Letters of Nahj Albalaqa

ID Book

Letters of Nahj Albalaqa of Imam Ali b. Abitalib

Author: Syed Razzi

English Translator: Moulana Mufti Jafar Husain

Persian Translator: Muhamad Dashti

Published by ( the Arabic text with English translation): Ansariyan Publications / Qum

subject: nahj al balagha; imam ali; hadith

this book contains these titles:


In English

Addressed to the people of Kufah at the time of his march from Medina to Basrah. (1)

From the servant of Allah `Ali the Commander of the faithful to the people of Kufah who are foremost among the supporters and chiefs of the Arabs.

Now I am apprising you of what befell `Uthman so (correct ly) that its hearing may be like its seeing. People criticised him and I was the only man from among the muhdjirun (immigrants) who asked him to seek to satisfy (the Muslims) most and to offend them the least. As for Talhah and az-Zubayr their lightest step about him was hard and their softest voice was strong. `A'ishah too was in a rage with him. Consequently a group overpowered him and killed him. Then people swore allegiance to me not by force or compulsion but obediently and out of free will.

You should know that Medina has been vacated by its residents and they have abandoned it. It is boiling like a huge cooking pot and rebellion is fixed on its axis moving with full force. So hasten towards your amir (commander) and proceed forward to fight your enemy if so wills Allah to Whom belongs Might and Majesty.

p: 1

In Arabic

من كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى أهل الكوفة، عند مسيره من المدينة إلى البصرة

مِنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ عَلِيٍّ أَمِيرِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ إلَى أَهْلِ الْكُوفَةِ، جَبْهَةِ (1) الْأَنْصَارِ وَسَنَامِ (2) الْعَرَبِ. أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنِّي أُخْبِرُكُمْ عَنْ أَمْرِ عُثْمانَ حَتَّى يَكُونَ سَمْعُهُ كَعِيَانِهِ (3) : إِنَّ النَّاسَ طَعَنُوا عَلَيْهِ، فَكُنْتُ رَجُلاً مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ أُكْثِرُ اسْتِعْتَابَه (4) ، وَأُقِلُّ عِتَابَهُ، وَكَانَ طَلْحَةُ وَالزُّبَيْرُ أَهْوَنُ سَيْرِهِمَا فِيهِ الْوَجيِفُ (5) ، وَأَرْفَقُ حِدَائِهِمَا (6) الْعَنِيفُ، وَكَانَ مِنْ عَائِشَةَ فِيهِ فَلْتَةُ غَضَبٍ، فَأُتِيحَ لَهُ قَوْمٌ فَقَتَلُوهُ، وَبَايَعَنِي النَّاسُ غَيْرَ مُسْتَكْرَهِينَ وَلاَ مُجْبَرِينَ، بَلْ طَائِعِينَ مُخَيَّرِينَ. وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ دَارَ الْهِجْرَةِ (7) قَدْ قَلَعَتْ بِأَهْلِهَا وَقَلَعُوا بِهَا (8) ، وَجَاشَتْ جَيْشَ (9) الْمِرْجَلِ (10) ، وَقَامَتِ الْفِتْنَةُ عَلَى الْقُطْبِ، فَأَسْرِعُوا إِلَى أَمِيرِكُمْ، وَبَادِرُوا جَهَادَ عَدُوِّكُمْ، إِنْ شَاءَ اللهُ عَزِّوَجَلَّ.

In Persian

به مردم كوفه

افشاي سران ناكثين از بنده خدا، علي امير مومنان، به مردم كوفه، كه در ميان انصار پايه اي ارزشمند، و در عرب مقامي والا دارند. پس از ستايش پروردگار! همانا شما را از كار عثمان چنان آگاهي دهم كه شنيدن آن چونان ديدن باشد، مردم برعثمان عيب گرفتند، و من تنها كسي از مهاجران بودم كه او را براي جلب رضايت مردم واداشته، و كمتر به سرزنش او زبان گشودم، اما طلحه و زبير، آسان ترين كارشان آن بود كه بر او بتازند، و او را برنجانند، و ناتوانش سازند، عايشه نيز ناگهان بر او خشم گرفت، عده اي به تنگ آمده او را كشتند، آنگاه مردم بدون اكراه و اجبار، بلكه به اطاعت و اختيار، با من بيعت كردند. آگاه باشيد! مدينه مردم را يكپارچه بيرون رانده، و مردم نيز او را براي سركوبي آشوب فاصله گرفتند، ديگ آشوب به جوش آمده، و فتنه ها بر پايه هاي خود ايستاد، پس به سوي فرمانده خود بشتابيد، و در جهاد با دشمن بر يكديگر پيشي گيريد، به خواست خداي عزيز و بزرگ

p: 2


(1). Ibn Maythman writes (in Sharh Nahj al-balaghah vol.4 p.338) that when on hearing about the mischief-mongering of Talhah and az-Zubayr Amir al-mu'minin set off for Basrah he sent this letter to the people of Kufah through Imam al-Hasan and `Ammir ibn Yasir from al-Ma' al-`Adhb while Ibn Abi'l-Hadid has written (in Sharh Nahj al-balaghah vol.14 pp.8 16; at-Tabari vol.1 p.3139; and Ibn al-Athir vol.3 p.223) that when Amir al-mu `minin camped at ar-Rabadhah he sent this letter through Muhammad ibn Ja'far ibn Abi Tilib and Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr. In this letter Amir al-mu 'minin has clearly thrown light on the point that the assassination of `Uthman was the result of the efforts of `A'ishah Talhah and az-Zubayr and that it was they who took a prominent part in it. In fact `A'ishah went beyond her bounds and exposed his shortcomings in public meetings and ordered that he should be killed. Thus ash-Shaykh Muhammad `Abdub has written:

Once `Uthman was on the pulpit when Umm al-mu `minin `A'ishah took out the shoes and the shirt of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and his descendants) from under her veil and said: "These are the shoes of the Messenger of Allah and his shirt not yet decayed while you have altered his religion and changed his sunnah." Upon this hot words followed between them when she said "Kill this Na'thal " symbolising him as a long bearded Jew (of that name). (Nahj al-bala- ghah printed in Egypt vol.2 p.3; also see Ansab al-ashraf vol.5 p.88; Abu'l-Fida' vol.1 p.172).

p: 3

People were already displeased with `Uthman so this event increased their boldness and they surrounded him so that he might mend his ways or abdicate from the caliphate. In these circumstances there was serious apprehension that if he did not accept either of the two alternatives he would be killed. All this was observed by `A'ishah but she paid no heed to it and leaving him in the siege decided to leave for Mecca although on this occasion Marwan ibn al-Hakam and `Attab ibn Asid did say to her "If you postpone your departure it is possible his life may be saved and this crowd may disperse" whereupon she said that she had decided to go for hajj (pilgrimage) and that that could not be changed. Then Marwan recited this couplet by way of a proverb:

Qays set fire to my cities and when they came into flames he slipped away saving himself clear of it.

Similarly Talhah and az-Zubayr were (also) in rage against him and they were ever forward in fanning this fire and intensifying the opposition. From this angle they were to a great extent taking part in his assassination and responsible for his blood. Other people also knew them in this perspective and regarded them as his murderers while their supporters too were not able to offer any explanation (for absolving them). Thus Ibn Qutaybah writes that when al-Mughirah ibn Shu'bah met `A'ishah at Awtas he asked her:

"O' Umm al-mu'minin where are you bound for." She replied "I am going to Basrah." He inquired for what purpose and she replied "To avenge `Uthman's blood." He said "But his assassins are with you." Then he turned to Marwan and enquired where he was going. He replied that he too was going to Basrah. He enquired the purpose and the reply was "to avenge `Uthman's blood." Then he said " `Uthman's assassins are with you. These Talhah and az-Zubayr have killed him." (al-Imamah was `siyasah vol.1 p.60)

p: 4

In any case when after laying the blame on Amir al-mu'minin this group who had killed `Uthman reached Basrah Amir al-mu'minin also rose to quell this mischief and wrote this letter to the people of Kufah to seek their support. Upon this their combatants and warriors rose in large numbers and enlisted in his army. They faced the enemy with full courage which Amir al-mu'minin also acknowledged. Thus the letter hereafter is in acknowledgement of this very fact.


In English

Written to the people of Kufah after the victory of Basrah

May Allah reward you townsmen (of Kufah) on behalf of a member of your Prophet's family with the best reward that He bestows on those who act in obedience to Him and on those who thank Him for His bounties. Surely you heard (me) and obeyed and when you were called you promptly responded.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إليهم، بعد فتح البصرة

وَجَزَاكُمُ اللهُ مِنْ أَهْلِ مِصْرٍ عَنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِ نَبِيِّكُمْ أَحْسَنَ مَا يَجْزِي الْعَامِلِينَ بِطَاعَتِهِ، وَالشَّاكِرِينَ لِنِعْمَتِهِ، فَقَدْ سَمِعْتُمْ وَأَطَعْتُمْ، وَدُعِيتُمْ فَأَجَبْتُمْ.

In Persian

قدرداني از اهل كوفه

تشكر از مجاهدان از جنگ برگشته خداوند شما مردم كوفه را از سوي اهل بيت پيامبر (ص) پاداش نيكو دهد، بهترين پاداشي كه به بندگان فرمانبردار، و سپاسگزاران نعمتش عطا مي فرمايد، زيرا شما دعوت ما را شنيديد و اطاعت كرديد، به جنگ فرا خوانده شديد و بسيج گرديديد.


In English

Written for Shurayh ibn al-Harith (al-Kindi) Qadi (judge) (at Kufah).

p: 5

It is related that Shurayh ibn al-Harith (al-Kindi) who was Amir al-mu'minin's Qadi (judge) at Kufah during his tenure purchased a house for eighty Dinars. When it became known to Amir al-mu'minin he sent for him and said to him: I have come to know that you have purchased a house for eighty Dinars and

that you have written a document for it and put witnessing on it. Shurayh replied: Yes Amir al-mu'minin it is so. Amir al-mu'minin cast an angry look at him and said to him:

O' Shurayh beware shortly one body (the angel of death) will come to you who will not look at the document nor question you about your evidence hut take you out of it far away and deposit you in your grave quite alone. Look! O' Shurayh if you have purchased this house from money other than yours or paid the price from unlawful source you have incurred loss of this world as well as of the next. If you had come to me at the time

of purchase I would have written for you a document on this paper and then you would not have liked to purchase the house even for one Dirham not to speak of more. That document is this:-

This is about a purchase made by a humble slave (of Allah) from another slave ready to depart (for the next world). He has purchased a house out of houses of deceit in the area of mortals and the place of those liable to perish. This house has four boundaries as follows: The first boundary is contiguous to sources of calamities; the second boundary adjoins the sources of distress; the third boundary adjoins devastating desire; and the fourth boundary adjoins deceitful Satan and towards this opens the door of this house.

p: 6

This house has been purchased by one who has been waylaid by desires from one who is being driven by death at the price of leaving the honour of contentment and entering into the humility of want and submissiveness. If the purchaser encounters some (evil) consequences of this transaction then it is for him who dismantles the bodies of monarchs snatches the lives of despots destroys the domain of Pharaoh like Kisras (1) Caesars (2) Tubba`s (3) and Himyars (4) and all those who amass wealth upon wealth and go on increasing it build high houses and decorate them and collect treasures and preserve them as they claimed according to their own thinking for children to take them to the place of accounting and judgement and the position of reward and punishment. When the verdict will be passed those who stood on falsehood would then be the losers. (Qur'an 40: 78)

This document is witnessed by intelligence when it is free from the shackles of desires and away from the adornments of this world.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

لشريح بن الحارث قاضيه

روي أنّ شريح بن الحارث قاضي أميرالمؤمنين عليه السلام اشترى على عهده داراً بثمانين ديناراً، فبلغه ذلك، فاستدعى شريحاً، وقال له:

بَلَغَنِي أَنَّكَ ابْتَعْتَ دَاراً بِثَمانِينَ دِينَاراً، وَكَتَبْتَ لَهَا كِتَاباً، وَأَشْهَدْتَ فِيهِ شُهُوداً.

فقال له شريح: قد كان ذلك يا أميرالمؤمنين. قال: فنظر إليه نظر مغضب ثمّ قال له:

يَا شُرَيْحُ، أَمَا إِنَّهُ سَيَأْتِيكَ مَنْ لاَ يَنْظُرُ فِي كِتَابِكَ، وَلاَ يَسْأَلُكَ عَنْ بَيِّنَتِكَ، حَتَّى يُخْرِجَكَ مِنْهَا شَاخِصاً (1) ، وَيُسْلِمَكَ إلَى قَبْرِكَ خَالِصاً. فَانْظُرْ يَا شُرَيْحُ لاَ تَكُونُ ابْتَعْتَ هذِهِ الدَّارَ مِنْ غَيْرِ مَالِكَ، أَوْ نَقَدْتَ الَّثمَنَ مِنْ غَيْرِ حَلاَلِكَ! فَإِذَا أَنْتَ قدْ خَسِرْتَ دَارَ الدُّنْيَا وَدَارَ الْآخِرَةِ! أَمَا إِنَّكَ لَوْ كُنْتَ أَتَيْتَنِي عِنْدَ شِرَائِكَ مَا اشْتَرَيْتَ لَكَتَبْتُ لَكَ كِتاباً عَلَى هذِهِ النُّسْخَةِ، فَلَمْ تَرْغَبْ فِي شِرَاءِ هذِهِ الدَّارِ بِدِرْهَمٍ فَمَا فَوْقُ.

p: 7

والنسخة هذه: هذَا مَا اشْتَرَى عَبْدٌ ذَلِيلٌ، مِنْ مَيِّتٍ قَدْ أُزْعِجَ لِلرحِيلِ، اشْتَرَى مِنْهُ دَاراً مِنْ دَ ارِ الْغُرُورِ، مِنْ جَانِبِ الْفَانِينَ، وَخِطَّةِ (2) الْهَالِكِينَ، وَتَجْمَعُ هذِهِ الدَّارَ حُدُودٌ أَرْبَعَةٌ: الْحَدُّ الْأَوَّلُ يَنْتَهِي إِلَى دَوَاعِي الْآفَاتِ، وَالْحَدُّ الثَّانِي يَنْتَهِي إِلَى دَوَاعِي الْمُصِيباتِ، وَالْحَدُّ الثَّالِثُ يَنْتَهِي إلَى الْهَوَى الْمُرْدِي، وَالْحَدُّ الرَّابِعُ يَنْتَهِي إِلَى الشَّيْطَانِ الْمُغْوِي، وَفِيهِ يُشْرَعُ (3) بَابُ هذِهِ الدَّارِ. اشْتَرَى هذَا الْمُغْتَرُّ بِالْأَمَلِ، مِنْ هذَا الْمُزْعَجِ بِالْأَجَلِ، هذِهِ الدَّارَ بِالْخُرُوجِ مِنْ عِزِّ الْقَنَاعَةِ، وَالدُّخُولِ فِي ذُلِّ الطَّلَبِ وَالضَّرَاعَةِ (4) ، فَمَا أَدْرَكَ هذَا الْمُشْتَرِي فِيَما اشْتَرَى مِنْهُ مِنْ دَرَكٍ، فَعَلَى مُبَلْبِلِ أَجْسَامِ (5) الْمُلُوكِ، وسَالِبِ نُفُوسِ الْجَبَابِرَةِ، وَمُزِيلِ مُلْكِ الْفَراعِنَةِ، مِثْلِ كِسْرَى وَقَيْصَرَ، وَتُبَّعٍ وَحِمْيَرَ، وَمَنْ جَمَعَ الْمَالَ عَلَى الْمَالِ فَأَكْثَرَ، وَمَنْ بَنَى وَشَيَّدَ (6) ، وَزَخْرَفَ وَنَجَّدَ (7) ، وَادَّخَرَ واعْتَقَدَ (8) ، وَنَظَرَ بِزَعْمِهِ لِلْوَلَدِ، إِشْخَاصُهُمْ (9) جَمِيعاً إِلَى مَوْقِفِ الْعَرْضِ وَالْحِسَابِ، وَمَوْضِعِ الثَّوَابِ وَالْعِقَابِ: إذَا وَقَعَ الْأَمْرُ بِفَصْلِ الْقَضَاءِ (وَخَسِرَ هُنَالِكَ الْمُبْطِلُونَ) شَهِدَ عَلَى ذلِكَ الْعَقْلُ إِذَا خَرَجَ مِنْ أَسْرِ الْهَوَى، وَسَلِمَ مِنْ عَلاَئِقِ الدُّنْيَا.

In Persian

به شريح قاضي

برخورد قاطعانه باخيانت كارگزاران به من خبر دادند كه خانه اي به هشتاد دينار خريده اي، و سندي براي آن نوشته اي، و گواهاني آن را امضا كرده اند. (شريح گفت: آري اي امير مومنان امام (ع) نگاه خشم آلودي به او كرد و فرمود) اي شريح! به زودي كسي به سراغت مي آيد كه به نوشته ات نگاه نمي كند، و از گواهانت نمي پرسد، تا تو را از آن خانه بيرون كرده و تنها به قبر بسپارد. اي شريح! انديشه كن كه آن خانه را با مال ديگران يا با پول حرام نخريده باشي، كه آنگاه خانه دنيا و آخرت را از دست داده اي. اما اگر هنگام خريد خانه، نزد من آمده بودي، براي تو سندي مي نوشتم كه ديگر براي خريد آن به درهمي يا بيشتر، رغبت نمي كردي و آن سند را چنين مي نوشتم: هشدار از بي اعتباري دنياي حرام اين خانه اي است كه بنده اي خوارشده، و مرده اي آماده كوچ كردن، آن را خريده، خانه اي از سراي غرور، كه در محله نابودشوندگان، و كوچه هلاك شدگان قرار دارد، اين خانه به چهار جهت منتهي مي گردد. يك سوي آن به آفتها و بلاها، سوي دوم آن به مصيبتها، و سوي سوم به هوا و هوسهاي سست كننده، و سوي چهارم آن به شيطان گمراه كننده ختم مي شود، و در خانه به روي شيطان گشوده است. اين خانه را فريب خورده آزمند، از كسيكه خود به زودي از جهان رخت برمي بندد، به مبلغي كه او را از عزت و قناعت خارج و به خواري و دنياپرستي كشانده، خريداري نموده است. هرگونه نقصي در اين معامله باشد، بر عهده پروردگاري است كه اجساد پادشاهان را پوسانده، و جان جباران را گرفته، و سلطنت فرعونها چون (كسري) و (قيصر) و (تبع) و (حمير) را نابود كرده است. عبرت از گذشتگان و آنان كه مال فراوان گرد آوردند، و بر آن افزودند، و آنان كه قصرها ساختند، و محكم كاري كردند، طلاكاري نمودند، و زينت دادند، فراوان اندوختند، و نگهداري كردند، و به گمان خود براي فرزندان خود گذاشتند، اما همگي آنان به پاي حسابرسي الهي، و جايگاه پاداش و كيفر رانده مي شوند، آنگاه كه فرمان داوري و قضاوت نهايي صادر شود (پس تبهكاران زيان خواهند ديد.) به اين واقعيتها عقل گواهي مي دهد هرگاه كه از اسارت هواي نفس نجات يافته، و از دنياپرستي به سلامت بگذرد.

p: 8


(1). Kisra is the Arabicised form of "Khusraw" which means a King whose domain of rule extends to a vast area. This was the title of the rulers of Iran.

(2). Ceasar was the title of the rulers of Rome which in Latin means that child whose mother dies before delivery and who is extractedby cutting open her body. Since among the Kings of Rome Augustus was born like this he was known by this name and after that this word was adopted as the title of every ruler.

(3). Tubba' is an appellation of each of the Kings of Yemen who possessed Himyar and Hadramawt. Their names have been mentioned in the holy Qur'an in chaps. 44:37 and 50:14.

(4). Himyar originally an important tribe in the ancient Sabaean kingdom of south-western Arabia; later the powerful rulers of much of southern Arabia from c. 115 BC to c. AD 525. The Himyarites were concentrated in the area known as Dhu Raydan (later called Qataban) on the coast of present-day Yemen; thus they were probably aided in the overthrow of their Sabaean kinsmen by the discovery of a sea route from Egypt to India which deprived the inland Sabaean kingdom of its former importance as a centre for overland trade. The Himyarites (classical Homeritae) inherited the Sabaean language and culture and from their capital at Zafar their power at times extended eastward as far as the Persian Gult and northward into the Arabian Desert. At the beginning of the 4th century AD the Himyar capital was moved northward to San'a and later in that century both Christianity and Judaism gained firm footholds in the area. Internal disorders and changing trade routes caused the kingdom to decline and in 525 after several unsuccessful attempts Abyssinian invaders finally crushed the Himyarites. A Himyar apeal to Persia for aid led to Persian control in 575. (The New Encyclopaedia Britanica [Micropaedia] vol.5 p.49 ed. 1973-1974)

p: 9


In English

To one of the officer of his army

If they (1) return to the umbrella of obedience then this is all that we want. But if the condition of these people points out towards disruption and disobedience then taking with you those who obey you rush upon those who disobey you and while you have those with you who follow you do not worry about those who hold back from you because the absence of a halfhearted man is better than his presence and his sitting down is better than his rising up.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى بعض أُمراء جيشه

فَإِنْ عَادُوا إِلَى ظِلِّ الطَّاعَةِ فَذَاكَ الَّذِي نُحِبُّ، وَإِنْ تَوَافَتِ (1) الْأُمُورُ بِالْقَوْمِ إِلَى الشِّقَاقِ وَالْعِصْيَانِ فَانْهَدْ بِمَنْ أَطاعَكَ إِلَى مَنْ عَصَاكَ، وَاسْتَغْنِ بِمَنِ انْقَادَ مَعَكَ عَمَّنْ تَقَاعَسَ عَنْكَ، فَإِنَّ الْمُتَكَارِهَ (2) مَغِيبُهُ خَيْرٌ مِنْ مَشْهَدِهِ، وَقُعُودُهُ أَغْنَى مِنْ نُهُوضِهِ.

In Persian

به يكي از فرماندهانش

روش گزينش نيروهاي عمل كننده

اگر دشمنان اسلام به سايه اطاعت باز گردند پس همان است كه دوست داريم، و اگر كارشان به جدايي و نافرماني كشيد با كمك فرمانبرداران با مخالفان نبرد كن، و از آنان كه فرمان مي برند براي سركوب آنها كه از ياري تو سر باز مي زنند مدد گير، زيرا آن كس كه از جنگ كراهت دارد بهتر است كه شركت نداشته باشد، و شركت نكردنش از ياري دادن اجباري بهتر است.


(1). When `Uthman ibn Hunayf the Governor of Basrah informed Amir al-mu 'minin of the arrival of Talhah and az-Zubayr in Basrah and of their intentions Amir al-mu 'minin wrote this letter to him wherein he has instructed him that in case the enemy was bent on fighting when facing him he should not enlist on his side those who on the one hand showed consideration for the personalities of `A'ishah Talhah and az-Zubayr and who on the other hand had agreed to fight against them merely by persuasion because such people could not be expected to fight steadfastly nor could they be depended upon. Rather such people would try to dishearten others too. Therefore it was only good to leave aside such people.

p: 10


In English

To al-Ash'ath ibn Qays (al-Kindi) the Governor of Azarbayjan

Certainly your assignment (1) is not a morsel for you but it is a trust round your neck and you have been charged with the protection (of the people) on behalf of your superiors. It is not for you to be oppressive towards the ruled nor to risk yourself save on strong grounds. You have in your hands the funds which is the property of Allah to Whom belongs Might and Majesty and you hold its charge till you pass it on to me. Probably I will not be one of the bad rulers for you and that is an end to the matter.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى أشعث بن قيس عامل أذربيجان

وَإِنَّ عَمَلَكَ لَيْسَ لَكَ بِطُعْمَةٍ (1) ، وَلكِنَّهُ فِي عُنُقِكَ أَمَانةٌ، وَأَنْتَ مُسْتَرْعًى لِمَنْ فَوْقَكَ. لَيْسَ لَكَ أَنْ تَفتَاتَ (2) فِي رَعِيَّةٍ، وَلاَ تُخَاطِرَ إِلاَّ بِوَثِيقَةٍ، وَفي يَدَيْكَ مَالٌ مِنْ مَالِ اللهِ عَزَّوَجَلَّ، وَأَنْتَ مِنْ خُزَّانِهِ (3)

حَتَّى تُسَلِّمَهُ إِلَيَّ، وَلَعَلِّي أَلاَّ أَكُونَ شَرَّ وُلاَتِكَ (4) لَكَ، وَالسَّلاَمُ.

In Persian

به اشعث بن قيس

هشدار از استفاده نارواي بيت المال

همانا پست فرمانداري براي تو وسيله آب و نان نخواهد بود، بلكه امانتي است در گردن تو، بايد از فرمانده و امامت اطاعت كني، تو حق نداري نسبت به رعيت استبداد ورزي، و بدون دستور به كار مهمي اقدام نمايي، در دست تو اموالي از ثروتهاي خداي بزرگ و عزيز است، و تو خزانه دار آني تا به من بسپاري، اميدوارم براي تو بدترين زمامدار نباشم، با درود.

p: 11


(1). When Amir al-mu'minin was free from the battle of Jamal he wrote to al-Ash'ath ibn Qays (al-Kindi) who had been the Governor of Azarbayjan from the days of `Uthman to send the revenue and levies of his province. But since he had fears about the future of his position and assignment he intended to swallow all this money like other officers of `Uthman. Therefore when this letter reached him he sent for his chief associates and after mentioning this letter to them said: "I fear that this money will be taken away from me; I therefore intend to join Mu`awiyah." Whereupon those people said that it was a matter of shame to leave kith and kin and seek refuge with Mu'awiyah. Consequently on the advice of these people he postponed his idea to run away but did not agree to part with the money. On getting this information Amir al-mu'minin sent Hujr ibn `Adi al-Kindi to bring him to Kufah. He persuaded him and brought him to Kufah. On reaching there his kit was found to contain four hundred thousand Dirhams out of which Amir al-mu'minin left thirty thousand for him and deposited the rest in the public treasury.


In English

To Mu`awiyah (ibn Abi Sufyan)

Verily those who swore allegiance to Abu Bakr `Umar and `Uthman have sworn allegiance1 to me on the same basis on which they swore allegiance (1) to them. (On this basis) he who was present has no choice (to consider) and he who was absent has no right to reject; and consultation is confined to the muhajirun and the ansar. If they agree on an individual and take him to be Caliph it will be deemed to mean Allah's pleasure. If any one keeps away by way of objection or innovation they will return him to the position from where he kept away. If he refuses they will fight him for following a course other than that of the believers and Allah will put him back from where he had run away. By my life O' Mu'awiyah if you see with your brain without any passion you will find me the most innocent of all in respect of `Uthman's blood and you will surely know that I was in seclusion from him unless you conceal what is quite open to you. Then you may commit an outrage (on me) as you like and that is an end to the matter.

p: 12

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى معاوية

إِنَّهُ بَايَعَنِي الْقَوْمُ الَّذِينَ بَايَعُوا أَبَا بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرَ وَعُثْمانَ عَلَى مَا بَايَعُوهُمْ عَلَيْهِ، فَلَمْ يَكُنْ لِلشَّاهِدِ أَنْ يَخْتَارَ، وَلاَ لِلغَائِبِ أَنْ يَرُدَّ، وَإنَّمَا الشُّورَى لِلْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالْأَنْصَارِ، فَإِنِ اجْتَمَعُوا عَلَى رَجُلٍ وَسَمَّوْهُ إِمَاماً كَانَ ذلِكَ لِلَّهِ رِضىً، فَإِنْ خَرَجَ عَنْ أَمْرِهِمْ خَارِجٌ بِطَعْنٍ أَوْبِدْعَةٍ رَدُّوهُ إِلَى مَاخَرَجَ مِنْهُ، فَإِنْ أَبَى قَاتَلُوهُ عَلَى اتِّبَاعِهِ غَيْرَ سَبِيلِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ، وَوَلاَّهُ اللهُ مَا تَوَلَّى.

وَلَعَمْرِي، يَا مُعَاوِيَةُ، لَئِنْ نَظَرْتَ بِعَقْلِكَ دُونَ هَوَاكَ لَتَجِدَنِّي أَبْرَأَ النَّاسِ مِنْ دَمِ عُثْمانَ، وَلَتَعْلَمَنَّ أَنِّي كُنْتُ فِي عُزْلَةٍ عَنْهُ، إِلاَّ أَنْ تَتَجَنَّى (1) ; فَتَجَنَّ مَا بَدَا لَكَ! وَالسَّلاَمُ.

