, he aimed at

nominating his successor that would guard his people after his decease. He could

trust a man who would be committing himself to this responsibility.

Anyhow, the Lord secured His Apostle when He revealed: (O Apostle! Deliver…

Approximately, the same is recorded in As-Sira; 1/460.

Ibn Kutheir does slip and serve his fanaticism very much. He cuts off the prophetic

text regarding God’s saying: (And warn your nearest relations,) and erases the

Prophet’s carrying out God’s mandate of nominating a successor. Instead, the man

records a contorted text and explains that the Prophet’s asking the Hashemites for a

successor who would be the guardian of his people and the settler of his debts, came

due to his anticipating being killed by the Quraishis. Ali (peace be upon him)

volunteered. When the Verse was revealed, such a succession became invalid.

Ibn Kutheir, purposefully, disregards the fact that the Prophet (peace be upon him

and his family) was mandated to solicit his near relatives exclusively to his

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advocacy. Neither the Quraishis nor were the others included in this solicitation.

Thereupon, the Prophet’s anticipation of being killed or injured is but a fabrication.

Furthermore, as much as I could conceive, none precedes or supports Ibn Kutheir in

establishing a relation between the Verse of Isma and that of warning the near

relatives. Anyway, he does not refer to the source from which he embraced that

opinion.

As a matter of fact, for Ibn Kutheir, nothing is more important that misrepresenting

and fading the Prophet’s words at his near relatives, and his nominating Ali as his

brother, vizier and successor. Meanwhile, he spares no efforts for taking Verse of

Isma away from sura of Maida and day of Ghadir.

The following is the Prophet’s wording cut off by Ibn Kutheir:

Al-Amini’s Al-Ghadir; 1/207:

The following is a quotation of At-Tabari’s words, mentioned for discriminating

the accurate and the deviation:

At-Tabari’s Tarikh; 1/207:

… (The Prophet said:) “I have brought forth the good of this world as well as the

Hereafter. The Exalted Lord has given me the order of soliciting you all to this

matter. Which one of you is to support me, and shall be my brother, heir and

successor?”

(Ali went on narrating:) I was the youngest among the attendants who utterly

spurned. I spoke: “I will, God’s messenger. I will be your supporter in this affair.”

The Prophet took me from the neck and declared: “This is my brother, heir and

successor. Listen and comply with him.” The attendants went out laughing and

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addressing at my father: “Well, he has ordered you of listening and complying

with your son!”

(Al-Amini:) As he decides it as authentic, Abu Jafar Al-Iskafi; the Theologist

Mutazilite, records the same words in his Naqdul Othmaniya.

It is also recorded in the following reference books:

Burhanuddin’s Anbau Nujeba Il-Abna; 46-8.

Ibnul Athir’s Al-Kamil; 2/24.

Ad-Dimeshqi’s Tarikh; 1/116.

Al-Khafaji’s Sharhu Shifa; 3/37. (In this book, the last statement of the narrative

is cut off. The compiler commentates: “In Al-Beihaqi’s Delailun Nubuwa, as

well as many other books, this narrative is authentically documented.)

Al-Baghdadi’s Tafsir; 390.

As-Suyouti’s Jamuj Jawami; 6/392. (He refers it to At-Tabari.)

As-Suyouti’s Jamuj Jawami; 6/397. (He refers it to the six most notable

hadithists; Ibn Isaaq, Ibn Jarir, Ibn Abi Hatem, Ibn Merdawayih, Abu Naeem and

Al-Beihaqi.)

Ibn Abil-Hadid’s Sharhu Nahjil Belagha; 3/254.

The compiler of Al-Ghadir criticizes those who misrepresented the narrative,

seeking the Quraishis’ favor. At-Tabari, for instance, intends to make the Prophet’s

words respecting Ali obscure. He records: “The Prophet then said: ‘This is my

brother… and so on.” Ibn Kutheir, in his Al-Bidaya Wen Nihaya; 3/40, and Tafsir:

3/351, follows At-Tabari.

Second opinion: The Verse was revealed some time before the immigration to Al-

Madina. Since then, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) dispensed with

the surveillance of Abu Talib or Al-Abbas; the uncles.

In the Sunni reference books of hadith, this opinion is the most widespread. It is of

two sorts of narratives. The earlier shows, whether openly or suggestively, time and

place of the Verse revelation, which was Mecca. The latter relates it to the Prophet’s

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canceling the surveillance, without referring, directly, to the watch practiced by Abu

Talib or Al-Abbas.

Regardless, we ought to opt for the earlier, since its origin is At-Tirmithi’s relation to

Aisha. Like many others, At-Tirmithi could perceive that Aisha had meant Mecca.

As a model of the first sort of narration, the following is cited:

As-Suyouti’s Ad-Durrul Manthour; 2/298-9:

… The Prophet (peace be upon him) narrated: During the pilgrimage season, I

was in Mina when Gabriel revealed to me God’s saying: (O Apostle! Deliver…)

Presently, I stood erect at Al-Aqaba and shouted: “O people! He shall be granted

the Paradise that whoever supports me in conveying my Lord’s message. O

People! Declare that there is no god but Allah and that I am His messenger to you,

and you will be saved and granted the Paradise.”

The entire people, including women and children, began to throw me with dust

and stones, and spew in my face, shouting: you are liar and apostate.

In the midst of these moments, an inspiration came forth before me and said: “It is

now the proper time for you, if you are the Lord’s messenger, to curse your

people, like Noah when he cursed his people.”

I supplicated: “O Allah! Guide me people, they do not know, and support me by

making them respond to your obedience.”

Al-Abbas; my uncle, came and saved me from them.

Jabir Bin Abdillah: Abu Talib used to appoint a guard for accompanying the

Prophet (peace be upon him) whenever he went out. When God revealed: (And

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Allah will protect you from the people,) the Prophet said to his uncle: “God has

protected me. I do not need a guard.”

Ibn Abbas: The Prophet was guarded. Abu Talib used to send men from the

Hashemites for guarding him. “O uncle! I do no longer need those whom you are

appointing for guarding me,” the Prophet said.*

Majmauzzawaid; 7/17:

Abu Sa’eed Al-Khidri: Al-Abbas; the Prophet’s uncle, was one of those who

guarded the Prophet (peace be upon him). When God revealed: (And Allah will

protect you from the people,) the guardians stopped.**

*This narration is also recorded on page 205 of part 11 of At-Tabarani’s Al-Mujamul

Kabir.

**This report is recorded in At-Tabarani’s Al-Mujamus Saghir and Al-Mujamul

Awsat. Within its narrators is Atya Al-Awfi; the doubtful.

Ibn Abbas: The Prophet (peace be upon him) was guarded. Abu Talib; his uncle,

used to appoint men from the Hashemites for guarding him. When God revealed:

(And Allah will protect you from the people,) the Prophet said to his uncle: “The

Lord has protected me against jinn and people.*

The second sort is originated by the following report recorded in At-Tirmithi’s ASunan;

4/317:

Aisha: A surveillance was practiced on the Prophet (peace be upon him) till the

revelation of God’s saying: (And Allah will protect you from the people.) “O

people! You may leave. The Lord has protected me,” the Prophet said as he took

his head out of his tent.

This is decided as a one-way hadith.

Others relate the same to Abdillah Bin Shaqiq, without referring to Aisha.

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Al-Hakim, in his Al-Mustedrak; 2/313, relates the same report to Aisha, and

comments: “This report is authentically documented; yet, they -Muslim and Al-

Bukhari- avoid recording it.”

Seemingly, Aisha’s report proposes that the Verse was revealed in Mecca. This is

advocated by Al-Beihaqi’s narration, recorded in his As-Sunan; 9/8. He also records

the forecited saying of Ashafii, in which he claims the Prophet’s being protected

against being killed only…

In his Tafsir; 2/4/160, Al-Muraghi records As-Suyouti’s earlier narration, related to

Ibn Abbas, and At-Tabarani’s. He then comments: “At-Tirmithi relates that the

Prophet (peace be upon him) was guarded in Mecca before the revelation of the

Verse.”

Notwithstanding, Aisha’s report does not imply that the occurrence was in Mecca. It

seems that the phrase ‘in Mecca’ was unintentionally erased from the origin copy of

At-Tirmithi’s.

In his Ad-Durrul Manthour; 2/291, As-Suyouti records:

Abd Bin Humeid, At-Tirmithi, Ibn Jarir, Ibnul-Munthir, Ibn Abi Hatem, Abu

Sheikh, Abu Nueim, Al-Beihaqi, Ibn Merdawayih; all record Aisha’s reporting

that…

Bearing the same indication of Aisha’s report, As-Suyouti records a number of

narratives some of which hint at the fact that the occurrence was in Al-Madina.

Accordingly, we lay such narratives in an independent topic.

In Ad-Durrul Manthour; 2/298-9, As-Suyouti records:

… Abu Sa’eed Al-Khidri: Al-Abbas; the Prophet’s uncle, was one of those who

guarded the Prophet (peace be upon him). When God revealed: (And Allah will

protect you from the people,) the guardians stopped.

… Abu Therr: We were encompassing the Prophet (peace be upon him) whenever

he went to sleep, since he anticipated misfortune. When the Verse was revealed,

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we stopped.

*This report is recorded by At-Tabarani. Within its narrators is An-Nadr Bin

Abdirrahman; the doubtful.

A good deal of exegesists and historians adopt this opinion. As if they admit it, Az-

Zamakhshari, in Al-Keshaf; 1/659, and Ar-Razi, in Tafsir; 6/12/50, record the

opinion while they, as it has been already cited, attest that the Verse was revealed in

Mecca. On that account, they adjudge that reports of Aisha, Al-Hassan Al-Basri and

the others talk about an occurrence happened in the early stage of the Prophet’s

solicitation.

Besides many others, the following scholars adopt the opinion involved:

As-Suheili, in Ar Rawdul Enif;2/290.

Al-Qastalani, in Irshadus Sari; 5/86.

Ibnul Arabi, in Sharhut Tirmithi; 6/11/174.

Al-Eini, in Umdetul Qari; 7/14/95.

Ibn Jezi, in At-Tesihil; 1/244.

An-Nuweiri, in Nihayetul Ireb; 8/16/196, and 19/18/342.

An-Nisapuri, in Al-Waseet; 2/209.

Ad-Demiri, in Hayatul Hayawan; 1/79… etc.

The compiler of As-Siratul Halabiya, attempts to impose the relation between the

Verse and the Prophet’s surveillance, for framing a virtue for Abu Bakr Bin Abi

Qehafa. On page 327 of part 3, he records:

Before the revelation of God’s saying: (And Allah will protect you from the

people,) the Prophet was watched by a number of people. The night just before

the battle of Badr, he was watched by Sa’d Bin Me’adh. On the day of the battle,

he was guarded by Abu Bakr alone. This man kept on unsheathing his sword

while the Prophet was sleeping under the canopy.

This proves the self-contradiction of the compiler who, by these words, provides an

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evident contrary to his intendment. If cancellation of the surveillance occurred before

the immigration, then surveillance of Abu Bakr and others during the battle of Badr

would be ineffective. In addition, it is questionable to believe that the Muslims used

canopies during that battle.

Finally, Al-Hakim records an authentically documented narration implying that third

of the Muslims guarded the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) during the

battle of Badr. This is rational, since they resided the uncovered low area of the

battlefield.

Al-Hakim’s Al-Mustedrak; 2/326:

As he was asked about sura of Anfal, Ebada Bin As-Samit spoke:

The sura regarded us. We; the Muslims, were three groups. The first was fighting

the foes. The second was gathering the spoils and capturing the prisoners. The

third was guarding the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) near the tent…

The following points show invalidity of the opinion of creating a relationship

between Verse of Isma and the surveillance practiced on the Prophet (peace be upon

him and his family):

First, the forecited discussion of the first opinion.

Second, the same narratives of the third opinion that claimed that cancellation of the

surveillance had occurred in Al-Madina, not Mecca.

Third, the major reports that support the opinion involved are Aisha’s and report of

Al-Abbas’s watching the Prophet. The others are not documented.

In fact, the purpose beyond most of such reports was disregarding Abu Talib’s role

in upholding the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), and aiming at proving

that the Prophet dispensed with Abu Talib’s surveillance in Mecca.

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The earliest report aims for giving Al-Abbas Abu Talib’s role of guarding the

Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) in Mecca, and being the one by whom

the Lord protected His Apostle against people.

Truly, Al-Abbas, before the immigration, played an ordinary role. Like the other

Hashemites, he sympathized with the Prophet and suffered the blockade in that col.

In addition, it is unproved that he embraced Islam or immigrated to Al-Madina, like

Ali and Hamza. The most common thing is that Al-Abbas was captured during the

battle of Badr, and he embraced Islam only when he, as well as the other prisoners,

was released. Al-Heithami and others decide inauthenticity of the report involved.

Frivolity and fickleness of the report support so. Later on, we are to cite Al-

Albania’s proving the inaccuracy of Aisha’s being the reporter of that narrative.

Third, the evidences on the continuity of watching the Prophet (peace be upon him

and his family) and invalidity of reports narrating the opposite, including the one

involved, are clear.

The third opinion is that the Verse was revealed in Al-Madina without an identified

date. As-Suyouti records a number of narratives showing no specific time for its

revelation, though he connects them to the matter of canceling surveillance practiced

on the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). Thereabouts, from some of such

narratives, it can be understood that the Verse was revealed in Al-Madina.

Ad-Durrul Manthour; 298-9:

… Isma Bin Malik Al-Khatmi: We were used to watching the Prophet (peace be

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upon him) at nights till the revelation of God’s saying: (And Allah will protect

you from the people.)

… Sa’eed Bin Jubeir: When God revealed: (And Allah will protect you from the

people,) the Prophet said: “Do not watch me any longer. My Lord has protected

me.”

… Abdullah Bin Shaqiq: Some of the Prophet’s companions were guarding him

whenever he went out. When God revealed: (And Allah will protect you from the

people,) the Prophet said: “O people! Go to your normal duties. Allah has

protected me against people.”

… Mohammed Bin Ka’b Al-Quradi: The Prophet’s companions were guarding

him till the revelation of God’s saying: (And Allah will protect you from the

people.) The surveillance was canceled as the Lord informed His Apostle of

protecting against people.

… Ar-Rabi Bin Anas: The Prophet was guarded by his companions till the

revelation of God’s saying: (O Apostle! Deliver…)

In Tarikhul Madinetil Munawara; 1/301, Ibn Sheba relates the same report to

Abdullah Bin Shaqiq and Mohammed Bin Kab Al-Quradi. At-Tabari, in Tafsir;

6/199, relates it to Abdullah Bin Shaqiq. For Ibn Sa’d, he also records the report in

At-Tabaqat; 1/1/113. Similarly, Al-Beihaqi records it in Delailun Nubuwa; 2/180.

Through the entire reports respecting the Prophet’s history, it is proved that he

(peace be upon him and his family) was seeking the Arab tribes’ protection, so that

he would convey his Lord’s message. Ansar swore allegiance to him on the

conditions of protecting his household and him as same as they protect they families

and themselves. This invalidates the claim of the Verse’s revelation in Mecca. Had

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the Verse been revealed in Mecca, the Prophet would not have been in need for such

protection and covenant.

Reference books of hadith, Tafsir and history are filled in with the numberless

narratives concerning the surveillance practiced on the Prophet (peace be upon him

and his family) in Mecca and Al-Madina, especially in conditions of wars. It is

proved that such a surveillance lasted till the final hours of the Prophet’s lifetime.

Chapters were written as regards the surveillance practiced on the Prophet, stories

occurred during such situations of surveillance and names of the guards. All these

evidence invalidity of the opinion concerned.

The strangest matter is that the same persons who record such reports and stories,

assert that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had canceled the

surveillance in Mecca or after the immigration when the Verse of Isma was revealed,

as if they vowed they should take the Verse away from the incident of Ghadir!!

From the previous, we have to reject any report respecting the total cancellation of

the surveillance before the incident of Ghadir. We have cited Al-Hakim’s report

relating that the Prophet was guarded by a third of the Muslims during the battle of

Bard.

Ahmed’s Al-Musnad; 2/222:

A number of the Prophet’s companions guarded him, while he was offering

prayers after the midnight just before the battle of Tabuk.

The same is recorded in Kenzul Ummal; 12/430, and related to Abdullah Bin Amr

Bin Al-As. The compiler of Majmauzzawaid rules authenticity of the same report

when he writes it down on page 367 of part 10.

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By the way, battle of Tabuk occurred in the last year of the Prophet’s life.

Uyounul Athar; 2/402:

During the battle of Badr, Sa’d Bin Me’adh guarded the Prophet who slept in his

canopy. Mohammed Bin Muslima was his guard during the battle of Uhud.

During that of Khandaq, Az-Zubeir Bin Al-Awam was his guard. In Kheibar, the

Prophet was guarded by Abu Ayoub Ansari. It is said that the Prophet

supplicated: “O Allah! Protect Abu Ayoub for his protecting me.” Bilal, Sa’d Bin

Abi Waqas and Dekwan Bin Abd Qeis were the Prophet’s guards in Wadil-Qira.

Ebad Bin Bishr was the commander of the Prophet’s guards. When God revealed:

(And Allah will protect you from the people,) the surveillance was canceled.

As he had to find an answer for the reports pertaining to guarding the Prophet (peace

be upon him and his family) during the battle of Tabuk, the compiler interprets

‘guarding’ into ‘waiting’.

Uyounul Athar; 1/119:

Regarding Amr Bin Shueib’s report concerning guarding the Prophet, who was

offering prayers, the night before the battle of Tabuk, it seems that they were

waiting for him. Surveillance was vacated since the revelation of God’s saying:

(And Allah will protect you from the people.)

That was before the battle of Tabuk. God, however, is the most knowledgeable.

This interpretation is contrary to the text of the reports regarding that surveillance.

Anyhow, such reports refute the claim that the Verse was revealed in Mecca.

It is now concluded that the claim of cancellation of the surveillance practiced on the

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Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) lacks evidence through history of the

Prophet’s lifetime. On the contrary, there in an evidence on continuation of such a

surveillance. It is proved that the Hashemites guarded the Prophet in Mecca and,

altogether with the rest of his companions, in Al-Madina, till the last days of his

lifetime.

As much as a personal viewpoint is concerned, it seems that the trial of dedicating

the Verse to the claim of cancellation of the surveillance denotes the accuracy of the

Prophet’s progeny’s explanation that the Verse stands for protection against

apostasy. From this cause, the dissidents aimed importunately at citing the material

protection and cancellation of the surveillance as the interpretation of the Verse. That

led them to be engaged in contrast. Nevertheless, they had to disregard stories

relating the Prophet’s being guarded, and had to overlook the column of the guards

which is still facing them in the Prophet’s Mosque.

Al-Albani, after he adopts and admits that the Verse was revealed in Mecca, refutes

Al-Hakim’s authenticating Aisha’s report he himself has already authenticated. He

then mentions the report of assassinating the Prophet as an evidence on authenticity

of the previous report.

The fourth opinion is that the Verse was revealed in Al-Madina in the second year

of the Prophet’s immigration after the battle of Uhud.

As-Suyouti’s Ad-Durrul Manthour; 2/291:

Atiya Bin Sa’d: Ebada Bin As-Samit came to the Prophet and declared his

acquitting the covenant of loyalty between the Jews and him, and declared his

loyalty to God and His Apostle. Abdullah Bin Ubey, who was present, spoke:

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“Considering me, I fear unexpected misfortunes. I cannot break mine.” The

Prophet (peace be upon him) addressed at him: “See Abu Hebbab! You have

appreciated the covenant broken by Ebada. Hence; you can keep it for yourself

alone.” Abdullah accepted so. On that account God revealed: “O you who

believe! Do not take the Jews and the Christians for friend… and Allah will

protect you from the people.”

For proving the falsehood of this report, we are sufficed by mentioning that the

previous narratives respecting the watch practiced on the Prophet (peace be upon

him and his family), and that these were Atiya Bin Sa’d’s words, not the Prophet,

and the fact that the Verses remarked in the report were 51 to 67 of sura of Maida

which none ever could claim their revelation for the story of Abdullah Bin Ubey’s

loyalty to the Jews. At length, this Abdullah was deceased before the revelation of

sura of Maida.

The fifth opinion is that the Verse was revealed owing to an attempt of

assassination, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had to encounter.

Contradiction is the distinctive feature of reports of that assassination. Some tell that

it was during the battle of Thaturriqa, when a person approached the Prophet and

asked for his sword so that he would see carefully. When the Prophet handed his

sword so negligently… Others, anyhow, mention that the sword was hanged, or the

Prophet was inadvertent, or was dipping his legs in a well… etc.

As-Suyouti’s Ad-Durrul Manthour; 2/298-9:

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Jabir Bin Abdillah: After the battle of Thaturriqa, the Prophet was reposing on a

well, in which he was dipping his legs. Gawreth Bin Al-Harth informed of his

determination of killing Mohammed. “How will you kill him?” asked his

companions. “I will ask him to hand me his sword, and I will kill him then,” said

Ghawreth.

“O Mohammed! Give me your sword,” the man asked, and the Prophet did. As

soon as the man held the sword, his hands began to shiver. “God prevents you

from implementing your intention,” said the Prophet. Hence, God revealed: (O

Apostle! Deliver what…)

Mohammed Bin Kab Al-Quradi: the Prophet was reposing under a tree when a

Bedouin unsheathed his sword and shouted: “Who will protect you against me?”

“Allah will,” answered the Prophet. Suddenly, the man’s hands shivered, and he

could no longer have the sword. (Others added) He rammed his head to a tree, and

his cerebrum was scattered. Hence, God revealed: (And Allah will protect you

from the people.)

Abu Huraira: The Prophet was reposing under the largest tree we used to select on

journeys. He was hanging his sword to that tree. A man came and drew the sword,

shouting: “O Mohammed! Who will protect you against me.” “Allah will protect

me against you,” said the Prophet (peace be upon him), “Put that sword away.”

Hence, God revealed: (And Allah will protect you from the people.)

Others mention that a person was arrested while he was trying to assassinate the

Prophet. This report is recorded in Ad-Durrul Manthour; 2/299.

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The following points are evidences on invalidity of that opinion and invalidity of the

revelation of the Verse for the occasion:

first, As Ibn Husham records in As-Sira; 3/225, the battle of Thaturriqa occurred in

the year 4 A.H. Many years after this date, sura of Maida was revealed. Some

reports, besides, refer to no definite date. Others are logically unacceptable.

Second, the main reference books that record the story of Ghawrath and the battle of

Thaturriqa do not refer to the revelation of the Verse involved then. Most of these

reports refer to amendment of the ritual prayer of anticipating dangers -Salat Al-

Khawf- and the application of more watchful surveillance on the Prophet (peace be

upon him and his family) during prayers.

These points are sufficiently acceptable for refuting the claim of the revelation of the

Verse on such occasions.

Ibn Husham allocated God’s saying: (O you who believe! Remember Allah’s favor

on you when a people had determined to stretch forth their hands towards you, but

He withheld their hands from you…), as the Verse revealed on that occasion.* This is

also inaccurate, since the Verse allocated is also in sura of Maida.

Al-Bukhari, as well as many others, allocated the amendment of the ritual Salat Al-

Khawf, and the application of more watchful surveillance on the Prophet, due to that

incident.

Al-Bukhari’s Sahih; 5/53:

Jabir Bin Abdillah: … The Prophet reposed under a tree to which he hanged his

sword. We slumbered. We were awaken by the Prophet’s loud voice. When we

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approached, we could see a Bedouin sit before him. The Prophet then related:

*Ibn Husham’s As-Sira; 3/227.

“While I was sleeping, this man unsheathed my sword. I woke up and saw him

raise it towards me, and said: ‘Who will protect you against me?’ ‘God will,’ I

answered. This is the result, you can see.” The Prophet, however, abstained from

punishing him.

(Another form of the report:) Jabir Bin Abdillah: In Thaturriqa, the Prophet

reposed under a large tree we left. A polytheist came and unsheathed the

Prophet’s sword which was hanged to the tree, and said: “Well, now you should

fear me.” “No, I should not,” answered the Prophet. “Who will protect you against

me?” said the man. “God will.” …

That man was Ghawrath Bin Al-Harth.

The same is recorded in Al-Hakim’s Al-Mustedrak; 3/29, in which he refers to the

amendment of the ritual Salat Al-Khawf, and the application of more watchful

surveillance on the Prophet. He also decides authenticity of the report according to

the criteria of Muslim and Al-Bukhari who did not record it. For Ahmed, he refers to

Ghawrath’s story on pages 364 and 390 of part 3, when he refers to the amendment

of the ritual Salat Al-Khawf and disregards the revelation of the Verse. The reader

may refer to part 4 page 59 of the same reference book.

Except referring to the revelation of the Verse, varied details of the story are written

down in Al-Heithami’s Majmauzzawaid; 9/8.

The most acceptable form of Ghawrath’s story is recorded in Al-Kuleini’s Al-Kafi;

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8/127:

Abu Abdillah (peace be upon him): While the Prophet (peace be upon him and his

family) was reposing under a tree lying on the edge of a valley, a torrent came

between his companions and him. A polytheist determined to kill him. He

attacked the Prophet with his sword, shouting: “Who will protect you against me,

Mohammed?” “Your and my Lord will,” answered the Prophet (peace be upon

him and his family). Immediately, Gabriel knocked that man down his pack

animal. The Prophet took the sword and sat on his chest, saying: “Now, who will

protect you against me, Ghawrath?” “Your benevolence and charity will,” said the

man. Forthwith, the Prophet left him. The man stood up shouting: “By God I

swear, you are better and more benevolent than me.”

Hence, the most remarkable reference books of hadith are empty of any mentioning

for the revelation of the Verse during the battle of Thaturriqa or on the occasion of

Ghawrath’s attempt of assassination. Secondly, it is noticeable that the Prophet

ordered of more watchful surveillance, even during offering prayers, after that

incident.

Adopters of this opinion may have understood that meaning of canceling the

surveillance have become that the Prophet suspected the divine protection; therefore,

he ordered of more watchful surveillance!!

The following exchange of opinions between Ibn Hajar and Al-Qurtubi is only a part

of their confusedness in inventing a relationship between the revelation of Verse of

Isma and Ghawrath’s story. Al-Qurtubi pronounces that the Prophet’s being alone

during events of the story involved is an evidence on his being not put under

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surveillance. This leads to the notion that Verse of Isma has been already revealed.

Ibn Hajar answers: “No. The Verse was revealed on that day specifically. Hence, the

guards’ job was canceled. Before so, the Prophet’s conviction was increasing or

decreasing. He took guards whenever his confidence became decreasing, and he

canceled so when it became increasing. During events of Ghawrath’s story, the

Prophet’s confidence was considerable; therefore, he was not guarded.”

Fetihul Bari; 8/2752:

Al-Qurtubi says: “Such reports assert that the Prophet, on that time, was not

guarded. Until the revelation of God’s saying: (And Allah will protect you from

the people), the Prophet had been guarded.”

As an answer to this claim, I am to cite that according to Abu Huraira’s report, it

is believed that the Verse was revealed immediately after Ghawrath’s attempting

to assassinate the Prophet. Hence, it is most probably to say that the Prophet had

the option of appointing guards or shunning so. For his great conviction, the

Prophet was left without guards during that incident. Soon after that incident and

the revelation of the Verse, he canceled surveillance.

Ibn Hajar misses the fact that sura of Maida was revealed in the year 10 A.H., and

the battle of Thaturriqa occurred in the year 4 A.H., and that Abu Huraira put his

feet, for the first time, in Al-Madina in the year 7 A.H.

He also misses that Salat Al-Khawf and the watchful surveillance were legislated in

Thaturriqa. Nevertheless, the man sets an explanation for Al-Bukhari’s report

respecting Salat Al-Khawf.

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All that was aimed at taking Verse of Isma away from the incidents on Ghadir

Khum. Ibn Hajar’s mind, however, is filled in with the instructions of inventing a

relationship between Verse of Isma and the Prophet’s being guarded.

Reports of the Prophet’s being guarded during the battle of Tabuk, which occurred

six years after that of Thaturriqa, have been forecited. Through authentic reports, it is

proved that the Prophet was guarded even during conquest of Mecca which occurred

four years after the forecited incident. Al-Bukhari records that Muslims were

guarding the Prophet during conquest of Mecca.

Al-Bukhari’s Sahih; 5/91:

Husham: …People of Quraish were informed of the Prophet’s progressing

towards Mecca. Abu Sufian Bin Harb, Hakim Bin Huzam and Badil Bin Warqa

went out for… The Prophet’s guards could capture them…

Ibn Husham, in As-Sira; 4/21, mentions that the column of guards that is still

standing in the Holy Prophet’s Mosque, could gain this name in the year 9 A.H.

supposing adopters of this opinion can deny the matter of the Prophet’s being

guarded, how can they deny that column, then?!

The sixth opinion is that time of the revelation of the Verse is not identified, and the

matter of the Prophet’s being guarded has nothing to do with the Verse, and that the

Verse is a general wording refers to the Prophet’s being mandated on conveying the

Lord’s message, lest, he should not be regarded as a conveyor.

Ad-Durrul-Manthour; 2/299:

Qetada: In this Verse, the Lord acquaints His Apostle that he shall protect him

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against people. The Lord, also, orders him of conveying the message…

To great extent, this opinion is similar to the first. The previous topics may be

enough for refutal. Besides, reports of this opinion are not documented and not

applying the meaning of the Verse generally, and the clause of its issue.

The last opinion is that concordant to the Prophet’s progeny’s.

Ad-Durrul-Manthour; 2/298:

Abu Sa’eed Al-Khidri: the Verse, (O Apostle! Deliver…,) was revealed to the

Prophet (peace be upon him) on the day of Ghadir, regarding Ali Bin Abi Talib’s

concern.

Ibn Masud: Before the Prophet (peace be upon him), we used to recite the Verse

in this form: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord -

regarding the matter that Ali is being the leader of the believers- and if you do it

not, then you have not delivered His message.)

Al-Miyaru Wel Muwazana; 213:

Jabir Bin Abdillah and Abdullah Bin Al-Abbas: The Prophet took apprehensions

from the Lord’s giving him the orders of nominating Ali as the next leader, and

declaring people’s being obligatorily loyal to him. He anticipated people’s

accusing him of favoring his cousin exclusively. Hence, God revealed: (O

Apostle! Deliver…)

On that day in Ghadir Khum, the Prophet delivered that message to people.

As a footnote of the previous report, the following is cited:

As-Suyouti’s Ad-Durrul Manthour:

Abu Sa’eed Al-Khidri: After the Prophet (peace be upon him) had nominated Ali

as the next leader and asked people to declare their loyalty to him, Gabriel

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descended with God’s saying: (This day have I completed your religion for you

and perfected My favor on you…)

The same report is recorded by Al-Hassakani, in Shawahidut Tanzil; 1/157

hadith: 211 and on. Ibn Asakir records it in Tarikhu Dimeshq; 2/85, Chapter: Ali

Bin Abi Talib’s Lifetime; hadith: 585-6.

Al-Khatib, Al-Hassakani, Ibn Asakir, Ibn Kutheir, Al-Khawarzmi and Ibnul-

Meghazili relate the following wording of Abu Huraira:

He shall be granted the reward of a sixty month fasting, that whoever fasts on the

eighteenth of Dhu’l-Hijja. That is the day of Ghadir when the Prophet (peace be

upon him) took Ali Bin Abi Talib from the hand and said: “I am the master of the

believers, aren’t I?” “Yes, you are. God’s messenger!” affirmed people. “He

whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master,” the Prophet declared.

“Congratulations, son of Abu Talib!” Omar Bin Al-Khattab addressed at Ali,

“You have become my master, and the master of every Muslim.”

Then, God revealed: (This day have I completed your religion for you and

perfected My favor on you…)

For seekers of more information, the ceaseless consecutive written works apropos

this topic should be referred. The following names are cited as examples:

Ibn Uqda’s Ar-Risala.

At-Tabari’s Hadithul Ghadir.

Ad-Darqutni’s Hadithul Ghadir.

At-Thehbi’s.

Ubeidullah Al-Hasakani’s.

Masud As-Sejistani’s.

Al-Amini’s Kitabul Ghadir.

Abaqatul Anwar; Chapter: Hadithul Ghadir …etc.

Tafsirul Mizan; 6/54:

The following is quoted from At-Thalabi’s Tafsir.

Jafar Bin Mohammed: God’s saying: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed

to you from your Lord;), refers to Ali. Immediately after this revelation, the

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Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) took Ali from the hand and declared:

“He whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master.”

Ibn Abbas: The Verse was revealed in Ali Bin Abi Talib’s concern. The Lord

gave the Prophet the orders of conveying Ali’s obligatory loyalty to people. The

Prophet took Ali from the hand and declared: “He whosever master was I, Ali

shall be his master. O Allah! Accede to whomever accedes to him, and antagonize

whomever antagonizes him.”

Al-Ghadir; 1/214:

The holy Verse was revealed on the eighteenth of Dhu’l-Hijja, 10 A.H., the year

of the Farewell Pilgrimage. When the Prophet resided in Ghadir Khum, Gabriel

descended: “O Mohammed! Allah greets you and say; ‘O Apostle! Deliver what

has been revealed to you -regarding Ali’s affair- from your Lord; and if you do it

not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the

people.’”

The foregoing people, who were more than one hundred thousand individuals,

were about to reach Al-Juhafa. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family)

gave his orders of returning those foregoing ones, and confining the late in that

place. He decided to nominate Ali as the leader of people and inform them the

divine mandate of delivering His message of selecting Ali as the leader of the

nation and protecting him against people.

For the Imamites, this affair is too authentic to be discussed. Yet, we should

provide reports of the Sunnis as evidences.

Al-Amini, thereafter, refers to thirty Sunni reference books that relate reports

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respecting the revelation of the Verse for Ali’s leadership. We are to refer to some in

brief:

1. At-Tabari, Abu Jafar Mohammed Bin Jarir (…-310.) In his Al-Wilaya, he records

the following report:

Zaid Bin Arqam: When he was back from the Farewell Pilgrimage, the Prophet

(peace be upon him) resided in Ghadir Khum. It was the first hours of that extremely

hot day when he gave his orders of sweeping the elevated land, and gathered people.

As soon as we were before him, the Prophet sermonized so eloquently. He said: “The

Lord has revealed to me, (O Apostle! Deliver…

2. Al-Handali, Ibn Abi Hatem Abu Mohammed Ar-Razi (…-327.)

3. Al-Mehamili, Abu Abdillah (…-330.) In his Al-Amali, he relates the report to Ibn

Abbas.

4. Al-Farisi, Abu Bakr Ashirazi (…-407.) He relates the report to Ibn Abbas.

5. Ibn Merdawayih (323-416). To Abu Sa’eed Al-Khidri, he relates the report that

the Verse was revealed on that day in Ghadir Khum, for showing the leadership of

Ali Bin Abi Talib. He also records the following saying of Ibn Masud:

Before the Prophet (peace be upon him), we used to recite the Verse in this form: (O

Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord -regarding the matter

that Ali is the leader of the believers- and if you do it not, then you have not

delivered His message.)

6. Athalabi, Abu Isaaq An-Nisapuri (…-427.) He relates the report in his Al-Keshfu

Wel-Bayan.

7. Alisbahani, Abu Naeem (…-430.) In his Ma Nazala Minel Qur’ani Fi Haqqi Ali,

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he relates…

8. Al-Wahidi, Abul-Hassan An-Nisapuri, (…-468.) In his Asbabun Nuzoul, he

relates…

9. As-Sejistani, Abu Sa’eed, (…-477.) In his Al-Wilaya…

10. Al-Hasakani, Al-Hakim Abul-Qasim. In Shawahidut Tanzil Li Qawaidit

Tafdhili Wet Tawil…

11. Ibn Asakir, Abul-Qasim Ashafii (…-471.) He relates the report to Abu Sa’eed

Al-Khidri…

12. An-Natnazi, Abul-Fatih. In His Al-Khasaisul Alawiya…

13. Ar-Razi, Fakhruddin Ashafii (…-606.) In his At-Tafsirul Kabir; 3/636:

The Verse was revealed for Ali. The Prophet took him from the hand and declared:

“He whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master.”

14. An-Naseebi, Abu Salim Ashafii (…-652.) He relates it on page 16 of Metalibus

Sa’oul…

15. Ar-Rasani, Izzuddin Al-Mosuli Al-Hanbali (589-…)

16. Al-Hamawini, Abu Isaaq (…-722.) In Feraidus Semtain, he relates to Abu

Huraira…

17. Al-Hamadani, Ali (…-786.) In Mawaddetul Qurba, he records:

Al-Bera Bin Azib: I accompanied the Prophet in the journey back from the

Farewell Pilgrimage. As we reached Ghadir Khum, he gathered people. He sat to

a tree and took Ali from the hand, and shouted: “I am preferred to your souls,

aren’t I?” “Yes, you are, God’s messenger!” asserted people. “He whosever

master was I, Ali shall be his master. O Allah! Accede to whomever accedes to

him, and oppose whomever opposes him,” declared the Prophet.