In Persian

به معاويه

علل مشروعيت حكومت امام (ع)

همانا كساني با من بيعت كرده اند كه با ابابكر و عمر و عثمان، با همان شرايط بيعت نمودند، پس آنكه در بيعت حضور داشت نمي تواند خليفه اي ديگر برگزيند، و آنكه غايب است نمي تواند بيعت مردم را نپذيرد، و همانا شوراي مسلمين از آن مهاجرين و انصار است، پس اگر بر امامت كسي گرد آمدند، و او را امام خود خواندند، خشنودي خدا هم در آن است. حال اگر كسي كار آنان را نكوهش كند يا بدعتي پديد آورد، او را به جايگاه بيعت قانوني باز مي گردانند، اگر سر باز زد با او پيكار مي كنند، زيرا كه به راه مسلمانان درنيامده، خدا هم او را در گمراهيش وامي گذارد. بجانم سوگند! اي معاويه اگر دور از هواي نفس، به ديده عقل بنگري، خواهي ديد كه من نسبت به خون عثمان پاك ترين افرادم، و مي داني كه من از آن دور بوده ام، جز اينكه از راه خيانت مرا متهم كني، و حق آشكاري را بپوشاني، با درود.

p: 13


(1). When all the people of Medina unanimously swore allegiance to Amir al-mu`minin Mu`awiyah refused to acquiesce apprehending danger for his own power and in order to contest Amir al-mu'minin's caliphate he concocted the excuse that it had not been agreed to unaulmously and that there fore after cancelling it there should be another general election although the caliphate from which (the process of) election was started was the result of a timely situation. There was no question of the common vote therein so that it could be called the result of the people's election. However it was imposed on the people and assumed to be their verdict. From then it became a principle that whomever the nobles of Medina elected would be deemed to represent the entire world of Islam and no person would be allowed to question it whether he was present at the time of election or not. In any case after the establishment of the principle Mu`awiyah had no right to propose a re-election nor to refuse allegiance when he had in practice recognized these caliphates which it was alleged had been settled by the important people of Medina.

That is why when he held this election to be invalid and refused allegiance Amir al-mu'minin pointed out to him the (recognized) way of election and demolished his argument. It was a method known as arguing with the adversary on the basis of his wrong premises so as to demolish his argument since Amir al-mu'minin never at any state regarded consultation (with chiefs) or the common vote to be the criterion of validity of the caliphate. Otherwise in connection with the caliphate about which it is alleged that they were based on the unanimity of the muhajirun and the ansar he would have regarded that unanimity of vote as a good authority and held them as valid; but his refusal for allegiance in the very first period which cannot be denied by anyone is a proof of the fact that he did not regard these self-concocted methods as the criterion of (validity of) the caliphate. That is why at all times he continued pressing his own case for the caliphate which was also established on the basis of the Prophet's saying and deeds. However to place it before Mu`awiyah meant opening the door to questions and answers. He therefore attempted to convince him with his own premises and beliefs so that there could be no scope for interpretation or for confusing the matter in fact Mu'awiyah's real aim was to prolong the matter so that at some point his own authority might get support.

p: 14


In English

To Mu'awiyah

I have received from you the packet of unconnected advices and the embellished letter. You have written it because of your misguidance and despatched it because of lack of wisdom. This is the letter of a man who has neither light to show him the way nor a leader to guide him on the right path. Passion prompted him and he responded to it. Misguidance led him and he followed it. Consequently he began to speak nonsense and became reck lessly astray.

A part of the same letter

Because allegiance is once and for all. It is not open to reconsidered nor is there any scope for fresh proceedings of election. He who remains out of it is deemed to be critical of Islam while he who prevaricates upon it is a hypocrite.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إليه أيضاً

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَقَدْ أَتَتْني مِنْكَ مَوْعِظَةٌ مُوَصَّلَةٌ (1) ، وَرِسَالَةٌ مُحَبَّرَةٌ (2) ، نَمَّقْتَهَا (3) بِضَلاَلِكَ، وَأَمْضَيْتَهَا بِسُوءِ رَأْيِكَ، وَكِتَابُ امْرِىءٍ لَيْسَ لَهُ بَصَرٌ يَهْدِيهِ، وَلاَ قَائِدٌ يُرْشِدُهُ، قَدْ دَعَاهُ الْهَوَى فَأَجَابَهُ، وَقَادَهُ الضَّلاَلُ فَاتَّبَعَهُ، فَهَجَرَ (4) لاَغِطاً (5) ، وَضَلَّ خَابِطاً.

و منه : لِأَنَّهَا بَيْعَهٌ وَاحِدَةٌ لاَ يُثَنَّى فِيهَا النَّظَرُ (6) ، وَلاَ يُسْتَأْنَفُ فِيهَا الْخِيَارُ. الْخَارِجُ مِنْهَا طَاعِنٌ، وَالْمُرَوِّي (7) فِيهَا مُدَاهِنٌ (8) .

In Persian

به معاويه

افشاي چهره نفاق معاويه و مشروعيت بيعت پس از نام خدا و درود! نامه پندآميز تو به دستم رسيد كه داراي جملات به هم پيوسته، و زينت داده شده كه با گمراهي خود آن را آراسته، و با بدانديشي خاص امضاء كرده بودي، نامه مردي كه نه خود آگاهي لازم دارد تا رهنمونش باشد، و نه رهبري دارد كه هدايتش كند، تنها دعوت هوسهاي خويش را پاسخ گفته، و گمراهي عنان او را گرفته و او اطاعت مي كند، كه سخن بي ربط مي گويد و در گمراهي سرگردان است.

p: 15

(از همين نامه است) همانا بيعت براي امام يك بار بيش نيست، و تجديد نظر در آن ميسر نخواهد بود، و كسي اختيار از سرگرفتن آن را ندارد، آن كس كه از اين بيعت عمومي سر باز زند، طعنه زن و عيبجو خوانده مي شود، و آن كس كه نسبت به آن دودل باشد منافق است.


In English

To Jarir ibn `Abdillah al-Bajali when Amir al-mu'minin sent him to Mu'awiyah (and there was delay in his return)

Now then when you receive this letter of mine ask Mu'awiyah to take a final decision and to follow a determined course.Then ask him to choose either war that exiles him from home or ignoble peace. If he chooses war leave him alone but if he chooses peace secure his allegiance; and that is an end to the matter.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى جرير بن عبدالله البجلي لما أرسله إلى معاوية

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِذَا أَتَاكَ كِتَابِي فَاحْمِلْ مُعَاوِيَةَ عَلَى الْفَصْلِ (1) ، وَخُذْهُ بَالْأَمْرِ الْجَزْمِ، ثُمَّ خَيِّرْهُ بَيْنَ حَرْبٍ مُجْلِيَةٍ (2) ، أَوْ سِلْمٍ مُخْزِيَةٍ (3) ، فَإِنِ اخْتَارَ الْحَرْبَ فَانْبِذْ إِلَيْهِ (4) ، وَإِنِ اخْتَارَ السِّلْمَ فَخُذْ بَيْعَتَهُ، وَالسَّلاَمُ.

In Persian

به جرير بن عبدالله البجلي

وادار ساختن معاويه به بيعت پس از نام خدا و درود! هنگامي كه نامه ام به دستت رسيد، معاويه را به يكسره كردن كار وادار، و با او برخوردي قاطع داشته باش، سپس او را آزاد بگذار در پذيرفتن جنگي كه مردم را از خانه بيرون مي ريزد، يا تسليم شدني خواركننده، پس اگر جنگ را برگزيد، امان نامه او را بر زمين كوب، و اگر صلح خواست از او بيعت بگير، با درود.

p: 16


In English

To Mu`awiyah

Our people (1) (the Quraysh) decided to kill our Prophet and to annihilate our root. They created worries for us behaved with us harshly denied us ease of life exposed us to fear forced us to take refuge in a rugged mountain and ignited for us the flames of war.

Allah then gave us determination to protect His religion and defend His honour. The believers among us expected (heavenly) reward from it and the unbelievers among us gave their support because of kinship. Those who accepted Islam from among the Quraysh were away from the distresses in which we were involved either because of a pledge that protected them or because of the tribe that would rise to support them. They were therefore safe from killing. The way with the Prophet (may Allah bless him and his descendants) was that when fighting became fierce and people began to loose ground he would send forward members of his family and through them protect his companions from the attacks of swords and spears. In this way `Ubaydah ibn al-Harith was killed on the day of Badr Hamzah (ibn `Abd al-Muttalib) on the day of Uhud and Ja'far (ibn Abi Talib) on the day of Mu'tah. One more person whom I can name if I wish desired to seek martyrdom as they did; but their deaths approached while his death had not yet approached.

How strange it is that I am being grouped with him who never evinced briskness of pace like me nor had he to his credit any achievement like mine unless he claims something of which I do not know and which I think Allah too does not know. In any case all praise belongs to Allah.

p: 17

As regards your request to hand over to you the murderers of `Uthman I have thought over this matter and I do not find their handing over to you or to someone else possible for me. By my life if you do not give up your wrong ways and disruptive acts you will surely know them. They will shortly be seeking you and will not give you the trouble of seeking them in land sea mountains or plain. But this search will be painful for you and their visit will not give you happiness. Peace be on those who deserve it.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى معاوية

فَأَرَادَ قَوْمُنَا قَتْلَ نَبِيِّنَا، وَاجْتِيَاحَ أَصْلِنَا (1) ، وَهَمُّوا بِنَا الْهُمُومَ (2) ، وَفَعَلُوا بِنَا الْأَفَاعِيلَ (3) ، وَمَنَعُونَا الْعَذْبَ (4) ، وَأَحْلَسُونَا (5) الْخَوْفَ، وَاضْطَرُّونَا (6) إِلَى جَبَلٍ وَعْرٍ (7) ، وَأَوْقَدُوا لَنَا نَارَ الْحَرْبِ، فَعَزَمَ اللهُ لَنَا (8) عَلَى الذَّبِّ عَنْ حَوْزَتِهِ (9) ، وَالرَّمْيِ مِنْ وَرَاءِ حُرْمَتِهِ (10) . مُؤْمِنُنَا يَبْغِي بِذلِكَ الْأَجْرَ، وَكَافِرُنَا يُحَامِي عَنِ الْأَصْلِ، وَمَنْ أَسْلَمَ مِنْ قُرَيشٍ خِلْوٌ مِمَّا نَحْنُ فِيهِ بِحِلْفٍ يَمْنَعُهُ، أَوْ عَشِيرَةٍ تَقُومُ دُونَهُ، فَهُوَ مِنَ الْقَتْلِ بِمَكَانِ أَمْنٍ.

وَكَانَ رَسُولُ اللهِ-صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ- إذَا احْمَرَّ الْبَأْسُ (11) ، وَأَحْجَمَ النَّاسُ، قَدَّمَ أَهْلَ بَيْتِهِ فَوَقَى بِهِمْ أَصَحَابَهُ حَرَّ السُّيُوفِ (12) وَالْأَسِنَّةِ، فَقُتِلَ عُبَيْدَةُ بْنُ الْحَارِثِ يَوْمَ بَدْرٍ، وَقُتِلَ حَمْزَةُ يَوْمَ أُحُدٍ، وَقُتِلَ جَعْفَرُ يَوْمَ مُؤْتَةَ (13) ، وَأَرَادَ مَنْ لَوْ شِئْتُ ذَكَرْتُ اسْمَهُ مِثْلَ الَّذِي أَرَادُوا مِنَ الشَّهَادَةِ، وَلكِنَّ آجَالَهُمْ عُجِّلَتْ،مَنِيَّتَهُ أُجِّلَتْ. فَيَاعَجَباً لِلدَّهْرِ! إِذْ صِرْتُ يُقْرَنُ بِي مَنْ لَمْ يَسْعَ بِقَدَمِي (14) ، وَلَمْ تَكُنْ لَهُ كَسَابِقَتِي (15) الَّتِي لاَ يُدْلِي أحَدٌ (16) بِمِثْلِهَا، إِلاَّ أَنْ يَدَّعِيَ مُدَّعٍ مَا لاَ أَعْرِفُهُ، وَلاَ أَظُنُّ اللهَ يَعْرِفُهُ، وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ عَلَى كُلِّ حَالٍ.

p: 18

وَأَمَّا مَا سَأَلْتَ مِنْ دَفْعِ قَتَلَةِ عُثْمانَ إِلَيْكَ، فَإِنِّي نَظَرْتُ فِي هذَا الْأَمْرِ، فَلَمْ أَرَهُ يَسَعُنِي دَفْعُهُمْ إِلَيْكَ وَلاَ إِلَى غَيْرِكَ، وَلَعَمْرِي لَئِنْ لَمْ تَنْزِعْ (17) عَنْ غَيِّكَ وَشِقَاقِكَ (18) لَتَعْرِفَنَّهُمْ عَنْ قَلِيلٍ يَطْلُبُونَكَ، لاَ يُكَلِّفُونَكَ طَلَبَهُمْ فِي بَرٍّ وَلاَ بَحْرٍ، وَلاَ جَبَلٍ وَلاَ سَهْلٍ، إِلاَّ أَنَّهُ طَلَبٌ يَسُوءُكَ وِجْدَانُهُ، وَزَوْرٌ (19) لاَ يَسُرُّكَ لُقْيَانُهُ، وَالسَّلاَمُ لِأَهْلِهِ.

In Persian

به معاويه

افشاي دشمني هاي قريش و استقامت پيامبر (ص) خويشاوندان ما از قريش مي خواستند پيامبرمان (ص) را بكشند، و ريشه ما را بركنند، و در اين راه انديشه ها از سرگذراندند، و هر چه خواستند نسبت به ما انجام دادند، و زندگي خوش را از ما سلب كردند، و با ترس و وحشت به هم آميختند، و ما را به پيمودن كوه هاي صعب العبور مجبور كردند، و براي ما آتش جنگ افروختند، اما خدا خواست كه ما پاسدار دين او باشيم، و شر آنان را از حريم دين باز داريم، مومن ما در اين راه خواستار پاداش بود، و كافر ما از خويشاوندان خود دفاع مي كرد، ديگر افراد قريش كه ايمان مي آوردند و از تبار ما نبودند، يا به وسيله هم پيمانهايشان و يا با نيروي قوم و قبيله شان حمايت شده و در امان بودند، هرگاه آتش جنگ زبانه مي كشيد، و دشمنان هجوم مي آوردند پيامبر اسلام (ص) اهل بيت خود را پيش مي فرستاد تا به وسيله آنها، اصحابش را از سوزش شمشيرها و نيزه ها حفظ فرمايد، چنانكه عبيده بن حارث در جنگ بدر، و حمزه در احد، و جعفر در موته، شهيد گرديدند. كساني هم بودند كه اگر مي خواستم نامشان را مي آوردم، آنان كه دوست داشتند چون شهيدان اسلام، شهيد گردند، اما مقدر چنين بود كه زنده بمانند، و مرگشان به تاخير افتاد، شگفتا از روزگار! كه مرا همسنگ كسي قرار داده كه چون من پيش قدم نبوده، و مانند من سابقه در اسلام و هجرت نداشته است، كسي را سراغ ندارم چنين ادعايي كند، مگر ادعاكننده اي كه نه من او را مي شناسم و نه فكر مي كنم خدا، او را بشناسد، در هر حال خدا را سپاسگزارم.

p: 19

افشاي ادعاي دروغين معاويه در خونخواهي عثمان اينكه از من خواستي تا قاتلان عثمان را به تو واگذارم، پيرامون آن فكر كردم و ديدم كه توان سپردن آنها را به تو يا غير تو ندارم، سوگند بجان خودم! اگر دست از گمراهي و تفرقه برنداري، به زودي آنها را خواهي يافت كه تو را مي جويند، بي آنكه تو را فرصت دهند تا در خشكي و دريا و كوه و صحرا زحمت پيدا كردنشان را بر خود هموار كني. و اگر در جستجوي آنان برآيي بدان كه شادمان نخواهي شد، و زيارتشان تو را خوشحال نخواهد كرد، و درود بر اهل آن.


(1). When the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and his descendants) was commanded (by Allah) to call people to (believe in) the Unity of Allah the powers of unbelief and disobedience stood up to block the way of Truthfulness and the tribes of Quraysh decided to quell this voice through pressure and force. The love of their idols was so staunch in the hearts of these unbelievers that they were not prepared to hear a single word against them. The idea of one God was enough to rouse their passions. In addition they were made to hear such epithets about their gods that gave them no better position than lifeless stones. When they saw their principles and beliefs in danger they prepared themselves to trouble the Prophet and got ready to try every means to that end. They adopted such pain-inflicting devices (against the Prophet) that it was impossible for him to step out of his house. Those who had accepted Islam in this period too had to face continuous tribulations. For example these adherents of belief were often laid prostrate on the ground under the sun and beaten with straps and stones till they lost their senses. When the atrocities of the Quraysh rose to this extent the Prophet permitted them to leave Mecca and immigrate towards Abyssinia in the fifth year of his call to Prophethood. The Quraysh followed them there as well but the ruler of Abyssinia refused to hand them over to them and by his fairness and justice did not allow any trouble to befall them.

p: 20

On the other side the Prophet's preaching was continuing and the magnetism and influence of Truth was producing its effect. People were impressed by his teachings and personality and coming into his fold as a result of which the Quraysh felt much perturbed and tried to stop this increasing influence and power. When they could not do anything they decided to sever all connections with Banu Hashim and Banu `Abd al-Mut-talib to have no social contacts with them and to have no transactions with them so that they might be forced to give up supporting the Prophet and then they would deal with him as they wished. Consequently they concluded a mutual agreement about it and a document was written on the subject and kept in deposit. After this agreement although the locality was the same and the inhabitants too were the same yet for Banu Hashim every nook and corner became strange and well-known faces turned as if they had never known each other. All of them turned their faces and stopped mutual meeting and contacts. In these circumstances there was also apprehension that the Prophet might be attacked suddenly in a valley outside the city. For this reason they were forced to take refuge in a place called "shi`b (quarter) of Abi Talib." At this stage those Banu Hashim who had not yet accepted Islam shared these privations on account of lineal unity and offered defence at the hour of need while those who had accepted Islam like Hamzah and Abu Talib were active in protecting the Prophet by way of a religious obligation. In particular Abu Talib had given up all his personal ease and comfort. He spent his days in consoling the Prophet and his nights in changing his bed in this way that if the Prophet used a bed one night the next night `Ali was made to sleep in it so that in case someone attacked then `Ali should suffer the brunt.

p: 21

This was a period of great privation and trouble for Banu Hasim. If they could get leaves of trees to eat that was enough otherwise they had to starve. After the lapse of three years in these hardships Zuhayr ibn Abi Umayyah (whose mother was `Atikah bint `Abd al-Muttalib) Hisham. ibn `Amr ibn Rabi `ah (who had family relationship with Banu Hashim through his mother) al-Mut'im ibn `Adi ibn Nawfal ibn `Abd Manaf Abu'l-Bakhtari al-`As ibn Hisham ibn al-Mughirah and Zama'ah ibn al-Aswad ibn al-Muttalib proposed that this agreement should be abrogated. For a discussion of this issue the Chiefs among the Quraysh assembled in the Ka'bah. No decision has yet been taken when Abu Talib also came out of the Valley and joined them. He said to them My nephew Muhammad has told me that the paper on which this agreement was written has been eaten by white-ants and nothing in it has remained save the name of Allah. So, you should send for the document and see it. If he is correct then you should give up animosity to him; and if he is wrong I am ready to hand him over to you. Consequently the document was sent for and seen. It was a fact that except the words "with Your name O' my Allah" which was written on the top of all documents in those days the rest of it had been eaten away by white-ants. Seeing this al-Mut'im ibn `Adi tore off the writing and thus this agreement was abrogated. At last Banu Hashim got rid of the life of oppression and helplessness; but even after this there was no change in the unbelievers' behaviour towards the Prophet; rather they were so keen in their enmity and malice against him that they started thinking of taking his life as a consequence of which the great event of hijrah (immigration of the Holy Prophet from Mecca to Medina) took place. Although on this occasion Abu Talib was no longer alive `Ali represented him by lying down on the Prophet's bed because it was the lesson taught by Abu Talib through which he managed to protect the Holy Prophet's life.

p: 22

Although these events were not unknown to Mu`awiyah yet by recounting to him the deeds of his precedessors the intention was to awaken his malicious spirit. Therefore his attention has been drawn to the hardships inflicted (on the Holy Prophet and his adherents) by the Quraysh and especially Banu `Abd Shams so that he might see the conduct of each of the followers of truth and the followers of wrong and realize whether he himself was treading on the right path or just following his forefathers.


In English

To Mu'awiyah

What will you do when the coverings of this world in which you are wrapped are removed from you. The world attracted you with its embellishment and deceived you with its pleasure. It called you and you responded to it. It led you and you followed it. It commanded you and you obeyed it. Shortly an informer will inform you of things against which there will be no shield (to protect you). Therefore keep off from this affair take heed of the accounting (on the Day of Judgement) get ready for death that will soon overtake you and do not give your ears to those who have gone astray. If you do not do so I shall recall to you whatever you have forgotten because you are a man living in ease and luxury. (1) Satan has taken you in his clutches has secured his wishes in you and has taken complete control of you like your soul and blood.

p: 23

O' Mu'awiyah when were you all protectors of the ruled and guardians of the affairs of the people? Without any forward step or conspicuous distinction? We seek Allah's protection against the befalling of previous misfortunes and I warn you lest you continue being deceived by desires and your appearance becomes different from your innerself.

You have called me to war. Better to leave the people on one side come out to me and spare both the parties from fighting so that it may be known who of us has a rusted heart and covered eyes. I am Abu'l-Hasan who killed your granfather (2) your brother (3) and your uncle (4) by cutting them to pieces on the day of Badr. The same sword is with me and I meet my adversary with the same heart. I have not altered the religion nor put up any new prophet. I am surely (treading) on that very highway which you had willingly foresaken (in the beginning) and then adopted per force. You think you have come out seeking to revenge 'Uthman's blood. Certainly you know how 'Uthman's blood was shed. If you want to avenge it avenge it there. It is as though I see that when war is cutting you with its teeth you cry like camels crying under a heavy load. And it is as though I see your party bewildered by the incessant striking of swords occurrence of death and falling of bodies after bodies calling me towards the Qur'an (5) although they would themselves be either unbelievers deniers of truth or breakers of allegiance after swearing it. or it is an information through knowledge of the unknown ('ilmu'l -ghayb) which is too most significant and wonderful. However, both cases are in the state of extreme significance and wonderfulness.

p: 24

Ibn Abi'l-Hadid has further quoted the same prophecy from other letters of Amir al-mu'minin to Mu'awiyah. (Sharh Nahj al-balaghah vol.15 pp.83-85)

This prophecy cannot be attributed to imagination guessing or the drawing of inference from events nor can these details be ascertained by wit or far-reaching intelligence. Only he can disclose them whose source of information is either the Prophet's own revelation-bearing tongue or Divine inspiration.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إليه أيضاً

وَكَيْفَ أَنْتَ صَانِعٌ إِذَا تَكَشَّفَتْ عَنْكَ جَلاَبِيبُ (1) مَا أَنْتَ فِيهِ مِنْ دُنْيَا قَدْ تَبَهَّجَتْ بِزِينَتِهَا (2) ، وَخَدَعَتْ بِلَذَّتِهَا، دَعَتْكَ فَأَجَبْتَهَا، وَقَادَتْكَ فَاتَّبَعْتَهَا، وَأَمَرَتْكَ فَأَطَعْتَهَا، وَإِنَّهُ يُوشِكُ أَنْ يَقِفَكَ وَاقِفٌ عَلَى مَا لاَ يُنْجيِكَ مِنْهُ مِجَنٌّ (3) ، فَاقْعَسْ (4) عَنْ هذَا الْأَمْرِ، وَخُذْ أُهْبَةَ (5) الْحِسَابِ، وَشَمِّرْ لِمَا قَدْ نَزَلَ بِكَ، وَلاَ تُمَكِّنِ الْغُوَاةَ (6) مِنْ سَمْعِكَ، وَإِلاَّ تَفْعَلْ أُعْلِمْكَ مَا أَغْفَلْتَ مِنْ نَفْسِكَ، فَإِنكَ مُتْرَفٌ (7) قَدْ أَخَذَ الشَّيْطَانُ مِنْكَ مَأْخَذَهُ، وَبَلَغَ فِيكَ أَمَلَهُ، وَجَرَى مِنْكَ مَجْرَى الرُّوحِ وَالدَّمِ.

وَمَتَى كُنْتُمْ يَا مُعَاوِيَةُ سَاسَةَ الرَّعِيَّةِ (8) ، وَوُلاَةَ أَمْرِ الْأُمَّةِ؟ بِغَيْرِ قَدَمٍ سَابِقٍ، وَلاَ شَرَفٍ بَاسِقٍ (9) ، وَنَعُوذُ بِاللهِ مِنْ لُزومِ سَوَابِقِ الشَّقَاءِ، وَأُحَذِّرُكَ أَنْ تَكُونَ مُتَمادِياً فِي غِرَّةِ (10) الْأُمْنِيَّةِ (11) ، مُخْتَلِفَ الْعَلاَنِيَةِ والسَّرِيرَةِ.

وَقَدْ دَعَوْتَ إِلَى الْحَرْبِ، فَدَعِ النَّاسَ جَانِباً وَاخْرُجْ إِلَيَّ، وَأَعْفِ الْفَرِيقَينِ مِنَ الْقِتَالِ، لِتَعْلَمَ أيُّنَا الْمَرِينُ (12) عَلَى قَلْبِهِ،

وَالْمُغَطَّى عَلَى بَصَرِهِ! فَأَنَا أَبُو حَسَنٍ قَاتِلُ جَدِّكَ وَخَالِكَ وأَخِيكَ شَدْخاً (13) يَوْمَ بَدْرٍ،ذلكَ السَّيْفُ مَعِي، وَبِذلِكَ الْقَلْبِ أَلْقَى عَدُوِّي، مَا اسْتَبْدَلْتُ دِيناً، وَلاَ اسْتَحْدَثْتُ نَبِيّاً، وَإنِّي لَعَلَى الْمِنْهَاجِ (14) الَّذِي تَرَكْتُمُوهُ طَائِعِينَ، وَدَخَلْتُمْ فِيهِ مُكْرَهِينَ.

p: 25

وَزَعَمْتَ أَنَّكَ جِئْتَ ثَائراً (15) بِدَمِ عُثْمانَ، وَلَقَدْ عَلِمْتَ حَيْثُ وَقَعَ دَمُ عُثْمانَ فَاطْلُبْهُ مِنْ هُنَاكَ إِنْ كُنتَ طَالباً، فَكَأَنِّي قدْ رَأَيْتُكَ تَضِجُّ مِنَ الْحَرْبِ إِذَا عَضَّتْكَ ضَجِيجَ الْجِمَالِ بِالْأَثْقَالِ، وَكَأَنِّي بِجَمَاعَتِكَ تَدْعُونِي جَزَعاً مِنَ الضَّرْبِ الْمُتَتَابِعِ، وَالْقَضَاءِ الْوَاقِعِ، وَمَصَارِعَ بَعْدَ مَصَارِعَ، إِلَى كِتَابِ اللهِ، وَهِيَ كَافِرةٌ جَاحِدَهٌ، أَوْ مُبَايِعَةٌ حَائِدَةٌ (16) .

In Persian

به معاويه

افشاي چهره معاويه چه خواهي كرد، آنگاه كه جامه هاي رنگين تو كنار رود؟ كه به زيباييهاي دنيا زينت شده بود، دنيا تو را با خوشيهاي خود فريب داده، و به دعوت آن پاسخ داده اي، فرمانت داد و اطاعت كردي، همانا به زودي تو را وارد ميدان خطرناكي مي كند كه هيچ سپر نگهدارنده اي نجاتت نمي دهد. اي معاويه از اين كار دست بكش، و آماده حساب باش، و آماده حوادثي باش كه به سراغ تو مي آيد، به گمراهان فرومايه، گوش مسپار، اگر چنين نكني به تو اعلام مي دارم كه در غفلت زدگي قرار گرفته اي، همانا تو نازپرورده اي مي باشي كه شيطان بر تو حكومت مي كند، و با تو به آرزوهايش مي رسد، و چون روح و خون در سراسر وجودت جريان دارد. معاويه! از چه زماني شما زمامداران امت و فرماندهان ملت بوديد؟ نه سابقه درخشاني در دين، و نه شرافت والايي در خانواده داريد، پناه بخدا مي برم از گرفتار شدن به دشمني هاي ريشه دار، تو را مي ترسانم از ينكه به دنبال آرزوها تلاش كني، و آشكار و نهانت يكسان نباشد.

پاسخ به تهديد نظامي معاويه! مرا به جنگ خوانده اي، اگر راست مي گويي مردم را بگذار و به جنگ من بيا، و دو لشكر را از كشتار بازدار، تا بداني پرده تاريك بر دل كدام يك از ما كشيده، و ديده چه كس پوشيده است؟ من ابوالحسن، كشنده جد و دايي و برادر تو در روز نبرد بدر، مي باشم كه سر آنان را شكافتم، همان شمشير با من است، و با همان قلب با دشمنام ملاقات مي كنم، نه بدعتي در دين گذاشته، و نه پيامبر جديدي برگزيده ام، من بر همان راه راست الهي قرار دارم كه شما با اختيار رها كرده، و با اكراه پذيرفته بوديد.

p: 26

پاسخ به خونخواهي دروغين معاويه خيال كردي به خونخواهي عثمان آمده اي؟ در حالي كه مي داني خون او به دست چه كساني ريخته شده، اگر راست مي گويي از آنها مطالبه كن، همانا من تو را در جنگ مي نگرم كه چونان شتران زير بار سنگين مانده، فرياد و ناله سرمي دهي، و مي بينم كه لشكريانت با بي صبري از ضربات پياپي شمشيرها، و بلاهاي سخت، و بر خاك افتادن مداوم تنها، مرا به كتاب خدا مي خوانند در حالي كه لشكريان تو، كافرند و در انكار، از بيعت كنندگانند و پيمان شكن.