Omar (God be pleased to him) met Ali and addressed at him: “Congratulations,

Ali Bin Abi Talib! You have become my master, and the master of every male

and female believer.” That was the result of God’s saying: (O Apostle! Deliver…

18. Al-Eini, Badruddin (762-855.) In his Umdetul Qari Fi Sharhi Sahihil Bukhari;

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8/584…

WAHABISTS AND HADITH OF GHADIR

The opinion concordant to the Prophet’s progeny’s, in regard to the aim beyond the

revelation of the Verse, has been kept in the Sunni reference books of hadith. This

matter seems unfamiliar since it collapses the bases which the Quraishis spared no

efforts for convincing the Muslims of. These bases regarded the question of the

imamate and succession of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family).

From this cause, it is arresting that Nassibites are incensed for the presence of reports

of Ghadir and their likes on various pages of the Sunni reference books of hadith.

They wished nothing of such reports and narratives had been written down in such

reference books. For the above, they went on launching showers of insults and

accusations to the Shias and their scholars for their viewing and referring to these

reports in such books. Instead, they should have studied such reports on the light of

the Quran and the unanimous prophetic texts.

Al-Albani’s Salsalatul Ahadithis Sahiha; 5/644:

… The Prophet was guarded. When God revealed: (And Allah will protect you

from the people,) he took his head out of the tent and ordered the guards of

leaving him since he was protected by the Lord…

Al-Hakim’s deciding authenticity of the previous report, related to Aisha, is

inaccurate. Yet, At-Thehbi also decides so.

At any rate, the report is authentic, since it is testified by the following report of

Abu Huraira: The Prophet was reposing under the largest tree we used to select on

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journeys. He was hanging his sword to that tree. A man came and drew the sword,

shouting: “O Mohammed! Who will protect you against me this night?” “Allah

will,” said the Prophet (peace be upon him)… Hence, God revealed: (And Allah

will protect you from the people.) …

It is worthy mentioning that the Shias claim of the revelation of the Verse on that

day in Ghadir Khum, for Ali (God be pleased to him). This is contrary to the

forecited reports. Shias, in due course, refer to numerous narratives, most of

which are incompletely transmitted or problematic, supporting their claim. They

cite Abu Sa’eed Al-Khidri’s report. As I have proved during discussing the report

numbered 4922, this report is forged against the man. Without any study for the

documentation, Abdul-Hussein; the Shiite, refers to a number of such narratives in

his Al-Murajaat; 38. Since his only purpose was enlisting any word that may

serve his sect, Abdul-Hussein had been wont to cite any narrative as an evidence

without paying any attention to the documentation or the discriminatory study.

However, Shias adopt the rule that the ends justifies the means. Beware of this

man and his narratives!

Moreover, he used to defraud, if not lie to, the readers. During referring to the

report falsely ascribed to Abu Sa’eed Al-Khidri, for instance, the man alleges that

a many compilers of the most remarkable Sunni reference books of hadith, such as

Al-Wahidi, record the narrative involved.

Even the initiates know that Al-Wahidi is not one of the compilers of the four

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most remarkable Sunni reference books of hadith. He is an exegesist that refers to

authentic and doubtful reports indistinctly. Abu Sa’eed’s report is doubted since it

is related by an extremely doubtful and neglected narrator.

After they had declared the adoption of ‘circumspection’, Shias legislated forging

lies against the Sunnis through their books and sermons. This matter is unveiled in

Al-Khomeini’s Keshful Asrar. It is quite evident that circumspection is the

spouse of fabrication. Accordingly, Sheikhul-Islam Ibn Teimiya; the most

knowledgeable of those Shias, said: “Shias are the greatest fabricators among the

entire sects.” I myself obviously noticed the fabrication of some of their scholars,

especially Abdul-Hussein. The witness has just been cited. Besides, he deludes

the readers of the prevarication that the report involved is undiscussible for the

Sunni scholar since, as he claims, its numerous ways of narration are proved.

Al-Khomeini is a greater liar. On page 149 of his forecited book, he claims the

revelation of Verse of Isma on the day of Ghadir in which the Prophet was

ordered of declaring the imamate of Ali Bin Abi Talib. He ascribes so to the

Sunni scholars. He also decides the unanimity of Shias on that matter. God may

reward that man exactly what he deserves. Later on, I am to discuss this matter

more detailedly.

As an answer to Al-Albani’s wording, we are to allude to the following:

First, style of insults and reviling at people, as well as issuing inaccurate judgments,

should be eluded. It is unrightful for Al-Albani to classify the Islamic sects according

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to degrees of forging lies and fabricating. Sunnis, as well as Shias, have various sorts

of people among them. Yet, Nassibites are excluded by peculiar rulings. We also

should remind Al-Albani of his defending Ali (peace be upon him) and refuting Ibn

Teimiya’s wronging him and denying the report of Ghadir: (He whosever master was

I, Ali shall be his master. O Allah! Accede to whomever accedes to him and oppose

whomever opposes him.) In the same place, Al-Albani, in Al-Ahadithus Sahiha;

5/330/1750, decides authenticity of the forecited prophetic text and recognizes the

right. It is most seeming that Ibn Teimiya would never be expected to give Shias

their due since he wronged their imam and leader. On page 344 of the same book,

Al-Albani adds:

As I could perceive that Ibn Teimiya ruled the dubiety of the first half of the

Prophet’s text, and decides the fabrication of the other, I had to write down these

pages and prove authenticity of the text. As much as I could descry, such an

exaggeration, issued by Ibn Teimiya, was raised due to his having been hasty in

deciding inauthenticity of some prophetic texts before he studied and scrutinized.

Shias are completely inaccurate in their claiming the Prophet’s nominating Ali as

his successor through this text and the like. This was one of the legion inventions

the falsity of which has been proved by historical factualities. Supposing the

Prophet had said such a thing, it should have been falling, since his words are

‘revelation that is revealed,’ and, finally, the Lord shall never break the promise.

p: 259

While he criticizes Ibn Teimiya’s being hasty, we could notice that Al-Albani

himself was hasty when he confused the legislative instruction with the divine

prediction. Far away is the previous from the latter. Provided Al-Albani’s words had

been right, the text he had already decided its accurate authenticity would have been

invalid. In other words, the Prophet’s saying: “He whosever master was I, Ali shall

be his master,” that Al-Albani decides its authenticity, is also seen as ‘a revelation

that is revealed.’ Hence, such a divine prediction, as Al-Albani decides through his

forecited wording, should be befalling, and that Ali should be the master and leader

of the Muslims who should behave like his slaves. However, this matter did not fall.

On the contrary, they attacked the house of Ali and Fatima two, or three, days after

the Prophet’s decease. They also threatened flaming the house if the lodgers would

not come out and swear allegiance to the new leader. Finally, they coerced Ali on

swearing his allegiance. All these events are as clear as the sun.

The Prophet’s saying: “Ali shall be my successor,” is as same as his saying: “He

whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master.” If the previous is adjudged as a

divine prediction, as Al-Albani claims, the second should be, too. How is it then that

the meaning, historically, was modified into forcing the master on swearing

allegiance to the follower?

Both texts refer to a legislative instruction and a guide showing the Muslims their

duties so that any other circumstance would not befall.

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Second, while Al-Albani decides inauthenticity of the report dedicating Verse of

Isma to the event of the congregational declaration of fealty in Ghadir, has he studies

and scrutinized the reports, so that he would have the right to utter that most of these

narratives are incompletely transmitted or problematic? Did he viewe ways of

narrating the reports adopted by Athalebi, Abu Na’eem, Al-Wahidi, Abu Sa’eed As-

Sejistani, Al-Hasakian at al? Did he scrutinize these ways of narration so that he

could prove that most of them were either incompletely transmitted or problematic?

Did he find that any of the narrators had been neglected by him? Finally, he might

have repeated the same error of Ibn Teimiya whom he had criticized!

In any event, Al-Albani still has enough time to correct his errors. We hope he would

write down his notes respecting the discussion of the exegesis of the Verse involved,

and scrutinize, on his own criteria, ways of narration and documentation we have

cited, provided that he would not contradict his previous wording, and evade

deciding doubtfulness of a narrator for his referring to Ali’s merits, while he admits

and relies on his other reports that relate merits of Ali’s rivals!!

The following are ways of documentation quoted from a single reference book,

which is Shawahidut Tanzil, compiled by Al-Hakim Al-Hasakani, Abdullah Bin

Abdillah Bin Ahmed Al-Amiri Al-Qirashi; the student of Al-Hakim An-Nisapuri.

On pages 250-7, he writes down:

244. Abu Abdillah Ad-Deinuri: Ahmed Bin Mohammed Bin Isaq Bin Ibrahim As-

Sunni: Abdurrahaman Bin Ahamdan: Mohammed Bin Tohman Al-Absi: Ibrahim

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Bin Mohammed Bin Maymun: Ali Bin Abis: Al-Amash: Abul-Jihaf (Dawud Bin

Abi Awf): Atiya: Abu Sa’eed Al-Khidri:

The Verse: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed…) was revealed for the

affair of Ali Bin Abi Talib.

245. Al-Hakim Abu Abdillah Al-Hafiz: Ali Bin Abdirrahaman Bin Easa Ad-

Dehqan (in Kufa): Al-Hussein Bin Al-Hakam Al-Hibri: Al-Kelbi: Abu Salih: Ibn

Abbas:

The Verse: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed…) was revealed for the

affair of Ali. Immediately after the revelation, the Prophet carried out. He took Ali

from the hand and declared: “He whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master.

O Allah! Accede to whomever accedes to him, and oppose whomever opposes

him.”

246. A group of people relate the narrative to Al-Hibri. In his Tafsir, As-Subeii

records it. Another group of people relate it to Al-Kelbi. In my ten-volumed

Duawul Hudat Ila Edai Haqqil Muwalat, I provide the numerous ways of the

narration of the text involved.

247. Abu Bakr As-Sukkeri: Abu Amr Al-Miqeri: Al-Hassan Bin Sufian: Ahmed

Bin Azhar: Abdurrahman Bin Amr Bin Jibilla: Omar Bin Nueim Bin Omar Bin

Qeis Al-Masir: His grandfather: Abdullah Bin Abi Awfa:

On that day in Ghadir Khum, the Prophet recited the Verse, and raised his hands

so upwardly that his armpits were seen. He addressed at us: “He whosever master

was I, Ali shall be his master. O Allah! Accede to whomever accedes to him and

oppose whomever opposes him. O Allah! Be the witness.”

248. Amr Bin Mohammed Bin Ahmed Al-Adl: Zahir Bin Ahmed: Abu Bakr

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Mohammed Bin Yahya As-Sawli: Al-Mughira Bin Mohammed: Ali Bin

Mohammed Bin Suleiman An-Nawfali: His father: Ziyad Bin Al-Munthir:

I was attendant when Abu Jafar Mohammed Bin Ali was instructing. A man

named Othman Al-Asha, who was relating Al-Hassan Al-Basri’s instructions,

asked Abu Jafar: “O son of God’s messenger! May God make me your ransom.

As Al-Hassan recited God’s saying: (O Apostle! Deliver…,) he instructed that it

was revealed for the affair of someone. He did not identify that one.”

“He would have told if he had wanted. Nevertheless, he anticipated misfortunes,”

spoke Abu Jafar, and narrated:

Gabriel descended to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and carried the Lord’s

orders of instructing people how to perform the prayers. The Prophet carried out.

Then, he descended and conveyed the Lord’s orders of instructing people how to

fast. The Prophet did. Then, he descended and conveyed the Lord’s instructions of

leading people to their ritual pilgrimage. The Prophet did. Then, he descended

carrying the Lord’s orders of leading people to their leader so that the Lord would

have the perfect claim against them. The Prophet said: “O my Lord! My people

have still born customs of Jahilism. They are filled in with rivalry and pride. Their

leader has beheaded a single man, at least, from each house of my people. I do

anticipate their dissidence.” Immediately, God revealed: (O Apostle! Deliver what

has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not

delivered His message -so completely-, and Allah will protect you from the

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people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people.)

As the Prophet (peace be upon him) guaranteed the Lord’s protection, he took Ali

Bin Abi Talib from the hand and said: “O people! He whosever master was I, Ali

shall be his master. O Allah! Accede to whomever accedes to him, and oppose

whomever opposes him, and give triumph to whomever supports him, and

disappoint whomever disappoints him, and cherish whomever cherishes him, and

detest whomever detests him.”

(Othman Al-Asha:) This narration was the ever best thing I could gain during that

journey.

249. Ali Bin Musa Bin Isaaq: Mohammed Bin Masud Bin Mohammed: Sahl Bin

Bahr: Al-Fadl Bin Shathan: Mohammed Bin Abi Omeir: Omar Bin Utheina: Al-

Kelbi: Abu Salih: Ibn Abbas and Jabir Bin Abdillah:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) anticipated that people would criticize and

revile at him when he would convey his Lord’s instructions of nominating Ali as

the next leader. He expected them to accuse him of favoring his cousin for

personal aims. Hence, God revealed: (O Apostle! Deliver…) Immediately, the

Prophet declared the next leadership of Ali on that day in Ghadir Khum.

250. Mohammed Bin Al-Qasim Bin Ahmed: Abu Jafar Mohammed Bin Ali Al-

Faqih: His father: Sa’d Bin Abdillah: Ahmed Bin Abdillah Al-Berqi: His father:

Khalaf Bin Ammar Al-Asadi: Abul-Hassan Al-Abdi: Al-Amash: Ebaya Bin Rabi:

Abudullah Bin Abbas:

…and that I am to assign a vizier for each prophet. You are the Apostle of Allah,

and Ali is your vizier.”

As people have just converted to Islam, the Prophet evaded informing them of that

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mandate. Six days after the incident, God; the Exalted, revealed: (Then, it may be

that you will give up a part of what is revealed to you and your breast will become

straitened by it…)

The Prophet could tolerate for more eighteen days when God revealed: (O

Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it

not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the

people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people.)

For that reason, the Prophet directed Bilal -the formal declarant- to inform people

that none will be excused if he shuns being in Ghadir Khum the next day. The

Prophet orated: “O people! My Lord has ordered me of conveying His message to

you. I was wavering since I anticipated that you would accuse and belie.

Therefore, the Lord blamed me. He threatened a punishment frequently.”

The Prophet then took Ali Bin Abi Talib from the hand, and raised it so upwardly

that the armpits were seen, and declared: “O people! Allah is my Master. I am

your master. He whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master. O Allah! Accede

to whomever accedes to him, and oppose whomever opposes him, and give

triumph to whomever supports him, and disappoint whomever disappoints him.”

Concurrently, God revealed: (This day have I perfected your religion for you and

completed My favor on you and…)

THE PROPHET’S PROGENY’S OPINION

Al-Ayashi’s Tafsir; 1/331:

Ibn Abbas and Jabir Bin Abdillah: The Prophet (peace be upon him) anticipated

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that people would criticize and revile at him when he would convey his Lord’s

instructions of nominating Ali as the next leader. He expected them to accuse him

of favoring his cousin for personal aims. Hence, God revealed: (O Apostle!

Deliver…

Al-Kafi; 1/290:

Abu Jafar (peace be upon him) spoke: The Lord ordered of five precepts. People

applied four and neglected one. People were unaware of time of performing

prayers. Gabriel descended to the Prophet and conveyed the Lord’s orders of

instructing people their prayers. Then came the poor rate. Then came the fasting.

On the tenth of Moharram, the Prophet instructed people of the neighboring

villages to fast. Later on, Ramadan, the month between Shaban and Shawal, was

identified for fasting. Then came rites of the pilgrimage. “As you have taught

them their prayers, poor rates and fasting, you are now to instruct them how to

pilgrimage,” Gabriel conveyed to the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family).

Finally, the mandate of fealty was revealed. Perfection of the religion was

materialized through the mandate of loyalty to the leadership of Ali Bin Abi

Talib. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) narrated the occasion:

When the mandate of loyalty to Ali was revealed to me, I thought that as my

people had been fresh Muslims, they would accuse me of favoring my cousin for

personal purposes. Forthwith, God threatened a punishment if I neglect. He

revealed: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and

if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect

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you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people.)

Immediately, the Prophet took Ali (peace be upon him) from the hand and

declared: “O people! Like the other prophets, I am to answer the invitation of my

Lord after He has given me this age. You, as well as I, shall be interrogated. What

will your answer be?”

“We do admit you have conveyed, advised and consummated. May God satisfy

you with the best reward of the messengers,” acknowledged people.

“O God! Be the witness,” the Prophet repeated thrice, and added, “O Muslims!

This shall be your leader after me. The attendants should carry this to the absent.”

Biharul Anwar; 94/300:

… A group of Shias and adherents of the Prophet’s progeny were attendant before

Abu Abdillah Jafar Bin Mohammed (peace be upon him), when he spoke: “Do

you know the day in which the Lord constructed Islam, and exhibited illumination

of the religion, and made it a festivity for our adherents, Shias and us?”

“God, His Apostle and son of the Apostle are the most knowledgeable. Is it the

Fitr Day, our master?” asked they.

“No, it is not,” answered Abu Abdillah.

“Is it then the Adha Day?” asked they.

“No,” answered the imam, and spoke:

“However, these are two holy and noble days. Day of illumination of the religion

is holier and nobler. It is the eighteenth of Dhu’l-Hijja. On the noontime of that

day when the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) arrived in Ghadir

Khum, in his journey back from the Farewell Pilgrimage, Gabriel descended,

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carrying the Lord’s instruction of declaring Amirul Muminin’s mastership and

next leadership. The Angel said: ‘In this very day, you are to declare Ali’s

mastership on this nation, so that he shall be the next leader to whom people

should refer. He will be representing you.’ ‘O Gabriel, my dear!’ said the Prophet,

‘I anticipate that my companions will dissent since they detest him for his killing

their people, and will unveil their hiddens.’

The angel carried the Prophet’s words and, immediately, came back with God’s

saying: O Apostle! Deliver…

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) was so apprehensive and

distressed when he gave the orders of sweeping the place under these trees. His

feet were sore for the great heat of the sun. He declared that Muslims should

gather in that place. They, including Abu Bakr, Omar, Othman and the rest of the

Muhajirs and Ansar, approached together before him. He sermonized and referred

to the coming leadership of Ali, and imposed it upon the entire people. He also

informed that it had been God’s mandate.”

An-Numan Al-Maghribi’s Daeimul Islam; 1/14:

A man spoke to Abu Jafar Mohammed Bin Ali (peace be upon him) that Al-

Hassan Al-Basri had informed of the Prophet’s saying: “I became distressed and

disturbed when the Lord ordered me of conveying a message. I anticipate that

people would belie me. The Lord, however, threatened a punishment if I do it

not.”

Abu Jafar asked the man whether Al-Hassan Al-Basri had acquainted them of the

tenor of that message. The man answered negatively. “By God I swear, he did

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realize that tenor, but he concealed it deliberately,” stated Abu Jafar (peace be

upon him). “O son of God’s messenger!” the man asked, “May God make me

your ransom. What was that tenor?”

Abu Jafar stated: The believers were unaware of the style they had been ordered

of performing through the Lord’s Book. Hence, the Lord directed His Apostle;

Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family), to explain. The Prophet did not

conceal a single word.

Similarly, the Lord ordered of defraying the poor rate. People did not have any

acquaintance of that poor rate. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family)

explained so, when he allocated gold, silver, camels, cows, sheep and yields as the

only things applicable to the poor rate. The Prophet left nothing unexplored.

People lacked knowledge of style of fasting imposed upon them. The Prophet

(peace be upon him and his family) explicated everything evidently.

As the Lord imposed the ritual pilgrimage, He directed the Prophet to instruct

them how to perform.

Allah; the Powerful the Elevated, ordered of adhering to the fealty to the

Prophet’s household. He revealed: (Only Allah is your master and His Apostle

and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor rate while

they bow.) As God imposed the fealty to the leadership identified, people were

unfamiliar of sort of that fealty. Like the prayer, the poor rate, the fasting and the

pilgrimage, the Lord ordered His Apostle of explicating the meaning of fealty to

the leadership. This charge disturbed the Prophet since he anticipated that people

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would dissent their beliefs and belie him. Hence, he sought the Lord’s relief.

Immediately, God revealed: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you

from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message,

and Allah will protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the

unbelieving people.)

After that, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) showed no blemish in

declaring the obligatory fealty to the leadership of Ali Bin Abi Talib (peace be

upon him). That was on that day in Ghadir Khum. He also imposed the attendants

to carry this obligation to the absent.

The precepts were revealed gradually. The seal of that precepts was the obligatory

fealty to the leadership of Ali. For this reason, God revealed: (This day have I

perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for

you Islam as a religion.) This means that the Lord would not legislate any more

precept, since He has completed them.

(Another narration) The Prophet stated: “I enjoin those whoever believed in

Allah, and believed and gave credence to me; I enjoin them of adhering to the

leadership of Ali Bin Abi Talib. Loyalty to Ali is being as same as loyalty to me.

This is a command and a covenant I have received from my Lord Who directed

me to carry it to you.

The first narration is also recorded in Sharhul Akhbar; 1/101. A similar narration is

registered on page 276 of part 2 of the same book.

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The following is recorded in that book:

… “O Gabriel!” the Prophet addressed at the angel, “My people are fresh. They

have just converted from Jahilism. I anticipate they would relapse.” The Lord

soon revealed: (O Apostle! Deliver…

Hence, the Prophet had to gather people in Ghadir Khum. He sermonized: “O

people! I became disturbed for the Lord’s ordering me of conveying a message to

you. But He threatened a punishment if I would shun. Have you known that Allah;

the Powerful the Elevated, is my Master, and that I am the master and the leader

of the Muslims to whom souls I am preceded?” “Yes, we have,” admitted people.

The Prophet took Ali from the hand and raised him, saying: “He whosever master

was I, Ali shall be his master. And whosever leader was I, Ali shall be his leader.

O Allah! Accede to whomever accedes to him, and oppose whomever opposes

him and give triumph to whomever supports him, and disappoint whomever

disappoints him, and make the right follow him wherever he turns.”

These words imposed fealty to Ali (peace be upon him) upon each male and

female Muslim.

A similar narration is recorded in Al-Ayashi’s Tafsir; 1/333.

More narratives are to be cited during the coming discussion of Verse of Ikmaluddin

-perfection of the religion-. In the Shiite reference books of hadith, these narrative

are so much and authentic that they are ruled as continuous.

GENERAL REMARKS REGARDING THE OTHER OPINIONS

First Remark:

Except for At-Tirmithi, who records the narration regarding the surveillance

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practiced on the Prophet, and decides it as a one-way strange report, none of the most

remarkable Sunni hadithists refer to the exegesis of Verse of Isma. Yet, Al-Bukhari

allots two titles for the Verse. First is on page 88 of part 5, in which he records

Aisha’s report about the conveyance and evading concealment, and the second is on

page 9 of part 8, in which he records Az-Zuhri’s narration about the Prophet’s

conveyance. In addition, Al-Bukhari records two other reports respecting the Verse,

on page 50 of part 6 and page 210 of part 8. On page 110 of part 1, Muslim records a

report respecting the Verse.

As a matter of fact, such a negligence does not prove or indicate inauthenticity or

dubiety of the report. Numerous are the authentic reports that are not recorded in the

most remarkable books of hadith. And more are the inauthentic that are written down

in such books. The most important matter is that compilers of the most remarkable

books of hadith exert all efforts for refuting the Prophet’s progeny’s sect. They do

realize that Verse of Isma is an evident on accuracy of the Prophet’s progeny’s sect.

For detaining the Shias narrations, they would have repeatedly narrated and recorded

any report that refuted so if only they had any.

For this reason, it is obvious that they neglected recording such reports for their

claiming dubiety of their documentation, their context, or contradiction of their texts.

They aimed at creating a number of problematic matters for each. Hence, they had to

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evade refuting the Shias’ narratives and the Sunnis’ that are concordant. As a result,

such narratives are not objected in the six most remarkable Sunni reference books of

hadith.

Second Remark:

Except the period of Farewell Pilgrimage, the entire twenty-three years of the

Prophet’s solicitation were covered through the various Sunni narratives respecting

the revelation of the Verse. The excluded period, in fact, is the very time in which

the Verse was revealed. This fact arises the question that eluding referring to the

exact period in which the Verse was revealed, was the purpose beyond expansion of

these narratives.

Third Remark:

For the Shiite reference books of hadith, the entire reports that referred to the

revelation of the Verse bring up, assuredly and convictionally, the same reason and

date. On the other hand, the Sunni reference books bear contrary reasons in varied

dates that their scholars could not get rid of perplexity and suspect. The six most

remarkable Sunni reference books of hadith escape recording any of these narratives

some of which support the Prophet’s progeny’s opinions, aside from seeking the

blessing of the Quraishi caliphs.

As a rule, when Muslims entirely, including the Prophet’s progeny, identify a

definite reason and date for the revelation of a Quranic text, while others refer to

miscellaneous reasons and dates, we can surely understand that the reason

unanimously admitted should be the preferred in adoption and issuing rulings.

EVALUATION OF THE OPPOSING OPINIONS

First Question: The Matter To Be Delivered.

The Verse is meaningless unless the verb ‘revealed’ is seen to consider a past

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incident. Grammar of the Verse, however, refers to this point. The tense of the

sentence indicates a previous incident. Besides, no other element may hint at a

coming revelation. Secondly, the Verse was revealed in the final months of the

Prophet’s lifetime. Supposing the verb ‘revealed’ refers to a coming matter, this

should mean that there should be a matter to be revealed in the next period. This

meaning is wholly refused by the entire reports, as well as the Shiite and Sunni

scholars.

When the tense shows a previous revelation that the Prophet should deliver, this

proves that the Prophet has already received a heavy mandate to deliver, and that he

has been conceiving of the way of its conveyance. Hence, the Verse was revealed to

stop the Prophet’s anticipations, and give him the order of delivering as soon as

possible, disregarding whether people would admit or refute. He was also relieved

that they should not apostatize and that he would be guarded against them. This is

the exegesis adopted by the Prophet’s progeny and supported by a number of the

Sunni reports.

Second Question: Confirmation Of The Case And Its Conditions.

It is so vague for any to say: “You should convey the messages I shall give to you,

and if you do it not, I shall not name you a conveyor.” This sentence does not need

that case of condition, since it is logically understandable that the characteristic of

being conveyor is null if the one to bear the message is not going to convey them.

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The stated sentence, then, shall be ruled as meaningless.

If there is a remarkable message to deliver, it will be quite true to say to the formal

conveyor: “I will not regard you as a conveyor of my previous messages that you

have already carried, if you avoid carrying this most remarkable one.”

Tafsirul Mizan; 6/49:

Style of the sentence is stated in a form of threat. It insinuates the importance of

the judgment. It is formed in the pattern that if the message intended was

neglected and not carried to people, the other parts of the religion would be

regarded as if he had not conveyed. God’s saying: (If you do it not, then you have

not delivered his message,) is a conditional clause that elucidates the importance

of the condition in its occurrence or nonoccurrence, since the most important

reward relies upon that occurrence or nonoccurrence. It is not an ordinary

conditional clause which is usually used for specifying the result of an unknown

matter. For God, this is inapplicable, since He does realize results and everything.

The Quran does not have probabilities whether the Prophet will convey or not.

Third Question: Sort Of The Prophet’s Fear.

The Prophet anticipated that the divine message would be in danger. He was too

brave to fear an assassination or injury, since he was pious, courageous and sinless.

Since the earlier days of the prophesy, the Apostle was foretold of the arduousness of

the responsibility of prophesy and conveyance, and the jeopardous detriment he

would suffer. Hence, he (peace be upon him and his family) anticipated dangers,

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injuries and difficulties. Accordingly, it is trivial to believe that the Prophet showed

any defect or laziness at any period of his solicitation, that he was threatened and

reposed.

Finally, the Prophet had apprehensions that people might apostatize and reject his

progeny’s imamate and leadership, and consider the question of nominating Ali for

the next leadership as a personal decision.

Fourth Question: The Interpretation Of ‘People’.

Al-Fakhr Ar-Razi’s Tafsir; 6/12/50:

As God ends the Verse with (surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people,)

it is understandable that ‘people’ mentioned in the Verse refers to the unbelieving

ones exclusively.

This opinion is unacceptable. The word ‘people’ cannot be consecrated to a definite

group since the Verse shows that the Lord will protect His Apostle against all people.

Ar-Razi then made a mistake when he perceived that meaning of the Verse was that

the Lord would protect the Prophet against the unbelieving ones whom should not be

guided to the right path. A good deal of meanings can be inferred from the relation

between ‘people’ and ‘the unbelieving ones.’ The meaning might be: (God will

protect you against the whole people, and He will not guide those who intend to hurt

you, since they are unbelievers.) It also might be: (Deliver the message, and Allah

will protect you against people, and the rejectors, who are decided as unbelievers,

shall not be guided by Allah.)

The latter is the most preferable, since it is supported by a prophetic text recorded on

page 139 of part 8 of Al-Bukhari’s Sahih:

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Abu Hureira: The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated: “My people, entirely, shall

be in the Paradise saving the rejectors.” “Who are the rejectors, God’s

messenger?” asked people. “He shall be in the Paradise that whoever obeys me.

And he shall be with the rejectors that whoever disobeys,” explained the Prophet.

The comprehensive and logical meaning of ‘people’ fits the source of injury and

danger, which was not dedicated to the unbelievers only. The Prophet was also

antagonized by the hypocrites who were among his people. We have already

elucidated that the danger intended by the Verse was, to great extent, that of the

hypocrites. Ar-Razi, however, aims at removing the style of censure addressed at the

Quraishi hypocrites, and wants to take that divine mandate away from leadership of

Ali Amirul Muminin (peace be upon him).

Fifth Question: Meaning Of Protection Against People.

The promised protection intended in the Verse should be befitting the amount of

danger the Prophet expected. It should stand for the protection against people’s

suspecting the prophesy and accusing him of favoring his household, and nominating

his progeny for the coming leadership. One of the most famed saying the Quraishis

used to utter, was that Mohammed (peace be upon him) intended to give prophesy

and leadership to the Hashemites exclusively, so that the other clans of Quraish

would be taken away. It was not the Prophet’s concern to nominate for the prophesy

or the coming leadership.

This is the meaning befitting the amount of danger expected by the Prophet who,

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constantly, was thinking of the anticipated actions that might occur when he would

declare the next leadership of Ali Amirul Muminin.

Unlike claim of the other opinions, the protection intended in the Verse does not

stand for protecting the Prophet against being assassinated, hurt or injured. It is a

guarantee of saving the prophesy against the Quraishis. This is evidenced by the fact

that the Prophet’s surveillance was not changed after that event. Likewise, danger

and harm were not changed. It was augmented!

In abstract, the protection mentioned in the Verse intends saving the Prophet’s

advocacy in his nation who could rarely accept the matter, that they decided mutiny.

Hence, the recognized amount of concept of that protection is surviving the prophesy

and consummating the Lord’s claim against people. It is unlike that divine

sinlessness the Prophet enjoyed in his deeds, words and the entire behavior.

The Exalted Lord fulfilled His promise. On that day in Ghadir, the Prophet

nominated Ali for the next leadership, and asked people to offer him congratulations

on the divine leadership. People did without arising any sort of rejection.

Nevertheless, as soon as the Prophet was deceased, they took Ali and his progeny

away from positions of leadership. Moreover, they had his house on fire and obliged

him to declare fealty to their acquaintance

QUESTIONS INVOLVING THE VERSE

There are two questions involving the Verse of Islam, I am to discuss briefly.

First Question: Using The Verse As A Weapon Against Ali.

The entire Muslims testify that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family)

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conveyed what he had received from his Lord perfectly. They also testify that he

suffered what no other prophet had. After all, Sunnis accused Shias of claiming the

Prophet’s concealing some matters. As an answer, they cited Verse of Isma. We seek

God’s protection against such a claim!

Al-Qurtubi’s Tafsir; 6/243:

He is fabricating that whoever claims the Prophet’s concealing any of the

revelation. The Lord says: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you

from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message,

and Allah will protect you from the people.) Deformed be the Rafidites! They

claim that the Prophet (peace be upon him) concealed some of the revelation

people needed.

Al-Qastalani’s Irshadus Sari; 7/106:

… This is contrary to the Shias’ wording. They claimed the Prophet’s concealing

some of the revealed issued, applying circumspection.

It seems that this accusal is inferred from Aisha’s famous saying: “He is forging the

greatest lies against the Lord, that whoever claims the Prophet’s concealing any of

the Lord’s book.” This saying is intended to refute and belie Ali (peace be upon

him).

Ali affirmed that he had been the Prophet’s heir and that he had his wording and the

heritage that were different from the Quran. Ali had such a comprehensive book that

it included everything needed by people even amount of the compensation for a

violated retaliation of a scratch. Ali also asserted that the Prophet (peace be upon him

and his family) had foretold him of the coming misfortunes his progeny would have

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to counter, even the attack on his house and setting it on fire. Ali asserted that the

Prophet instructed what to do during such situation.

For us; the Shias, we do believe so. In our, as well as the Sunni, reference books of

hadith, tens of reports carry the unique standing and status of Ali. Others relate the

special prophetic care for him that prove the Lord’s mandate of bringing him up in

peculiar way fit enough for transferring his prophetic knowledge to him. Moreover,

Ali was given exclusive characters, qualifications and inspiration. We also believe

that Ali tells nothing but the truth, even when the matter concerns himself and his

progeny

As-Suyouti’s Ad-Durrul Manthour; 6/260:

… The Prophet addressed at Ali: “Allah gives me the orders of favoring you, and

avoiding keeping you away, and teaching you that you will perceive. And you

shall perceive.” For these words, God revealed: (And a retaining ear will retain it.)

Abu Naeem’s Hilyetul Awliya:

The Prophet addressed at Ali: “You are the retaining ear that perceives my

knowledge.”

Hutheifa Bin Al-Yeman, who was one of Ali’s followers, was the keeper of the

Prophet’s secret in the concern of distinguishing the hypocrites. Whereas Ali was the

keeper of the entire secrets and knowledge of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his

family). The whole hadithists relate the Prophet’s foretelling Ali of the coming

fighting against the breachers, the unjust and the deviate, for the interpretation of the

Quran.

Some of the Prophet’s instructions, given to Ali exclusively, were familiar during his

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lifetime. One of these was that he would record his wrongedness and manifest his

claim and avoid fighting for the position of leadership. Had this fact been null, they

would never have such a bravery when they attacked Ali’s house and arrested and

obliged him to declare fealty to the new leadership!

Ali was a miracle and an unparalleled phenomenon of might and courage. He planted

horror and panic in people’s hearts. Most of those who participated in that attack

were so coward that they could not record any situation of courage during battles. As

soon as Ali unsheathes his Dhu’l-Feqar, none of such cowardly people, or anyone

else, had hearts can stop in his face. Hence, they were sure that he would not

unsheathe his sword, and he would act according to the Prophet’s will even if Az-

Zahra would be beaten and her baby would be aborted.

In due course, the pro-Quraishis and their masters refute Ali’s claim of having the

Prophet’s heritage and knowledge. They deny that the Prophet (peace be upon him

and his family) left anything for his family; no knowledge, no properties entailed in

mortmain and no assets. On that account, Abu Bakr confiscated Fadak which the

Prophet endowed to Fatima (peace be upon him) when God revealed: (And give the

near of kin his due.)

The ruling authorities exceeded the limits when they claimed atheism of those who

averred that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had instructed them

peculiarly. Aisha’s forecited wording is the evidence those ruling authorities used for

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refuting Ali’s claims.

Al-Bukhari’s; 1/188:

Aisha: “He is fabricating that whoever claims the Prophet’s concealing any of

what was revealed. God says: O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to

you…

Al-Bukhari repeats the same on pages 50 and 210 of parts 6 and 8. The same is

recorded in Muslim’s; 1/10, and At-Tirmithi’s; 4/328… etc.

At any rate, this process practiced by the ruling authorities and Ali’s rivals, included

two flaws regarding expansion of meanings of the matter to be conveyed and the

parties to receive that conveyance. In addition, the process comprised a

misrepresentation of the saying of Ali and his adherents; the Shias.

It is untrue that the Prophet was ordered of conveying everything, he had been given,

to people. The Prophet’s knowledge that is received via revelation, inspiration and

divine views is too comprehensive to be carried to people. It is impracticable that the

Lord dictate so, since people, even the faithful, are too incompetent to receive such

knowledge.

Secondly, some instructions were addressed at specific individuals. Hence, the

Prophet did not carry them to the public. This is evidenced by God’s saying: (And

speak to them privately effectual words.)

Neither Ali nor did any of his adherents claim the Prophet’s showing any

shortcoming in carrying the Lord’s message. They claimed that he (peace be upon

him and his family) took people’s mentalities and competence of intellectual

reception in consideration during carrying the divine message. Therefore, Ali was so

receptive that the Prophet delivered him an additional and peculiar knowledge, as the

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Lord instructs. Unlike opinions of Al-Qurtubi and Al-Qastalani, this concept is far

away from any accusal of showing shortcoming during conveying the Lord’s words.

The matter was no more than a supplementary conveyance addressed at Ali, Az-

Zahra, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein (peace be upon them).

Furthermore, Ali and his adherents assert that the Prophet conveyed numerous

matters respecting his progeny and many other subjects. Hence, they claim a

prophetic conveyance more comprehensive that that claimed by the Quraishi

caliphate and their adherents.

The pro-Quraishis used to wrong and forge lies against Ali. In the same time, they

overlook Omar’s statement that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had

not clarified a number of Quranic texts, such as those regarding Kelala and usury.* as

a matter of fact, this is an apparent accusation of the Prophet’s showing blemish in

explaining God’s revealed texts.