(1). This is in reference to the verse:

We sent no warner into any city except its man who lived at ease

said We disbelieve in the Message you have been sent with.

(Qur'an 34:34).

(2). 'Utbah ibn Rabi'ah.

(3). Hanzalah ibn Abi Sufyan.

(4). al-Walid ibn 'Utbah.

(5). This prophecy of Amir al-mu'minin is about the battle of Siffin. Herein he has depicted the whole picture in very few words. Thus on one side Mu'awiyah was bewildered on account of the attacks of the Iraqis and was thinking to run away and on the other his army was crying under the constant onslaught of death and eventually when there was no way of escape they raised the Qur'an on spears and shouted for peace. By this device the remaining persons saved their lives.

"This prophecy" as lbn Abi'l-Hadid al-Mu'tazili says is either true prophetic keen eye of Amir al-mu'minin which is really a significant power,

p: 27


In English

Given to the contingent sent to

confront the enemy.(1)

When you proceed towards the enemy or he proceeds towards you the position of your force should be on the approaches high ground or on the edges of mountains or the bends of rivers so that it may serve you as a help and a place to return to. Your encounter should be from one side or two sides. Place watchers on the peaks of mountains and the raised sides of the high ground so that the enemy may not approach you from any place whether of danger or safety. And know that the vanguard of an army serves as their eyes and the eyes of the vanguard are their informers. Beware of dispersal. When you halt do so together and when you move you should move together. When night comes fix your spears in a circle and do not sleep except for dosing or napping.

In Arabic

ومن وصية له عليه السلام

وصّى بها جيشاً بعثه إلى العدو

فَإِذَا نَزَلْتُمْ بِعَدُوًّ أَوْ نَزَلَ بِكُمْ، فَلْيَكُنْ مُعَسْكَرُكُمْ فِي قُبُلِ (1) الْأَشْرَافِ (2) ، أَوْسِفَاحِ (3) الْجِبَالِ، أَوْ أثْنَاءِ (4) الْأَنْهَارِ، كَيْما يَكُونَ لَكُمْ رِدْءاً (5) ، وَدُونَكُمْ مَرَدّاً (6) ، وَلْتَكُنْ مُقَاتَلَتُكُمْ مِنْ وَجْهٍ وَاحِدٍ أَو اثْنَيْنِ اجْعَلُوا لَكُمْ رُقَبَاءَ فِي صَيَاصِي الْجِبَالِ، (7) وَمَنَاكِبِ (8) الْهِضَابِ (9) ، لِئَلاَّ يَأْتِيَكُمُ الْعَدُوُّ مِنْ مَكَانِ مَخَافَة أَوْ أَمْن. وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ مُقَدِّمَةَ الْقَومِ عُيُونُهُمْ، وَعُيُونَ الْمُقَدِّمَةِ طَلاَئِعُهُمْ. وَإِيَّاكُمْ وَالتَّفَرُّقَ، فَإِذَا نَزَلْتُمْ فَانْزِلُوا جَمِيعاً، وَإِذَا اَرْتحَلْتُمْ فَارْتَحِلُوا جَمِيعاً، وَإِذَا غَشِيكُمُ اللَّيْلُ فَاجْعَلُوا الرِّمَاحَ كِفَّةً (10) ، وَلاَ تَذُوقُوا النَّوْمَ إِلاَّ غِرَاراً (11) أَوْ مَضْمَضَةً (12) .

p: 28

In Persian

به گروهي از سپاهيان

آموزش نظامي به لشكريان هرگاه به دشمن رسيديد، يا او به شما رسيد، لشكرگاه خويش را بر فراز بلنديها، يا دامنه كوهها، يا بين رودخانه ها قرار دهيد، تا پناهگاه شما، و مانع هجوم دشمن باشد، جنگ را از يك سو يا دو سو آغاز كنيد، و در بالاي قله ها، و فراز تپه ها، ديده بانهايي بگماريد، مبادا دشمن از جايي كه مي ترسيد يا از سويي كه بيم نداريد، ناگهان بر شما يورش آورد، و بدانيد كه پيشاهنگان سپاه ديدبان لشگريانند، و ديدبانان طلايه داران سپاهند، از پراكندگي بپرهيزيد، هر جا فرود مي آييد، با هم فرود بياييد، و هرگاه كوچ مي كنيد همه با هم كوچ كنيد، و چون تاريك شب شما را پوشاند، نيزه داران را پيرامون لشكر بگماريد، و نخوابيد مگر اندك، چونان آب در دهان چرخاندن و بيرون ريختن.


(1). When Amir al-mu'minin put Ziyad ibn an-Nadr al-Harithi and Shurayh ibn Hani al-Harithi in command of contingents of eight thousand and four thousand strong at the camp of an-Nukhaylah and ordered them to advance towards Syria (ash-Sham) some dispute arose between them about their ranks of which they apprised Amir al-mu'minin and wrote letters of complaints about each other. In reply Amir al-mu'minin wrote to them that when they marched jointly the command of the whole force would be with Ziyad ibn an-Nadr al-Harithi and when they marched separately each would be in command of the force over which he had been placed.

In this letter Amir al-mu'minin also wrote for them certain instructions. Here as-Sayyid ar-Radi has taken down only the portion containing the instructions. These instructions are not only useful as concerns the strategies of fighting of those days but their utility and importance in bringing out the principles of fighting in these days also is undeniable. These instructions are that at the time of encounter with the enemy the forces should be encamped on the tops of mountains and turns of rivers because in this way the low areas of the rivers would serve as trenches and the peaks of mountains as the walls of the fortress and thus it would be possible to feel secure and face the enemy from the other side. Secondly that tile attack should be from one side or at the most from two sides because by distribution of the entire force on several fronts weakness would inevitably arise. Thirdly that the watchers should be put in position on the tops of high ground and the peaks of mountains so that they may give warning before the attack. Sometimes it happens that instead of attacking from the expected side the enemy attacks from a different side. Therefore if watchers are in position in high places they will detect the enemy from the cloud of dust seen from a distance.

p: 29

To clarify the useful aspect of these instructions Ibn Ahi'l-Hadid has recorded (in vol.15 p.91) a historical incident that when Qahtabah (ibn Shabib at-Ta'i) encamped in a village after leaving Khurasan he and Khalid ibn Barmak went and sat on the top of a nearby hill. No sooner had they sat down than Khalid noticed flocks of deer coming running from the forest. On seeing this he said to Qahtabah "O' commander get up and announce to the army that they should at once fall in line and takeup arms." Hearing this Qahtabah was startled and stood up but looking hither and thither said "I do not see the enemy's men anywhere." He replied "O' Amir this is not the time that should be lost in conversation. You see these deer which are proceeding towards the people leaving their abodes. This means that the army of the enemy is marching from their rear." Consequently he ordered his army to get ready. As soon as the army got ready the noise of horses' hoofs was heard and within moments the enemy was on them. Since they had prepared themselves for defence in time they defended themselves against the enemy thoroughly. Now if ( 279 )

Khalid had not been at such a height and had not acted with such sagacity the enemy would have attacked them unawares and annihilated them. Fourthhly that the reconnaissance should be spread here and there so that they can be aware of the movements and intentions of the enemy and thereby foil his plans. Fifthly that when the army camps it should camp together and when it moves it should move together so that the enemy does not attack you in a state of dispersal and overpower you easily. Sixthly that at night the guard should be formed by fixing spears in a circle in the ground so that if the enemy attacks in the night it is possible to prepare for defence by taking up arms at once and if the enemy showers arrows that too can be defied. Seventhly that deep sleep should be avoided lest you remain unaware of the enemy's approach and he succeed in attacking you before you get ready.

p: 30


In English

Given to Ma'qil ibn Qays ar-Riyahi when he was dispatched to Syria at the head of a vanguard contingent three thousand strong.

Fear Allah before Whom attendance is inevitable and with other than Whom there is no meeting. Do not fight except with those who fight you. Travel in the two cool periods (i.e. morning and evening). Let the men have a midday sleep. March easily and do not travel during the early night for Allah has made it for resting and has ordained it for staying nor for journeying. Therefore give rest to your body in the night and let your carrier-beastsalso rest. When you are sure that morning has appeared and whendawn has dawned commence your journey with Allah's blessings. If and when you face the enemy stand in the midst of your comrades. Do not get too near the foe like one who wants to commence the fighting nor remain too distant like one who is afraid of action till you receive my orders. Hatred for them should not lead you to fight before inviting them (to guidance) and exhausting your pleas before them.

In Arabic

ومن وصية له عليه السلام

وصي بها معقل بن قيس الرياحي حين أنفذه إلى الشام في ثلاثة آلاف مقدّمةً له:

اتَّقِ اللهَ الَّذِي لاَبُدَّ لَكَ مِنْ لِقَائِهِ، وَلاَ مُنْتَهَى لَكَ دُونَهُ، وَلاَ تُقَاتِلَنَّ إِلاَّ مَنْ قَاتَلَكَ، وَسِرِ الْبَرْدَيْنِ (1) ، غَوِّرْ (2) بِالنَّاسِ، وَرَفِّهْ (3) فِي السَّيْرِ، وَلاَ تَسِرْ أَوَّلَ اللَّيْلِ، فَإِنَّ اللهَ جَعَلَهُ سَكَناً، وَقَدَّرَهُ مُقَاماً لاَ ظَعْناً (4) ، فَأَرِحْ فِيهِ بَدَنَكَ، وَرَوِّحْ ظَهْرَكَ، فَإِذَا وَقَفْتَ حِينَ يَنْبَطِحُ السَّحَرُ (5) ، أَوْ حِينَ يَنْفَجِرُ الْفَجْرُ، فَسِرْ عَلَى بَرَكَةِ اللهِ، فَإِذَا لَقِيتَ الْعَدُوَّ فَقِفْ مِنْ أَصْحَابِكَ وَسَطاً، وَلاَ تَدْنُ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ دُنُوَّ مَنْ يُريِدُ أَنْ يُنْشِبَ الْحَرْبَ، وَلاَ تَبَاعَدْ عَنْهُمْ تَبَاعَدْ مَنْ يَهَابُ الْبَأْسَ، حَتَّى يَأْتِيَكَ أَمْرِي، وَلاَ يَحْمِلَنَّكُمْ شَنَآنُهُمْ (6) عَلَى قِتَالِهِمْ، قَبْلَ دُعَائِهِمْ وَالْإِعْذَارِ (7) إِلَيْهِمْ.

p: 31

In Persian

به معقل بن قيس الرياحي

احتياطهاي نظامي نسبت به سربازان پيشتاز از خدايي بترس كه ناچار او را ملاقات خواهي كرد، و سرانجامي جز حاضر شدن در پيشگاه او را نداري، جز با كسي كه با تو پيكار كند، پيكار نكن، در خنكي صبح و عصر سپاه را حركت ده، در هواي گرم لشكر را استراحت ده، و در پيمودن راه شتاب مكن، در آغاز شب حركت نكن زيرا خداوند شب را وسيله آرامش قرار داده، و آن را براي اقامت كردن، نه كوچ نمودن، تعيين فرموده است پس آسوده باش، و مركبها را آسوده بگذار، آنگاه كه سحر آمد و سپيده صبحگاهان آشكار شد، در پناه بركت پروردگار حركت كن. پس هر جا دشمن را مشاهده كردي در ميان لشكرت بايست، نه چنان به دشمن نزديك شو كه چونان جنگ افروزان باشي، و نه آنقدر دور باش كه پندارند از نبرد مي هراسي، تا فرمان من به تو رسد، مبادا كينه آنان شما را به جنگ وادارد، پيش از آنكه آنان را به راه هدايت فراخوانيد، و درهاي عذر را بر آنان ببنديد.


In English

To two of the officers in his army

I have placed Malik (1) ibn al-Harith al-Ashtar in command over you and over all those under you. Therefore follow his commands and take him as the armour and shield for yourselves because he is one of those from whom I have no fear of weakness nor any mistake nor laziness where haste is more appropriate nor haste where slackness is expected of him.

In Arabic

p: 32

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى أميرين من أُمراء جيشه

وَقَدْ أَمَّرْتُ عَلَيْكُمَا وَعَلى مَنْ فِي حَيِّزِكُمَا (1) مَالِكَ بْنَ الْحَارثِ الْأَشْتَرَ فَاسْمَعَا لَهُ وَأَطِيعاً، واجْعَلاَهُ دِرْعاً (2) وَمِجَنّاً (3) ، فَإِنّهُ مِمَّنْ لاَ يُخَافُ وَهْنُهُ (4) ، وَلاَ سَقْطَتُهُ (5) ، وَلاَ بُطْؤُهُ عَمَّا الْإِسْرَاعُ إِلَيْهِ أَحْزَمُ (6) ، وَلاَ إِسْرَاعُهُ إِلَى مَا الْبُطْءُ عَنْهُ أَمْثَلُ (7) .

In Persian

به دو نفر از اميران لشگر

رعايت سلسله مراتب فرماندهي من (مالك اشتر پسر حارث) را بر شما و سپاهياني كه تحت امر شما هستند، فرماندهي دادم، گفته او را بشنويد، و از فرمان او اطاعت كنيد، او را چونان زره و سپر نگهبان خود برگزينيد، زيرا كه مالك، نه سستي به خرج داده و نه دچار لغزش مي شود، نه در آنجايي كه شتاب لازم است كندي دارد، و نه آن جا كه كندي پسنديده است شتاب مي گيرد.


(1). When Amir al-mu'minin sent a vanguard contingent twelve thousand strong under Ziyad ibn an-Nadr al-Harithi and Shurayh ibn Ham al-Harithi to Syria on the way near Sur ar-Rum they encountered with Abu'l-A'war ('Amr ibn Sulayman) as-Sulami who was camping there with a contingent of the Syrians. Both of them informed Amir al-mu'minin of this through al-Harith ibn Jumhan al-Ju'fi whereupon he sent Malik ibn al-Harith al-Ashtar as the Officer-in-command and wrote this letter to inform them. The brief but comprehensive words in which Amir al-mu'minin has mentioned Malik al-Ashtar in this letter gives an indication of his intelligence sagacity courage daring expanse and versatility in the art of war and his personal greatness and importance.

p: 33


In English

Given to the army before the encounter with the enemy at Siffin (2)

Do not fight them unless they initiate the fighting because by the grace of Allah you are in the right and to leave them till they begin fighting will be another point from your side against them. If by the will of Allah the enemy is defeated then do not kill the runner away do not strike a helpless person do not finish off the wounded and do not inflict pain on women even thoughthey may attack your honour with filthy words and abuse your officers because they are weak in character mind and intelligence. We have been ordered to desist from them although they may beunbelievers. Even in pre-Islamic (al-jdhiliyyah) period if a man struck a woman with a stone or a stick he was rebuked along with his posteriors after him.

In Arabic

ومن وصيّته عليه السلام

لعسكره قبل لقاء العدو بصفّين

لاَ تُقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّى يَبْدُووكُمْ، فَإِنَّكُمْ بِحَمْدِ اُُللهِ عَلَى حُجَّةٍٍ، وَتَرْكُكُمْ إِيَّاهُمْ حَتَّى يَبْدَُووكُمْ حُجَّةٌ أُخْرَى لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ، فَإذَا كَانَتِ الْهَزِيمَةُ بِإِذْنِ اللهِ فَلاَ تَقْتُلُوا مُدْبِراً، وَلاَ تُصيِبُوا مُعْوِراً (1) ، وَلاَ تُجْهِزُوا (2) عَلَى جَرِيحٍ ،لاَ تَهِيجُوا النِّسَاءَ بِأَذىً، وَإِنْ شَتَمْنَ أَعْرَاضَكُمْ، وَسَبَبْنَ أُمَرَاءَكُمْ، فَإِنَّهُنَّ ضَعِيفَاتُ الْقُوَى وَْلأَ نْفُسِ وَالْعُقُولِ، إِنْ كُنَّا لَنُؤْمَرُ بِالْكَفِّ عَنْهُنَّ وَإِنَّهُنَّ لَمُشْرِكَاتٌ، وَإِنْ كَانَ الرَّجُلُ لَيَتَنَاوَلُ الْمَرْأَةَ فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ بِالْفَهْرِ (3) أَوِ الْهِرَاوَةِ (4) فَيُعَيَّرُ بِهَا وَعَقِبُهُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ.

In Persian

به سپاهيانش

رعايت اصول انساني در جنگ با دشمن جنگ را آغاز نكنيد تا آنها شروع كنند، زيرا سپاس خداوندي را كه حجت با شماست، و آغازگر جنگ نبودن، تا آنكه دشمن بجنگ روي آورد، حجت ديگر بر حقانيت شما خواهد بود، اگر به اذن خدا شكست خوردند و گريختند، آن كس را كه پشت كرده مكشيد، و آن را كه دفاع نمي تواند آسيب نرسانيد، و مجروحان را نكشيد، زنان را با آزار دادن تحريك نكنيد هرچند آبروي شما را بريزند، يا اميران شما را دشنام دهند، كه آنان در نيروي بدني و رواني و انديشه كم توانند، در روزگاري كه زنان مشرك بودند مامور بوديم دست از آزارشان برداريم، و در جاهليت اگر مردي با سنگ يا چوب دستي به زني حمله مي كرد، او و فرزندانش را سرزنش مي كردند.

p: 34


(2). The responsibility for the war and fighting that took place between Amir al-mu'minin and Mu'awiyah lies solely on Mu'awiyah because he brought about the war by laying the wrong blame for 'Uthman's blood on Amir al-mu'minin although the real facts about the causes of 'Uthman's killing and by whom he was killed were not unknown to him. But since there was no way for him to achieve his end save by creating an occasion for war he entered into war to retain his authority which was evidently offensive and which cannot by any means be considered as permissible because revolt and rebellion against the rightful Imam is unlawful according to the general consensus of Muslims. Thus Abu Zakariyya Yahya ibn Sharaf an-Nawawi (631/1233-676/1277) writes:

Do not fight against those in authority in matters of governance nor raise objections against them except when you observe them committing things which you know are definitely against Islam. If you see them doing such things regard it bad for them and speak the truth wherever you may be but rising against them or fighting is prohibited by the consensus of Muslims. (Sharh Sahih Muslim vol.2 p.125. In agreement with this view see also al-Qadi Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn at-Tayyib al-Baqillani [338/950 - 403/1013] the Ash'arite great scholar in at- Tamhid p.186; and Sa'du'd-Din Mas'ud ibn 'Umar at-Taftazani [712/1312 - 793/1390] in Sharh al-Maqasid vol.2 p.272)

Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Karim ash- Shahrastani writes:

Whoever rises against the true Imam by the unanimity of opinion of the (Muslim) community is known as a Kharijite the deviator. The same is the case of rising during the days of the companions against the rightful Imams or even after them against those who followed them in virtue. (al-Milal wa'n-nihal vol.1 p.114)

p: 35

There is no doubt that Mu'awiyah's action was the result of uprising and revolt and to take up arms for the purpose of stopping the advance of the one who revolts is not to be regarded as being against any code of peacefulness or peace-loving. Rather it is a natural right of the oppressed; and if he is deprived of this right then there will remain no way of preventing oppression and tyranny or of safeguarding rights in the world. That is why Allah has permitted taking up arms against rebels. Thus Allah says:

And if two parties of the believers fall into a quarrel (among themselves) restore ye peace between them two; but if one of the two transgresseth against the other (then) fight ye (all against) that which transgresseth until it complieth with the command of Allah; and if it complieth then restore ye peace between the two with justice and act ye justly; Verily Allah loveth the just ones. (Qur'an 49:9)

It was the first plea to which Amir al-mu'minin pointed out by saying By the Grace of Allah you are in the right, but even after exhaustion of this plea he prevented his army from taking the initiative in fighting because he wished that the initiative should not be from his side and that he should take up the sword only in defence. Consequently when all his effort for peace and tranquility proved futile and the enemy took the step towards war this was the second argument in their favour after which Amir al-mu'minin could not be blamed for getting ready to fight nor accused of aggressive action. It was rather an obligation to stop oppression and tyranny that he had to discharge and which Allah has permitted in plain words. Thus Allah's command is that:

p: 36

And fight in the cause of Allah (against) those who fight you but be not aggressive; for verily Allah loveth not the aggressors. (Qu'an 2:190)

Besides fighting against Amir al-mu'minin means fighting against the Prophet as the Prophet's saying: "O' 'Ali your peace is my peace and your war is my war" (Ibn al-Maghazili al-Manaqib p.5; Ibn Abi'l-Hadid vol.18 p.24). In this way whatever punishment should be for fighting against the Prophet should be for fighting against Amir al-mu'minin. For him who wages war against the Prophet Allah has laid down the following punishment.

To recompense of those who war against Allah and His Apostle and strive in the land spreading mischief (therein) is only that they be slain or crucified or their hands and their feet should be cut off from

( 286 )

the opposite sides or be banished from the land; This for them shall be the disgrace in this world and for them in the hereafter shall be a great torment. (Qur'an 5:33)

Apart from this the instructions that Amir al-mu'minin issued in connection with the war namely that no runner away or wounded should be molested are so high from the moral point of view that they can be regarded as a sublime specimen of moral values and the high standard of Islamic fighting. Then these instructions were not confined to mere words but Amir al-mu'minin followed them to the letter and ordered others also to follow them strictly. He did not on any occasion tolerate the chasing of a runner away attack the helpless or molest women in fact on the battlefield of Jamal where the command of the opposite force was with a woman he did not change his principle. After the defeat and vanquishment of the foe he gave proof of his high character and sent 'A'ishah to Medina under guard. Had there been someone other than Amir al-mu'minin he would have proposed the same punishment as that which ought to be awarded for such a step! Thus Ibn Abi'l-Hadid has written:

p: 37

What she did with Amir al-mu'minin if she had done the same with (Caliph) 'Umar and had spread rebellion against him among the people he would after securing victory over her have killed her and cut her into pieces but Amir al-mu'minin was very fore-bearing and large-hearted .(Sharh Nahj al-balaghah vol.17 p.254)


In English

Made by Amir al-mu'minin when he used to face the enemy.

O'my Allah! hearts are getting drawn to You necks are stretching (towards You) eyes are fixed (on You) steps are in motion and bodies have turned lean. O' my Allah! hidden animosity has become manifest and the pots of malice are boiling.

O' my Allah! we complain to You of the absence of our Prophet the numerousness of our enemy and the diffusion of our passions.

Our Lord! Decide between us and between our people with truth and You are the Best of Deciders. (Qur'an 7:89)

In Arabic

و من دعاء له عليه السلام

كان عليه السلام يقول إذا لقى العدوّ محارباً:

اللَّهُمَّ إِلَيْكَ أَفْضَتِ (1) الْقُلُوبُ، وَمُدَّتِ الْأََعْنَاقُ، وَشَخَصَتِ الْأََبْصَارُ، وَنُقِلَتِ الْأََقْدَامُ، وَأُنْضِيَتِ (2) الْأََبْدَانُ. اللَّهُمَّ قَدْ صَرَّحَ مَكْنُونُ الشَّنَآنِ (3) ، وَجَاشَتْ (4) مَرَاجِلُ (5) الْأَضْغَانِ (6) . اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّا نَشْكُوا إِلَيكَ غَيْبَةَ نَبِيِّنَا، وَكَثْرَةَ عَدُوِّنَا، وَتَشَتُّتَ أَهْوَائِنَا (رَبَّنَا افْتَحْ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَ قَوْمِنَا بِالْحَقِّ وَأَنْتَ خَيْرُ الْفَاتِحِينَ).

In Persian

راز و نياز با خدا

نيايش در جنگ خدايا! قلبها به سوي تو روانه شده، و گردنها به درگاه تو كشيده، و ديده ها به آستان تو دوخته، و گامها در راه تو نهاده، و بدن ها در خدمت تو لاغرشده است، خدايا دشمني هاي پنهان آشكار، و ديگهاي كينه در جوش است، خدايا به تو شكايت مي كنيم از اينكه پيامبر (ص) در ميان ما نيست، و دشمنان ما فراوان، و خواسته هاي ما پراكنده است. (پروردگارا! بين ما و دشمنانمان به حق داوري فرما كه تو از بهترين داوراني)

p: 38


In English

He used to give to his followers at the time of battle.

The retreat after which return is intended and the withdrawal after which attack is in view should not make you unhappy. Do justice with the swords (allow your swords to do their duties). Keep ready a place for the falling of bodies (of your foe) ; prepare yourselves for hurling strong spears and striking swords with full force and keep your voices down as that keeps off cowardice.

By Him Who broke open the seed (for growing) and created living beings they had not accepted Islam but they had secured safety (by verbally professing it) and had hidden their misbelief. Consequently when they found helpers for their misbelief they disclosed it.

In Arabic

وكان يقول عليه السلام

لأصحابه عند الحرب:

لاَ تَشْتَدَّنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ فَرَّةٌ بَعْدَهَا كَرَّةٌ (1) ، وَلاَ جَوْلَةٌ بَعْدَهَا حَمْلَةٌ، وَأَعْطُوا السُّيُوفَ حُقُوقَهَا، وَوَطِّئُوا لِلْجُنُوبِ مَصَارِعَهَا (2) ، وَاذْمُرُوا (3) أَنْفُسَكُمْ عَلَى الطَّعْنِ الْدَّعْسِيِّ (4) ، وَالضَّرْبِ الطِّلَحْفِيِّ (5) ، وَأَمِيتُوا الْأََصْوَاتَ (6) ، فإِنَّهُ أَطْرَدُ لِلْفَشَلِ، فَوَالَّذِي فَلَقَ الْحَبَّةَ، وَبَرَأَ النَّسَمَةَ، مَا أَسْلَمُوا وَلَكِنِ اسْتَسْلَمُوا، وَأَسَرُّوا الْكُفْرَ، فَلَمَّا وَجَدُوا أَعْوَاناً عَلَيْهِ أَظْهَرُوهُ.

In Persian

به يارانش وقت جنگ

آموزش تاكتيكهاي نظامي از عقب نشيني هايي كه مقدمه هجوم ديگر است، و از ايستادني كه حمله در پي دارد نگرانتان نسازد، حق شمشيرها را اداء كنيد، و پشت دشمن را به خاك بماليد، و براي فرو كردن نيزه ها، و محكم ترين ضربه هاي شمشير، خود را آماده كنيد، صداي خود را در سينه ها نگهداريد. كه در زدودن سستي نقش بسزايي دارد. بخدايي كه دانه را شكافت، و پديده ها را آفريد، آنها اسلام را نپذيرفتند، بلكه به ظاهر تسليم شدند، و كفر خود را پنهان داشتند، آنگاه كه ياوراني يافتند آن را آشكار ساختند.

p: 39


In English

In reply to a letter from Mu'awiyah.(1)

As for your demand to me to (hand over) Syria I cannot give you today what I denied you yesterday. As regards your saying that the war has eaten up Arabia save its last breath you should know that he whom right has eaten up goes to Paradise and he whom wrong has eaten up goes to Hell. As for our equality in (the art of) war and in (numbers of) men certainly you cannot be more penetrating in doubtfulness (of belief) than I am in certainty (of belief) and the people of Syria are not more greedy for this world than the people of Iraq are for the next world.

As for your saying that both of us are sons of 'Abd Manaf it is no doubt so but Umayyah cannot be like Hashim nor Harb like Abd al-Muttalib nor can Abu Sufyan be like Abu Talib. The muhajir (immigrant) cannot be a match for him who was set free (on the day of fall of Mecca) nor can one of pure descent be a match for him who has been adopted nor the pursuer of truth be a match of the adherent to wrong nor a believer be a match for a hypocrite. How bad are the successors who go on following their predecessors who have fallen in the fire of Hell!