In abstract, the Prophet’s selecting Ali for specific revealed matters does not violate

his carrying out the Lord’s instructions, since this question is enlisted under the same

title of conveying the Lord’s mandate. In like manner, it does not violate the question

of circumspection applied by the Prophet with definite men of Quraishi and other

tribes. The Prophet carried the instructions of using wisdom, circumspection and

nicety for achieving goals of Islam.

Al-Kafi; 2/117:

Imam Jafar As-Sadiq: The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) stated: “As

my Lord orders me of performing the precepts, He orders of using nicety with

people.”

*This matter will be soon provided during discussing Verse of Ikmaluddin.

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Majma’uzzawaid; 8/17:

Abu Huraira: The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated: “Directly after believing in

God comes nicety to people as the acme of intellectuality.”

Bureida: I was attendant before the Prophet (peace be upon him) when a Quraishi

man came, and was warmly welcomed. “O Bureida!” addressed the Prophet when

the man left, “Do you know this man?” “Yes,” I answered, “I do know him. He is

the best of Quraish in lineage and wealth. This is my opinion, what about yours,

God’s messenger?” said I. “This is one of those whom shall be worthless on the

Judgment Day,” stated the Prophet.

Al-Bukhari allots more than one title in regard with question of using nicety with

people. On page 102 of part 7 of his Sahih, Al-Bukhari writes down:

Abud-Derda: We do smile in the faces of some people, while our hearts curse

them.

Aisha: “Let him in. He is the worst among his clan,” the Prophet said as he

permitted a man to see him. He then received him easily with nice words. When

the man left, I sought an explanation from the Prophet. He said: “O Aisha! The

most evil people are those whom are received nicely for the sake of avoiding their

evil.”

An-Nisapuri’s Al-Waseet; 2/208:

When he was in Mecca, the Prophet used to hide some Verses, since he

anticipated evil of the polytheists against his companions and himself.

For us; the Shias, we do believe that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family)

did explanatorily convey the entire revealed matters so perfectly. We also believe

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that the Lord instructed him to speak to people according to the degree of their

perceptions and intellectualities. Some could not sustain more than the general

elucidation, while others could. Ali (peace be upon him) was a first class man with

regard to intellectuality. The Lord instructed His Apostle to give him more

explanation. Ali was granted unique memory, intellectuality and tongue. Finally, he

was made the retaining ear that receives understandably the Prophet’s wording.

We are indeed not those who accuse the Prophet of concealing a part of the revealed

matters. Before us are their most remarkable books of hadith that are filled with

reports uttering that Omar asserted the Prophet’s concealing explanation of some

Verses, such as those of Kelala and usury. Meanwhile, these Verses formed an

obligatory canon.

Second Question: The Verse Refutes The Claim Of The Prophet’s Bewitchment.

A group of scholars from both sects cite Verse of Isma as an evidence refuting the

claim of the Prophet’s bewitchment. A number of narratives storied that a Jew

bewitched the Prophet when he could take his comb and some hairs, and bury them

in a well after he had spelled bewitchery on them. This bewitchery influenced the

Prophet so heavily that he imagined doing some acts. The Prophet kept on this state

till a man or an angel or Gabriel led him to the place of that well. He destructed that

well since he had been already cured from the bewitchment, and that he had not

wanted to arise a problem.

This false accusal is related to Aisha according to Al-Bukhari’s report recorded in

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five positions of his book. For instance, it is recorded on pages 91 and 68 of part 4. It

is also recorded on pages 28-9 and 164 of part 7. Muslim and many others record the

same.

The entire Shiite scholars refute this accusal. A few Sunni scholars had the courage

to refute. They cite Verse of Isma as one of their evidences.

At-Tusi’s Tafsirut Tibian; 1/384:

Reports that related tale of the Prophet’s bewitchment are inconsiderate and

baseless. The Prophet are too elevated to have such a characteristic of

imperfection that lead to the receivers’ rejecting his instructions. He is the Lord’s

claim against creatures, and His choice among His servants. Due to the Lord’s

wisdom, the Prophet was selected. He was saved from vulgarity and harshness, in

addition to any ill behaviour. Except those who discount the Prophet’s real

characters, How can anyone dare to ascribe such tainted matters to him?

Moreover, the Lord says: (And Allah will protect you against people.) He also

shows falsehood of those who said: (You are following but a bewitched man.)

Ibn Idris Al-Ujeli’s As-Serair; 3/534:

Unanimously, we prove that the Prophet was never bewitched. This is evidenced

by God’s saying: (And Allah will protect you against people.) Some of the

opposite parties believe that he was bewitched. This is contrary to the Glorified

Revelation.

Al-Mejlisi’s Biharul Anwar; 60/38:

… Providing that had been right, the sorcerers would have injured the whole

prophets and pious men. Similarly, they would have had the greatest standing for

themselves. This is contrary to God’s saying: (And Allah will protect you from

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the people,) and (And a magician shall not be successful wheresoever he may

come from.) At length, the atheists imputed bewitchment to the Prophet, while

they did realize their being liars.

An-Nawawi; the Sunni scholar, was one of those who refuted the accusal. In his Al-

Majmu; 19/243, he writes down:

…Reports regarding the Prophet’s bewitchment should be refuted since they

support the atheists’ accusing him of bewitchment. It is also contrary to the

Quranic texts that belied them.

Al-Qadi: Such narratives are false. It is impracticable to admit them while the

Lord says: (And Allah will protect you from the people,) and (And a magician

shall not be successful wheresoever he may come from.) Giving credence to such

narratives leads to libeling the prophesy. Had that been right, the entire prophets

and pious people should have been influenced by bewitchery.

Ar-Razi’s Tafsir; 16/32/187:

Majority of Muslims adopt the Prophet’s being bewitched by Labid Bin Assam;

the Jew. Mutazilites, totally, refute this saying. It is impracticable to regard

authenticity of such a claim since it contradicts God’s saying: (And Allah will

protect you from the people.)…

The forecited scholars form only a minority of the Sunni scholars majority of whom

do admit this fabrication. Root of the problem is that they cannot refute words and

reports of Aisha and Al-Bukhari at any circumstance. Likewise, they never permit

any to scrutinize or criticize such reports. This trend carried tens of varied doctrinal

problems to them. These doctrinal problems comprised monotheism, prophesy and

intercession. Reports respecting the headmost revelation and Waraqa Bin Nawfal,

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reports of ‘the handsome pagans’ that Suleiman Rushdi betook as a principal for his

The Satanic Verses and reports regarding the Prophet’s being bewitched by the Jews

are cited as examples on their blind imitation. As we have already cited, they were

perplexed since none had been brave enough to declare that such reports are falsely

ascribed to Aisha, or women’s dreams!!

In abstract, the accusal is originally contrary to the prophesy. Atheists are the root of

that accusation. This fact is proved by a Quranic text. Citing Verse of Isma as the

refutation of the forecited accusal is seen as baseless, since it can be claimed that the

Verse was revealed in the final stage of the Prophet’s lifetime while the occurrence,

as they claim, came before that time.

As much as our exegesis is concerned, we see that the recognized amount of concept

of the protection is guarding the Prophet against apostasy of the Quraishis, together

with the Muslims, during his lifetime, unless there is a matter evidencing its

comprising another matter.

Sunni exegesists and scholars discuss the protection mentioned in the Verse in such a

prolonged and thoroughgoing way that they do not miss any point that is pertinent or

irrelevant. They suffer such a toilsome undertaking owing to their erroneous

exegesis, and their misthinking that the Prophet’s protection stands for guarding him

against assassination, poisoning, injury or harm.

In due course, they apprehend that the Verse is contrary to the narratives relating that

the Prophet’s decease was due to having a morsel from the meat of a poisoned ewe

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served by a Jewess. The narrative states that Gabriel descended to inform of reality

of that meat. Hence, the Prophet ceased, but a drop of that poison that lied in the

single morsel he had had, was the reason beyond his decease the next year.

Ashifa; 1/317:

Q. How is it possible to admit God’s saying: (And Allah will protect you from the

people,) and the narrative -of the Prophet’s being deceased due to the poisoning of

that Jewess- that denies the Prophet’s protection?

A. The Verse was revealed in the year of the battle of Tabuk, while the poisoning

occurred before so, in Kheibar.

They also refer to a number of questions pertaining to the Verse. One of these is that

the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) longed for martyrdom, while the

Verse guarantees safety from killing. How is it workable for him to long for

something he realizes impossibility of its occurrence?

Fetihul Bari Fi Sharhi Sahihil Bukhari; 8/2644:

Abu Hureira: I heard the Prophet say: “By the Prevailing of my soul, I wish I were

to be killed for the sake of Allah.”

Commnetation: Some exegesists showed preservations against ascribing this text

to the Prophet (peace be upon him), since it is impracticable for him to long for

martyrdom while he does realize that he is protected against countering killing.

Ibnut-Tin answers: The statement might have been said before the revelation of

God’s saying: (And Allah will protect you from the people.) This is in accurate.

The Verse was revealed during the Prophet’s early residence in Al-Madina. While

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Abu Hureira, who attests that he heard the statement directly from the Prophet,

arrived there in the first days of the seventh year after the Prophet’s immigration.

On the other hand, it seems that longing for a virtuous matter does not necessarily

require probability of its occurrence. It can be averred that the Prophet aimed for

urging the Muslims on jihad. This opinion, however, is the most acceptable.

Some claim that Abu Hureira added ‘I wish’ to the Prophetic text. This opinion

seems unsatisfactory.

It is to add that if the previous prophetic text was authentic, the Prophet’s wish

would be applicable. The Verse guarantees that people would not apostatize during

the Prophet’s lifetime. It is irrelevant to guaranteeing that the Prophet would not be

assassinated, injured or hurt. On the contrary, God’s saying: (And Mohammed is no

more than an apostle; the apostles have already passed away before him. If he then

dies or is killed, will you turn back upon your heels,) indicates that the Prophet

would not to die so normally, since the Lord made the sort of His Apostle’s decease

inconspicuous. Besides, the Lord identifies natural death and assassination as the two

sorts that the Prophet would counter. The only interpretation of God’s confusing the

sort of His Apostle’s death is that He; the Elevated, knows that the Prophet would be

killed or suffering a quasi-assassination.

CHAPTER THREE

STORY OF GHADIR

THE QURAISHIS IN THE FAREWELL PILGRIMAGE

Through the prophetic texts, words and behaviors of the Farewell Pilgrimage, it is

obviously comprehensible that the whole matter was aimed at giving emphasis to the

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present and coming role of the Prophet’s household. Directly, the Prophet (peace be

upon him and his family) foretold of the coming of twelve imams, and instructed that

those imams should be representing the minor weighty thing in this nation, while the

Quran is the major. In other words, the Prophet explicated the obligatory compliance

with those imams in the entire aspects of life. For instance, those imams were

forbidden from receiving alms, while they should enjoy another sort of rates; which

is the one fifth rate.

The Quraishis could no longer stand the Prophet’s sermons, words and activities that,

as a whole, identified preference of Ali, Fatima, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein. They

understood the situation as if it had been a process of dedicating leadership to the

Hashemites, and depriving the other clans of receiving any leading position.

Moreover, the perceived the process as if they would be kept as released slaves of

the Hashemites.

It is natural for Sunni reference books of hadith to neglect the Quraishi chiefs’

forthright reaction towards these prophetic sermons. Most surely, the Prophet’s

words disturbed the Quraishis whose chiefs; such as Suheil Bin Amr, Ikrima Bin Abi

Jahl, Safwan Bin Umaya Bin Khalaf, Hakim Bin Hizam, Suheib Bin Sinan, Abul-

Awar As-Salami and the others, were gloomy-faced while they were listening to the

Prophet paving the way to the Hashemites’ leadership. Immediately, they acted

energetically to contact the Quraishi Muhajirs, other than the Hashemites, for finding

a suitable treatment for this impending prophetic trend.

On the other hand, the Shiite reference books of hadith provide that the inceptive of

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such rigorous activities was in conquest of Mecca. During the Farewell Pilgrimage,

activities expanded to attain climax in Mina at days of Tashriq. The outcome of their

consultation and activities was the conclusion of that treaty which is called, by the

Shias, ‘the accursed document’ in which they agreed upon depriving the Hashemites

of joining leadership to prophesy.

Few members of that treaty arrived slyly in Mecca, and hanged that second accursed

document near the first one inside Kaba.

That was a new unanimous document against the Hashemites. Unlike the first which

decided a blockade in the col and was signed in the names of Lat and Uzza; the

pagans, the new one proposed a political embargo aimed at depriving the Hashemites

of holding the leadership after the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), and

signed in the name of Islam.

Our reference books of hadith mention that the Lord informed His Apostle of details

of that document, and the Prophet reproached the parties who could not stand still

before him. Like the other prophets, the Apostle of God stopped at constituting

claims against them, and granted them full option to act. This is the principle of the

prophets’ conveyance. Prophets, however, are instructed not to exceed their duties of

constituting the Lord’s claims against people.

Supposing that the noise and discord intentionally arisen during the Prophet’s

sermonizing and mentioning the lineage of the coming twelve imams, as the Sunni

reference books allege, was one of the programmed activities against the

Hashemites, then the Prophet would certainly reprimand and clarify that he had

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previous knowledge of their aims.

RESULTS OF THE FAREWELL PILGRIMAGE

For the Quraishis, the Farewell Pilgrimage passed peacefully, since the Prophet did

not take any practical step in the course of nominating the new leader, although he

spoke very much about the Hashemites, and his progeny, offspring and Fatima, and

their being the Lord’s choice and the coming imams, and the ruling of prohibiting

them from receiving any of the alms and dedicating the one fifth rate to them.

Furthermore, the Prophet did not demand with swearing fealty to Ali; the first imam

of his household.

The Prophet conceived that the Quraishis attained the further borders of tolerance

and they could not stand any more instructions. That was the further conveyance of

the Lord’s message regarding his progeny’s leadership. If he demanded with

swearing fealty to Ali in that situation, they would distrust prophesy and accuse him

of establishing a monarchy, similar to that of the Romans and the Persian, for the

Hashemites. Providing this had occurred, the Quraishis had had the ability of leading

the Arabs to mutiny. They anticipated that Ali’s leadership will lead to the

continuous leadership of his successors forever.

Reference books of hadith record such statements spoken by the Quraishi chiefs

who, as if they had never smelt the odor of Islam, perceived it as a question of

Mohammed’s kingship, that he might give to anyone he liked, or to his progeny

exclusively.

FROM THE HEAVENS AND THE EARTH, THE REVELATION AND THE QURAISHIS PRESSURED THE PROPHET

During the Farewell Pilgrimage and its fatal circumstances, Gabriel was carrying the

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Lord’s mandates repeatedly. Along with the pilgrimage season, the Prophet received

the Lord’s instructions constantly. It is likely that statements of the sermons were

received via Gabriel.

“O Mohammed! Allah; the Powerful the Elevated, greets you and informs that your

departure will be imminent, and soon you will be approaching Him. He orders you of

explicating the ritual pilgrimage in the same way you have explicated rulings of

prayer, rates and fasting.” That was one of the angel’s statements conveyed to the

Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) in Al-Madina.

Carrying out this mandate, the Prophet led the Muslims to the pilgrimage and its

rites. Besides, he pursued focusing principals of Islam and the unique standings of

his household in their mentalities. This is clear through the prophetic texts regarding

the coming twelve imams, the two weighty things, the dedication of the one fifth rate

to them, the deprivation of the alms… etc.

During the final days of the pilgrimage, Gabriel descended with the following

instructions: “Allah; the Exalted, orders you of leading your nation to their leader.

Call for the declaration of covenant, and endow him the knowledge you have and the

prophets’ heritage and publicize his leadership. None of the prophets was deceased

before he had perfected the religion. The land must not be left without a claim

against creatures.”

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) concluded that he would not be able

to declare so during these very moments for the Quraishis’ contemporary tense

condition. He also took in consideration that his people had just forborne Jahilism,

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and would object and show disrelish if he was to nominate his cousin as the new

leader. Hence, he decided to carry out that divine mandate as soon as he would be

back in Al-Madina where he would prepare for it and seek Ansar’s aid.

THE PROPHET’S CARAVAN IS STOPPED BY THE REVELATION

As he intended to carry out the divine mandate of declaring the next leadership of his

household, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) left Mecca.

On the third day of the journey, the Prophet reached Kuraul-Ghamim. It is a place

between Mecca and Al-Madina that is eight miles before Asfan. It was five hours

after the sunrise when Gabriel descended and conveyed: “O Mohammed! Allah, the

Powerful the Elevated, greets you and says: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been

revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His

message, and Allah will protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the

unbelieving people.)”

The Prophet apprehended and succumbed to his Lord. He could not move any further

single step. The Muslims whose leading ones were about to arrive Al-Juhafa which

was an inhabited village about two miles away from Kuraul-Ghamim, were given the

orders of halting. The Prophet aimed for carrying out that rigid divine mandate in the

very place where it had been revealed. “Release my she-camel,” the Prophet ordered,

“By God I swear, I am not to leave this place before I will convey my Lord’s

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message.” He also ordered the Muslims to be there.

The Prophet rode off. The angel was next to him. He was so content as he saw the

Prophet tremble due to fearing the Lord. His eyes were teary while he spoke: “Is it

threat and plight and peril? I will keep up Allah’s concern. If they accuse and belie

me, this shall be less arduous than countering the distressing punition in this world

and the Hereafter.”

Before he left, the angel had referred to a small area of trees to the right. The Prophet

left the angel and directed to that garden to abide.

Muslims narrated: We were on our way to the place identified, we could hear the

Prophet call us for answering the Lord’s prolocutor. Owing to the extremely hot

weather, we hastened. We saw the Prophet put a part of his cloak on the head. A

collective prayer was declared while time for the obligatory prayer had not arrived

yet.

It was time for another prayer that should be mandatorily performed. It is the precept

of swearing fealty to the Prophet’s immaculate progeny. Whatever the reaction

would be, this precept would have been obligatorily carried to Muslims. The Lord

did emphasize and inform that it had not been the Prophet’s personal concern that he

should take people’s mischievous response in consideration through conveying to

people. The Lord should be the most considered in this regard. He would protect

against such mischievous response. Hence, the Prophet should carry out the orders.

On that extremely hot day, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) gave the

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orders of sweeping the place under these trees so that it would be taken as a situation

for addressing the sermon of leadership, and performing the prayer. He also gave the

orders of establishing an elevated place to be taken as a pulpit, so that the Prophet’s

eyes would fall on the entire Muslims, who encompassed him, during sermonizing.

Muslims carried out the orders. They placed saddles of camels on these stones so that

the quasi-pulpit would be more elevated and handsome.

Muslims approached the spring -Ghadir-. They drank, served their animals and

abluted. Before performing the obligatory prayer, they had surrounded the Prophet

for listening to the sermon. The garden was too narrow to involve the large numbers

of Muslims; therefore, many had to sit under sunlight or the pack animals for

shading.

The entire attendees understood that there had been a matter to be provided during

the coming sermon. There must have been a revelation of such a remarkable matter

that the Prophet could not stand two more miles to be in Al-Juhafa.

Pursuant to narratives, the total number of the individuals who performed the

Farewell Pilgrimage with the Prophet was about one hundred and twenty thousand.

After consummation of the pilgrimage rites, many of them left the Prophet. People of

Mecca remained in their city. Individuals whose cities and villages were near At-

Taif, took that way. Others took the way to Jedda, and the like.

Nevertheless, thousands of individuals took the same way the Prophet had taken

since they lived in Al-Madina and the neighboring. Approximately, they were ten

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thousand.

Documenting the Quraishis’ attempts to cover up occurrence of Ghadir, imam As-

Sadiq said: “What strange misfortunes Ali Bin Abi Talib had countered! He had ten

thousand witnesses and he could not save his right! People usually save their rights

by two witnesses only.”*

Muslims waited not too long. They saw the Prophet ascend that pulpit of stones and

saddles, and commence his sermon with the Name of Allah. He began to versify that

honorable prophetic poesy in glorifying and praising the Lord and proving ultimate

slavery to Him.

Subsequently, the Prophet made apology for driving them to halt in such a poor

place, and granting them no respite to reach Al-Juhafa; the village where water and

means of comfort were available, and which was only two miles away from that

place. Moreover, he apologized for preceding this congregation to time of the Dhuhr

prayer, and demanding with listening to him in such an intolerable weather.

He notified that Gabriel came in Kheif Mosque, carrying the Lord’s mandate of

nominating Ali, declaratorily, as the new leader of Muslims.

He sermonized: “I was so disturbed for the Lord’s instructing me obligatorily to

convey a message. I anticipated that people would belie me. I thought that since my

people were such fresh Muslims that they had soon forborne Jahilism, they would

object or show loathing when I would nominate my cousin as the next leader. The

Lord, in this place, threatened a decisive punishment if I do it not.” Allah; the

Blessed the Exalted, guaranteed guarding me against people. He is the Benevolent

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Protector. He revealed to me: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you

from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and

Allah will protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving

people.)

There is no god But He Whose timing is unexpected, and injustice is unavailing. I

acknowledge my slavery to Him, and testify His godhead. I am to convey what He

has revealed to me, lest an unavoidable catastrophe will strike me, and none will be

meet enough to save me. O People! I am close on responding the invitation. How

will you express?”

“We do admit you have conveyed and advised,” recognized people.

“Do you acknowledge there is no god but Allah, and Mohammed is being the

Apostle of Allah, and the Paradise is rectified, and the hell-fire is rectified, and the

resurrection is rectified?” asked the Prophet.

“Yes, we do, God’s messenger!” confessed they.

As he pointed to his chest, the Prophet said, “ I do, too.”

He then added: “I will precede you. You will join me on the Divine Pool the width of

which is as same as the distance from San’a -Yemen- to Busra -Syria-. Its cups are as

copious as stars. Its water is whiter than silver. Suppose how will you regard me in

the two weighty things?”

“What are the two weighty things, God’s messenger?” asked a man.

The Prophet answered: “The major is Allah’s Book. One of its edge is being in the

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Lord’s hand, while the other is in yours. Adhere to it and you shall neither incline

*Refer to Wesailus-Shia; 18/174.

nor deviate. The minor is my progeny; my household. I adjure you by Allah not to

disregard my household. I adjure you by Allah not to disregard my household. I

adjure you by Allah not to disregard my household. The two shall never separate till

they join me on the Pool. I implored my Lord to keep this bond. Precede them not,

lest you shall be perished. Elude them not, lest you shall be deviating. Teach them

not, since they are more learned than you.

O people! Do you know that Allah; the Powerful the Elevated, is being my Master,

and I am master of the believers, and I am preceded to yourselves?”

“Yes, we do. God’s messenger!” declared people.

Here, The Prophet asked Ali to stand erect. Ali did. The Prophet caused him to stand

to his right, and raised his hand so highly that the armpits of both were seen. Then,

he maintained:

“He whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master. O Allah! Accede to whomever

accedes to him, and oppose whomever opposes him, and give triumph to whomever

supports him, and disappoint whomever disappoints him, and turn the right whenever

he turns.

O people! You should realize that it was Allah Who nominates him as your leader

and imam. He imposes compliance with him upon Muhajirs, Ansar, their well

followers, the Bedouins, the urban, the non-Arabs, the Arabs, the masters and the

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slaves, the young and the old.”

“O God’s messenger!” a man asked, “What is the like of loyalty to him?”

“Loyalty to him is as same as loyalty to me,” clarified the Prophet, “Ali should be

preceded to souls of those whom I was preceded to their souls.”

Elaborately, the Prophet went on interpreting credits of his infallible progeny and the

twelve imams:

“Ali, Al-Hassan, Al-Hassan and nine individuals from his progeny are, respectively,

being with the Quran, and the Quran is being with them. They shall never leave the

Quran, and the Quran will never leave them till they shall join me on the Divine

Pool.”

Recurrently, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) called the entire

Muslims to witness process of his conveying the Lord’s messages. They witnessed.

He also demanded the attendees to carry the matter to the absent. They promised

affirmatively. He answered the questions of everybody.

Contiguously after the consummation of the sermon, Gabriel descended with God’s

saying: (This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on

you and chosen for you Islam as a religion.)

The Prophet praised God for perfection of the religion and completion of the grace

and the Lord’s satisfaction for his conveyance and the next leadership of Ali.

Only then, the Prophet descended from the pulpit. He gave the orders of establishing

a tent in which Ali would receive the entire Muslims whom would obligatorily come

for offering congratulations to him for position of leadership. Even the Prophet’s

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women were ordered of offering congratulations. They stood at the tent and offered.

Omar Bin Al-Khattab was one of the foremost people to offering congratulations.

“Congratulations, son of Abu Talib!” said Omar, “You have become my master, and

the master of every male and female believer.”

Hassaan Bin Thabit; the poet, sought the Prophet’s permitting him to compose a

number of poetic verses on the occasion. “Say them on the bless of the Lord,”

allowed the Prophet. Hassan poetized:

On that day in Ghadir their Prophet called them

In Khum. How well was the Apostle’s call!

Said: Who is you master and guardian?

They answered and showed no negligence

Your Lord is our Master and you are guardian

He said: Stand up Ali! I am

To declare you the coming imam and guide

He whose master was I, this shall be his leader

Be his faithful sincere followers

O Lord! Accede to whomever accedes to Ali,

And be the opposer of Ali's opposers.*

It is sufficient to refer to the following narrative that is recorded in Muslim’s Sahih;

7/122:

… Yazeed Bin Heyyan: Hussain Bin Mayserah, Omar Bin Muslim and I were

Zeid Bin Arqam’s companies. “You have been highly favored, Zeid,” said

Hussain, “You have seen the Prophet, listened to his orations, partook in his

battles, and prayed with him. Would you please recount what you have heard

from him” “O brother’s son!” talked Zeid, “I am too old to retain all what I have

been acquainted. Please, accept what I shall say, and do not shoulder me what you

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will reject.” After a pause, he kept on, “One day, in a spring called ‘Khum’, lying

between Mecca and Al-Madina, the Prophet (peace be upon him) orated:

‘O People! I am approximately to respond my Lord’s apostle. I am leaving among

you the two weighty things; the Book of Allah, where there is guidance and

illumination. Estimate and hold fast on it.’, in several sentences, the Prophet

(peace be upon him) stimulated and urged on the Book. He then said, ‘And my

household! I adjure you by God respecting my household, I adjure you by God

respecting my household.’”

“Who are his household, Zeid?” asked Hussain, “Are his wives included?”

Zeid answered: “His wives are not included with his household. His household are

those whom are forbidden from receiving the alms. His household are sons of Ali,

Aqeel, Ja’far and Al-Abbas.” “All these are forbidden from receiving the alms!”

wondered Hussain. “Yes, they are,” answered Zeid.*

Al-Hakim’s Al-Mustedrak; 3/148:

Zeid Bin Arqam: The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) stated: “Among

you I am leaving the two weighty things. They are Allah’s Book and my

household. They shall not leave each other till they join me on the Divine Pool.

*This series in the story of the Prophet’s sermon of Ghadir is quoted from various

reference books. The following are among these books:

As-Saduq’s Kemaluddin We Itmamun Nima; 276.

At-Tebirsi’s Alihtijaj; 1/70.

An-Nisapuri’s Rawdetul Waidheen; 98.

Al-Mustershid; 117…etc.

The Sunni reference books of hadith relate similar narratives. Refer to Al-Amini’s

Al-Ghadir for more information.

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*The same report is recorded in Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 2/366, et al.

(Although this report is decided as authentic according to the criteria of the two

Sheiks; Muslim and Al-Bukhari, it is not recorded in their books.)

Whereas Muslim and Al-Hakim record the same report, the latter’s form of narrating

carries a prophetic prediction of continuity of the imam’s existence till the

Resurrection Day.

Ibn Kutheir, in his Al-Bidaya Wen Nihaya; 5/408, has a different opinion:

In his way back to Al-Madina after having clarified rituals of the pilgrimage, the

Prophet addressed a remarkable sermon under a tree in Ghadir Khum on the

eighteenth of Dhu’l-Hijja. In this sermon, he adduced many things. He referred to

Ali Bin Abi Talib’s merits; honesty, decency and close standing to him. By this,

the Prophet removed what many people had born in hearts against Ali. Abu Jafar

At-Tabari was so interested in this sermon that he compiled a two-volumed book

in which he mentioned its way of narration and different forms. Likewise, Abul-

Qasim Bin Asakir; the grand scholar, recorded copious narratives appertained to

the sermon.

For Ibn Kutheir, the matter is no more than a prophetic attempt to remove the malice

some Muslims had against Ali Bin Abi Talib. Therefore, the Prophet ordered them of

halting in Ghadir Khum for proving Ali’s guilelessness and seeking their

satisfaction. The Prophet mentioned Ali’s merits for “removing what many people

had born in hearts against Ali, in this sermon, he -the Prophet- adduced many

things.” That is it.

The matter would not have been worse if Ibn Kutheir had been one of sons of

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Abdud-Dar that Ali killed their best knights who bore the pennon of the polytheists’

army in the face of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). Any Muslim

author cannot write in such a style unless he is one of those who bore malice against

Ali Bin Abi Talib!

Now, the reason beyond the Islamic Radicalists’ esteeming Ibn Kutheir and exerting

particular efforts for publishing his book, has been clearly unveiled.

WHAT FOR WAS IT AL-JUHAFA AND GHADIR KHUM?!

The question cited herewith is that what for the divine mandate was revealed in the

way to Al-Madina, in the heart of the desert and in the hottest time of that day.

As an answer to the question, we should cite the following:

The Lord wants to address at his Prophet: “O Apostle! There is no difference

between Mecca and Al-Madina. Wherever you declare the coming leadership of your

progeny, the Quraishis may object and mutiny. Their impression about your progeny

is incessantly firm and resolute. Your task is only conveying the messages. You have

been sent for conveying the messages only. This very place and time are very much

suitable for conveying. You should convey without any delay. I will protect you

against the Quraishis so that you will be able to fulfill the mission of conveyance and

explicating My message. I will withhold the Quraishis’ hearts and mentalities, and

shut mouths of the attendant devils, and treat the effects of conveyance and preserve

your prophesy among them. Then, I will respite them when they shall seize your

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puissance and persecute your progeny. When My will shall be materialized in your

nation and progeny, I will send Al-Mahdi who shall fill in the earth with justice after

it was filled in with unfairness. In any case, I am not asked about My deeds, while

they shall be asked.

From this cause, another question is cited: How did the Lord protect His Prophet

(peace be upon him and his family) against the Quraishis that none of them

attempted to confuse or object? Moreover, the most dangerous Quraishi chiefs were

in Mecca; yet, a considerable deal of them was within the Prophet’s caravan. The

caravan also comprised a number of Quraishi Muhajirs whose loyalty was to those

chiefs. Is it true then that those individuals could keep peace and control their nerves

while they were listening to the Prophet’s carrying the Lord’s mandate of the

obligatory fealty to Ali and the progeny? How did they comply with the Prophet’s

instructions of testifying his conveyance? How did they promise the Prophet of

carrying the matter to the absent? How did they respond to the Prophet’s instructions

of offering congratulations to Ali on the new position of leadership?

The answer: It is the Exalted Lord Who willed the attainment of the message,

constitution of the claim and preservation of the Prophet’s personality and prophesy.

By His supreme competence, the Lord caused the Quraishis to keep peace and speak

no single letter in Ghadir Khum. For the Quraishis, they received the question as if it

was one of the repeated declarations uttered during the Farewell Pilgrimage, and that

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the Prophet was still alive, and when he would be deceased, they would have another

manner.

As soon as the Quraishis tried to be emancipated from their silence, and take the first

step towards apostasy, the Lord inflicted a packed stone on An-Nadr Bin Al-Harith;

their spokesman, that sent him to death. Fire was hurled on another.

These two sorts of heavenly punishment were taken in deep consideration by the

Quraishis who moved no more single pebble in the path of the Prophet’s progeny’s

leadership.

On the other side, the Prophet was engaged in prophetic, not Quraishi,

contemplation. He was so relieved for conveying his Lord’s message so suitably. He

could evade the Lord’s ire and punition. Tears of contentment and piety crammed in

his eyes because he could attain the Lord’s satisfaction for his conveying His

mandate of nominating Ali for leadership. The Verse respecting perfection of the

religion and completion of the divine grace was revealed to him. That meant that his

mission had been flawlessly consummated.

It was a festivity for the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) because he

conveyed the most burdensome message so completely that the Lord’s satisfaction

was gained. It was indeed the most burdensome message in his life.

This time, process of conveyance was accomplished peacefully. The Quraishis did

not show any objection. Jabir Bin Samara was not affected by temporary deafness

when the Prophet said “my progeny” or “Ali” or “the Hashemites.”

No planned mutiny, like that which occurred in Al-Madina only four days before the

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Prophet’s decease when they rejected his demanding with a pen and a paper so that

he would record a document protecting against deviation forever, occurred. Thanks

God, no apostasy occurred. The Prophet was relieved for conveying his Lord’s

message so aptly. This is the message about which Al-Hassan Al-Basri recounts that

the Prophet was disturbed due to receiving the Lord’s orders of conveying it;

therefore, He threatened a punishment. The Prophet had to convey it since he feared

the Lord’s punishment.

As the narrator describes, Al-Hassan Al-Basri eluded providing an answer when he

was asked about contents of that message. This elusion is habitual in the narration of

the Quraishis’ slaves; such as Al-Hassan Al-Basri, the Persian and the others. They

used to swindle during reporting such affairs, and conceal what the Lord revealed

with regard to the Prophet’s progeny( peace be upon them all).

The Prophet was thinking in matters more noteworthy than that of swearing

allegiance. He was engaged in the next divine mandate and selection. Others’

opinions and counsel are thoroughly disregarded when level of the divine mandate

and selection is adopted. Declaration of fealty is also disregarded and nullified unless

the prophet or his heir demand with it. In this case, it becomes obligatory upon

everyone to respond. This is the very reasoning of conveyance.

On that account, the Prophet did not seek anybody’s counsel in the question of

declaring fealty to Ali, because God’s selection does not require anybody’s counsel,

declaration of fealty or signature.

When the Lord ordered His Apostle of seeking people’s counsel, that was aimed at

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gaining their docility and conformity. But a decision is reached, procedures should

be taken and none’s opinion should be attended since the matter concerned the

Lord’s guidance.

In like manner, when Allah; the Exalted, names the leader coming after His Prophet,

and instructs the Prophet to convey and disdain any expected hazard, and teaches

him that he should not be responsible for guidance or deviation of any, how is it then

practicable to regard anybody’s counsel, and how is it practicable to take people’s

declaration of fealty in consideration?!

As he ordered them of offering congratulations to Ali for position of leadership, the

Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) demanded with providing their

admission for the divine select. This offer of congratulations, in fact, is more

effective and binding than declaration of fealty. After that, people are free to do

anything they like since the Prophet’s mission was nothing more than conveyance.

The judge shall be the Lord Who prevails everything and controls this world and the

Hereafter. Praised and exalted be Him.

Shias’ narrations disclose that the Prophet directed them to swearing allegiance in

addition to offering congratulations. This ordains that he wanted them to declare

their commitment to comply with Ali. At any rate, they did.

Pursuant to doctrine and jurisprudence, the matter is one whether they were

demanded with swearing allegiance or offering congratulations, since the most

important concern was conveyance. It is more effective than offering

congratulations. Similarly, the latter is more effective than swearing allegiance.

Conveyance is a matter of choice. Offering congratulations is a matter of admission

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and compliment. Swearing allegiance is a matter of committing pledge.

Owing to the absence of a good number of the Quraishi chiefs in Al-Juhafa, the

Quraishis kept silence, temporarily. Factor of surprise and conditions of time and

place played a considerable role in the process. Likely, they descried that the

prophetic wording was not too adamant to block the entire courses in their faces. For

the Quraishis, the Prophet’s conveyance and consummation of the Lord’s claims

against people were ambiguous.

They also perceived that they would be able to reckon the Prophet’s orders of

offering congratulations and swearing allegiance to Ali with the other ordinary

religious festivities, and denude meaning of Ali’s imamate and the Prophet’s

progeny’s leadership. In other words, the Quraishis believed that they would have

enough time to conduct.

THE PROPHETIC WORDING ACHIEVES THE AIMS AND UNVEILS THE QURAISHIS

Sunni reference books of hadith report Abu Bakr’s remorse for issuing rulings of

attacking house of Ali and Fatima (peace be upon them) two or three days only after

the Prophet’s decease.

Majmauzzawaid; 5/202:

Abdurrahman Bin Awf: I visited Abu Bakr in his final disease… He spoke: “I am

not contrite but for three acts I wish I had not done, and three others I wish I had

done, and three others I wish I had asked the Prophet about.

The three I wish I had not done are:

I wish I had not attacked Fatima’s house even I would be engaged in a war…”

Abu Bakr; the Quraishi caliph, shows grief for attacking house of Fatima. He wishes

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he had not done so even if people of that house were preparing for combating him.

We see we should cite this story briefly:

When Abu Bakr held the leadership, he sent a messenger to Ali for carrying his

orders of swearing allegiance. Ali objected so firmly as he accused them of betraying

the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). Meanwhile, Abu Bakr was informed

that a number of Ansar and Muhajirs were holding a meeting in Fatima’s house.