Besides that we also have the distinction of prophethood among us by virtue of which we subdued the strong and raised up the down-trodden. When Allah made Arabia enter (the fold of) His religion and the people submitted to it willingly or unwillingly you were among those who entered the religion either from greed or from fear at a time when those who had gone first had preceded and the first muhajirun had acquired their (peculiar) distinction. Now do not allow Satan have a share with you nor let him have his sway over you; and that is an end to the matter.

p: 40

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى معاوية، جواباً عن كتابٍ منه إليه

وَأَمَّا طَلَبُكَ إِلَيَّ الشَّامَ، فَإِنِّي لَمْ أَكُنْ لِأُعْطِيَكَ الْيَوْمَ مَا مَنَعْتُكَ أَمْسِ. وَأَمَّا قَوْلُكَ: إِنَّ الْحَرْبَ قَدْ أَكَلَتِ الْعَرَبَ إِلاَّ حُشَاشَاتِ أَنْفُسٍ بَقِيَتْ، أَلَا وَمَنْ أَكَلَهُ الْحَقُّ فَإِلَى الْجَنَّةِ،مَنْ أَكَلَهُ الْبَاطِلُ فَإِلَى النَّارِ. وَأَمَّا اسْتِوَاؤُنَا فِي الْحَرْبِ والرِّجَالِ، فَلَسْتَ بِأَمْضَى عَلَى الشَّكِّ مِنِّي عَلَى الْيَقِينِ، وَلَيْسَ أَهْلُ الشَّامِ بِأَحْرَصَ عَلَى الدُّنْيَا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِرَاقِ عَلَى الْآخِرَةِ. وَأَمَّا قَوْلُكَ: إِنَّا بَنُوعَبْدِ مَنَافٍ، فَكَذلِكَ نَحْنُ، وَلكِنْ لَيْسَ أُمَيَّةُ كَهَاشِمَ، وَلاَ حَرْبٌ كَعَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ، وَلاَ أَبُوسُفْيَانَ كَأَبِي طَالِبٍ، وَلاَ المُهَاجرُ (1) كَالطَّلِيقِ (2) ، وَلاَ الصَّرِيحُ (3) كَاللَّصِيقِ (4) ، وَلاَ الْمُحِقُّ كَالْمُبطِلِ، وَلاَ الْمُؤْمِنُ كَالْمُدْغِلِ (5) . وَلَبِئْسَ الْخَلَفُ خَلَفٌ يَتْبَعُ سَلَفاً هَوَى فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ.

وَفِي أَيْدِينَا بعْدُ فَضْلُ النُّبُوَّةِ الَّتِي أَذْلَلْنَا بِهَا الْعَزِيزَ، وَنَعَشْنَا (6) بِهَا الذَّل ِيلَ. وَلَمَّا أَدْخَلَ اللهُ الْعَرَبَ فِي دِينِهِ أَفْوَاجاً، وَأَسْلَمَتْ لَهُ هذِهِ الْأُمَّةُ طَوْعاً وَكَرْهاً، كُنْتُمْ مِمَّنْ دَخَلَ فِي الدِّينِ: إِمَّا رَغْبَةً وَإِمَّا رَهْبَةً، عَلَى حِينَ فَازَ أَهْلُ السَّبْقِ بِسَبْقِهِمْ، وَذَهَبَ الْمُهَاجِرُونَ الْأََوَّلُونَ بِفَضْلِهِمْ. فَلاَ تَجْعَلَنَّ لِلشَّيْطَانِ فِيكَ نَصِيباً، وَلاَ عَلَى نَفْسِكَ سَبِيلاً، وَالسَّلاَمُ.

In Persian

در پاسخ نامه معاويه

افشاي چهره بني اميه و فضائل اهل بيت (ع) معاويه! اينكه خواستي شام را به تو واگذارم، همانا من چيزي را كه ديروز از تو باز داشتم، امروز به تو نخواهم بخشيد، و اما سخن تو كه جنگ، عرب را جز اندكي، بكام خويش فرو برده است، آگاه باش، آن كس كه بر حق بود، جايگاهش بهشت، و آنكه بر راه باطل بود در آتش است. اما اينكه ادعاي تساوي در جنگ و نفرات جهادگر كرده اي، بدان، كه رشد تو در شك به درجه كمال من در يقين نرسيده است، و اهل شام بر دنيا حريص تر از اهل عراق به آخرت نيستند. فضائل عترت پيامبر (ص) و اينكه ادعا كردي ما همه فرزندان (عبدمناف) هستيم، آري چنين است، اما جد شما (اميه) چونان جد ما (هاشم) و (حرب) همانند (عبدالمطلب) و (ابوسفيان) مانند (ابوطالب) نخواهند بود، هرگز ارزش مهاجران چون اسيران آزادشده نيست، و حلال زاده همانند حرام زاده نمي باشد، و آنكه بر حق است با آنكه بر باطل است را نمي توان مقايسه كرد، و مومن چون مفسد نخواهد بود، و چه زشتند آنان كه پدران گذشته خود را در ورود به آتش پيروي كنند. از همه كه بگذريم، فضيلت نبوت در اختيار ماست كه با آن عزيزان را ذليل، و خوارشدگان را بزرگ كرديم، و آنگاه كه خداوند امت عرب

p: 41

را فوج فوج به دين اسلام درآورد، و اين امت در برابر دين يا از روي اختيار يا اجبار تسليم شد، شما خاندان ابوسفيان، يا براي دنيا و يا از روي ترس در دين اسلام وارد شديد، و اين هنگامي بود كه نخستين اسلام آورندگان بر همه پيشي گرفتند، و مهاجران نخستين ارزش خود را باز يافتند، پس اي معاويه شيطان را از خويش بهره مند، و او را بر جان خويش راه مده. با درود.


(1). During the battle of Siffin Mu'awiyah thought of again demanding the province of Syria from Amir al-mu'minin and to play such a trick as to succeed in his designs. In this connection he consulted 'Amr ibn al-'As. But the latter did not agree with this idea and said O' Mu'awiyah, think a little, what effect will this writing of yours have on 'Ali? How can he fall in this trap by your persuasion. On this Mu'awiyah said We are all descendants of 'Abd Manaf. What difference is there between 'Ali and me that he may score over me and I may not succeed in deceiving him? 'Amr ibn al-'As said If you think so, then write and see (the outcome). Mu'awiyah therefore wrote a letter to Amir al-mu'minin wherein he made a demand for Syria and also wrote: "We are descendants of 'Abd Manaf. There is no distinction of one over the other among us." Then Amir al-mu'minin wrote this letter in reply and mentioning his own predecessors along with those of Mu'awiyah disproved his contention of equality. Although the origin of both was the same and the paternal chain of both joined at 'Abd Manaf the progeny of 'Abd Shams was the source of all evil in morality and character and was involved in heresy and vice whereas the house of Hashim was the worshipper of one God and kept aloof from idolatory. If the branches growing out of the same root bear both flowers as well as thorns then both cannot be deemed equal. Consequently it does not need any detailed explanation to show that Umayyah and Hashim Harb and 'Abd al-Muttalib and Abu Sufyan and Abu Talib were not match of each other from any angle. This is not denied by any historian nor by any biographer. In fact after this reply even Mu'awiyah did not dare refute it because the fact could be concealed that after 'Abd Manaf it was Hashim alone who possessed conspicuous prestige among the Quraysh and the most important positions with relation to the Ka'bah namely siqayah (i.e. the superintendence of the water-supply especially with a veiw to the needs of pilgrims) and rifadah (provisioning of pilgrims) was assigned to him. As such at the time of hajj caravan after caravan used to come and stay with him and he was such a generous host to them that those who partook of his generosity and benevolence would praise him for long thereafter.

p: 42

The worthy son of this very large-hearted and courageous father was 'Abd al-Muttalib whose name was Shaybah and surname was Sayyidu'l-Batha' (the Chief of the Valley of Mecca). He was the successor to the distinction of Abraham's line and owner of the greatness and chiefdom of Quraysh. The high courage and far-sightedness showed by him before Abraham is a shining star of the family of 'Abd Manaf.'Abd Manaf was a pearl and 'Abd al-Muttalib was the lustre of the pearl.

'Abd al-Muttalib's son was Ahu Talib whose lap served as the cradle for 'Abdullah's orphan child and the training place of the Prophet. He brought up the Prophet in his care and shielded him against his enemies. To compare Abu Sufyan Harb and Umayyah with them or to regard them as their matches is the same as to close one's eyes to the lustre of light and to regard it as darkness.

After recounting this geneological difference the next point of distinction that Amir al-mu'minin has described is that he himself is a muhajir (immigrant from Mecca) while Mu'awiyah is a taliq (i.e. one of those whom the Prophet had spared on the day of fall of Mecca). Therefore when the Prophet entered Mecca victorious he enquired from the Quraysh how they thought he would deal with them and all said that being a generous son of a generous father they expected only good from him whereupon the Prophet said Go away, you have all been spared. That is you did deserve to be detained as slaves but as a mark of obligation you have been left free. These spared ones included Mu'awiyah and Abu Sufyan also. Thus Ibn Abi'l-Hadid and ash-Shaykh Muhammad 'Abduh have recorded the following note in their annotations to this letter "Abu Sufyan and Mu'awiyah both were among the spared ones." (Ibn Abi'l-Hadid vol.17 p.119;'Abduh vol.3 p.17)

p: 43

The third point of distinction is that Amir al-mu'minin's lineage is pure and clear and there is no doubtful point anywhere. As against this for Mu'awiyah he has used to the word "lasiq". Men of letters have given lasiq to mean "One who is attributed to other than his father." In this connection the first doubt that is entertained about Umayyah is whether he was the son of 'Abd Shams or only his slave who began to be known as his son because of having been brought up by him. Thus al-'Allamah al-Majlisi has related from Kamil al-Baha'i that:

Umayyah was a Byzantinian slave of 'Abd Shams. When he found him intelligent and sagacious he freed him and adopted him as hisson as a result of which he began to be called Umayyah son of 'Abd Shams as Zayd (ibn al-Harithah) was called Zayd ibn Muhammad before the verse was revealed (to prohibit it).(Bihar al-anwar 1st ed. vol.8 p.383)

The second doubt in the Umayyad lineage is whether Harb who is known as the son of Umayyah was really his son or a slave brought up by him. In this connection Ibn Abi'l-Hadid has quoted from Abu'l-Faraj al-Isbahani's book that:

Mu'awiyah enquired from the lineage expert Daghfal (Ibn Hanzalah) whether he had seen 'Abd al-Muttalib and he replied in the affirmative.He further enquired how he found him and Daghfal replied He was prestigious, handsome and a man of open forehead, while his face bore the brightness of Prophethood. Then Mu'awiyah enquired whether he had seen Umayyah ibn 'Abd Shams also and he replied that he had seen him too. He enquired how he found him and he replied Weak bodied, bent stature and blind in the eyes. In front of him was his slave Dhakwan who led here and there. Mu'awiyah said it was his son Abu 'Amr (Harb) whereupon he said You say so but the Quraysh only know that he was his slave. (al-Aghani vol.1 p.12; Sharh Nahj al-balaghah vol.17 pp.231-232)

p: 44

In this connection the third doubt is about Mu'awiyah himself. Thus Ibn Abi'l-Hadid has written that:

Mu'awiyah's mother Hind led a life of vileness and immorality. az-Zamakhshari (Abu'l-Qasim Mahmud ibn 'Umar [467/1075- 538/

1144]) has written in his book Rabi'u 'l-abrar that Mu'awiyah's parentage was traced back to four persons who were: Musafir ibn

Abi 'Amr 'Umarah ibn al-Walid ibn al-Mughirah al-'Abbas ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib and as-Sabbah (a singer for 'Umarah). (Sharh Nahj al-balaghah vol.1 p.336)

The fourth point of distinction that Amir al-mu'minin has stated is that he himself was the devotee of right while Mu'awiyah was the devotee of wrong and this fact needs no proof for the whole life of Mu'awiyah was spent in suppressing right and hankering after wrong. No where is his step seen advancing towards right.

The fifth distinction that Amir al-mu'minin has mentioned is that he himself was a believer whereas Mu'awiyah was a mischief-monger and a hypocrite. Just as there can be no doubt about Amir al-mu'minin's belief there can be no doubt about Mu`awiyah's mischief-mongering and hypocricy. Thus Amir al-mu'minin has exposed his hypocricy in the earlier writing in these words.

These people had not accepted Islam but they had secured safety by verbally professing it and had hidden their misbelief. Consequently when they found helpers for their mischief they disclosed it.


In English

To `Abdullah ibn al- `Abbas his Governor of Basrah

You should know that Basrah is the place where Satan descends and mischiefs happen. Keep the people of this place pleased with good treatment and remove the knots of fear from their hearts.

p: 45

I have come to know of your strictness with Banu Tamim (1) and your harshness over them. Banu Tamim are those that if one star sets another one rises for them. They were never exceeded in (the art of) war in pre-Islamic times or after Islam. They have a special kinship with us and a particular relationship. We shall be rewarded if we pay heed to the kinship and be deemed sinful if we disregard it. O' Abu'l-`Abbas may Allah have mercy on you. keep yourself restrained in whatever you say or do good or bad about your people as we are both partners in this (responsibility). Prove yourself according to my good impressions about you and do not prove my opinion (about you) wrong; and that is an end to the matter.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى عبد الله بن العباس وهو عامله على البصرة

وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ الْبَصْرَةَ مَهْبِطُ إِبْلِيسَ، وَمَغْرِسُ الْفِتَنِ، فَحَادِثْ أَهْلَهَا بِالْإِِحْسَانِ إِلَيْهِمْ، وَاحْلُلْ عُقْدَةَ الْخَوْفِ عَنْ قُلُوبِهِمْ.

وَقَدْ بَلَغَنِي تَنَمُّرُكَ (1) لِبَنِيٍ تَمِيم، وَغِلْظَتُكَ عَلَيْهِمْ، وَإِنَّ بَنِي تَمِيم لَمْ يَغِبْ لَهُمْس نَجْمٌ (2) إِلاَّ طَلَعَ لَهُمْ آخَرُ (3) ، وَإِنَّهُمْ لَمْ يُسْبَقُوا بِوَغْمٍ (4) فِي جَاهِلِيَّة وَلاَ إِسْلاَمٍ، وَإِنَّ لَهُمْ بِنَا رَحِماً مَاسَّةً، وَقَرَابَةً خَاصَّةً، نَحْنُ مَأْجُورُونَ عَلَى صِلَتِهَا، وَمَأزُورُونَ عَلَى قَطِيعَتِهَا. فَارْبَعْ (5) أَبَا الْعَبَّاسِ، رَحِمَكَ اللهُ، فِيَما جَرَى عَلَى َلِسَانِكَ وَ يَدَكَ مِنْ خَيْر وَشَرّ! فَإِنَّا شَرِيكَانِ فِي ذلِكَ،كُنْ عِنْدَ صَالِحِ ظَنِّي بِكَ، وَلاَ يَفِيلَنَّ (6) رَأَيِي فِيكَ، وَالسَّلاَمُ.

In Persian

به عبدالله بن عباس

بدان، كه بصره امروز جايگاه شيطان، و كشتزار فتنه هاست، با مردم آن به نيكي رفتار كن، و گره وحشت زا از دلهاي آنان بگشاي، بدرفتاري تو را با قبيله (بني تميم) و خشونت با آنها را به من گزارش دادند، همانا (بني تميم) مرداني نيرومندند كه هرگاه دلاوري از آنها غروب كرد، سلحشور ديگري جاي آن درخشيد، و در نبرد، در جاهليت و اسلام، كسي از آنها پيشي نگرفت، و همانا آنها با ما پيوند خويشاوندي، و قرابت و نزديكي دارند، كه صله رحم و پيوند با آنان پاداش، و گسستن پيوند با آنان كيفر الهي دارد، پس مدارا كن اي ابوالعباس! اميد است آنچه از دست و زبان تو از خوب يا بد، جاري مي شود، خدا تو را بيامرزد، چرا كه من و تو در اينگونه از رفتارها شريكيم. سعي كن تا خوش بيني من نسبت به شما استوار باشد، و نظرم دگرگون نشود، با درود.

p: 46


(1). When Talhah and az-Zubayr reached Basrah it was Banu Tamim who took active part in the movement to avenge `Uthman's blood and werc foremost in fanning this mischief. Therefore when `Abdullah ibn al-Abbas took over as the Governor of Basrah in view of their breach of faith and animosity he thought they deserved harsh treatment and was to some extent severe with them. But in this tribe there were also a few sincere followers of Amir al-mu'minin. When they saw this behaviour of Ibn 'Abbas with their tribe they sent a letter to Amir al-mu'minin through Jariyah ibn Qadamah wherein they complained of Ibn 'Abbas's harsh treatment. Thereupon Amir al-mu'minin wrote this letter to Ibn 'Abbas in which he instructed him to change his ways and to behave well with them and has drawn his attention to the kinship existing between Banu Hashim and Banu Tamim. That kinship was this that Banu Hashim and Banu Tamim join the lineal line at Ilyas ibn Mudar because Hashim is the descendant of Mudrikah ibn Ilyas while Tamim is the descendant of Tabikhah ibn Ilyas.


In English

To one of his officers

Now the cultivators (1) (dahaqin plural of dihqan) of your city have complained of your strictness hard heartedness humiliating treatment and harshness. I thought over it and found that since they are unbelievers they cannot be brought near nor kept away or treated severely because of the pledge with them. Behave with them in between strictness and softness and adopt for them a mingling or remoteness and aloofness with nearness and closeness if Allah so wills.

p: 47

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى بعض عماله

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنَّ دَهَاقِينَ (1) أهْلِ بَلَدِكَ شَكَوْا مِنْكَ غِلْظَةً وَقَسْوَةً، وَاحْتِقَاراً وَجَفْوَةً، وَنَظَرْتُ فَلَمْ أَرَهُمْ أَهْلاً لِأََََنْ يُدْنَوْا (2) لِشِرْكِهِمْ، وَلاَ أَنْ يُقْصَواْ (3) وَيُجْفَوْا (4) لِعَهْدِهِمْ، فَالْبَسْ لَهُمْ جِلْبَاباً مِنَ اللِّينِ تَشُوبُهُ (5) بِطَرَفٍ مِنَ الشِّدَّةِ، وَدَاوِلْ (6) لَهُمْ بَيْنَ الْقَسْوَةِ وَالرَّأْفَةِ، وَامْزُجْ لَهُمْ بَيْنَ التَّقْرِيبِ وَالْإِدْنَاءِ، وَالْإِبْعَادِ وَالْإِقْصَاءِ، إِنْ شَاءَ اللهُ.

In Persian

به يكي از فرماندهان

هشدار از بدرفتاري با مردم پس از نام خدا و درود. همانا دهقانان مركز فرمانداريت، از خشونت و قساوت و تحقير كردن مردم و سنگدلي تو شكايت كردند، من درباره آنها انديشيدم، نه آنان را شايسته نزديك شدن يافتم، زيرا كه مشركند. و نه سزاوار قساوت و سنگدلي و بدرفتاري هستند زيرا كه با ما هم پيمانند، پس در رفتار با آنان، نرمي و درشتي را به هم آميز. رفتاري توام با شدت و نرمش داشته باش، اعتدال و ميانه روي را در نزديك كردن يا دور نمودن، رعايت كن.


(1). These people were Magians (majus). That is why the treatment of Amir al-mu'minin's officer with them was not the same as with Muslims. Disgusted with this they wrote a letter of complaint to Amir al-mu'minin and spoke of the Officer's harshness. In reply Amir al-mu'minin wrote to his officer that he should meet out treatment to them in which there should be neither harshness nor such leniency which they may exploit to create mischief because if they are let loose they get involved in machinations against the government and disturb the country's administration by creating one mischief or the other while a wholly repressive policy cannot be justified because they are counted among the subjects and their rights as such cannot be ignored.

p: 48


In English

To Ziyad ibn Abih (son of his [unknown] father) when 'Abdullah ibn al-'Abbas was the Governor of Basrah the suburbs of Ahwaz Fars and Kirman while Ziyad was his deputy in Basrah.

I truthfully swear by Allah that if I come to know that you have misappropriated the funds of the Muslims small or big I shall inflict upon you such punishment which will leave you empty handed heavy backed and humiliated; and that is an end to the matter.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى زياد بن أبيه وهو خليفة عامله عبدالله بن العباس على البصرة، وعبد الله عامل أميرالمؤمنين عليه السلام يومئذ عليها وعلى كور الأهواز (1) وفارس وكرمان و غيرها:

وَإِنِّي أُقْسِمُ بِاللهِ قَسَماً صَادِقاً، لَئِنْ بَلَغَني أَنَّكَ خُنْتَ مِنْ فَيْءِ (2) الْمُسْلِمِينَ شَيْئاً صَغِيراً أَوْ كَبِيراً، لَأَََشُدَّنَّ عَلَيْكَ شَدَّةً تَدَعُكَ قَلِيلَ الْوَفْرِ (3) ، ثَقِيلَ الظَّهْرِ (4) ، ضَئِيلَ الْأَمْرِ (5) ، وَالسَّلاَمُ.

In Persian

به زياد بن ابيه

هشدار از خيانت به بيت المال همانا من، براستي بخدا سوگند مي خورم، اگر به من گزارش كنند كه در بيت المال خيانت كردي، كم يا زياد، چنان بر تو سخت گيرم كه كم بهره شده، و در هزينه عيال، درماني، و خوار و سرگردان شوي. با درود.


In English

Also to Ziyad

Give up lavishness and be moderate. Every day remember the coming day. Hold back from the funds what you need and send forward the balance for the day of your need.

Do you expect that Allah may give you the reward of the humble while you yourself remain vain in His view? And do you covet that He may give you the reward of those practising charity while you enjoy comforts and deny them to the weak and the widows? Certainly a man is awarded according as he acts and meets what he has sent forward; and that is an end to the matter.

p: 49

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلي زياد أيضاً

فَدَعِ الْإِسْرَافَ مُقْتَصِداً، وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْيَوْمِ غَداً، وَأَمْسِكْ مِنَ الْمَالِ بِقَدْرِ ضَرُورَتِكَ، وَقَدِّمِ الْفَضْلَ (1) لِيَوْمِ حَاجَتِكَ.

أَتَرْجُوا أَنْ يُعْطِيَكَ اللهُ أَجْرَ الْمُتَوَاضِعِينَ وَأَنْتَ عِنْدَهُ مِنَ الْمُتَكَبِّرِينَ! وَتَطْمَعُ _ وَأَنْتَ مُتَمَرِّغٌ فِي النَّعِيمِ (2) ، تَمْنَعُهُ الضَّعِيفَ والْأََرْمَلَةَ _ أَنْ يُوجِبَ لَكَ ثَوَابَ الْمتَصَدِّقِينَ؟ وَإِنَّمَا الْمَرْءُ مَجْزِيٌ بَمَا أَسْلَفَ (3) ، وَقَادِمٌ عَلَى مَا قَدَّمَ، وَالسَّلاَمُ.

In Persian

باز هم به زياد بن ابيه

سفارش به ميانه روي اي زياد، از اسراف بپرهيز، و ميانه روي را برگزين، از امروز به فكر فردا باش، و از اموال دنيا به اندازه كفاف خويش نگهدار، و زيادي را براي روز نيازمنديت در آخرت پيش فرست. آيا اميد داري خداوند پاداش فروتنان را به تو بدهد در حالي كه از متكبران باشي؟ و آيا طمع داراي ثواب انفاق كنندگان را دريابي در حالي كه در ناز و نعمت قرار داري؟ و تهيدستان و بيوه زنان را از آن نعمتها محروم مي كني؟ همانا انسان به آنچه پيش فرستاده، و نزد خدا ذخيره ساخته، پاداش داده خواهد شد با درود.


In English

To `Abdullah ibn al-`Abbas. `Abdullah ibn al-'Abbas used to say Apart from the Prophet's sayings I did not derive greater benefit from any saying than this one.

Let it be known to you that sometimes a man gets pleased at securing a thing which he was not going to miss at all and gets displeased at missing a thing which he would not in any case get. Your pleasure should be about what you secure in respect of your next life and your grief should be for what you miss in respect thereof. Do not be much pleased on what you secure from this world nor get extremely grieved over what you miss out of it. Your worry should be about what is to come after death.

p: 50

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى عبدالله بن العباس رحمه الله تعالي ، وكان عبدالله يقول: (ما انتفعت بكلام بعد كلام رسول الله كانتفاعي بهذا الكلام!)

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنَّ الْمَرْءَ قَدْ يَسُرُّهُ دَرَكُ مَا لَمْ يَكُنْ لِيَفُوتَهُ (1) ، وَيَسُوؤُهُ فَوْتُ مَا لَمْ يَكُنْ لِيُدْرِكَهُ (2) ، فَلْيَكُنْ سُرُورُكَ بِمَا نِلْتَ مِنْ آخِرَتِكَ، وَلْيَكُنْ أَسَفُكَ عَلَى مَا فَاتَكَ مِنْهَا، وَمَا نِلْتَ مِنْ دُنْيَاكَ فَلاَ تُكْثِرْ بِهِ فَرَحاً، وَمَا فَاتَكَ مِنْهَا فَلاَ تَأْسَ عَلَيْهِ جَزَعاً، وَلْيَكُنْ هَمُّكَ فِيَما بَعْدَ الْمَوْتِ.

In Persian

به ابن عباس

سفارش به آخرت گرايي پس از ياد خدا و درود! همانا انسان گاهي خشنود مي شود به چيزي كه هرگز از دستش نمي رفت، و ناراحت مي شود براي از دست دادن چيزي كه هرگز به آن نمي رسيد. ابن عباس! خوشحالي تو از چيزي باشد كه در آخرت براي تو مفيد است، و اندوه تو براي از دست دادن چيزي از آخرت باشد، آنچه از دنيا به دست مي آوري تو را خوشنود نسازد، و آنچه در دنيا از دست مي دهي زاري كنان تاسف مخور، همت خويش را به دنياي پس از مرگ واگذار.


In English

Made shortly before his martyrdom when he had been fatally wounded by a blow from the sword of (`Abd ar.Rahman) Ibn Muljam (the curse of Allah be upon him).

I enjoin upon you as my dying wish not to regard anything by way of partner with Allah not to disregard the sunnah of Muhammad (may Allah bless him and his descendants) establish these two pillars and light these two lamps. You will then be free from evil. Yesterday I was your companion and today I am (just) a lesson for you while tomorrow I shall be leaving you. If I survive I shall be the master of my blood (to avenge or not to avenge it) and if I die then death is a promised event. If I forgive it is for me a means of nearness (to Allah) and for you a good act. Therefore do forgive. What! Love you not that Allah should forgive you? (Qur'an 24:22)

p: 51

By Allah this sudden death is not an event that I dislike nor is it an accident that I hate. I am just like a night traveller who reaches the spring (in the morning) or like or seeker who secures (his aim): And whatever is with Allah is the best for the righteous ones. (Qur'an 3:198)

as-Sayyid ar-Radi says: A part of this utterance has already appeared in the sermons but it was found necessary to record it again because of some additional matter.

In Arabic

ومن كلام له عليه السلام

قاله قبل شهادته علي سبيل الوصية لمّا ضربه ابن ملجم لعنة الله عليه:

وَصِيَّتِي لَكُمْ: أَنْ لاَ تُشْرِكُوا بِاللهِ شَيْئاً، وَمُحَمَّدٌ - صَلَّى اللهٌ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ- فَلاَ تُضَيِّعُوا سُنَّتَهُ، أَقِيمُوا هذَيْنِ الْعَمُودَينِ، وأَوْقِدُوا هذَيْنِ الْمِصْبَاحَيْنِ وَخَلاَكُمْ ذَمَّ (1)

أَنَا بِالْأََمْسِ صَاحِبُكُمْ، وَالْيَوْمَ عِبْرَةٌ لَكُمْ، وَغَداً مُفَارِقُكُمْ، إِنْ أَبْقَ فَأَنَا وَلِيُّ دَمِي، وَإِنْ أَفْنَ فَالْفَنَاءُ مِيعَادِي، وَإِنْ أَعْفُ فَالْعَفْوُ لِي قُرْبَةٌ، وَهُوَ لَكُمْ حَسَنَةٌ، فَاعْفُوا (أَلاَ تُحِبُّونَ أَنْ يَغْفِرَ اللهُ لَكُمْ) وَاللهِ مَا فَجَأَنِي مِنَ الْمَوْتِ وَارِدٌ كَرِهْتُهُ، وَلاَ طَالِعٌ أَنْكَرْتُهُ، وَمَا كُنْتُ إِلاَّ كَقَارِب (2) وَرَدَ، وَطَالِبٍ وَجَدَ، (وَمَا عِنْدَ اللهِ خَيْرٌ لِلْأََبْرَارِ).

قال السيد الشريف رضي اللهُ عنه: أقول: وقد مضى بعض هذا الكلام فيما تقدّم من الخطب، إلاّ أنّ فيه هاهنا زيادة أوجبت تكريره.

In Persian

پس از آنكه ضربت خورد

پندهاي جاودانه سفارش من براي شما آنكه به خدا شرك نورزيد، و سنت محمد (ص) را تباه نكنيد، اين دو ستون دين را برپا داريد، و اين دو چراغ را روشن نگهداريد، آنگاه سزاوار هيچ سرزنشي نباشيد. من ديروز همراهتان بودم و امروز مايه عبرت شما مي باشم، و فردا از شما جدا مي گردم، اگر ماندم خود اختيار خون خويش را دارم، و اگر بميرم، مرگ وعده گاه من است، اگر عفو كنم، براي من نزديك شدن به خدا، و براي شما نيكي و حسنه است، پس عفو كنيد. (آيا دوست نداريد خدا شما را بيامرزد؟) بخدا سوگند! مرگ ناگهان به من روي نياورده كه از آن خشنود نباشم، و نشانه هاي آن را زشت بدانم، بلكه من چونان جوينده آب در شب كه ناگهان آن را بيابد، يا كسي كه گمشده خود را پيدا كند، از مرگ خرسندم كه: (و آنچه نزد خداست براي نيكان بهتر است.) (شبيه اين كلمات در خطبه ها گذشت كه جهت برخي مطالب تازه آن را آورديم.)

p: 52


In English

Amir al-mu' minin's will as to how his property should be dealt with. He wrote it on return from Siffin.