Omar suggested that the house should be attacked and the group should be

threatened a burning if they insisted on abstinence from showing fealty to the new

leadership. Led by Omar Bin Al-Khattab, a crowd attacked house of Fatima (peace

be upon her). They surrounded the house and placed firewood around it. Some of the

group who were at Fatima’s house were supporting Ali’s situation, while other were

there for offering consolation on the Prophet’s decease. The whole group, however,

were threatened burning if they refuse to come out. Practically, the firewood were

kindled in the house yard. As he had to implement the Prophet’s will, Ali could not

unsheathe his sword and face those crowd. Fatima Az-Zahra went out so that they

would revere her and go back. On the contrary, she suffered insults and was beaten

by the lash of some of them so heavily that her fetus was aborted… Muslims hearts’

should be broken for the other tearfully sentimental events.

in due course, Ali and Fatima (peace be upon them) decided to seek Ansar’s support

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and demanded them with fulfilling their pledge of protecting the Prophet’s household

and progeny as same as they protect their families and souls.

Fatima was ailing due to what she had suffered on that day; therefore, Ali brought

her a pack animal. Al-Hassan, Al-Hussein, Zeinab and Ummu Kulthoum

accompanied their parents. They passed by Ansar’s celebrities in a period of two

nights. As Fatima talked to them, their reply was: “O Daughter of the Prophet! Had

we heard your words before swearing allegiance to Abu Bakr, we would never have

opted for anyone other than Ali.” Az-Zahra answered: “My father did not leave any

excuse for anyone on that day in Ghadir Khum.”*

Az-Zahra’s wording was a copy of her father’s. She is a part of him. She is too

immaculate to use the wording and reason of those ‘inclined heavily to the earth.’

She is godly in creation, thinking, feelings and manners. Correspondingly, her father

stated: “The Lord is surely satisfied whenever Fatima is satisfied, and enraged

whenever Fatima is enraged.”

*Refer to Al-Khissal; 1/173.

Unlike others, she did not enjoy two characters; divine and personal, that any may

prevail according to situations. Her existence is invariably harmonious. She is that

unique servant of the Majestic Lord, and that genuine follower of that Apostle and

darling father (peace be upon him and his family).

She does realize that God; the Exalted, deals with people by constituting claims

against them, in principals and items of Islam, in bases of the creed and chapters of

the law, in matters mandated upon people during or after the Prophet’s lifetime.

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Masterfully, her father did constitute the Lord’s claim against people in the whole

affairs. The greatest claim was the right given exclusively to her husband and her

two sons whom were nominated as guardians and leaders of this nation after her

father.

Using this conception, Az-Zahra (peace be upon her) spoke to Ansar. Explanatorily,

she said: “You have provided a political reply. Conception of the divine claim is

more elevated than that of political games. It also prevails, unveils and is preceded to

such political games. My father (peace be upon him and his family) did convey the

Lord’s messages. He directed that the Powerful Lord had settled the matter when He;

the Exalted, named the leader of His Apostle’s nation. You have never been given

any opportunity to choose for yourselves, especially when God and the Prophet

settled the question. Henceforward, you are put under the claim of my father, and

mine. Excellent appointment shall be the Resurrection Day, and excellent master

shall be Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family). There, the wrong shall be

the losers.”

According the conception of the prophetic duties and conveyance, declaration of

Ghadir was so much immortal godly act. The countering acts were so powerful

according to political conceptions. Such unproved political prevalence is inevitably

meaningless, even if it will last for years or centuries, or till the advent of the

promised Mahdi (peace be upon him).

CHAPTER FOUR

VERSE OF IKMALUDDIN

THE FINAL QURANIC VERSE

It is unexaggerated to authorize that thoughtful study of the events incited revelation

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of the Quranic texts contributes in contriving objective movement since it unveils a

good deal of facts, and repeals many postulates people adopted as facts for ages. This

is by reason that statistical aspect in events incited revelation of the Quranic texts is

more elucidative that the other aspects of exegesis of the Holy Quran. When there

are five contrary narratives; each mentions a definite event, place and date for

revelation of a Quranic text, then it will be unacceptable to receive them all as their

narrators are so trustful that prosperity is attained when any is followed! The fact in

such a situation is that only one of these five is correct, and the others should be

thrown away. This distinct feature made the events incited revelation of the Quranic

texts a decisive theme in exegesis. Nevertheless, the task of studying such a matter is

as emphatic as its importance. Furthermore, it is more emphatic and arduous because

of the confusion and contrast in the narratives.

At any rate, exegesists of the Quranic texts have to knock this door so actively and

tolerably in order that they will serve nations and coming generations with the results

of their searches that should be modish and useful in course of understanding the

Quranic and prophetic texts, in specific, and the entire concepts of the creed,

jurisprudence and the other Islamic aspects in general.

The forecited introductory should be acceptably sufficient for the coming thesis in

the events incited revelation of the Quranic texts.

It is not unfamiliar that Muslims are engaged in inconsistency regarding defining the

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earliest Quranic texts, for they were not Muslims then, and they, except few, did not

record the Prophet’s words. That was the reason beyond their discrepancies about

such prophetic words and deeds.

In due course, it is not unaccustomed to propose four Quranic texts as the earliest.

As-Suyouti, in his Al-Itqan; 1/91, mentions four texts defined as being the earlier

Quranic revelation. They are sura of Alaq, sura of Muddethir, sura of Fatiha and ‘In

the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.’

The most unfamiliar matter is their discrepancy about the latest revealed text. When

the latest Quranic text was revealed, Muslims were united nation that encompassed

their Prophet who had predicted the imminence of his final departure, and

accompanied them during their ritual pilgrimage, and they bid his farewell. All that

and they are engaged in discrepancy regarding defining the latest Quranic text.

That was because of the fact that political purposes had nothing to do with the

earliest Quranic text, while they had many things to do with the latest.

SURA OF MAIDA IS THE FINAL QURANIC CHAPTER

Reference books of hadith, jurisprudence and exegesis prove that sura of Maida was

the latest Quranic chapter, and Verse of Ikmaluddin, which was revealed after

revealing the entire precepts, was the latest Quranic text. It is also emphasized that

some of the Prophet’s companions attempted to cite other suras and Verses as the

latest.

THE PROPHET’S PROGENY’S OPINION

Al-Ayashi’s Tafsir; 1/288:

… Ali stated: Quranic texts were repealed by the newer ones. The Prophet used to

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adopt the latest. Sura of Maida repealed the other chapters since it was the latest.

The sura was revealed to the Prophet while he was riding that brown-red mule.

The revelation was so ponderous that the pack animal had to stop, and its

abdomen was about to touch the ground. The Prophet was fainted that he placed

his hand on Sheiba Bin Wahab Al-Jamhi’s braid. After a while, he raised his head

and recited sura of Maida. He carried out, and we did, too.

Ali (peace be upon him) intends to assert that passing the hand over the feet during

performing the ritual ablution is the obligatory form, and that washing them totally is

invalid, since the earlier form was revealed in the latest sura, without any repeal, and

practiced by the Prophet and Muslims.*

Al-Kafi; 1/289:

… Abu Jafar (peace be upon him): Allah; the Powerful the Elevated, imposed

loyalty to Ali as He revealed: (Only Allah is your guardian and His Apostle and

those who believe, those how keep prayers and pay the poor rate while they bow.)

People were not aware of loyalty to the Guardians’ leadership. Hence, the Prophet

(peace be upon him and his family) was commanded of explicating that loyalty in

the same way he had explicated the obligatory rites of prayer, poor rate, fasting

and pilgrimage. As he anticipated that people would apostatize or belie him if he

would nominate the Guardians, the Prophet sought the Lord’s more instructions.

The Lord revealed: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your

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Lord, and if you do it not, then you have not revealed His message. And God will

protect you from the people.)

immediately, he carried out the Lord’s mandate when he called people to gather,

and conveyed the divinely imposed leadership of Ali, and instructed the

attendants to carry the mandate to the absent. That was in Ghadir Khum.

*The same is recorded in Nouru Thaqalein; 1.582, and 5/447.

…Precepts were revealed consecutively. Precept of loyalty to the Guardians was

the sealing; therefore, closely after the Prophet’s declaration of Ghadir, God

revealed: (This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My

favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion.) By this Verse, the Lord

meant that He should not reveal any more precept, since He had perfected them.

Al-Yaqubi’s Tarikh; 2/43:

… It is also stated that Verse of Ikmaluddin was the final. This is the most

accurate and authentic saying.

SUNNI NARRATIVES CONCORDANT TO THE PROPHET’S PROGENY’S OPINION

Ad-Durrul Manthour; 2/252:

… Abu Meysara: The final revealed sura was Maida. Seventeen precepts were

revealed in that sura.

Al-Muhella; 9/407:

Aisha: “Sura of Maida was the last. You should deem lawful whatever you find

sanctioned in it, and you should deem unlawful whatever you find prohibited.”

On that account, the Verse is in sura of Maida. Whence it is invalid to reckon it

with the repealed. It is decisive, then.

Al-Muhella; 7/389:

… Aisha: “Sura of Maida is the last. You should deem unlawful whatever you

find prohibited in this sura.”*

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Majmauzzawaid; 1/256:

Sa’d mentioned legitimacy of passing the hand over the sandals during the ritual

ablution… Abdullah Bin Abbas addressed at Sa’d: “None can deny that the

Prophet did pass his hands over them. But it is unproved that he kept this deed

after revelation of sura of Maida. This sura decided everything. It was the final…”

Hence, non could replied.

Al-Heithami comments that the same report is registered in At-Tabarani’s Al-

Mujamul Awset, and a part of it is recorded in Ibn Madga’s. He also cites Ibn

*This very report is recorded in the following reference books of hadith:

Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 6/188.

Al-Beihaqi’s As-Sunan; 7/172. (Two reports; one is narrated by Ibn Nufeir and the

other by Abdullah Bin Amr.)

Tabaqatul Hanabila; 1/427.

Al-Hakim’s Al-Mustedrak; 2/311. (He comments: Although the two sheiks -Muslim

and Al-Bukhari- did not register, this report is decided as authentic according to their

criteria. The same commentary is recorded after the report of Abdullah Bin Amr in

this regard.)

Later on, the reader will understand that the two Sheiks -Muslim and Al-Bukahridid

not record the reports for paying deference to Omar who cited other suras as the

final Quranic chapters.

Hebban’S opinion in Ubeid Bin Ubeida At-Temmar; one of the reporters. Ibn

Hebban decided the man as trustful but reports strange narratives.

Al-Heithami aims at regarding dubiety of the report since that trustful narrator, who

reports strange narrators, is one of the series. The strange reports carried by that

narrator stand for the prophetic texts opposing the ruling authorities’ regulations and

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laws that decided the obligation of washing the feet during the ritual ablution, and

named other suras as the final.

Ad-Durrul Manthour; 2/252:

…The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated: Sura of Maida is one of the last

revealed Quranic texts. You should regard what was revealed in it respecting

questions of the licit and the illicit.

This narration was unique in adding ‘one of’ to the prophetic saying. This additional

word seems doubtful since it is perceived that it is added for reconciling actuality

and regulations adopted by the ruling authorities.

Tafsirul Bayan; 3/413:

Abdullah Bin Omar: Sura of Maida was the final.

Al-Ghadir; 1/228:

Ibn Kutheir, Ahmed, Al-Hakim and An-Nisai record Aisha’s saying: “Sura of

Maida was the final.”

It is conclusive that the Prophet’s progeny attest that Sura of Maida was the final.

This fact is supported by numerous authentic narratives entered in the reference

books depended by the Sunnis; our brothers. Moreover, it is not unacceptable to

maintain that Verse of Ikmaluddin stands idiosyncratically as an evidence on our

claim. This Verse implies that the entire precepts have been consummated, and no

more would be revealed. In addition, like the forecited report ascribed to imam Al-

Baqir, there are many texts providing for this meaning. The coming narratives of At-

Tabari, Al-Beihaqi and As-Seddi support so.

Subject to the previous, any saying claiming revelation of any precept after the Verse

should be refuted. Similarly, every Quranic text claimed to be revealed after it should

be bare of precepts and rulings.

THE CONTRADICTORY OPINIONS

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This clear-cut identified matter became so ambiguous that many narratives discussed

it so contradictorily and oppositely. It became worse when such contradictory

narratives were decided as authentic since they were opinions of the grand Sahaba -

the Prophet’s companions- that none can criticize.

Due to his embarrassment, As-Suyouti has to abbreviate the copious opinions

respecting the final vevelation. Unlike the four opinions regarding the earliest

revealed text, As-Suyouti, in Al-Itqan; 1/101, can not even list those respecting the

final. Hence, we are to list them so that the reader will notice the origination of such

opinions.

1. The final is Verse of Riba -usury-; sura of Baqara, Verse 278.

2. The final is Verse of Kelala; sura of Nisa; Verse 176.

3. The final is Verse 281 of sura of Baqara.

4. The final is Verse 128 of sura of Tawba.

5. The final is Verse 25 of sura of Anbiya.

6. The final is Verse 110 of sura of Kahf.

7. The final is Verse 93 of sura of Nisa.

8. The final is sura of Tawba.

9. The final is sura of Nasr.

At any rate, the actual contradictory opinions regarding identifying the final revealed

text, amount twice as much this number.

ORIGINATION OF THIS CONTRADICTORY OPINIONS

The following story may focus light on the origination of such a contradiction and

confusion:

As he could not cite the exegesis of Verse of usury, Omar excused that the Verse was

the final, and the Prophet was deceased before he had explained.

Since then, this Verse found itself a place in the opinions regarding the final Quranic

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text, and vied with sura of Maida.

In any event, usury is discussed in four Quranic Verses some of which were revealed

in Mecca. Which one was intended to be the final?

As usual, the justifiers of Omar contributed in absolving the problem. They

introduced the Verse 278 of sura of Baqara as the very one intended by the caliph.

For this cause, they believed that the final Quranic Verse was arranged in sura of

Baqara which was revealed in the earliest stage of the Prophet’s immigration. They

also instructed that prohibition of usury was an additional legislation, since it was

revealed after Verse of Ikmaluddin.

Seemingly, they conceive that such an irony is acceptable, since it restrictively aims

at defending the caliph!

Ahmed’s Al-Musnad; 1/36:

…Omar (God be pleased to him) said: “Verse of usury was the final. The Prophet

was deceased before he had explained it. Therefore, you should leave usury and

suspect.”

The same is recorded in Kenzul Ummal; 4/186.

As-Serakhsi’s Al-Mabsut; 2/51 and 12/114:

Omar (God be pleased to him) said: “Verse of usury was the final. The Prophet

was deceased before he had elucidated it.”

As-Suyouti’s Al-Itqan; 1/101:

Ibn Abbas: “Verse of usury was the final.”

Al-Beihaqi relates that Omar said the same statement.

Ahmed and Ibn Madga record that Omar said that Verse of usury was one of the

final revealed texts.

Like that of sura of Maida, this (one of) cannot settle the problem, since the other

narratives identify Verse of usury as the final.

Another story: One day -many days in fact-, Omar; the caliph, could not perceive

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the meaning of Kelala. He was perplexed because he could not understand it till

death!! Consequently, he had to stated that the Verse was the final, and the Prophet

was deceased before he had explained it, or he explained it insufficiently.

Al-Bukhari’s Sahih; 5/115:

Al-Bera Bin Azib: “Sura of Tawba was the final. The final Verse in sura of Nisa

was the final revealed Verse.”

Al-Bukhari records similar narrative on page 185 of part 5.

As-Suyouti’s Al-Itqan; 1/101:

Al-Bera Bin Azib: “The final Verse in sura of Nisa was the final revealed Verse.

The final revealed sura was that of Tawba.”

Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 4/298:

Al-Bera: “Sura of Tawba was the final. The final Verse in sura of Nisa was the

final revealed Verse.”

Since then, Verse of Kelala pushed its way in the opinions regarding the final

Quranic text, and vied with sura of Maida. The final Quranic text became either

Verses of usury and Kelala or sura of Maida that comprises Verse of Isma and

Ikmaluddin.

During observing the Sunni reference books of hadith concerning the question of

usury and Kelala, I was shocked by Omar’s problem with these two matters

generally and the latter specifically. The caliph reckoned it with the most remarkable

questions of the Islamic nation. He used to provide it from the Prophet’s pulpit. He

kept on providing it as a grand problem till his final hours when he willed Muslims

to find it a solution. This inexplicable matter unveils Omar’s deep feeling of

embarrassment before Muslims, because he could not perceive the question.

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Al-Bukhari’s Sahih; 6/242:

Ibn Omar: From the Prophet’s pulpit, Omar orated:

“Prohibition of intoxicants was revealed. Sources of intoxicants are resrictedly

five materials; grapes, dates, wheat, barley and honey. Intoxicants are only what

stuns the mind. Three questions if only had the Prophet (peace be upon him)

established a rule to which we would refer in understanding them. They are -the

inherited shares of - the forefather, the Kelala and molds of usury.”

The same is recorded in Muslim’s Sahih; 2/81 more detailedly. Like narratives are

recorded in the same book; 5/61 and 8/245. Ibn Madga also records it in As-Sunan;

2/910. As-Suyouti, in Ad-Durrul Manthour; 2/2249, avers that Abdurrezaq, Al-

Bukhari, Muslim, Ibn Jarir and Ibnul-Munthir relate the narrative to Omar.

This authentic narrative proves that Omar did not seek the Prophet’s explanation of

the Kelala. This meaning is obviously asserted by the following narrative recorded in

Al-Hakim’s Al-Mustedrak; 2/303:

… Omar stated: “I would prefer my seeking the Prophet’s naming his successor,

and judging of those who admit the poor rate but refrain from defraying it, and

explaining the Kelala, to having the best kind of camels.”

Unlike the previous, Muslim reports that Omar did seek the Prophet’s explaining the

Kelala.

Muslim’s Sahih; 5/61:

Madan Bin Abi Talha: One Friday, Omar Bin Al-Khattab addressed an oration, in

which he praised the Prophet and Abu Bakr, and said:

I shall leave nothing more significant than Kelala. I have never consulted the

Prophet (peace be upon him) in a matter more importunately than this. He was

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never been cruel to me for any matter like that of Kelala. It reached the degree

that he fixed his finger in my chest and said: “O Omar! Is Verse of Summer -the

final of sura of Nisa- not sufficing you?”

I should enucleate it so evidently that every one, whether a reciter of the Quran or

not, will take in, provided that I shall be alive.

This indicates that Omar did ask the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) an

explanation so repeatedly that the Prophet was enraged for Omar’s lack of cognition.

Furthermore, the coming authentic narratives point that the Prophet did foretell of

Omar’s lack of cognition, or did supplicate the Lord for disabling Omar to

understand it.

Ad-Durrul Manthour; 2/250:

Hutheifeh: During a journey, Verse of Kelala was revealed to the Prophet. He

stopped and recited it to me that I memorized. I recited it to Omar.

In his caliphate, Omar summoned me to explain Kelala. “I tutored you exactly as

the same as the Prophet (peace be upon him) had tutored me. I am not to add

anything to that explanation,” I said.