This is what `Ali ibn Abi Talib the slave of Allah has laid down about his property in pursuance of seeking Allah's pleasure so that He may by virtue of it give him entry into Paradise and accord him peace.

A part of the same

It will be administered by Hasan ibn `Ali. He will take from it a suitable portion for his livelihood and spend it on charity. If something happens to Hasan and Husayn survives he will adminster it after Hasan and deal with it accordingly. In the charitable estate of the two sons of Fatimah they have the same rights as the all (other) sons of `Ali. I have laid down the (functions of) administration of the two sons of Fatimah in order to seek the pleasure of Allah and nearness to the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and his descendants) with due regard for his honour and consideration of his kinship. it is obligatory on him who administers it that he retains the estate as it is and spends the usufruct as he has been ordered and instructed. He should not sell the seedlings in the plantations of these villages till the land changes its face by turning them into plants. As for those of my slave girls who were under me if any one of them has a child or is pregnant she will be retained for the sake of the child and will form part of his share. If the child dies and she survives then she is free bondage is removed from her and liberty is given to her.(1)

p: 53

as- Sayyid ar- Radi says: In this will in Amir al-mu' minin's phrase "alla yabi`a min nakhliha wadiyyatan" the word "wadiyyah" means seedling of date-palm and its plural is "wadiyy". And his words "hatta tushkila arduha ghirasan" is one of the most eloquent form of expression and it means that when a number of date plants grow on the land then he who had seen it before the growth would regard it as a different land.

In Arabic

ومن وصية له عليه السلام

بما يُعمل في أمواله، كتبها بعد منصرفه من صفين:

هذَا مَا أَمَرَ بِهِ عَبْدُاللهِ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ أمِيرُالْمُؤْمِنِينَ فِي مَالِهِ، ابْتِغَاءَ وَجْهِ اللهِ، لِيُولِجَهُ (1) بِهِ الْجَنَّةَ، وَيُعْطِيَهُ الْأََمَنَةَ (2) .

منها: فَإِنَّهُ يَقُومُ بِذلِكَ الْحَسنُ بْنُ علِيّ، يأْكُلُ مِنْهُ بِالْمعْروفِ، وَيُنْفِقُ مِنْهُ بِالمَعْروُفِ، فَإِنْ حَدَثَ بِحَسَنٍ حَدَثٌ (3) وَحُسَيْنٌ حَيٌّ، قَامَ بِالْأَمْرِ بَعْدَهُ، وَأَصْدَرَهُ (4) مَصْدَرَهُ.

وَإِنَّ لِإِبْنَيْ فَاطِمَةَ مِنْ صَدَقَةِ عَلِيٍّ مِثْلَ الَّذِي لِبَنِي عَلِيٍّ، وَإِنِّي إِنَّمَا جَعَلْتُ الْقِيَامَ بِذلِكَ إِلَى ابْنَيْ فَاطِمَةَ ابْتِغَاءَ وَجْهِ اللهِ، وَقُرْبَةً إِلَى رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ، وَتَكْرِيماً لِحُرْمَتِهِ، وَتَشْرِيفاً لِوُصْلَتِهِ (5) .

وَيَشْتَرِطُ عَلَى الَّذِي يَجْعَلُهُ إِلَيْهِ أَنْ يَتْرُكَ الْمَالَ عَلَى أُصُولِهِ (6) ، وَيُنْقفِقَ مِنْ ثَمَرِهِ حَيْثُ أُمِرَ بِهِ وَهُدِيَ لَهُ، أَلاَّ يَبِيعَ مِنْ أَوْلَادِ نَخِيلَ هذِهِ الْقُرَى وَدِيَّةً (7) حَتَّى تُشْكِلَ أَرْضُهَا غِرَاساً.

وَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْ إِمَائِي _ اللاَّتِي أَطُوفُ عَلَيْهِنَّ (8) _ لَهَا وَلَدٌ، أَوْهِيَ حَامِلٌ، فَتُمْسَكُ عَلَى وَلَدِهَا وَهِيَ مِنْ حَظِّهِ، فَإِنْ مَاتَ وَلَدُهَا وَهِيَ حَيَّةٌ فَهِيَ عَتِيقَةٌ، قَدْ أَفْرَجَ عَنْهَا الرِّقُّ، وَحَرَّرَهَا الْعِتْقُ.

قال الشريف: قوله عليه السلام في هذه الوصية: "وألا يبيع من نخلها وَدِيَّةً"، الوَدِيَّةُ: الفَسِيلَةُ، وجمعها وَدِيٌّ. وَقوله عليه السلام: "حتى تشكل أرضها غراساً" هو من أفصح الكلام، والمراد به: أن الأرض يكثر فيها غراس النخل حتّى يراها الناظر على غير تلك الصفة التي عرفها بها فيشكل عليه أمرها ويحسبها غيرها.

p: 54

In Persian

وصيت درباره دارايي خود

وصيت اقتصادي نسبت به اموال شخصي اين دستوري است كه بنده خدا علي بن ابيطالب، امير مومنان نسبت به اموال شخصي خود براي خشنودي خدا، داده است، تا خداوند با آن به بهشتش درآورد، و آسوده اش گرداند. (قسمتي از اين نامه است) همانا سرپرستي اين اموال بر عهده فرزندم حسن بن علي است، آنگونه كه رواست از آن مصرف نمايد، و از آن انفاق كند، اگر براي حسن حادثه اي رخ داد و حسين زنده بود، سرپرستي آن را پس از برادرش به عهده گيرد، و كار او را تداوم بخشد. پسران فاطمه از اين اموال به همان مقدار سهم دارند كه ديگر پسران علي خواهند داشت، من سرپرستي اموالم را به پسران فاطمه واگذارم، تا خشنودي خدا، و نزديك شدن به رسول الله (ص) و بزرگداشت حرمت او، و احترام پيوند خويشاوندي پيامبر (ص) را فراهم آورم. ضرورت حفظ اموال و با كسي كه اين اموال در دست اوست شرط مي كنم كه اصل مال را حفظ نموده تنها از ميوه و درآمدش بخورند و انفاق كنند، و هرگز نهالهاي درخت خرما را نفروشند، تا همه اين سرزمين يكپارچه زير درختان خرما بگونه اي قرار گيرد كه راه يافتن در آن دشوار باشد. و زنان غير عقدي من كه با آنها بودم و صاحب فرزند يا حامله مي باشند، پس از تولد

فرزند، فرزند خود را گيرد كه او بهره او باشد، و اگر فرزندانش بميرد، مادر آزاد است، كنيز بودن از او برداشته، و آزادي خويش را باز يابد، (وديه) به معني نهال خرما، و جمع آن (ودي) بر وزن (علي) مي باشد، و جمله امام نسبت به درختان (حتي تشكل ارضها غراسا) از فصيح ترين سخن است يعني زمين پردرخت شود كه چيزي جز درختان به چشم نيايند)

p: 55


(1). The life of Amir al-mu'minin was that of a labourer or a cultivator. He worked in fields of other persons cultivated barren and untilled lands providing means of irrigating them made them cultivable and planted orchards therein . Since these lands were cultivated by him they were his Property but he never paid heed to property and declaring them a trust gave up his proprietorship; but in consideration of the Prophet's kinship he assigned the management rights of this trust to Imam Hasan and Imam Husayn one after the other. Yet he did not tolerate any additional rights for them but like other children gave them merely the right to take from it only for their livelihood while the balance he ordered to be spent for the common good of the Muslims and for charitable purposes. Thus Ibn Abi'l-Hadid writes:

Everyone knows that in Medina Yanbu' and Suwayqah Amir al-mu'minin had dug several springs from under the land and brought under cultivation many barren and uncultivable lands. Thereafter he gave up rights over them and declared them as trusts for the Muslims. When he left the world nothing was owned by him. (Sharh Nahj al-balaghah vol.15 p.146)


In English

Amir al-mu'minin used to write to whoever he appointed for the the collection of zakat and charities.

ash-Sharif says: We have recorded a few portions of it here to show that he always erected the pillars of right and created examples of justice in all matters small or big delicate or serious.

p: 56

Move on with the fear of Allah Who is One and has no partner. Do not frighten any Muslim. Do not pass over his lands so as to make him feel unhappy. Do not take from him more than Allah's share in his property. When you go to a tribe you should get down at their watering place instead of entering their houses. Then proceed towards them with peace and dignity till you stand among them. Then salute them and do not be remiss in greeting them then say to them O' servants of Allah, the vicegerent of Allah and His caliph has sent me to you to collect from you Allah's share in your properties. Is there anything of His share in your properties? If so, give it to His vicegerent.

If someone among them says "No" then do not repeat the demand. If someone speaks to you in the affirmative then go with him without frightening him threatening him pressuring him or oppressing him. Take what he gives you such as gold or silver (coins). If he has cattle or camels do not enter upon them save with his permission because their major part is his. Therefore when you get there do not enter upon them like one who has full control over them or in a violent manner. Do not scare any animal do not tease anyone and do not let the owner feel grieved about anyone.

Divide the property into two parts and let the owner choose one.When he has chosen do not object to it.Then divide the remaining into two parts and let him choose one and when he has chosen do not raise any objection.Continue like this till only that much remains which is enough to satisfy Allah's dues. Then take Allah's due from it. If he disputes your action allow his views then mix the two (separated) parts and repeat what you had done before till you take Allah's due from his property. Do not take an old decrepit broken-limbed sick or unsound animal. Do not entrust the animals (for custody) except to one whom you trust to take care of Muslims' property till he hands it over to their chief who will distribute it. Do not entrust it to anyone except he who is a well wisher God-fearing trustworthy and watchful and who is not harsh on Muslims' property nor makes them run too much nor tires them nor labours them. Then send to us all that you have collected and we shall deal with it as Allah has ordered.

p: 57

When your trustee takes over (the animal) tell him that he should not separate the she-camel from its young and should not milk all its milk because that would affect its young and also that he should not exert it in riding. In this matter he should behave justly between it and all its companions. He should allow rest to camels (who are tired) and drive with ease those whose hoofs have been rubbed off. When you pass a water spring stay the camels there for drinking and do not take them away from vegetated land to barren paths. He should allow them rest now and then and give them time near water and grass. In this way when they reach us by leave of Allah they will be fat with plenty of marrow and would not be fatigued or distressed. We will then distribute them according to the (commands of) the Book of Allah and the sunnah of His Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny). Certainly this will be a great source of reward for you and a means to secure guidance if Allah so wills.

In Arabic

ومن وصية له عليه السلام

كان يكتبها لمن يستعمله على الصدقات

قال الشريف: و إنما ذكرنا هنا جملاً ليُعلَمَ بها أنه عليه السلام كان يقيم عماد الحق، ويشرع أمثلة العدل، في صغير الأمور وكبيرها، ودقيقها وجليلها.

انْطَلِقْ عَلَى تَقْوَى اللهِ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ، وَلاَ تُرَوِّعَنَّ (1) مُسْلِماً، وَلاَ تَجْتَازَنَّ (2) عَلَيْهِ كَارِهاً، وَلاَ تَأْخُذَنَّ مِنْهُ أَكثَرَ مِنْ حَقِّ اللهِ فِي مَالِهِ. فَإِذَا قَدِمْتَ عَلَى الْحَيِّ فَانْزِلْ بِمَائِهِمْ مِنْ غَيْرِ أَنْ تُخَالِطَ أَبْيَاتَهُمْ، ثُمَّ امْضِ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالسَّكِينَةِ وَالْوَقَارِ، حَتَّى تَقوُمَ بَيْنَهُمْ فَتُسَلِّمَ عَلَيْهِمْ، وَلاَ تُخْدِجْ بِالتَّحِيَّةِ لَهُمْ (3) ، ثُمَّ تَقُولَ: عِبَادَ اللهِ، أَرْسَلَنِي إِلَيْكُمْ وَلِيُّ اللهِ وَخَلِيفَتُهُ،لآخُذََ مِنْكُمْ حَقَّ اللهِ فِي أَمْوَالِكُمْ، فَهَلْ لِلَّهِ فِي أَمْوَالِكُمْ مِنْ حَقّ فَتُؤَدُّوهُ إِلَى وَلِيِّهِ؟ فَإِنْ قَالَ قَائِلٌ: لاَ، فَلاَ تُرَاجِعْهُ، وَإِنْ أَنْعَمَ (4) لَكَ مُنْعِمٌ فَانْطَلِقْ مَعَهُ مِنْ غَيْرِ أَنْ تُخِيفَهُ أَوْ تُوعِدَهُ أَوْ تَعْسِفَهُ (5) أَوْ تُرْهِقَهُ (6) ، فَخُذْ مَا أَعْطَاكَ مِنْ ذَهَب أَ وْ فِضَّة، فَإنْ كَانَ لَهُ مَاشِيَةٌ أَوْ إِبِلٌ فَلاَ تَدْخُلْهَا إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِهِ، فَإِنَّ أَكْثَرَهَا لَهُ، فَإِذَا أَتَيْتَهَا فَلاَ تَدْخُلْ عَلَيْهَا دُخُولَ مُتَسَلِّط عَلَيْهِ وَلاَ عَنِيف بِهِ، وَلاَ تُنَفِّرَنَّ بَهِيمَةً وَلاَ تُفْزِعَنَّهَا،وَلاَ تَسُوءَنَّ صَاحِبَهَا فِيهَا، وَاصْدَعِ (7) الْمَالَ , صَدْعَيْنِ، ثُمَّ خَيِّرْهُ (8) ، فَإِذَا اخْتَارَ فَلاَ تَعْرِضَنَّ لِمَا اخْتَارَهُ، ثُمَّ اصْدَعِ الْبَاقيَ صَدْعَيْنِ، ثُمَّ خَيِّرْهُ، فَإِذَا اخْتَارَ فَلاَ تَعْرِضَنَّ لِمَا اخْتَارَ. فَلاَ تَزَالُ كَذَلِكَ حَتَّى يَبْقَى مَا فِيهِ وَفَاءٌ لِحَقِّ اللهِ فِي مَالِهِ، فَاقْبِضْ حَقَّ اللهِ مِنْهُ. فَإِنِ اسْتَقَالَكَ فَأَقِلْهُ (9) ، ثُمَّ اخْلِطْهُمَا، ثُمَّ اصْنَعْ مِثْلَ الَّذِي صَنَعْتَ أَوَّلاً حَتَّى تَأْخُذَ حَقَّ اللهِ فِي مَالِهِ. وَلاَ تَأْخُذَنَّ عَوْداً (10) ، وَلاَ هَرِمَةً (11) ، وَلاَ مَكْسُورَةً، وَلاَ مَهْلُوسَةً (12) ، وَلاَ ذَاتَ عَوَارٍ (13) وَلاَ تَأْمَنَنَّ عَلَيْهَا إِلاَّ مَنْ تَثِقُ بِدِينِهِ، رَافِقاً بِمَالِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ حَتَّى يُوَصِّلَهُ إِلَ ى وَلِيِّهِمْ فَيَقْسِمَهُ بَيْنَهُمْ, وَلاَ تُوَكِّلْ بِهَا إِلاَّ نَاصِحاً شَفِيقاً وَأَمِيناً حَفِيظاً، غَيْرَ مُعَنِّفٍ وَلاَ مُجْحِفٍ (14) ، وَلاَ مُلْغِبٍ (15) وَلاَ مُتْعِبٍ. ثُمَّ احْدُرْ (16) إِلَيْنَا مَا اجْتَمَعَ عِنْدَكَ، نُصَيِّرْهُ حَيْثُ أَمَرَ اللهُ بِهِ, فَإِذَا أَخذَهَا أَمِينُكَ فَأَوْعِزْ إِلَيْهِ أَلاَّ يَحُولَ بَيْنَ نَاقَةٍ وَبَيْنَ فَصِيلِهَا (17) ، وَلاَ يَمْصُرَ (18) لَبَنَهَا فَيَضُرَّ ذَلِكَ بِوَلَدِهَا، وَلاَ يَجْهَدَنَّهَا رُكُوباً، وَلْيَعْدِلْ بَيْنَ صَوَاحِبَاتِهَا فِي ذَلِكَ وَبَيْنَهَا، وَلْيُرَفِّهْ عَلَى اللاَّغِبِ (19) ، وَلْيَسْتَأْنِ (20) بِالنَّقِبِ (21) وَالظَّالِعِ (22) ، وَلْيُورِدْهَا مَا تَمُرُّ بِهِ مِنَ الْغُدُرِ (23) ، وَلاَ يَعْدِلْ بِهَا عَنْ نَبْتِ الْأَرْضِ إِلَى جَوَادِّ الطُّرُقِ (24) ، وَ لْيُرَوِّحْهَا فِي السَّاعَاتِ، وَلْيُمْهِلْهَا عِنْدَ النِّطَافِ (25) وَالْأَعْشَابِ، حَتَّى تَأْتِيَنَا بِإِذْنِ اللهِ بُدَّناً (26) مُنْقِيَاتٍ (27) ، غَيْرَ مُتْعَبَاتٍ وَلاَ مَجْهُودَاتٍ (28) ، لِنَقْسِمَهَا عَلَى كِتَابِ اللهِ وَسُنَّةِ نَبِيِّهِ صَلَّي عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ أَعْظَمُ لِأَجْرِكَ، وَأَقْرَبُ لِرُشْدِكَ، إِنْ شَاءَ اللهُ.

p: 58

In Persian

به مامور جمع آوري ماليات

اخلاق اجتماعي كارگزاران اقتصادي با ترس از خدايي كه يكتاست و همتايي ندارد، حركت كن، در سر راه هيچ مسلماني را نترسان، يا با زور از زمين او نگذر، و افزون تر از حقوق الهي از او مگير، هرگاه به آبادي رسيدي، در كنار آب فرود آي، و وارد خانه كسي مشو، سپس با آرامش و وقار به سوي آنان حركت كن، تا در ميانشان قرارگيري، به آنها سلام كن، و در سلام و تعارف و مهرباني كوتاهي نكن. سپس مي گويي: (اي بندگان خدا، مرا ولي خدا و جانشين او به سوي شما فرستاده، تا حق خدا را كه در اموال شماست تحويل گيرم، آيا در اموال شما حقي است كه به نماينده او بپردازيد؟) اگر كسي گفت: نه، ديگر به او مراجعه نكن، و اگر كسي پاسخ داد: آري، همراهش برو، بدون آنكه او را بترساني، يا تهديد كني، يا به كار مشكلي وادار سازي، هر چه از طلا و نقره به تو رساند برادر، و اگر داراي گوسفند يا شتر بود، بدون اجازه اش داخل مشو، كه اكثر اموال از آن اوست. آنگاه كه داخل شدي مانند اشخاص سلطه گر، و سختگير رفتار نكن، حيواني را رم مده، و هراسان مكن، و دامدار را مرنجان، حيوانات را به دو دسته تقسيم كن و صاحبش را اجازه ده كه خود انتخاب كند، پس از انتخاب اعتراض نكن، سپس باقيمانده را به دو دسته تقسيم كن و صاحبش را اجازه ده كه خود انتخاب كند و بر انتخاب او خرده مگير، به همين گونه رفتار كن تا باقيمانده، حق خداوند باشد. اگر دامدار از اين تقسيم و انتخاب پشيمان است، و از تو درخواست گزينش دوباره دارد همراهي كن، پس حيوانات را درهم كن، و به دو دسته تقسيم نما همانند آغاز كار، تا حق خدا را از آن برگيري و در تحويل گرفتن حيوانات، حيوان پير و دست و پا شكسته، بيمار و معيوب را به عنوان زكات نپذير، و به فردي كه اطمينان نداري، و نسبت به اموال مسلمين دلسوز نيست، مسپار. تا آن را به پيشواي مسلمين رسانده، در ميان آنها تقسيم گردد. حمايت از حقوق حيوانات در رساندن حيوانات آن را به دست چوپاني كه خيرخواه و مهربان، امين و حافظ، كه نه سختگير باشد و نه ستمكار، نه تند براند و نه حيوانات را خسته كند، بسپار، سپس آنچه از بيت المال جمع آوري شد براي ما بفرست، تا در نيازهايي كه خدا اجازه فرمود مصرف كنيم، هرگاه حيوانات را به دست فردي امين سپردي، به او سفارش كن تا: (بين شتر و نوزادش جدايي نيفكند، و شير آن را ندوشد تا به بچه اش زياني وارد نشود، در سوار شدن بر شتران عدالت را رعايت كند، و مراعات حال شتر خسته يا زخمي

p: 59

را كه سواري دادن براي او سخت است بنمايد، آنها را در سر راه به درون آب ببريد، و از جاده هائي كه دو طرف آن علفزار است به جاده بي علف نكشاند و هر چندگاه شتران را مهلت دهد تا استراحت كنند و هرگاه به آب و علفزار رسيد، فرصت دهد تا علف بخورند و آب بنوشند.) تا آنگاه كه به اذن خدا بر ما وارد شوند، فربه و سرحال، نه خسته و كوفته، كه آنها را بر اساس رهنمود قرآن، و سنت پيامبر (ص) تقسيم نماييم، عمل به دستورات يادشده مايه بزرگي پاداش و هدايت تو خواهد شد. انشاءالله.


In English

Given to one of his officers whom he sent for the collection of zakat and charities.

He (Amir al-mu'minin) ordered him to fear Allah in his secret matters and hidden actions where there is no witness except He and no one watches save He. He also orders him that whatever he does in obedience to Allah openly should not be different from what he does secretly. He whose hidden position is not different from his open position and whose action is not different from his words has discharged his obligation and his worship is pure.

He also ordered him that he should not harass them should not be harsh on them and should not turn away from them because of superiority of official position over them because they are brethren in faith and help in the recovery of levies.

Certainly you have a fixed share and a known right in this levy and there are other sharers who are poor weak and starving. We shall discharge your rights. So you should discharge their rights. If you do not do so you will have the largest number of enemies on the Day of Judgement. How wretched is the man whose enemies in the view of Allah are the needy the destitute the beggars the turned away the indebted and (penniless) travellers. He who treats the trust lightly and indulges in treachery and does not keep himself and his faith untarnished by it has certainly secured humiliation in this world and his humiliation and disgrace in the next world will be greater. Surely the greatest treachery is the treachery against the Muslim community and the most ugly deceit is the deceit towards the Muslim leaders; and that is an end to the matter.

p: 60

In Arabic

ومن عهد له عليه السلام

إلى بعض عمّاله، وقد بعثه على الصدقة

أَمَرَهُ بِتَقْوَى اللهِ فِي سَرَائِرِ أُمُورِهِ وَخَفِيَّاتِ عَمَلِهِ، حَيْثُ لاَ شَهِيدَ غَيْرُهُ، وَلاَ وَكِيلَ دُونَهُ. وَ أَمَرَهُ أَلاَّ يَعْمَلَ بَشَيْءٍ مِنْ طَاعَةِ اللهِ فِيما ظَهَرَ فَيُخَالِفَ إِلَى غَيْرِهِ فِيَما أَسَرَّ، وَمَنْ لَمْ يَخْتَلِفْ سِرُّهُ عَلاَنِيَتُهُ، وَفِعْلُهُ وَمَقَالَتُهُ، فَقَدْ أَدّى الْأَمَانَةَ، وَأَخْلَصَ الْعِبَادَةَ.

وَأَمَرَهُ أَلاَّ يَجْبَهَهُمْ (1) ، وَلاَ يَعْضَهَهُمْ (2) ، وَلاَ يَرْغَبَ عَنْهُمْ (3) تَفَضُّلاً بِالْإِمَارَةِ عَلَيْهِمْ، فَإِنَّهُمُ الْإِخْوَانُ فِي الدِّينِ، وَ الْأَعْوَانُ عَلَى اسْتِخْرَاجِ الْحُقُوقِ.

وَإِنَّ لَكَ فِي هذِهِ الصَّدَقَةِ نَصِيباً مَفْرُوضاً، وَحَقّاً مَعْلُوماً، وَشُرَكَاءَ أَهْلَ مَسْكَنَة، وَضَعَفَاءَ ذَوِي فَاقَةٍ، إِنَّا مُوَفُّوكَ حَقَّكَ، فَوَفِّهِمْ, حُقُوقَهُمْ، وَإِلاَّ تَفْعَلْ فَإِنَّكَ مِنْ أَكْثَرِ النَّاسِ خُصُوماً يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ، وَبُؤْسي (4) لِمَنْ -خَصْمُهُ عِنْدَ اللهِ - الْفُقَرَاءُ وَالْمَسَاكِينُ وَالسَّائِلُونَ وَالْمَدْفُوعُونَ وَالْغَارِمُونَ وَابْنُ السَّبِيلِ! وَمَنِ اسْتَهَ انَ بِالْأَمَانَةِ، وَرَتَعَ فِي الْخِيَانَةِ، وَلَمْ يُنَزِّهَ نَفْسَهُ وَدِينَهُ عَنْهَا، فَقَدْ أَحَلَّ بِنَفْسِهِ الْذُّلَّ وَالْخِزْيَ (5) فِي الدُّنْيَا، وَهُوَ فِي الْآخِرَةِ أَذَلُّ وَأَخْزَى. وَإِنَّ أَعْظَمَ الْخِيَانَةِ خِيَانَةُ الْأُمَّةِ، وَأَفْظَعَ الْغِشِّ غِشُّ الْأَئِمَّةِ، وَالسَّلاَم.

In Persian

به يكي از ماموران زكات

اخلاق كارگزاران مالياتي او را به ترس از خدا در اسرار پنهاني، و اعمال مخفي سفارش مي كنم، آنجا كه هيچ گواهي غير از او، و نماينده اي جز خدا نيست، و سفارش مي كنم كه مبادا در ظاهر خدا را اطاعت، و در خلوت نافرماني كند، و اينكه آشكار و پنهانش، و گفتار و كردارش در تضاد نباشد، امانت الهي را اداء، و عبادت را خالصانه انجام دهد. و به او سفارش مي كنم با مردم تندخو نباشد، و به آنها دروغ نگويد، و با مردم به جهت اينكه بر آنها حكومت دارد بي اعتنايي نكند، چه اينكه مردم برادران ديني، و ياري دهندگان در استخراج حقوق الهي اند. بدان! براي تو در اين زكاتي كه جمع مي كني سهمي معين، و حقي روشن است، و شريكاني از مستمندان و ضعيفان داري، همانگونه كه ما حق تو را مي دهيم، تو هم بايد نسبت به حقوق آنان وفادار باشي، اگر چنين نكني در روز رستاخيز بيش از همه دشمن داري، و واي بر كسي كه در پيشگاه خدا، فقرا و مساكين، و درخواست كنندگان و آنان كه از حقشان محرومند، و بدهكاران و ورشكستگان و در راه ماندگان، دشمن او باشند و از او شكايت كنند. امانتداري كسي كه امانت الهي را خوار شمارد، و دست به خيانت آلوده كند، و خود و دين خود را پاك نسازد،

p: 61

درهاي خواري را در دنيا به روي خود گشوده، و در قيامت خوارتر و رسواتر خواهد بود، و همانا! بزرگترين خيانت! خيانت به ملت، و رسواترين دغلكاري، دغلبازي با امامان است، با درود.


In English

Given to Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) when Amir al-mu'minin appointed him as the Governor of Egypt.

Behave humbly with the people keep yourself lenient meet them large-heartedly accord them equal treatment so that the big should not expect injustice from you in their favour and the low should not be despondent of your justice to them. Allah the Sublime will certainly question you O' community of His creatures about your actions small or big open or concealed. If He punishes you it is because you have been oppressive and if He forgives then it is because He is the Most Generous.

Know O' creatures of Allah that the God-fearing have shared the joys of this transient world as well as the next coming world for they shared with the people of this world in their worldly matters while their people did not share with them in the matters of the next world. They lived in this world in the best manner of living and ate the choicest food and consequently they enjoyed herein all that the people with ease of life enjoyed and secured from it what the haughty and the vain secured. Then they departed from it after taking provision enough to take them to the end of their journey and after doing a profitable transaction. They tasted the pleasure of renouncing the world in this world and they firmly believed that on the coming day in their next life they would be neighbours of Allah where their call would not be repulsed nor would their share of pleasure be small.

p: 62

Therefore O' creatures of Allah be afraid of death and its measures and keep ready all that is needed for it.It will come as a big event and a great affair either as a good in which there will never be any evil or an evil in which there will never be any good.Who is nearer to Paradise than he who works towards it and who is nearer to Hell than he who works for it? You are being chased by death. If you stop it will catch you and if you

run away from it it will grip you. It is more attached to you than your reflection. Death is tied to your fore-locks while the world is being wrapped up from behind you. Therefore fear the Fire whose hollow is deep whose flames are severe and whose punishment is novel. It is a place wherein there is no mercy. No call is heard in it. No pain is healed in it. If it is possible for you to have severe fear of Allah and to rest hope in Him then do both these things because every individual can have hope in His Lord to the extent of his fear of His Lord. Certainly the most hopeful person with Allah is he who fears Him most.

O' Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr know that I have given you charge of Egypt which is my biggest force. So you are duty-bound to oppose your passions and serve as a shield against your religion even though you may get only an hour in the world; and do not enrage Allah for pleasing others because (Allah) is such that He may take the place of others but others cannot take the place of Allah. Say prayers at the appointed time. Do not say it earlier for the sake of (available) leisure nor delay it on account of pre-occupation. Remember that every act of yours is dependent on your prayer.

p: 63

A part of the same

The leader of guidance and the leader of destruction cannot be equal nor the friend of the Prophet and the enemy of the Prophet. The Messenger of Allah (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) has told ( 318 )

me that: "In respect of my people I am afraid neither of a believer nor of an unbeliever. As for the believer Allah will afford him protection because of his belief and as for the unbeliever Allah will humiliate him because of his unbelief. But I am afraid about everyone of you who is a hypocrite in his heart and learned of speech. He speaks what you hold good but does what you dislike."

In Arabic

ومن عهد له عليه السلام

إلى محمد بن أبي بكر - رضي الله عنه - حين قلّده مصر:

فَاخْفِضْ لَهُمْ جَنَاحَكَ، وَأَلِنْ لَهُمْ جَانِبَكَ، وَابْسُطْ لَهُمْ وَجْهَكَ، وَآسِ (1) بَيْنَهُمْ فِي اللَّحْظَةِ وَالنَّظْرَةِ، حَتَّى لاَ يَطْمَعَ الْعُظَمَاءُ فِي حَيْفِكَ لَهُمْ (2) ، وَلاَ يَيْأَسَ الضُّعَفَاءُ مِنْ عَدْلِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ. فَإنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى يُسَائِلُكُمْ مَعْشَرَ عِبَادِهِ عَنِ الصَّغِيرَةِ مِنْ أَعْمَالِكُمْ وَالْكَبِيرَةِ، وَالظَّاهِرَةِ وَالْمَسْتُورَةِ، فَإِنْ يُعَذِّبْ فَأَنْتُمْ أَظْلَمُ، وَإِنْ يَعْفُ فَهُوَ أَكْرَمُ.

وَاعْلَمُوا عِبَادَ اللهِ، أَنَّ الْمُتَّقِينَ ذَهَبُوا بِعَاجِلِ الدُّنْيَا وَآجِلِ الْآخِرَةِ، فَشَارَكُوا أَهْلَ الدُّنْيَا فِي دُنْيَاهُمْ، وَلَمْ يُشَارِكُو أَهْلُ الدُّنْيَا فِي آخِرَتِهِمْ; سَكَنُوا الدُّنْيَا بَأَفْضَلِ مَا سُكِنَتْ، وَأَكَلُوهَا بِأَفْضَلِ مَا أُكِلَتْ، فَحَظُوا مِنَ الدُّنْيَا بِمَا حَظِيَ بِهِ الْمُتْرَفُونَ (3) ، وَأَخَذُوا مِنْهَا مَا أَخَذَهُ الْجَبَابِرَةُ الْمُتَكَبِّرُونَ، ثُمَّ انْقَلَبُوا عَنْهَا بِالزَّادِ الْمُبَلِّغِ،

وَالْمَتْجَرِ الرَّابِحِ، أَصَابُوا لَذَّةَ زُهْدِ الدُّنْيَا فِي دُنْيَاهُمْ، وَت َيَقَّنُوا أَنَّهُمْ جِيرَانُ اللهِ غَداً فِي آخِرَتِهِمْ، لاَ تُرَدُّ لَهُمْ دَعْوَةٌ، وَلاَ يَنْقُصُ لَهُمْ نَصِيبٌ مِنْ لَذَّة. فَاحْذَرُوا عِبَادَ اللهِ الْمَوْتَ وَقُرْبَهُ، وَأَعِدُّوا لَهُ عُدَّتَهُ، فَإِنَّهُ يَأْتِي بِأَمْرٍ عَظِيم، وَخَطْبٍ جَلِيلٍ، بِخَيْرٍ لاَ يَكُونُ مَعَهُ شَرٌّ أَبَداً، أَوْ شَرٍّ لاَ يَكُونُ مَعَهُ خَيْرٌ أَبَداً، فَمَنْ أَقْرَبُ إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ مِنْ عَامِلِهَا!

p: 64

وَمَنْ أَقْرَبُ إِلى النَّارِ مِنْ عَامِلِهَا! وَأَنْتُمْ طُرَدَاءُ الْمَوْتِ، إِنْ أَقَمْتُمْ لَهُ أَخْذَكُمْ، وَإِنْ فَرَرْتُمْ مِنْهُ أَدْرَككُمْ، وَهُوَ أَلْزَمُ لَكُمْ مِنْ ظِلِّكُمْ، الْمَوْتُ مَعْقُودٌ بِنَوَاصِيكُمْ (4) ، وَالدُّنْيَا تُطْوَى مِنْ خَلْفِكُمْ. فَاحْذَرُوا نَاراً قَعْرُهَا بَعِيدٌ، وَحَرُّهَا شَدِيدٌ، وَعَذَابُهَا جَدِيدٌ، دَارٌ لَيْسَ فِيها رَحْمَةٌ، وَلاَ تُسْمَعُ فِيهَا دَعْوَةٌ، وَلاَ تُفَرَّجُ فِيهَا كُرْبَهٌ. وَإِنِ اسْتَطَعْتُمْ أَنْ يَشْتَدَّ خَوْفُكُمْ مِنَ اللهِ، وَأَنْ يَحْسُنَ ظَنُّكُمْ بِهِ، فَاجْمَعُوا بيْنَهُمَا، فَإِنَّ الْعَبْدَ إِنَّمَا يَكُونُ حُسْنُ ظَ نِّهِ بِرَبِّهِ عَلَى قَدْرِ خَوْفِهِ مِنْ رَبِّهِ، وَإِنَّ أَحْسَنَ النَّاسِ ظَنّاً بِاللهِ أَشَدُّهُمْ خَوْفاً لله. وَاعْلَمْ _ يَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنَ أَبِي بَكْرٍ _ أَنِّي قَدْ وَلَّيْتُكَ أَعْظَمَ أَجْنَادِي فِي نَفْسِي أَهْلَ مِصْرَ، فَأَنْتَ مَحْقُوقٌ أَنْ تُخَالِفَ عَلَى نَفْسِكَ (5) ، وَأَنْ تُنَافِحَ (6) عَنْ دِينِكَ، وَلَوْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَكَ إِلاَّ سَاعَةٌ مِنَ الدَّهْرِ، وَلاَ تُسْخِطِ اللهَ بِرِضَى أَحَد مِنْ خَلْقِهِ، فَإِنَّ فِي اللهِ خَلَفاً مِنْ غَيْرِهِ (7) ، وَلَيْسَ مِنَ اللهِ خَلَفٌ فِي غَيْرِهِ.

صَلِّ الصَّلاَةَ لِوَقْتِهَا الْمُوَقَّتِ لَهَا، وَلاَ تُعَجِّلْ وَقْتَهَا لِفَرَاغ، وَلاَ تُؤْخِّرْهَا عَنْ وَقْتِهَا لِإِشْتِغَالٍ، وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ مِنْ عَمَلِكَ تَبَعٌ لِصَلاَتِكَ.

ومنه: فَإِنَّهُ لاَ سَوَاءَ، إِمَامُ الْهُدَى وَإِمَامُ الرَّدَى، وَوَلِيُّ النَّبِىِّ وَعَدُوُّ النَّبِيِّ، وَلَقَدْ قَالَ لِي رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: (إِنِّي لاَ أَخَافُ عَلَى أُمَّتِي مُؤْمِناً وَلاَ مُشْرِكاً، أَمَّا الْمُؤمِنُ فَيَمْنَعُهُ اللهُ بِإِيمَانِهِ، وَأَمَّا الْمُشْرِكُ فَيَقْمَعُهُ (8) اللهُ بِشِرْكِهِ. لكِنِّي أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ كُلَّ مَنَافِقِ الْجَنَانِ (9) ، عَالِمِ اللِّسَانِ (10) ، يَقُولُ مَا تَعْرِفُونَ،وَيَفْعَلُ مَا تُنْكِرُونَ).

In Persian

به محمد بن ابوبكر

اخلاق اجتماعي با مردم فروتن باش، نرمخو و مهربان باش، گشاده رو و خندان باش، در نگاههايت، و در نيم نگاه و خيره شدن به مردم به تساوي رفتار كن، تا بزرگان در ستمكاري تو طمع نكنند، و ناتوانها در عدالت تو مايوس نگردند، زيرا خداوند از شما بندگان درباره اعمال كوچك و بزرگ، آشكار و پنهان پرسش مي كند، اگر كيفر دهد شما استحقاق بيش از آن را داريد، و اگر ببخشد از بزرگواري اوست.

p: 65

اعتدال گرايي زاهدان آگاه باشيد، اي بندگان خدا، پرهيزكاران از دنياي زودگذر به سلامت گذشتند و آخرت جاودانه را گرفتند، با مردم دنيا در دنياشان شريك گشتند، اما مردم دنيا در آخرت آنها شركت نكردند، پرهيزكاران در بهترين خانه هاي دنيا سكونت كردند، و بهترين خوراكهاي دنيا را خوردند، و همان لذتهايي را چشيدند كه دنياداران چشيده بودند، و از دنيا بهره گرفتند آنگونه كه سركشان و متكبران دنيا بهره مند بودند. سپس از اين جهان با زاد و توشه فراوان، و تجارتي پرسود، به سوي آخرت شتافتند، لذت پارسايي در ترك حرام دنيا را چشيدند، و يقين داشتند در روز قيامت از همسايگان خدايند، جايگاهي كه هر چه درخواست كنند، داده مي شود، و هر گونه لذتي در اختيارشان قرار دارد. ضرورت ياد مرگ اي بندگان خدا! از مرگ و نزديك بودنش بترسيد، و آمادگيهاي لازم را براي مرگ فراهم كنيد، كه مرگ جرياني بزرگ و مشكلي سنگين به همراه خواهد آورد، يا خيري كه پس از آن شري وجود نخواهد داشت، و يا شري كه هرگز نيكي با آن نخواهد بود، پس چه كسي از عمل كننده براي بهشت، به بهشت نزديكتر؟ و چه كسي از عمل كننده براي آتش، به آتش نزديكتر است؟ شما همه شكار آماده مرگ مي باشيد، اگر توقف كنيد شما را مي گيرد، و اگر فرار كنيد به شما مي رسد، مرگ از سايه شما به شما نزديك تر است، نشانه مرگ بر پيشاني شما زده شد، دنيا پشت سر شما در حال درهم پيچيده شدن است، پس بترسيد از آتشي كه ژرفاي آن زياد، و حرارتش شديد، و عذابش نو به نو وارد مي شود، در جايگاهي كه رحمت در آن وجود ندارد، و سخن كسي را نمي شنوند، و ناراحتيها در آن پايان ندارد، اگر مي توانيد كه ترس از خدا را فراوان، و خوشبيني خود را به خدا نيكو گردانيد، چنين كنيد، هر دو را جمع كنيد، زيرا بنده خدا خوش بيني او به پروردگار بايد به اندازه ترسيدن او باشد، و آن كس كه به خدا خوش بين است بايد بيشتر از همه از كيفر الهي بترسد.

p: 66

اخلاق مديران اجرايي اي محمد بن ابي بكر! بدان، كه من تو را سرپرست بزرگترين لشكرم يعني لشكر مصر، قرار دادم، بر تو سزاوار است كه با خواسته هاي دل مخالفت كني، و از دين خود دفاع نمايي، هر چند ساعتي از عمر تو باقي نمانده باشد، خدا را در راضي نگهداشتن مردم به خشم نياور، زيرا خشنودي خدا جايگزين هر چيزي بوده اما هيچ چيز جايگزين خشنودي خدا نمي شود، نماز را در وقت خودش بجاي آر، نه اينكه در بيكاري زودتر از وقتش بخواني، و به هنگام درگيري و كار آن را تاخير بياندازي، و بدان كه تمام كردار خوبت در گرو نماز است.

(قسمتي از نامه) امام هدايتگر، و زمامدار گمراهي هيچگاه مساوي نخواهند بود، چنانكه دوستان پيامبر (ص) و دشمنانش برابر نيستند، پيامبر اسلام (ص) به من فرمود: (بر امت اسلام، نه از مومن و نه از مشرك هراسي ندارم، زيرا مومن را ايمانش باز داشته، و مشرك را خداوند به جهت شرك او نابود مي سازد، من بر شما از مرد منافقي مي ترسم كه دروني دوچهره، و زباني عالمانه دارد، گفتارش دلپسند و رفتارش ناپسند است.


In English

In reply to Mu'awiyah and it is one ot his most elegant writings

Now your letter (1) has reached me wherein you recall that Allah chose Muhammad (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) for His religion and helped him through those companions who helped him. Strange things about you have remained concealed (by the irony of fate) from us since you have started telling us of Allah's trials for us and His bounties to us through our Prophet. In this matter you are like the person who carries dates to Hajar or who challenges his own master to a duel in archery.

p: 67

You think that so - and- so are the most distinguished persons in Islam. You have said such a thing which if it be true you have nothing to do with it but if it be not so then its defect will not affect you. And what are you to do with the question of who is better and who is worse or who is the ruler and who is the ruled. What have the freed ones and their sons to do with distinguishing between the first muhajirun and determining their position or defining their ranks. What a pity! the sound of an arrow is being produced by what is not a real arrow and he against whom the judgement is to be passed is sitting in judgement. O' man why do you not see your own lameness and remain within bounds and why do not you realize the shortness of your measure and stay back where destiny has placed you. You have no concern with the defeat of the defeated or the victory of the victor.

You are wandering in bewilderment and straying from the right path. Do you not realize it? I am not giving you any news: I am just recounting Allah's bounty namely that a number of people from among the muhajirun (immigrants from Mecca) and ansar (helpers) fell as martyrs in the way of Allah the Sublime and that each of them is distinguished (on that account) but when one of us secured martyrdom he was named the Chief of all martyrs and the Messenger of Allah (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) gave him the peculiar honour of saying seventy takbir (Allahu akbar) during his funeral prayer. Do you not know that a number of people lost their hands in the way of Allah and that everyone is distinguished (on that account) but when the same thing occurred to one of us he was given the name "the flier in Paradise"; and "the two winged". If Allah had not forbidden self-praise the writer would have mentioned numerous distinctions which the believer knows full well and which the ears of hearers do not wish to forget.

p: 68

Better leave those whose arrows miss the mark. We are the direct recipients of our Lord's favours while others receive favours from us after that. In spite of our old established honour and our well-known superiority over your people we did not stay away from mixing with you and married and got married (among you) like equals although you were not so. And how could you be so when(the position is that) among us is the Prophet while among you is the opposer among us is the lion of Allah while among you is the lion of the opposing groups among us are the two masters of the youth of Paradise (2) while among you are the children of Hell among us is the choicest of all the women of the worlds (3) while among you is the bearer of firewood and many more distinctions on our side and shortcomings on your side. Our Islam is well-known and our (greatness in the) preIslamic period too cannot be denied. Whatever remains has been mentioned in the words of Allah the Glorified the Sublime:

.... And blood relations have the better claim in respect of one to the other according to the Book of Allah... (Qur'an 33:6)

He (Allah) the Sublime also says:

Verily of men the nearest to Abraham are surely those who followed him and this (Our) Prophet (Muhammad)

and those who believe; and verily Allah is the Guardian of the faithful. (Qur'an 3:68)

Thus we are superior firstly because of kinship and secondly because of obedience. When at Saqifah (of Banu Sa'idah) the muhajirun contended kinship with the Messenger of Allah (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) against the ansar they scored over them. If that success was based on kinship then the right would be ours better than yours. Otherwise the ansar's contention stands.

p: 69

You think that I have been jealous of every caliph and have revolted against them. Even if this be so it is not an offence against you and therefore no explanation is due to you.

This is a matter for which no blame comes to you.

You have said that I was dragged like a camel with a nose string to swear allegiance (to Abu Bakr at Saqifah). By the Eternal Allah you had intended to revile me but you have praised me and to humiliate me but have yourself been humiliated. What humiliation does it mean for a Muslim to be the victim of oppression so long as he does not entertain any doubt in his religion nor any misgiving in his firm belief! This argument of mine is intended for others but I have stated it to you only in so far as it was appropriate. Then you have recalled my position vis-a- vis 'Uthman and in this matter an answer is due to you because of your kinship with him. So (now tell me) which of us was more inimical towards 'Uthman and who did more to bring about his killing; or who offered him his support but he made him sit down and stopped him; or who was he whom he called for help but who turned his face from him and drew his death near him till his fate over took him? No no; by Allah:

Indeed knoweth Allah those who hinder others among you and those who say unto their brethren "Come hitherunto us" and they come not to fight but a little. (Qur'an 33;18)

p: 70

I am not going to offer my excuse for reproving him for (some of) his innovations for if my good counsel and guidance to him was a sin then very often a person who is blamed has no sin and sometimes the only reward a counseller (4) reaps is suspicion (of evil). I desired naught but reform what I am able to (do); and my guidance is not but with Allah; On Him (alone) do I rely and unto Him (alone) do I turn. (Qur'an 11:88)

You have mentioned that for me and for my followers you have only the sword. This makes even a weeping person laugh. Did you ever see the descendants of 'Abd al-Muttalib running away from battle or being frightened by swords Wait a little till Hamal (5) joins the battle" shortly then he whom you are seek-

ing will seek you and he whom you think to be far away will approach near you. I am (shortly) speeding towards you with a force of muhajirun and ansar and those who follow them in virtue. Their number will be great and their dust will spread all round. They will be wearing their shrouds and their most coveted desire is to meet Allah. They will be accompanied by the descendants of those who took part in the battle of Badr and they will have Hashimite swords whose cut you have already seen in the case of your brother maternal uncle your grandfather and your kinsmen. Nor are they far distant from the unjust ones. (Qur'an 11:83)

p: 71

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى معاوية جواباً، قال الشريف: وهو من محاسن الكتب.

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَقَدْ أَتَانِي كِتَابُكَ تَذْكُرُ فِيهِ اصْطِفَاءَ اللهِ مُحَمَّداً صَلََّى الله ُعَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ لِدِينِهِ، وَتَأْيِيدَهُ إِيَّاهُ بِمَنْ أَيَّدَهُ مِنْ أَصْحَابِهِ، فَلَقَدْ خَبَّأَ لَنَا الدَّهْرُ مِنْكَ عَجَباً (1) ، إِذْ طَفِقْتَ (2) تُخْبِرُنَا بِبَلاَءِ اللهِ (3) تَعَاَلي عِنْدَنَا. وَنِعْمَتِهِ عَلَيْنَا فِي نَبِيِّنَا، فَكُنْتَ فِي ذلكِ كَنَاقِلِ الَّتمْرِ إِلَى هَجَرَ (4) ، أَوْ دَاعِي مُسَدِّدِهِ (5) إِلَى النِّضَالِ (6) . وَزَعَمْتَ أَنَّ أَفْضَلَ النَّاسِ فِي الْإِسْلاَمِ فُلاَنٌ وَفُلاَنٌ، فَذَكَرْتَ أَمْراً إِنْ تَمَّ اعْتَزَلَكَ (7) كُلُّهُ، وَإِنْ نَقَصَ لَمْ يَلْحَقْكَ ثَلْمُهُ (8) ، وَمَا أَنْتَ وَالْفَاضِلَ وَالْمَفْضُولَ، وَالسَّائِسَ وَالْمَسُوسَ! وَمَا لِلطُّلَقَاءِ (9) وَأَبْنَاءِ الطُّلَقَاءِ، وَالتَّمْييزَ بَيْنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ الْأَوَّلِينَ، وَتَرْتِيبَ دَرَجَاتِهِمْ، وَتَعْرِيفَ طَبَقَاتِهِمْ! هَيْهَاتَ لَقَدْ حَنَّ (10) قِدْحٌ لَيْسَ مِنْهَا، وَطَفِقَ يَحْكُمُ فِيهَا مَنْ عَلَيْهِ الْحُكْمُ لَهَا! أَلاَ تَرْبَعُ أَيُّهَا الْإِنْسَانُ عَلَى ظَلْعِكَ (11) ، وَتَعْرِفُ قُصُورَ ذَرْعِكَ (12) ، وَتَتَأَخَّرُ حَيْثُ أَخَّرَكَ الْقَدَرُ! فَمَا عَلَيْكَ غَلَبَةُ الْمَغْلُوبِ، وَلاَ لَكَ ظَفَرُ الظَّافِرِ!

وَإِنَّكَ لَذَهّابٌ (13) فِي التِّيهِ (14) ، رَوَّاغٌ (15) عَنِ الْقَصْدِ (16) . أَلاَ تَرَى _ غَيْرَ مُخْبِر لَكَ، لكِنْ بِنِعْمَةِ اللهِ أُحَدِّثُ _ أَنَّ قَوْماً اسْتُشْهِدُوا في سَبِيلِ اللهِ تَعَالَي مِنَ الْمُهاجِرينَ وَالْأَنْصَارِ, ولِكُلٍّ فَضْلٌ، حَتَّى إِذَا اسْتُشْهِدَ شَهِيدُنَا (17) قِيلَ: سَيِّدُ الشُّهَدَاءِ، وَخَصَّهُ رَسُولُ اللهِ_ صَلَّى الله ُعَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ_ بِسَبْعِينَ تَكْبِيرَةً عِنْدَ صَلاَتِهِ عَلَيْهِ! أَوَلاَ تَرَى أَنَّ قَوْماً قُطِّعَتْ أَيْديِهِمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ _ وَلِكُلّ فَضْلٌ _ حَتَّى إذَا فُعِلَ بِوَاحِدِنَا (18) كمَا فُعِلَ بِوَاحِدِهِمْ، قِيلَ: الطَّيَّارُ فِي الْجَنَّةِ وَذُوالْجَنَاحَيْنِ! وَلَوْ لاَ مَا نَهَى اللهُ عَنْهُ مِنْ تَزْكِيَةِ الْمَرْءِ نَفْسَهُ، لَذَكَرَ ذَاكِرٌ فَضَائِلَ جَمَّةً (19) ، تَعْرِفُهَا قُلُوبُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ، وَلاَ تَمُجُّهَا (20) آذَانُ السَّامِعِينَ. فَدَع ْ عَنْكَ مَنْ مَالَتْ بِه الرَّمِيَّةُ (21) ، فَإِنَّا صَنَائِعُ رَبِّنَا (22) ، وَالنَّاسُ بَعْدُ صَنَائِعُ لَنَا. لَمْ يَمْنَعْنَا قَدِيمُ عِزِّنَا وَلاَ عَادِيُّ طَوْلِنَا (23) عَلَى قَوْمِكَ أَنْ خَلَطْنَاكُمْ بَأَنفُسِنَا، فَنَكَحْنَا وَأَنْكَحْنا، فِعْلَ الأََكْفَاءِ (24) ، وَلَسْتُمْ هُنَاكَ! وَأَنَّى يَكُونُ ذلِكَ كَذَلِكَ وَمِنَّا النَّبِيُّ وَمِنْكُمُ الْمُكَذِّبُ (25) ، وَمِنَّا أَسَدُ اللهِ (26) وَمِنْكُمْ أَسَدُ الْأََحْلاَفِ (27) ، وَمِنَّا سَيِّدَا شَبَابِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ (28) وَمِنْكُمْ صِبْيَةُ النَّارِ (29) ، وَمِنَّا خَيْرُ نِسَاءِ الْعَالَمِينِ (30) وَمِنْكُمْ حَمَّالَةُ الْحَطَبِ (31) ، فِي كَثِيٍر مِمَّا لَنَا وَعَلَيْكُمْ!

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فَإِسْلاَمُنَا مَا قَدْ سُمِعَ، وَجَاهِلِيَّتُنَا لاَ تُدْفَعُ (32) ، وَكِتَابُ اللهِ يَجْمَعُ لَنَا مَا شَذَّ عَنَّا، وَهُوَ قَوْلُهُ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَي ( وَأُولُو الاَْرْحَامِ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلَى بِبَعْض فِي كِتَابِ اللهِ)، وَقَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى: ( إِنَّ أَوْلَى النَّاسِ بِإِبْرَاهِيمَ لَلَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُ وَهذَا النَّبِيُّ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَاللهُ وَلِيُّ الْمُؤمِنِينَ)، فَنَحْنُ مَرَّةً أوْلَى بِالْقَرَابَةِ، وَتَارَةً أَوْلَى بِالطَّاعَةِ. وَلَمَّا احْتَجَّ الْمُهَاجِرُونَ عَلَى الْأَنْصَارِ يَوْمَ السَّقِيفَةِ (33) بِرَسُولِ الله _ صَلَّى الله ُعَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ_ فَلَجُوا (34) عَلَيْهِمْ, فَإِنْ يَكُنِ الْفَلَجُ بِهِ فَالْحَقُّ لَنَا دُونَكُمْ، وَإِنْ يَكُنْ بِغَيْرِهِ فَالْأَنْصَارُ عَلَى دَعْوَاهُمْ.

وَزَعَمْتَ أَنِّي لِكُلِّ الْخُلَفَاءِ حَسَدْتُ، وَعَلَى كُلِّهِمْ بَغَيْتُ، فَإِنْ يَكُنْ ذلِكَ كَذلِكَ فَلَيْستَ الْجِنَايَةُ عَلَيْكَ، فَيَكُونَ الْعُذْرُ إِلَيْكَ.

وَتِلْكَ شَكَاةٌ (35) ظَاهِرٌ عَنْكَ عَارُهَا (36) وَقُلْتَ: إِنِّي كُنْتُ أُقَادُ كَمَا يُقَادُ الْجَمَلُ الْمَخْشُوشُ (37) حَتَّى أُبَايِعَ، وَلَعَمْرُ اللهِ لَقَدْ أَرَدْتَ أَنْ تَذُمَّ فَمَدَحْتَ، وَأَنْ تَفْضَحَ فَافْتَضَحْتَ! وَمَا عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِ مِنْ غَضَاضَة (38) فِي أَنْ يَكُونَ مَظْلُوماً مَا لَمْ يَكُنْ شَاكّاً فِي دِينِهِ، وَلاَ مُرْتَاباً بِيَقِينِهِ! وَهذِهِ حُجَّتِي إِلَى غَيْرِكَ قَصْدُهَا، وَلكِنِّي أَطْلَقْتُ لَكَ مِنْهَا بِقَدْرِ مَا سَنَحَ (39) مِنْ ذِكْرِهَا. ( 325 )

ثُمَّ ذَكَرْتَ مَا كَانَ مِنْ أَمْرِي وَأَمْرِعُثْمانَ، فَلَكَ أَنْ تُجَابَ عَنْ هذِهِ لِرَحِمِكَ منْهُ (40) ، فَأَيُّنَا كَانَ أَعْدَى لَهُ (41) ، أَ هْدَى إِلَى مَقَاتِلِهِ (42) ! أَمَنْ بَذَلَ لَهُ نُصْرَتَهُ فَاسْتَقْعَدَهُ (43) وَاسْتَكَفَّهُ (44) ، أَمْ مَنِ اسْتَنْصَرَهُ فَتَرَاَخى عَنْهُ بَثَّ الْمَنُونَ إِلَيْهِ (45) ، حَتَّى أَتَى قَدَرُهُ عَلَيْهِ، كَلاَّ وَاللهِ لَقَد يَعْلِمَ اللهُ الْمُعَوِّقِينَ (46) مِنْكُمْ وَالْقَائِلِينَ لِإِِِخْوَانِهِمْ هَلُمَّ إِلَيْنَا وَلاَ يَأَتُونَ الْبَأْسَ إِلاَّ قَليلاً.

وَمَا كُنْتُ لاَِعْتَذِرَ مِنْ أَنِّي كُنْتُ أَنْقِمُ (47) عَلَيْهِ أَحْدَاثاً (48) ، فَإِنْ كَانَ الذَّنْبُ إِلَيْهِ إِرْشَادِي وَهِدَايَتِي لَهُ، فَرُبَّ مَلُومٍ لاَ ذَنْبَ لَهُ.

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وَقَدْ يَسْتَفِيدُ الظِّنَّةَ (49) الْمُتَنَصِّحُ (50)

وَمَا أَرَدْتُ (إِلاَّ الْإِصْلاَحَ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُ وَمَا تَوْفِيقِي إِلاَّ بِاللهِ عَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلْتُ و إلَيْهِ أُنِيبُ)

وَذَكَرْتَ أَنَّهُ لَيْسَ لِي وَلِأَصْحَابِي عِنْدَكَ إِلاَّ السَّيْفُ، فَلَقَدْ أَضْحَكْتَ بَعْدَ اسْتِعْبَار (51) ! مَتَى أُلْفِيَتْ (52) بَنُو عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ عَنِ الْأَعْدَاءِ نَاكِلِينَ (53) ، وبِالسُّيُوفِ مُخَوَّفِينَ؟!