Kenzul Ummal; 11/80:

30688 ~ Sa’eed Bin Al-Museyyeb: Omar asked the Prophet (peace be upon him)

how those who have neither parents nor offspring would be inherited. The Prophet

denoted to the Verse: (And if a man or a woman leaves property to be inherited..)

As if he could not grasp the meaning, Omar requested his daughter to ask the

Prophet, as soon as she notices his being comfortable, about the question. “Was it

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your father who incited you asking this question? I see he shall not conceive it at

all,” stated the Prophet.

Omar used to point to this prophetic statement and admit that he should not

understand it at all.

As-Suyouti, in Ad-Durrul Manthour; 2/249, avers that the Prophet wrote down the

explanation of Verse of Kelala on a paper:

Tawus: Omar requested Hafsa to ask the Prophet (peace be upon him) about

question of Kelala. Having recorded it on a parchment, the Prophet said to her:

“Who asked you so? Is it Omar? I see he shall not understand it. Is he not sufficed

by Verse of Summer?”

Ostensibly, these authentic reports are so contradictory. Al-Bukhari discerns that

Kelala was one of three questions the Prophet had neither explicated nor had Omar

asked him about. Meanwhile, their authentic narratives contend that the Prophet did

write the explanation of the question on a parchment.

This is a charge of the Prophet’s showing blemish in explicating the Quran the

interpretation of which is a divine mandate addressed at him. This charge has been

proved as inaccurate by the claimants themselves. We have previously discussed the

Sunnis’ accusing Shias of claiming the Prophet’s concealing the explication of some

Quranic Verses.

The second question is the Prophet’s succession. Al-Bukhari himself records that

Omar rejected importunately the Prophet’s demand with a pen and a paper so that he

would record a document protecting the Muslims against deviation forever. That was

during the Prophet’s final disease.

The third question is Al-Bukhari’s claiming the Prophet’s showing blemish in

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explicating some parts of usury. The Prophet did explicate this question and Omar

might have recorded in on a parchment or the like.

INDICATION OF THE TWO STORIES

The previous stories indicate that reference books of the Sunnis; our brothers, are too

contradictory to be accepted totally. It is essential to admit only some of them. It is

utterly inadmissible to conceive that Omar did not seek the Prophet’s explication of

the Verse just because it was the final, or that he did seek so repeatedly that the

Prophet fixed his finger in his chest, and pushed away, and was enraged… etc. It is

also impracticable to perceive that Verses of Kelala or usury were the final. In fact,

Sunni reference books of hadith are filled in with such contradictory matters.

In due course, the stories imply that Omar had prevalence on Sunnis to the degree

that he could turn his unreasonable claims into undiscussible facts!

For Sunnis, the most important matter is adapting exegesis of the holy Quran and

events incited revelation to Omar’s statements, even though such statements are

contradictory, or even this may lead to accusing the Prophet of showing blemish in

the mission of conveyance, or this may invent an incompatible confusion in God’s

religion or deeds.

Those who reject such matters should be, in Sunni’s logic, decided as Rafidites who

are foes of Islam, the Prophet and the companions!

Correspondingly, the stories, according to Omar’s opinion, denote that Verses of

usury and Kelala, and perhaps many other subjects, were revealed after Verse of

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Ikmaluddin. This means that Allah; the Elevated, informed the Muslims of perfection

of the religion while there were still many questions to be revealed later on. This is

unacceptable.

The respectful should never accept to accuse the Lord and His Apostle for nothing

more than acquitting an ordinary man.

OTHER OPINIONS

We are to mention the other opinions regarding the final revealed Quranic text in

brief.

Al-Bukhari’s Sahih; 5/182:

Sa’eed Bin Jubeir: … Ibn Abbas stated: “God’s saying: (And whoever kills a

believer intentionally…,) was not repealed by any other Quranic text since it was

the final.”

Al-Bukhari’s Sahih; 6/15, and Ad-Durrul Manthour; 2/196:

Sa’eed Bin Jubeir: People of Kufa were engaged in discrepancy respecting the

Verse discussed murderers of the believers. I asked Ibn Abbas about it. “This

Verse was not repealed by any other Quranic text since it was the final,” asserted

Ibn Abbas.

An-Nawawi’s Al-Majmu;18/345:

In Al-Bukhari’s Sahih, it is recorded that the Verse: (And whoever kills a believer

intentionally…,) was not repealed by any other Quranic text since it was the final.

The same is recorded in Muslim’s Sahih and An-Nisai’s As-Sunan. It is also

recorded in Abu Dawud’s As-Sunan.

It is inappropriate for Muslims to accept such (authentic) narratives recorded by Al-

Bukhari and others, and related to Ibn Abbas and others, and it is unsuitable to admit

that prohibition of killing believers was an additional legislation since it was

revealed after Verse of Ikmaluddin.

Al-Hakim’s Al-Mustedrak; 2/338:

Ubey Bin Ka’b: God’s saying: (Certainly an Apostle has come to you…) was the

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last revealed Quranic text.

This (authentic) narrative indicates that the last two Verses of sura of Tawba were

the final.

Ad-Durrul Manthour; 3/295:

…Ubey Bin Ka’b: God’s saying: (Certainly an Apostle has come to you…) was

the last revealed Quranic text.

…Ubey Bin Ka’b: The nearest Verses to God are His saying: (Certainly an

Apostle has come to you…)

…Ubey Bin Ka’b: The Prophet recited the Verses: (Certainly an Apostle has

come to you…) These were the final.

…Ubey Bin Ka’b stated that he had received these two Verses from the Prophet.

Othman attested. Ubey suggested to place them at the end of the last revealed

sura. Sura of Tawba was the last revealed sura.*

Similar narratives are recorded in Abu Dawud’s As-Sunan; 1/182.

Muslim’s Sahih; 8/243:

Ibn Abbas: Do you know what was the last revealed sura?

Ubeidullah: Yes, I know. It is sura of Nasr.

Ibn Abbas: Yes, that is it.

At-Tirmithi’s As-Sunan; 4/326:

Ibn Abbas: Sura of Nasr was the final.

Al-Ghadir; 1/228:

Abdullah Bin Omar: Suras of Maida and Fath (Nasr) were the final.

This narration is recorded in Ibn Kutheir’s Tafsir; 2/2.

Ad-Durrul Manthour; 6/407:

Abu Hureira: God’s saying: (When there comes the help of Allah and the

victory…,) was the Lord’s knowledge and appointment given to the Apostle. It

indicated that the Prophet would not spend a long age after conquest of Mecca.

Ibn Abbas: Sura of Nasr was the final.

At-Tabarani’s Al-Mujamul Kabir; 12/19:

Ibn Abbas: The final revealed Verse was God’s saying: (And guard yourselves

against a day in which you shall be returned to Allah…)

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*These narratives are discussed thoroughly in our Tadwinul Qur’an.

At length, let us refer to the last claim regarding identifying the final revealed Verse.

Muawiya Bin Abi Sufian found himself suitable enough to provide his opinion in

this regard. On the pulpit, he denied that Verse of Ikmaluddin had been the final. He

issued that the last verse of sura of Kahf was the final. He added that it was revealed

as a discipline directed to the Prophet.

At-Tabarani’s Al-Mujamul Kabir; 19/392:

Amr Bin Qeis: Muawiya was on the pulpit when he recited God’s saying: (This

day have I perfected for you your religion…) He commented that the Verse was

revealed on day of Arafa, which was Friday. Afterwards, he recited the last Verse

of sura of Kahf and commented that it was the final revealed Quranic text. He

added that it was revealed as a discipline directed to the Prophet.

As he noticed the excessive contradiction intentionally stated for moving Verse of

Ikmaluddin away from sealing of the Quran and the Farewell Pilgrimage and Ghadir

Khum, As-Suyouti decided the sayings of Omar and Muawiya as problematic.

Without avoiding the custom of covering up contradiction of their dearest ones, As-

Suyouti passed by the matter so quickly in order that none would wonder.

As-Suyouti’s Al-Itqan; 1/102:

Despite the fact that many narratives asserted the revelation of Verses of usury,

debt and Kelala after that of Ikmaluddin, many scholars, such as As-Seddi, proved

that no licit or illicit matters were revealed after Verse of Ikmaluddin which was

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revealed on day of Arafa during the Farewell Pilgrimage. Therefore, it is

problematic to regard such claims.

Ibn Jarir says: It is preferable to state that Verse of Ikmaluddin dedicated rites of

the pilgrimage and banishment of the non Muslims to perfection of the religion.

Ibn Jarir, whose words might be admitted by As-Suyouti, wants to say that the only

solution for the Prophet’s companions’ contradictory opinions respecting the final

revealed Verse should be restricting perfection of the religion and completion of the

divine grace to the liberation of Mecca, in order that Omar’s sayings about Verses of

Kelala and usury, and Muawiya’s sayings about the final disciplinary Verse would

be saved.

Such sorts of verdicts are repeatedly issued for the sake of admitting the Prophet’s

companions’ words even if this would lead to disregarding the denotations of the

Lord’s Verses and the Prophet’s words. Conditionally, the Prophet’s household are

excluded.

In due course, the Prophet’s companions are granted the degree of sinlessness, and

the veto against the words of God and His Apostle. In other words, the Prophet’s

companions’ words are the final judgment with the existence of rulings of God and

His Apostle.

After all, the followers are imposed to admit such judgment, and close the eyes

before the facts, and keep the ears off limits so that screams of evident and authentic

divine and prophetic words shall not be heard.

The result of such a course is that they concluded that Verse of Ikmaluddin was not

the final, nor was sura of Maida the seal of the Quran. The Verse does not mean

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perfection of the religious rulings. It means perfection of conquest of Mecca. This

means that (This day) mentioned in the Verse stands for two years ago.

Later on, the reader will receive that Omar asserted that (This day) refers to the day

on which the Verse was revealed. Moreover, Al-Qurtubi recognizes that it refers to

the very hour in which the Verse was revealed.

VERSE OF IKMALUDDIN

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

O you who believe! Do not violate the signs appointed by Allah nor the sacred

month, nor interfere with the offerings, nor the sacrificial animals with

garlands, nor those going to the sacred house seeking the grace and pleasure of

their Lord; and that you are free from the obligations of the pilgrimage, then

hunt, and let not hatred of a people because they hindered you from the Sacred

Masjid incite you to exceed the limits, and help one another in goodness and

piety, and do not help one another in sin and aggression; and be careful of your

duty to Allah; surely Allah is severe in requiting evil.

Forbidden to you is that which dies of itself, and blood, and flesh of swine, and

that on which any other name than that of Allah has been invoked, and the

strangled animal and that beaten to death, and that killed by a fall and that

killed by being smitten with the horn, and that which wild beasts have eaten,

except what you slaughter, and what is sacrificed on stones set up for idols and

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that you divide by the arrows; that is a transgression. This day have those who

disbelieve despair of your religion, so fear them not, and fear Me. This day have

I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for

you Islam as a religion; but whoever is compelled by hunger, not inclining

willfully to sin, then surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

VERSE OF IKMALUDDIN AND THE FORBIDDEN MEAT

In the first place comes the unusual situation of the Verse. Hadithists and exegesists

record that it was revealed during the Farewell Pilgrimage as an independent Verse,

while the reader notice its being a part of a Verse concerning the forbidden meat. It

seems the Verse was unsuitably interpolated in this place that if it is removed,

meaning of the whole Verse would be full and uninterrupted.

What is the purpose beyond such a text?

Was this situation the original place of the Verse, or was it some of the Prophet’s

companions who intended to place it here?

In any form, we do renounce any statement claiming occurrence of any distortion in

the Lord’s Book. We only put this question hoping that some will provide an answer

for the relationship between perfection of the religion and the forbidden meat.

It is likely that the position of the Verse was in the end of sura of Maida, but

compilers of the Quranic Verses could not show deference to this matter; therefore,

they fixed it in this position.

Furthermore, it is rather acceptable to settle the Verse after those concerning the

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forbidden meat, but it is definitely unsatisfactory to accept that the Wisest Lord

might reveal this sealing Verse in the middle of others concerning the forbidden

meat. the Lord says that the religion has been perfected to people, how is it

acceptable to follow this statement with numerous canons and rulings?

Ad-Durrul Manthour; 2/259:

As-Seddi: God’s saying: (This day have I perfected for you your religion…,) was

revealed on day of Arafa. No licit or illicit matter was revealed afterwards.

Ad-Durrul Manthour; 2/257:

Ibn Abbas: …The Prophet stopped at Mountain Arafat when God revealed: (This

day have I perfected for you your religion…) No licit or illicit matter was

revealed afterwards.

So copious are sayings and reports supporting the fact that no rulings or regulations

were revealed after Verse of Ikmaluddin. Besides, this meanings is understood from

the Verse itself. Lexicologists go through this meaning when they discuss the

purports of perfection and completion.

MEANINGS OF PERFECTION AND COMPLETION THROUGH THE QURAN AND NAHJUL BALAGHA

There are three opinions pertaining to meanings and events incited the revelation of

the Verse.

First: The Prophet’s progeny’s opinion:

The Prophet’s progeny consign Thursday, the eighteenth of Dhu’l-Hijja as the date

of the revelation. That was in Al-Juhafa while the Prophet was in his way back from

the Farewell Pilgrimage. The Lord revealed the mandate of causing the Muslims to

halt in Ghadir Khum, just before the cross road, and conveying the obligatory fealty

to Ali’s leadership after him. The Prophet did.

The following are models of the Prophet’s progeny’s reports:

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Al-Kuleini’s Al-Kafi; 1/289:

…Abu Jafar spoke: “The precepts were revealed consecutively. The mandate of

fealty to Ali’s leadership was revealed. Hence, God revealed: (This day have I

perfected for you your religion…)”

…A man asked Imam Al-Baqir whether the Prophet’s nominating Ali was a

personal act or according to a divine mandate. “Woe is you!” Imam Al-Baqir said

angrily, “The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) was too reverent to say

what God did not order of. Like precepts of prayer, poor rate, fasting and

pilgrimage, Ali’s nomination for leadership was a precept of Allah.

Al-Kuleini’s Al-Kafi; 1/198:

…Imam Ar-Rida stated: “People ignore the fact, and their notions are deceptive.

The Lord had completed the religion before he took His Apostle (peace be upon

him and his family) to Him. The Lord revealed the Quran that comprised the

elucidation of everything; the licit, the illicit, the doctrinal provisions, the rulings

and whatever people need. This is God’s saying: (We have not neglected anything

in the Book.) During the Farewell Pilgrimage, which was in the final days of the

Prophet’s lifetime, God revealed: (This day have I perfected for you your religion

and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion.)

The affair of imamate is a part of completion of the religion. The Prophet had

proclaimed the signs of the religion before he left people. He showed them the

straight way and left them on the path of right. Finally, he nominated Ali as their

leader and imam. The Prophet had not left any needed matter without explication.

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He is refuting Allah’s book that whoever claims that the Lord had not perfected

His religion. Accordingly, he is an atheist that whoever refutes Allah’s book.

How dare they opt for their own opinions while they do not recognize the

substance of imamate and its role in the nation?

Imamate is too noble, eminent, elevated, fortified and deep to be attained by

people’s minds or notions. People are too short to select their imams.

Allah; the Powerful the Elevated, gave imamate exclusively to Abraham the

confidant (peace be upon him), as a third competency and honorable virtue added

to prophesy and confidence. The Lord praised this competency as He said: (He

said: Surely I will make you an imam of men. Abraham said: And of my

offspring? My covenant does not include the unjust, said He.)

Abraham the confidant was delighted for this competency, and asked it for his

offspring. This Verse invalidates imamate of every unjust till the Resurrection

Day. It was given to the choice exclusively. Abraham was newly dignified by the

Lord Who granted his choice and immaculate offspring this imamate. He said:

(And We gave him Isaaq and Jacob, a son’s son, and We made them all good.

And We made them imams who guided people by Our command, and We

revealed to them the doing of good and the keeping up of prayer and the giving of

the alms, and Us alone did they serve.)

This imamate has been kept in Abraham’s offspring successively. The Lord gave

it to the Prophet in heritage. He said: (Most surely the nearest of people to

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Abraham are those who followed him and this Prophet and those who believe, and

Allah is the guardian of the believers.)

Imamate were peculiarly enjoyed by the Prophet who gave it to Ali (peace be

upon him) according to the mandate of Allah; the Exalted, in a form designated by

Him. It moved to Ali’s choice offspring whom were given knowledge and faith by

Allah. This is God’s saying: (And those who are given knowledge and faith will

say: Certainly you tarried according to the ordinance of Allah till the day of

resurrection.)

This imamate will be kept in Ali’s progeny exclusively till the Resurrection Day,

since there shall be no prophet after Mohammed (peace be upon him and his

family).

Then, how is it possible for those ignorant to select?”

Second: Sunnis’ Opinion concordant to the Prophet’s progeny’s:

Sunnis relate tens of narratives regarding the declaration of fealty in Ghadir. Some of

these are first class reports, according to their criteria. At-Tabari compiled the texts

and ways of narrating that declaration of fealty in a two-volumed book. This book

was titled ‘Al-Wilayai’. Ibn Asakir and many others recorded like reports. These

reports entirely refer to the Prophet’s raising Ali’s hand as elevated as possible, and

conveying the Lord’s mandate of declaring fealty to his next leadership and imamate.

A number of the fanatic Sunnis criticized At-Tabari, whom is highly honored, for

that work, since they anticipated that Shias would constitute it as an evidence, and

would refer to it during argument.

A great deal of these narratives assert that Verse of Ikmaluddin was revealed on that

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day in Ghadir just after the Prophet’s conveying the Lord’s mandate of declaring

fealty to the coming leadership of Ali (peace be upon him).

Unfortunately, most of Sunni scholars who admit reports of Ghadir, reject that Verse

of Ikmaluddin was revealed on that occasion. Instead, they admit sayings of Omar

and Muawiya who claimed its revelation on day of Arafa.

A good number of Shiite former and recent scholars compile the narratives

respecting the Ghadir declaration of fealty. The following compilers and books are

among the most famed recent ones:

An-Naqawi Al-Hindi in Abaqatul Anwar.

Sheik Al-Amini in Al-Ghadir.

Sayyid Al-Marashi in Sharhu Ihqaqil Haq.

Sayyid Al-Milani in Nafahatul Azhar.

A good deal of narratives recorded in the Sunni reference books of hadith; all

attested that Verse of Ikmaluddin was revealed on that day in Ghadir after the

Prophet’s nominating Ali as the coming leader and imam, are compiled in Al-

Amini’s Al-Ghadir.

The following is a brief quotation from Al-Ghadir; 1/230:

God’s saying: (This day have I perfected…,) was one of the Verses revealed for

Amirul Muminin (peace be upon him) on that day in Ghadir.