فَ_ لَبِّثْ (54) قَلِيلاً يَلْحَقِ الْهَيْجَا (55) حَمَلْ (56)

فَسَيَطْلُبُكَ مَنْ تَطْلُبُ، وَيَقْرُبُ مِنْكَ مَا تَسْتَبْعِدُ، وَأَنَا مُرْقِلٌ (57) ( 327 )

نَحْوَكَ فِي جَحْفَل (58) مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالْأَنْصَارِ، وَالتَّابِعِينَ لَهُمْ بِإِحْسَانٍ، شَدِيدٍ زِحَامُهُمْ، سَاطِعٍ (59) قَتَامُهُمْ (60) ، مُتَسَرْبِلِينَ (61) سَرَابِيلَ الْمَوْتِ، أَحَبُّ اللِّقَاءِ إِلَيْهِمْ لِقَاءُ رَبِّهِمْ، قَدْ صَحِبَتْهُمْ ذُرِّيَّةٌ بَدْرِيَّةٌ (62) ، وَسُيُوفٌ هَاشِمِيَّةٌ، قَدْ عَرَفْتَ مَوَاقِ عَ نِصَالِهَا فِي أَخِيكَ وَخَالِكَ وَجَدِّكَ وَأَهْلِكَ (63) ، (وَمَا هِيَ مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ بِبَعِيد)

In Persian

در پاسخ معاويه

افشاي ادعاهاي دروغين معاويه پس از ياد خدا و درود! نامه شما رسيد، كه در آن نوشتيد، خداوند محمد (ص) را براي دينش برگزيد، و با يارانش او را تاييد كرد، راستي روزگار چه چيزهاي شگفتي از تو بر ما آشكار كرده است! تو مي خواهي ما را از آن چه خداوند به ما عنايت فرمود، آگاه كني؟ و از نعمت وجود پيامبر باخبرمان سازي؟ داستان تو كسي را ماند كه خرما به سرزمين پرخرماي (هجر) برد. يا استاد خود را به مسابقه دعوت كند، و پنداشتي كه برترين انسانها در اسلام فلان كس، و فلان شخص است؟ چيزي را آورده اي كه اگر اثبات شود هيچ ارتباطي به تو ندارد، و اگر دروغ هم باشد به تو مربوط نمي شود، تو را با انسانهاي برتر و غير برتر، سياستمدار و غير سياستمدار چه كار است؟ اسيران آزاده و فرزندشان را چه رسد به امتيازات ميان مهاجران نخستين، و ترتيب درجات، و شناسايي منزلت و مقام آنان! هرگز! خود را در چيزي قرار مي دهي كه از آن بيگانه اي، حال كار بدينجا كشيد كه محكوم حاكم باشد؟ اي مرد چرا بر سر جايت نمي نشيني؟ و كوتاهي كردنهايت را بياد نمي آوري؟ و به منزلت عقب مانده ات باز نمي گردي؟ برتري ضعيفان، و پيروزي پيروزمندان در اسلام با تو چه ارتباطي دارد؟ تو همواره در بيابان گمراهي سرگردان، و از راه راست روي گرداني. فضائل بني هاشم آيا نمي بيني؟ (آنچه مي گويم براي آگاهاندن تو نيست، بلكه براي يادآوري نعمتهاي خدا مي گويم)، جمعي از مهاجر و انصار در راه خدا به شهادت رسيدند؟ و هر كدام داراي فضيلتي بودند؟ اما آنگاه كه شهيد ما (حمزه) شربت شهادت نوشيد، او را سيدالشهداء خواندند، و پيامبر (ص) در نماز بر پيكر او بجاي پنج تكبير، هفتاد تكبير گفت، آيا نمي بيني؟ گروهي كه دستشان در جهاد قطع شد، و هر كدام فضيلتي داشتند، اما چون بر يكي از ما ضربتي وارد شد و دستش قطع گرديد، طيارش خواندند؟ كه با دو بال در آسمان بهشت پرواز مي كند! و اگر خدا نهي نمي فرمود كه مرد خود را بستايد، فضائل فراواني را برمي شمردم، كه دلهاي آگاه مومنان آن را شناخته، و گوشهاي شنوندگان با آن آشناست. فضائل بني هاشم و رسوايي بني اميه معاويه! دست از اين ادعاها بردار، كه تيرت به خطا رفته است، همانا ما، دست پرورده و ساخته پروردگار خويشيم، و مردم تربيت شدگان و پرورده هاي مايند، اينكه با شما طرح خويشاوندي ريختم. ما از طائفه شما همسر گرفتيم، و شما از طايفه ما همسر انتخاب كرديد، و برابر با شما رفتار كرديم، عزت گذشته، و فضيلت پيشين را از ما باز نمي دارد، شما چگونه با ما برابريد كه پيامبر (ص) از ماست، و دروغگوي رسوا از شما، حمزه شير خدا (اسدالله) از ماست، و ابوسفيان، (اسدالاحلاف) از شما، دو سيد جوانان اهل بهشت از ما، و كودكان در آتش افكنده شده از شما، و بهترين زنان جهان از ما، و زن هيزم كش دوزخيان از شما، از ما اين همه فضيلتها و از شما آن همه رسواييهاست.

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اسلام ما را همه شنيده، و شرافت ما را همه ديده اند، و كتاب خدا براي ما فراهم آورد آنچه را به ما نرسيد ه كه خداي سبحان فرمود: (خويشاوندان، بعضي سزاوارترند بر بعض ديگر در كتاب خدا.) و خداي سبحان فرمود: (شايسته ترين مردم به ابراهيم كساني هستند كه از او پيروي دارند، و اين پيامبر و آنان كه ايمان آوردند و خدا ولي مومنان است.) پس ما يك بار به خاطر خويشاوندي با پيامبر (ص) و بار ديگر به خاطر اطاعت از خدا، به خلافت سزاوارتريم، و آنگاه كه مهاجرين در روز سقيفه با انصار گفتگو و اختلاف داشتند، تنها با ذكر خويشاوندي با پيامبر (ص) بر آنان پيروز گرديدند، اگر اين دليل برتري است پس حق با ماست نه با شما، و اگر دليل ديگري داشتند ادعاي انصار بجاي خود باقي است، معاويه تو پنداري كه بر تمام خلفا حسد ورزيده ام؟ و بر همه آنها شورانده ام؟ اگر چنين شده باشد جنايتي بر تو نرفته كه از تو عذرخواهي كنم. سوگند بخدا! خواستي نكوهش كني، اما ستودي، خواستي رسوا سازي كه خود را رسوا كرده اي، مسلمان را چه باك كه مظلوم واقع شود، مادام كه در دين خود ترديد نداشته، و در يقين خود شك نكند، اين دليل را آورده ام حتي براي غير تو كه پند گيرند، و آن

را كوتاه آوردم به مقداري كه از خاطرم گذشت.

سپس كار مرا با عثمان بياد آوردي، تو بايد پاسخ دهي كه از خويشاوندان او مي باشي، راستي كدام يك از ما دشمني اش با عثمان بيشتر بود؟ و راه را براي كشندگانش فراهم آورد؟ آن كس كه به او ياري رساند، و از او خواست بجايش بنشيند، و به كار مردم رسد؟ يا آنكه از او ياري خواست و دريغ كرد؟ و به انتظار نشست تا مرگش فرارسد؟ نه، هرگز، بخدا سوگند. (خداوند بازدارندگان از جنگ را در ميان شما مي شناسد، و آنان را كه برادران خود را به سوي خويش مي خوانند، و جز لحظه هاي كوتاهي در نبرد حاضر نمي شوند.) من ادعا ندارم كه درمورد بدعتهاي عثمان، بر او عيب نمي گرفتم، نكوهش مي كردم و از آن عذرخواه نيستم، اگر گناه من ارشاد و هدايت اوست، بسيارند كساني كه ملامت شوند و بي گناهند. و بسيارند ناصحاني كه در پند و اندرز دادن مورد تهمت قرار گيرند. (من قصدي جز اصلاح تا نهايت توانايي خود ندارم، و موفقيت من تنها به لطف خداست، و توفيقات را جز از خدا نمي خواهم، بر او توكل مي كنم و به سوي او باز مي گردم.)

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پاسخ به تهديد نظامي در نامه ات نوشته اي كه نزد تو براي من و ياران من چيزي جز شمشير نيست! در اوج گريه انسان را به خنده وامي داري! فرزندان عبدالمطلب را در كجا ديدي كه پشت به دشمن كنند؟ و از شمشير بهراسند؟ پس (كمي صبر كن كه هماورد تو به ميدان آيد.) آن را كه مي جويي به زودي تو را پيدا خواهد كرد، و آنچه را كه از آن مي گريزي در نزديكي خود خواهي يافت، و من در ميان سپاهي بزرگ، از مهاجران و انصار و تابعان، به سرعت به سوي تو خواهم آمد، لشكرياني كه جمعشان به هم فشرده، و به هنگام حركت، غبار آسمان را تيره و تار مي كنند، كساني كه لباس شهادت بر تن، و ملاقات دوست داشتني آنان ملاقات با پروردگار است، همراه آنان فرزنداني از دلاوران بدر، و شمشيرهاي هاشميان كه خوب مي داني لبه تيز آن بر پيكر برادر و دايي و جد و خاندانت چه كرد، مي آيند (و آن عذاب از ستمگران چندان دور نيست.)


(1). This letter of Amir al-mu'minin's is in reply to Mu'awiyah's letter which he sent to Kufah through Abu Umamah al-Bahili and it also contains replies to some points which Mu'awiyah had written in the letter sent through Abu Muslim al-Khawlani.

In Abu Umamah's letter Mu'awiyah had mentioned the deputation of the Prophet and his ascension to the position of revelation and wrote in such a manner as though it was a matter not known to or not understood by Amir al-mu'minin and that he was in need of being informed and told of it. This is just like a stranger who may draw the map of a house for the guidance of those who dwell in it and apprise them of things already known to them. That is why Amir al-mu'minin has compared him to the man who

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carried dates to Hajar which was itself noted for abundant growth of dates.

This is a proverb employed when someone beings to tell a person matters which he already knows better. The basis of this proverb is that a man of Hajar which is a town near Bahrain (Persian Gulf) went to Basrah to sell goods and make purchases. After finishing the sale he looked about the market to make his purchases and found nothing cheaper than dates. He therefore decided to purchase dates and when he reached Hajar with his load of dates their plenty and cheapness there did not leave him any alternative but to store them so as to sell them later when their price had risen. The price however continued to fall day by day till all of them became rotten leaving to him nothing except their stones. In short after referring to the Prophet's ascension to prohphethood Mu'awiyah recounted the distinction and merits of the three Caliphs according to his view and wrote:

The most distinguished among the companions and the most high ranking in the view of the Muslims was the first Caliph who collected all the Muslims under one voice removed their disunity and fought those who were forsaking Islam. After him is the second Caliph who won victories founded cities and humiliated the unbelievers. Then comes the third Caliph who was the victim of oppression. He propagated religion and spread the word of Allah far and wide. (Siffin al-Minqari pp.86-87; al-'Iqd al-farid vol.4 pp.334-335; Sharh Nahj al-balaghah vol.15 p.186)

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Mu'awiyah's purpose behind in bringing up these pointless warblings was to injur Amir al-mu'minin's feelings and to rouse his temper so as to make him produce such words through his tongue or pen which would so disparage the caliphs that he would instigate the people of Syria and Iraq against him by exploiting them. In fact he had already set it in the minds of these people that Amir al-mu'minin had instigated the people against 'Uthman had got Talhah and az-Zubayr killed had turned 'A'ishah out

from her house and had shed the blood of thousands of Muslims. Being unaware of the real facts they were convinced of these beseless allegations yet to strengthen the opposition he thought it advisable to make them believe that Amir al-mu'minin did not recognize the achievements of the three caliphs and bore enmity and malice towards them and to produce Amir al-mu'minin's writing in evidence and also to use it for rousing the people of Iraq because their majority was much impressed with the environment created by the caliphs and with their greatness. But Amir al-mu'minin guessed his intention and gave him such a reply which put a knot in his tongue and which he could not dare show to anyone. So Amir al-mu'minin exposed his lowness by referring to his enmity towards Islam and his accepting subjugation under force and advised him to keep within his bounds and warned him against fixing grades of distinction among those muhajirun who were in any case superior to him in so far as they had been the preceders in hijrah (immigration from Mecca). Whereas since Mu'awiyah himself was only one of those whose life had been spared (on the day of fall of Mecca) he had not the remotest connection with the muhajirun. Consequently in the matter under discussion Amir al-mu'minin has put Mu'awiyah's position as that of a false arrow among real arrows. This is a proverb which is employed when a man boasts over persons with whom he has no connection. As regards his statement that so - and - so is greater in distinction Amir al-mu'minin has by using the word "you think" shown that it is his personal opinion which has not the remotest connection with fact because this word is used when a false or unreal statement is made.

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After refuting this claim of being the most distinguished Amir al-mu'minin has referred to these qualities and distinctions of Banu Hashim which show conspicuously the high degree of their attainments. Thus the people who took part in jihad with the Prophet and secured martyrdom attained high positions but the distinction that fell to Hamzah by virtue of his high performance was not secured by anyone else. The Prophet gave him the title of Master of the Martyrs and said his funeral prayer fourteen times whereby the number of takbir (Allahu akbar) rose to seventy. Similarly in various battles the hands of the fighters were cut off. For example in the battle of Badr the hands of Khubayb ibn Isaf al-Ansari and Mu'adh ibn Jabal and in the battle of Uhud those of 'Amr ibn al-Jamuh as-Salami and 'Ubayd ('Atik) ibn at-Tayyihan (brother of Abu'l-Haytham at-Tayyihan) were cut off but when in the battle of Mu'tah the hands of Ja'far ibn Abi Talib were cut off the Prophet singled him out by naming him "the flier in Paradise" and the "two-winged". After recounting the peculiar achievements of Banu Hashim Amir al-mu'minin has referred to his own attainments with which the histories and traditions are replete and which could not be tarnished with doubts and misgivings. Thus traditionists like Ahmad ibn Hanbal (164/780-241/855) Ahmad ibn 'Ali an-Nasa'i (215/830 - 303/915) and others say that:

The number of traditions that have been related through reliable sources in regard to the distinctions of 'Ali ibn Abi Talib have not been related about any other companion of the Prophet. (al-Mustadrak vol.3 p.107; al-Isti'db vol.3 p.1115; Tabaqat al-hanabilah vol.1 p.3l9; al-Kamil vol.3 p.399; Tahdhib at-tahdhib vol.7 p.339; Fath al-bari vol.7 p.57)

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An important distinction out of these particular distinctions of Ahlu'l-bayt (the Household of the Holy Prophet) is the one to which Amir al-mu'-minin has referred in these words that "We are the direct recipients of Allah's favours while others receive favours from us." This is the height of distinction that even the highest personality cannot reach its sublimity and every other distinction looks small before it. Acknowledging the greatness and supremacy of this sentence Ibn Abi'l-Hadid writes:

Amir al-mu'minin intends to convey that we are not under obligation of any person since Allah has bestowed all blessings on us directly there being no intermediary between us and Allah while all other people are under our obligation and protection being the intermediary between them and Allah the Glorified; this is a high position indeed. Its apparent meaning is what the words show but its real sense is that the Ahlu'l-bayt are the obedient servants of Allah and the people must be their obedient followers. (Sharh Nahj al-balaghah vol.15 p.194)

Now since these people are the first recipients of the bounties of Allah and the source of bounties for the rest of the people no one from among the people can be compared with them nor can anyone be regarded as their equal on the basis of social contacts with them much less than those individuals who were in direct contrast to the attainments and characteristics of these people and used to oppose truth and right on every occasion. Amir al-mu'minin places both the sides of the picture before Mu'awiyah and says:

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The Prophet was from us while your father Abu Sufyan was foremost in opposing him. Hamzah was from us and the Prophet gave him the title of "Lion of Allah" while your maternal grandfather 'Utbah ibn Rabi'ah was proud of being the "lion of swearers (against the Prophet)."

When in the battle of Badr Hamzah and 'Utbah ibn Rabi'ah came face to face Hamzah said I am Hamzah son of 'Abd al-Muttalib; I am the lion of Allah and the lion of His Prophet, whereupon 'Utbah said I am the lion of swearers (against the Prophet).

In another version the word Asadu'l-ahlaf has been recorded. The meaning is that he was the Chief of the allying parties. The story of swearing is that when Banu 'Abd Manaf acquired a distinct position among the Arab tribes they thought they should take over from Banu 'Abdi'd-Dar the offices relating to the Ka'bah and to depose them from these offices. In this connection Banu 'Abd Manaf allied with themselves the tribes of Banu Asad ibn 'Abdi'l-'Uzza Banu Taym Banu Zuhrah and Banu al-Harith and concluded an agreement with them.In order to solemnize this agreement they drenched their hands in tib (perfume) and swore that they would help each other. For this reason these tribes were called: "Tribes of sworn chaste parties". On the other side the tribes of Banu

'Abdi'd-Dar Banu Makhzum Banu Sahm and Banu 'Adi also swore that they would resist Banu 'Abd Manaf and their allies. These tribes are called the "allies". 'Utbah has deemed himself the head of the allying parties. Some commentators have taken the word Asadu'l-ahlaf to mean Abu Sufyan because he made different tribes swear against the Prophet in the battle of the Trench while some commentators take it to mean Asad ibn 'Abdi'l-'Uzzah but this interpretation does not carry weight because here Amir al-mu'minin is addressing Mu'awiyah and this interpretation does not hit Mu'awiyah since Banu 'Abd Manaf were a party to this alliance. Then Amir al-mu'minin says they have among themselves the masters of the youth of Paradise . Referring to the Prophet's saying al-Hasan and al-Husayn are the masters of the youth of Paradise while the boys of the other side are in Hell. This reference is to the sons of 'Uqbah ibn Abi Mu'ayt about whom the Prophet has said For you and your sons is Hell . Then Amir al-mu'minin says that among them is the chief of all the women of the worlds namely Fatimatu'z-Zahra' (p.b.u.h.) while in the other party is the bearer of the wood which refers to Umm Jamil the sister of Abu Sufyan. This woman used to spread thorns in the path of the Prophet. She has been mentioned in the Qur'an along with Abu Lahab in these words:

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In the Name of Allah the Beneficent the Merciful May perish both the hands of Abu Lahab may perish (he himself); Shall avail him not his wealth nor what he earneth; Soon shall he burn in the flaming fire; And his wife the bearer of the firewood; Upon her neck shall be a halter of twisted rope. (Qur'an 111)

(2). It is narrated from Amir al-mu'minin 'Umar ibn al-Khattab Hudhayfah ibn Yaman Abu Sa'id al-Khudri Abu Hurayrah etc. that the Holy Prophet (may Allah bless him and his descendants) said:

Verily Fatimah is the Supreme Lady of the women of Paradise and al-Hasan and al-Husayn are the two Supreme Youth of Paradise. But their father ('Ali) is Superior to them. (al-Jami'as -sahih at-Tirmidhi vol.5 pp.656 661; al-Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal vol. 3 pp.3 62 64 82; vol.5 pp.391 392; as-Sunan Ibn Majah vol.1 p. 56; al-Mustadrak al-Hakim vol.3 p. 167; Majma' az-zawa'id vol.9 pp. 183 184 201; Kanz al-'ummal al-Muttaqi vol.13 pp. 127 128; al-Isti'ab vol.4 p.1895; Usd al-ghabah vol.5 p.574; Tarikh Baghdad vol.1 p.140; vol.6 p.372; vol.10 p.230; at-Tarikh Ibn 'Asakir vol.7 p.365).

(3). It is narrated from 'Imran ibn al-Husayn and Abu Tha'labah al-Khushni that the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) said to Fatimah (p.b.u.h.):

O' my little daughter, are you not satisfied that you are verily the Supreme Lady of all women in the worlds? She said O' father, then what about Maryam (Mary) daughter of 'Imran? He said She was the Supreme Lady of her age, and you are the Supreme Lady of your age. Truly, by Allah, I married you to one who is the Master in this world and the hereafter. No one hates him save a hypocrite. (Hilyah al-awliya' vol.2 p.92; al-Isti'ab vol.4 p. 1895; al-Isabah vol.4 p.275)

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Also A'ishah narrated that the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) said:

O' Fatimah will you not be satisfied to be the Supreme Lady of the women of the worlds (or) to be the Supreme Lady of all women of this ummah (community) or of the women believers? (as-Sahih al-Bukhari vol.8 p.79; as-Sahih Muslim vol.7 pp. 142-l44; as-Sunan Ibn Majah vol.1 p.518; al-Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal vol.6 p.282; al-Mustadrak 'ala as-sahihayn al-Hakim vol.3 p.156)

(4). The meaning is that the person who goes too far in counselling others will be thought to have his personal ends in so doing even though his counsel may well be based on sincerity of intention and selflessness. This line is used as a proverb on such occasions. The whole couplet runs as follows:

How often a good counsel I offered you but sometimes the only reward a counsellor reaps is suspicion.

(5). This line is of Hamal ibn Badr. The full couplet runs thus:

Wait a bit till Hamal reaches the battlefield; How pretty is death when it comes.

The story behind it is that Malik ibn Zuhayr threatened Hamal ibn Badr with battle and in reply he recited this couplet and then attacked Malik and killed him. When Malik's brother saw this he killed Hamal and his brother Hudhayfah in revenge. Then he described this in his following couplet:

I appeased my heart by killing Hamal ibn Badr and my sword appeased me by killing Hudhayfah.


In English

To the People of Basrah

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Whatever disunity and schism you have is not hidden to you. I have forgiven your wrong-doers and held back my sword from those who ran away. I received everyone who came to me from among you. If devastating matters and wrong and silly views are prompting you to break the pledge with me and to oppose me then (listen) I have kept ready my horses and put saddles (on my riding camels) and if you force me to advance towards you I shall come down in such a manner that before it the battle of Jamal too would appear like the last licking of the tongue. At the same time I know the high position of the obedient among you and the right of the sincere without confusing the sinless with the offenders or the faithful with the pledge-breakers.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى أهل البصرة

وَقَدْ كَانَ مِنِ انْتِشَارِ حَبْلِكُمْ (1) وَشِقَاقِكُمْ مَا لَوْ تَغْبَوْا عَنْهُ (2) ، فَعَفَوْتُ عَنْ مُجْرِمِكُمْ، وَرَفَعْتُ السَّيْفَ عَنْ مُدْبِرِكُمْ، وَقَبِلْتُ مِنْ مُقْبِلِكُمْ. فَإِنْ خَطَتْ (3) بِكُمُ الْأُمُورُ الْمُرْدِيَةُ (4) ، وَسَفَهُ (5) الْآرَاءِ الْجَائِرَةِ (6) ، إِلَىُ مُنَابَذَتِي (7) وَخِلاَفِي، فَهَأَنَاذَا قَدْ قَرَّبْتُ جِيَادِي (8) ، وَرَحَلْتُ (9) رِكَابِي (10) . وَلَئِنْ أَلْجَأْتُمُونِي إِلَى الْمَسِيرِ إِلَيْكُمْ، لَأُوقِعَنَّ بِكُمْ وَقْعَةً لاَ يَكُونُ يَوْمُ الْجَمَلِ إِلَيْهَا إِلاَّ كَلَعْقَةِ (11) لاَعِقٍ، مَعَ أَنِّي عَارِفٌ لِذِي الطَّاعَةِ مِنْكُمْ فَضْلَهُ، وَلِذِي النَّصِيحَةِ حَقَّهُ، غَيْرُ مُتَجَاوِزٍ مُتَّهَماً إِلَى بَرِيٍّ، وَلاَ ناكِثاً (12) إِلَى وَفيٍّ.

In Persian

به مردم بصره

هشدار به مردم بصره شما از پيمان شكستن، و دشمني آشكارا با من آگاهيد، با اين همه جرم شما را عفو كردم، و شمشير از فراريان برداشتم ، و استقبال كنندگان را پذيرفتم، و از گناه شما چشم پوشيدم، اگر هم اكنون كارهاي ناروا، و انديشه هاي نابخردانه، شما را به مخالفت و دشمني با من بكشاند، سپاه من آماده، و پا در ركابند. و اگر مرا به حركت دوباره مجبور كنيد، حمله اي بر شما روا دارم كه جنگ جمل در برابر آن بسيار كوچك باشد، با اينكه به ارزشهاي فرمانبردارانتان آگاهم، و حق نصيحت كنندگان شما را مي شناسم، و هرگز براي شخص متهمي، به انسان نيكوكاري تجاوز روا نمي دارم، و هرگز پيمان وفاداران را نخواهم شكست.

p: 84


In English

To Mu'awiyah

Fear Allah regarding what you have amassed and find out your true right therein and turn to understand for what you will not be excused on the grounds of ignorance. Certainly for (following the path of) obedience there arc clear signs shining ways straight highways and a fixed aim. The shrewd proceed towards them while the mean turn away from them. Whoever turns his face from them deviates from the right and gropes in bewilderment. Allah takes away His bounty from him and afflicts him with His chastisement. Therefore beware of yourself. Allah has already shown you your way and the end where your affairs will terminate. You are speeding towards the aim of loss and the position of unbelief. Your ego has pushed you towards evil thrown you into misguidance conveyed you to destruction and created difficulties in your way.

In Arabic

[ 30 ] ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى معاوية

فَاتَّقِ اللهَ فِيَما لَدَيْكَ، وَانْظُرْ في حَقِّهِ عَلَيْكَ، وَارْجِعْ إِلَى مَعْرِفَةِ مَا لاَ تُعْذَرُ بَجَهَالَتِهِ، فَإِنَّ لِلطَّاعَةِ أَعْلاَماً وَاضِحَةً، وَسُبُلاً نَيِّرَةً، وَمَحَجَّةً (1) نَهْجَةً (2) ، وَغَايَةً مُطَّلَبَةً (3) ، يَرِدُهَا الْأَكْيَاسُ (4) ،وَيُخَالِفُهَا الْأَنْكَاسُ (5) ، مَنْ نَكَبَ (6) عَنْهَا جَارَ (7) عَنِ الْحَقِّ، وَخَبَطَ (8) فِي التِّيهِ (9) ، وَغَيَّرَ اللهُ نِعْمَتَهُ، وَأحَلَّ بِهِ نِقْمَتَهُ. فَنَفْسَكَ نَفْسَكَ! فَقَدْ بَيَّنَ اللهُ لَكَ سَبِيلَكَ، وَحَيْثُ تَنَاهَتْ بِكَ أُمُورُكَ، فَقَدْ أَجْرَيْتَ إِلَى غَايَةِ خُسْرٍ (10) ، وَمَحَلَّةِ كُفْرٍ، فَإِنَّ نَفْسَكَ قَدْ أَوْلَجَتْكَ (11) شَرّاً، وَأَقْحَمَتْكَ (12) غَيّاً (13) ، وَأَوْرَدَتْكَ الْمَهَالِكَ، وَأَوْعَرَتْ (14) عَلَيْكَ الْمَسَالِكَ.

p: 85

In Persian

به معاويه

پند و هشدار به معاويه نسبت به آنچه در اختيار داري از خدا بترس، و در حقوق الهي كه بر تو واجب است انديشه كن، و به شناخت چيزي همت كن كه در ناآگاهي آن معذور نخواهي بود، همانا اطاعت خدا، نشانه هاي آشكار، و راههاي روشن. و راهي ميانه و هميشه گشوده، و پاياني دلپسند دارد كه زيركان به آن راه يابند، و فاسدان از آن به انحراف روند، كسي كه از دين سر باز زند، از حق رويگردان شده، و در وادي حيرت سرگردان خواهد شد، كه خدا نعمت خود را از او گرفته، و بلاهايش را بر او نازل مي كند، معاويه اينك به خود آي، و به خود بپرداز! زيرا خداوند راه و سرانجام امور تو را روشن كرده است. اما تو همچنان به سوي زيانكاري، و جايگاه كفرورزي، حركت مي كني، خواسته هاي دل تو را به بديها كشانده، و در پرتگاه گمراهي قرار داده است، و تو را در هلاكت انداخته، و راههاي نجات را بر روي تو بسته است.


In English

He wrote for al-Hasan ibn `Ali (1) (his son - peace be upon them) when Amir al-mu'minin encamped at al-Hadirin on his way back from Siffin.

From the father who is (shortly) to die who acknowledges the hardships of the times who has turned away from life who has submitted himself to the (calamities of) time who realizes the evils of the world who is living in the abodes of the dead and is due to depart from them any day; to the son who yearns for what is not to be achieved who is treading the path of those who have died who is the victim of ailments who is entangled in the (worries of the) days who is a target of hardships a slave of the world a trader of its deception a debtor of wishes a prisoner of mortality an ally of worries a neighbour of griefs a victim of distresses who has been overpowered by desires and who is a successor of the dead. Now (you should know that) what I have learnt from the turning away of this world from me the onslaught of

p: 86

time over me and the advancing of the next world towards me is enough to prevent me from remembering anyone except myself and from thinking beyond myself. But when I confined myself to my own worries leaving the worries of others my intelligence saved me and protected me from my desires. It clarified to me my affairs and led me to seriousness wherein there was no trickery and truth which was not tarnished by falsehood. Here I found you a part of myself rather I found you my whole so much so that if anything befell you it was as though it befell me and if death came to you it was as though it came to me. Consequently your affairs meant to me what my own matters meant to me. So I have written this piece of advice (to you) as an instrument of seeking help through it whether I remain alive for you or cease to exist.

I advise you to fear Allah O' my child to abide by His commands to fill your heart with remembrance of Him and to cling to hope from Him. No connection is more reliable than the connection between you and Allah provided you take hold of it. Enliven your heart with preaching kill it by renunciation energise it with firm belief enlighten it with wisdom humiliate it by recalling death make it believe in mortality make it see the misfortunates of this world make it fear the authority of the time and the severity of some changes during the nights and the days place before it the events of past people recall to it what befell those who were before you and walk among their cities and ruins then see what they did and from what they have gone away and where they have gone and stayed. You will find that they departed from (their) friends and remain in loneliness. Shortly you too will be like one of them. Therefore plan for your place of stay and do not sell your next life with this world.

p: 87

Give up discussing what you do not know and speaking about what does not concern you. Keep off the track from which you fear to go astray because refraining (from moving) when there is fear of straying is better than embarking on dangers. Ask others to do good; you will thus be among the good doers. Desist others from evil with your action as well as your speech and keep off to the best of your ability from he who commits it. Struggle for Allah as is His due; and the reviling of a reviler should not deter you in matters of Allah. Leap into dangers for the sake of right wherever it be. Acquire insight into religious law. Habituate yourself to endure hardships since the best trait of character is endurance in matters of right. In all your affairs resign yourself to your Allah because you will thus be resigning yourself to a secure shelter and a strong protector. You should ask only from your Lord because in His hand is all the giving and depriving. Seek good (from Allah) as much as you can. Understand my advice an do not turn away from it because the best saying is that which benefits. Know that there is no good in that knowledge which does not benefit and if knowledge is not made use of then its acquisition is not justified.

O'my child when I noticed that I was of goodly age and noticed that I was increasing in weakness I hastened with my will for you and wrote down salient points of it lest death overtook me before I divulged to you what I have in my heart or lest my wit be affected as my body has been affected or the forces of passions or the mischiefs of the world overtake you making you like a stubborn camel. Certainly the heart of a young man is like uncultivated land. It accepts whatever is strewn on it. So I hastened to mould you properly before your heart hardened up and your mind became occupied so that you might be ready to accept through your intelligence the results of the experience of others and be saved from going through these experiences yourself. In this way you would avoid the hardship of seeking them and the difficulties of experimenting. Thus you are getting to know what we had experienced and even those things are becoming clear to you which we might have missed.

p: 88

O' my child even though I have not reached the age which those before me have yet I looked into their behaviour and thought over events of their lives. I walked among their ruins till I was as one of them. In fact by virtue of those of their affairs that have become known to me it is as though I have lived with them from the first to the last. I have therefore been able to discern the impure from the clean and the benefit from the harm.

I have selected for you the choicest of those matters and collected for you their good points and have kept away from you their useless points.Since I feel for your affairs as a living father should feel and I aim at giving you training I thought it should be at a time when you are advancing in age and new on the stage of the world possessing upright intention and clean heart and that I should begin with the teaching of the Book of Allah to Whom belongs Might and Majesty and its interpretation the laws of Islam and its commands its lawful matters and unlawful matters and that I should not go beyond these for you. Then I feared lest you should get confused as other people had been confused on account of their passions and (different) views. Therefore in spite of my dislike for you being so warned I thought it better for me to make this position strong rather than leave you in a position where I do not regard you safe from falling into destruction. I hoped that Allah would help you in your straightforwardness and guide you in your resoluteness. Consequently I wrote this piece of my will for you.

p: 89

Know O' my child that what I love most for you to adopt from my will is to fear Allah to confine yourself to what Allah has made obligatory on you and to follow the actions of your forefathers and the virtuous people of your household because they did not fall short in seeing for themselves what you will sec for yourself and they did about their affairs as you would like to think (about your affairs) . Thereafter their thinking led them to discharge the obligations they came to know of and to desist from what they were not required to do. If your heart does not accept this without acquiring knowledge as they acquired it then your search should first be by way of understanding and learning and not by falling into doubts or getting entangled in quarrels.

And before you probe into this you should begin by seeking your Allah's help and turning to Him for competence and keeping aloof from everything that throws you into doubt or flings you towards misguidance.

When you have made sure that your heart is clean and humble and your thoughts have come together and you have only one thought which is about this matter then you will see what I have explained to you; but if you have not been able to achieve that peace of observation and thinking which you would like to have then know that you are only stamping the ground like a blind she-camel and falling into darkness while a seeker of religion should not grope in the dark or create confusion. It is better to avoid this.

p: 90

Appreciate my advice O' my child and know that He Who is the Master of death is also the Master of life that the Creator causes death as well; that He Who destroys is also the restorer of life and that He Who inflicts disease is also the curer. This world continues in the way Allah has made it with regard to its pleasures trials rewards on the Day of Judgement and all that He wishes and you do not know. If anything of this advice is not understood by you then attribute it to your ignorance of it because when you were first born you were born ignorant. Thereafter you acquired knowledge. There are many matters of which you are ignorant and in which your sight first wonders and your eye wanders then after this you see them. Therefore cling to Him Who created you fed you and put you in order. Your worship should be for Him your eagerness should be towards Him and your fear should be of Him.

Know O' my child that no one received messages from Allah the Glorified as the Prophet (may Allah bless him and his progeny) did. Therefore regard him as your forerunner and leader towards deliverance. Certainly I shall spare no effort in giving you advice and surely even if you try you cannot acquire that insight for your welfare as I have for you. Know O' my child that if there had been a partner with your Lord his messengers too should have come to you and you would have seen signs of his authority and power and you should have known his deeds and qualities. But He is only One God as He has described Himself. No one can dispute with Him in His authority. He is from ever and will be for ever. He is before all things without any beginning. He will remain after all things without any end. He is far too great to have His divinity proved by the encompassing heart or eye. When you have understood this then you should do what is done by him who is like you by way of his low position his lack of authority his increasing incapability and his great need of his Lord for seeking His obedience fearing His chastisement and apprehending His anger because He does not command you save for virtue and does not refrain you save from evil.

p: 91

O' my child I have informed you about the world its condition its decay and its passing away and I have informed you of the next world and of what has been provided in it for its people. I have recounted to you parables about it so that you may draw instruction from them and act upon them. The example of those who have understood the world is like those travellers who being disgusted with drought striken places set off for greenery and a fruitful place.

Then they endure difficulties on the way separation from friends hardships of the journey and unwholesome food in order to reach their fields of plenty and place of stay. Consequently they do not feel any pain in all this and do not regard any expenditure to be waste. Nothing is more lovable to them than what takes them near their goal and carries them closer to their place of stay. (Against this) the example of those who are deceived by this world is like the people who were in a green place but they became disgusted with it and went to a drought-stricken place. Therefore for them nothing is more detestable or abominable than to leave the place where they were to go to a place which they will reach unexpectedly and for which they are heading.

O' my child make yourself the measure (for dealings) between you and others. Thus you should desire for others what you desire for yourself and hate for others what you hate for yourself. Do not oppress as you do not like to be oppressed. Do good to others as you would like good to be done to you. Regard bad for yourself whatever you regard bad for others. Accept that (treatment) from others which you would like others to accept from you. Do not talk about what you do not know even though what you know be very little. Do not say to others what you do not like to be said to you.

p: 92

Know that self- admiration is contrary to propriety (of action) and is a calamity for the mind. Therefore increase your striving and do not become a treasurer for (wealth to be inherited by) others. When you have been guided on the right path humble yourself before Allah as much as you can.

Know that in front of you lies a road of long distance and severe hardship and that you cannot avoid seeking it. Take your requirements of provision keeping the burden light. Do not load your back beyond your power lest its weight become a mischief for you. Whenever you come across a needy person who can carry for you your provision to hand it back to you on the Day of Judgement when you will need it then accept him as a good opportunity and get him to carry it. Put in that provision as much-as you are able to for it is likely that if you may need him (afterwards) you may not get hold of him. If a person is willing to borrow from you in the days of your affluence to pay it back to you at the time of your need then make use of this opportunity.

Know that in front of you lies an impassable valley wherein the light-burdened man will be in a better condition than the heavy-burden one and the slow- paced would be in a worse condition than the swift-paced. Your terminating point at the other end of this passage will necessarily be either Paradise or Hell. Therefore reconnoitre for yourself before alighting and prepare the place before getting down because after death there can be no preparation nor return to this world.

p: 93

Know that He Who owns the treasuries of the heavens and of the earth has permitted you to pray to Him and has promised you acceptance of the prayer. He has commanded you to beg from Him in order that He may give you and to seek His mercy in order that He may have mercy on you. He has not placed any thing between you and Him that may veil Him from you. He has not required you to get a mediator for you to Him and if you err He has not prevented you from repentance. He does not hasten with punishment. He does not taunt you for repenting nor does He humiliate you when humiliation is more appropriate for you. He has not been harsh in accepting repentance. He does not severely question you about your sins. He does not disappoint you of His mercy. Rather He regards abstention from sin as a virtue. He counts your one sin as one while He counts your one virtue as ten.

He has opened for you the door of repentance. Therefore whenever you call Him He hears your call and whenever you whisper to Him He knows the whisper. You place before Him your needs unveil yourself before Him complain to Him of your worries beseech Him to remove your troubles seek His help in your affairs and ask from the treasuries of His mercy that which no one else has power to give namely length of life health of body and increase in sustenance. Then He has placed the keys of His treasuries in your hands in the sense that He has shown you the way to ask Him.

p: 94

Therefore wherever you wish open the doors of His favour with prayer and let the abundant rains of His mercy fall on you. Delay in acceptance of the prayer should not disappoint you because the grant of prayer is according to the measure of (your) intention. Sometimes acceptance (of prayer) is delayed with a view to its being a source of greater reward to the asker and of better gifts to the expectant. Sometimes you ask for a thing but it is not given to you and a better thing is given to you later or a thing is taken away from you for some greater good of yours because sometimes you ask for a thing which contains ruin for your religion if it is given to you. Therefore your request should be for things whose beauty should be lasting and whose burden should remain away from you. As for wealth it will not last for you nor will you live for it.

O' my child know that you have been created for the next world not for this world for destruction(in this world) not for lasting and for dying not for living. You are in a place which does not belong to you a house for making preparations and a passage towards the next world. You are being chased by death from which the runner-away cannot escape as it would surely over take him. So be on guard against it lest it overtakes you at a time when you are in a sinful state and you are thinking of repenting but it creates obstruction between you and repentance. In such a case you will ruin yourself.

p: 95

O' my child remember death very much and the place where you have to go suddenly and reach after death so that when it comes you are already on your guard against it and have prepared yourself for it and it does not come to you all of a sudden and surprise you. Beware lest you become deceived by the leanings of the people towards worldly attraction and their rushing upon it. Allah has warned you about it and the world has informed you of its mortal character and unveiled to you its evils.

Surely those (who go) after it are like barking dogs or devouring carnivore who hate each other. The stronger among them eat away the weaker and the big among them tramples over the small. Some are like tied cattle and some like untied cattle who have lost their wits and are running in unknown directions. They are flocks of calamities wandering in rugged valleys. There is no herdsman to detain them nor any tenderer to take them to grazing. The world has put them on the track of blindness and taken away their eyes from the beacons of guidance. They have therefore been perplexed in its bewilderings and sunk in its pleasures. They took it as a god so it played with them. They too played with it and forgot what is beyond it. Darkness is disappearing gradually. Now it is as though travellers have got down and the hasteners will soon meet. Know O' my child that everyone who is riding on the carriage of night and day is being carried by them even though he may be stationary and he is covering the distance even though he is staying and resting.

p: 96

Know with certainty that you cannot achieve your desire and cannot exceed your destined life. You are on the track of those before you. Therefore be humble in seeking and moderate in earning because often seeking leads to deprivation. Every seeker of livelihood does not get it nor is everyone who is moderate in seeking deprived. Keep yourself away from every low thing even though they may take you to your desired aims because you will not get any return for your own respect which you spend. Do not be the slave of others for Allah had made you free. There is no good in good which is achieved through evil and no good in comfort that is achieved through (disgracing) hardship.

Beware lest bearers of greed should carry you and make you descend down to the springs of destruction. If you can manage that there be no wealthy person between yourself and Allah do so because in any case you will find what is for you and get your share. A little received directly from Allah the Glorified is more dignified than that which is more but is received through (the obligation of) His creatures although (really) all is from Allah.

It is easier to rectify what you miss by silence than to secure what you lose by speaking. Whatever is in a pot can be retained by closing the lid. I should prefer you to retain what is in your hands rather to seek what is in other's hands. Bitterness of disappointment is better than seeking from people. Manual labour. with chastity is better than the riches of a vicious life. A man is the best guard of his own secrets. Often a man strives for what harms him. He who speaks much speaks nonsense. Whoever ponders perceives. Associate with people of virtue; you will become one of them. Keep aloof from people of vice; you will remain safe from them. The worst food is that which is unlawful. Oppressing the weak is the worst oppression.

p: 97

Where leniency is unsuitable harshness is lenience. Often cure is illness and illness is cure. Often the ill-wisher gives correct advice while the well-wisher cheats. Do not depend upon hopes because hopes are the mainstay of fools. It is wise to preserve one's experience. Your best experience is that which teaches you a lesson. Make use of leisure before it changes into (the hour of) grief. Every seeker does not achieve (what he seeks); and every departer does not return. To lose provision and to earn evil for the Day of Judgement means ruin. Every matter has a consequence. What is destined for you will shortly come to you. A trader undertakes a risk. Often a small quantity is more beneficial than a large quantity. There is no good in an ignoble helper nor in a suspicious friend. Be compliant with the world as long as it is in your grip. Do not put yourself to risk as regards anything in expectation for more than that. Beware lest the feeling of enmity should overpower you.

Bear yourself towards your brother in such a way that if he disregards kinship you keep to it; when he turns away be kind to him and draw near to him; when he withholds spend for him; when he goes away approach him; when he is harsh be lenient; when he commits wrong think of (his) excuse for it so much so as though you are a slave of him and he is the benevolent master over you. But take care that this should not be done inappropriately and that you should not behave so with an undeserving person. Do not take the enemy of your friend as a friend because you will thus antagonize your friend. Give true advice to your brother be it good or bitter. Swallow your anger because I did not find a sweeter thing than it in the end and nothing more pleasant in consequence. Be lenient to him who is harsh to you for it is likely that he will shortly become lenient to you. Treat your enemy with favours because this is sweeter of the two successes (the success of revenge and the success of doing favour).

p: 98

If you intend to cut yourself off from a friend leave some scope for him from your side by which he may resume friendship if it so occurs to him some day. If anyone has a good idea about you prove it to be true. Do not disregard the interests of your brother depending upon your terms with him for he is not your brother if you disregard his interests. Your household should not become the most miserable people through you. Do not lean towards him who turns away from you. Your brother should not be more firm in his disregard of kinship than you in paying regard to it and you should exceed in doing good to him than is evil to you. Do not feel too much the oppression of a person who oppresses you because he is only busy in harming himself and benefiting you. The reward of him who pleases you is not that you displease him.

Know O' my child that livelihood is of two kinds - a liveli- hood that you seek and a livelihood that seeks you which is such that if you do not reach it it will come to you. How bad it is to bend down at the time of need and to be harsh in riches. You should have from this world only that with which you can adorn your permanent abode. If you cry over what has gone out of your hands then also cry for what has not at all come to you. Infer about what has not yet happened from what has already happened because occurrences are ever similar. Do not be like those whom preaching does not benefit unless you inflict pain on them because the wise take instruction from teaching while beasts learn only from beating.

p: 99

Ward off from yourself the onslaught of worries by firmness of endurance and purity of belief. He who gives up moderation commits excess. A companion is like a relation. A friend is he whose absence also proves the friendship. Passion is a partner of distress. Often the near ones are remoter than the distant ones and often the distant ones are nearer than the near ones. A stranger is he who has no friend. He who transgresses right narrows his own passage. He who stays in his position remains constant upon it. The most trustworthy intermediary is that which you adopt between yourself and Allah the Glorified. He who does not care for your interests is your enemy. When greed leads to ruin deprivation is an achievement. Not every defect can be reviewed and not every opportunity recurs.

Often a person with eyes misses the track while a blind person finds the correct path. Delay an evil because you will be able to hasten it whenever you desire. The disregard of kinship of the ignorant is equal to the regard for kinship of the wise. Whoever takes the world to be safe it will betray him. Whoever regards the world as great it will humiliate him. Every one who shoots does not hit. When authority changes the time changes too. Consult the friend before adopting a course and the neighbour before taking a house. Beware lest you mention in your speech what may rouse laughter even though you may be relating it from others. Do not consult women because their view is weak and their determination is unstable. Cover their eyes by keeping them under the veil because strictness of veiling keeps them for long. Their coming out is not worse than your allowing an unreliable man to visit them. If you can manage that they should not know anyone other than you do so. Do not allow a woman matters other than those about hereself because a woman is a flower not an administrator. Do not pay her regard beyond herself. Do not encourage her to intercede for others. Do not show suspicion out of place because this leads a correct woman to evil and a chaste woman to deflection.

p: 100

For everyone among your servants fix a work for which you may hold him responsible. In this way they will not fling the work one over the other. Respect your kinsmen because they are your wings with which you fly the origin towards which you return and your hands with which you attack. Place your religion and your world at Allah's disposal and beg Him to ordain the best for you in respect of the near and the far this world and the next; and that is an end to the matter.

In Arabic

ومن وصيّته له عليه السلام

للحسن بن علي عليهما السلام، كتبها إليه "بحاضرين" (1) عند انصرافه من صفّين

مِنَ الْوَالِدِ الْفَانِ، الْمُقِرِّ لِلزَّمَانِ (2) ، الْمُدْبِرِ الْعُمُرِ، الْمُسْتَسْلِمِ ، لِلدُّنْيَا، السَّاكِنِ مَسَاكِنَ الْمَوْتَى، الظَّاعِنِ عَنْهَا غَداً، إِلَى الْمَوْلُودِ الْمُؤَمِّلِ مَا لاَ يُدْرَكُ، السَّالِكِ سَبِيلَ مَنْ قَدْ هَلَكَ، غَرَضِ (3) الْأََسْقَامِ رَهِينَةِ (4) الْأَيَّامِ، وَرَمِيَّةِ (5) الْمَصَائِبِ، وَعَبْدِ الدُّنْيَا، وَتَاجِرِ الْغُرُور,ِ وَغَرِيمِ الْمَنَايَا، وَأَسِيرِ الْمَوْتِ، وَحَلِيفِ الْهُمُومِ،قَرِينِ الْأَحْزَانِ، وَنُصْبِ الْآفَاتِ (6) ، وَصَرِيعِ (7) الشَّهَوَاتِ، وَخَلِيفَةِ الْأَمْوَاتِ.

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنَّ فِيَما تَبَيَّنْتُ مِنْ إِدْبَارِ الدُّنْيَا عَنِّي، وَجُمُوحِ الدَّهْرِ (8) عَلَيَّ، وَإِقْبَالِ الْآخِرَةِ إِلَيَّ، مَا يَزَعُنِي (9) عَنْ ذِكْرِ مَنْ سِوَايَ، وَالْإِهْتَِمامِ بِمَا وَرَائِي (10) ، غَيْرَ أَنِّي حَيْثُ تَفَرَّدَ بِي دُونَ هُمُومِ النَّاسِ هَمُّ نَفْسِي، فَصَدَفَنِي (11) رَأْيِي، وَصَرَفَنِي عَنْ هَوَايَ، وَصَرَّحَ لِي مَحْضُ أَمْرِي (12) ، فَأَفْضَى بِي إِلَى جِدٍّ لاَ يَكُونُ فِيهِ لَعِبٌ، وَصِدْق لا َ يَشُوبُهُ كَذِبٌ. وَوَجَدْتُكَ بَعْضِي، بَلْ وَجَدْتُكَ كُلِّي، حَتَّى كَأَنَّ شَيْئاً لَوْ أَصَابَكَ أَصَابَنِي، وَكَأَنَّ الْمَوْتَ لَوْ أَتَاكَ أَتَانِي، فَعَنَانِي مِنْ أَمْرِكَ مَا يَعْنِيني مِنْ أَمْرِ نَفْسِي، فَكَتَبْتُ إِليْكَ كِتَابِي هَذا، مُسْتظْهِراً بِهِ (13) إِنْ أَنا بَقِيتُ لَكَ أَوْ فَنِيتُ.

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فَإِنِّي أُوصِيكَ بِتَقْوَى اللهِ _ أَيْ بُنيَّ _ وَلُزُومِ أَمْرِهِ، وَعِمَارَةِ قَلْبِكَ بِذِكْرِهِ، وَالْإِعْتِصَامِ بِحَبْلِهِ، وَأَيُّ سَبَب أَوْثقُ مِنْ سَبَب بَيْنكَ وَبَيْنَ اللهِ عَزّوَجَلَّ إِنْ أَنْتَ أَخَذْتَ بِهِ!

أَحْيِ قَلْبَكَ بِالْمَوْعِظَةِ، وَأَمِتْهُ بِالزَّهَادَةِ، وَقَوِّهِ بِالْيَقِينِ، وَنَوِّرْهُ بِالْحِكْمَةِ، وَذَلِّلْهُ بِذِكْرِ الْمَوْتِ، وَقَرِّرْهُ بِالْفَنَاءِ (14) ، وَبَصِّرْهُ (15) فَجَائِعَ (16) الدُّنْيَا، وَحَذِّرْهُ صَوْلَةَ الدَّهْرِ وَفُحْشَ تَقَلُّبِ اللَّيَالِي وَالْأَيَّامِ، وَاعْرِضْ عَلَيْهِ أَخْبَارَ الْمَاضِينَ، وَذَكِّرْهُ بِمَا أَصَابَ مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكَ مِنَ الْأَوَّلِينَ، وَسِرْ فِي دِيَارِهِمْ وَآثَارِهِمْ، فَانْظُرفيْمَا فَعَلُوا عَمَّا انْتَقَلُوا، وَأَيْنَ حَلُّوا وَنَزَلُوا! فَإِنَّكَ تَجِدُهُمْ قَدِ انْتَقَلُوا عَنِ الْأََحِبَّةِ، وَحَلُّوا دِيَار َالْغُرْبَةِ، وَكَأَنَّكَ عَنْ قَلِيلٍ قَدْ صِرْتَ كَأَحَدِهِمْ. فَأَصْلِحْ مَثْوَاكَ، وَلاَ تَبِعْ آخِرَتَكَ بِدُنْيَاكَ، وَدَعِ الْقَوْلَ فِيَما لاَ تَعْرِفُ، وَالْخِطَابَ فِيَما لَمْ تُكَلَّفْ، وَأَمْسِكْ عَنْ طَرِيقٍ إِذَا خِفْتَ ضَلاَلَتَهُ، فَإِنَّ الْكَفَّ عِنْدَ حَيْرَةِ الضَّلاَلِ خَيْرٌ مِنْ رُكُوبِ الْأَهْوَالِ، وَأْمُرْ بالْمَعْرُوفِ تَكُنْ مِنْ أَهْلِهِ، وَأَنْكِرِ المُنكَرَ بِيَدِكَ وَلِسَانِكَ، وَبَايِنْ (17)

مَنْ فَعَلَهُ بِجُهْدِكَ، وَجَاهِدْ فِي اللهِ حَقَّ جَهَادِهِ، وَلاَ تَأْخُذْكَ فِي اللهِ لَوْمَةُ لاَئِمٍ، وَخُضِ الْغَمَرَاتِ (18) لِلحَقِّ حَيْثُ كَانَ، وَتَفَقَّهُ فِي الدِّينِ، وَعَوِّدْ نَفْسَكَ التَّصَّبْرَ عَلَى الْمَكْرُوهِ، وَنِعْمَ الْخُلُقُ التَّصَبُّرُفي الْحَقِّ ! وَأَلْجِىءْ نَفْسَكَ فِي أُمُوركَِ كُلِّهَا إِلَى إِلهِكَ، فَإِنَّكَ تُلجِئُهَا إِلَى كَهْفٍ (19) حَرِيز (20) ، وَمَانِعٍ عَزِيزٍ، وَأَخْلِصْ فِي الْمَسْأَلَةِ لِرَبِّكَ، فَإِنَّ بِيَدِهِ الْعَطَاءَ وَالْحِرْمَانَ، وَأَكْثِرِ الْاِسْتِخَارَةَ (21) ، وَتَفَهَّمْ وَصِيَّتِي، وَلاَ تَذْهَبَنَّ عَنْكَ صَفْحاً (22) ، فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الْقَوْلِ مَا نَفَعَ. وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لاَ خَيْرَ فِي عِلْمٍ لاَ يَنْفَعُ، وَلاَ يُنْتَفَعُ بِعِلْمٍ لاَ يَحِقُّ (23) تَعَلُّمُهُ.

أَيْ بُنَيَّ، إِنِّي لَمَّا رَأَيْتُنِي قَدْ بَلَغْتُ سِنّاً (24) ، وَرَأَيْتُنِي أَزْدَادُ وَهْناً (25) ، بَادَرْتُ بِوَصِيَّتِي إِلَيْكَ، وَأَوْرَدْتُ خِصَالاً مِنْهَا قَبْلَ أَنْ يَعْجَلَ بِي أَجَلِي دُونَ أَنْ أُفْضِيَ (26) إِلَيْكَ بِمَا فِي نَفْسِي، أَوْ أَنْ أَنْقُصَ فِي رَأْيِي كَمَا نُقِصْتُ فِي جسْمِي، أَوْ يَسْبِقَنِي إِلَيْكَ بَعْضُ غَلَبَاتِ الْهَوَى وَفِتَنِ الدُّنْيَا، فَتَكُونَ كَالصَّعْبِ (27) النَّفُورِ (28) . وَ إنَّمَا قَلْبُ الْحَدَثِ كَالَْأَرْضِ الْخَالِيَةِ مَا ألْقِيَ فِيهَا مِنْ شَيءٍ قَبِلَتْهُ. فَبَادَرْتُكَ بِالْأَدَبِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَقْسُو قَلْبُكَ، وَيَشْتَغِلَ لُبُّكَ، لِتَسْتَقْبِلَ بِجِدِّ رَأْيِكَ (29) مِنَ الْأَمْرِ مَا قَدْ كَفَاكَ أَهْلُ التَّجَارِبِ بُغْيَتَهُ (30) وَتَجْرِبَتَهُ، فَتَكُونَ قَدْ كُفِيتَ مَؤُونَةَ الطَّلَبِ، وَعُوفِيتَ مِنْ عِلاَجِ التَّجْرِبَةِ، فَأَتَاكَ مِنْ ذلِكَ مَا قَدْ كُنَّا نَأْتِيهِ، وَاسْتَبَانَ (31) لَكَ مَا رُبَّمَا أَظْلَمَ عَلَيْنَا مِنْهُ.

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أَيْ بُنَيَّ، إِنِّي وَإِنْ لَمْ أَكُنْ عُمِّرْتُ عُمُرَ مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلِي، فَقَدْ نَظَرْتُ فِي أَعْمَالِهِمْ، وَفَكَّرْتُ فِي أَخْبَارِهِمْ، وَسِرْتُ فِي آثَارِهِمْ، حَتَّى عُدْتُ كَأَحَدِهِمْ، بَلْ كَأَنِّي بِمَا انْتَهَى إِلَيَّ مِنْ أُمُورِهِمْ قَدْ عُمِّرْتُ مَعَ أَوَّلِهِمْ إِلَى آخِرِهِمْ، فَعَرَفْتُ صَفْوَ ذلِكَ مِنْ كَدَرِهِ، وَنَفْعَهُ مِنْ ضَرَرِهِ، فَاسْتَخْلَصْتُ لَكَ مِنْ كُلِّ أَمْر نَخِيلَتَهُ (32) ،تَوَخَّيْتُ (33) لَكَ جَمِيلَهُ، وَصَرَفْتُ عَنْكَ مَجْهُولَهُ، وَرَأَيْتُ حَيْثُ عَنَانِي مِنْ أَمْرِكَ مَا يَعْنِي الْوَالِدَ الشَّفِيقَ، وَأَجْمَعْتُ عَلَيْهِ (34) مِنْ أَدَبِكَ أَنْ يَكُونَ ذلِكَ وَأَنْتَ مُقْبِلُ الْعُمُرِ مُقْتَبَلُ (35) الدَّهْرِ، ذُونِيَّة سَلِيمَة، وَنَفْس صَافِيَة، وَأَنْ أَبْتَدِئَكَ بِتَعْلِيمِ كِتَابِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَج َلَّ وَتَأْوِيلِهِ، وَشَرَائِعِ الْإِسْلاَمِ وَأَحْكَامِهِ، وَحَلاَلِهِ وَحَرَامِهِ، لاَ أُجَاوُِز (36) ذلِكَ بَكَ إِلَى غَيْرِهِ. ثُمَّ أَشْفَقْتُ (37) أَنْ يَلْتَبِسَ عَلَيْكَ مَا اخْتَلَفَ النَّاسُ فِيهِ مِنْ أَهْوَائِهِمْ وَآرَائِهِمْ مِثْلَ الَّذِي الْتَبَسَ (38) عَلَيْهِمْ، فَكَانَ إِحْكَامُ ذلِكَ عَلَى مَا كَرِهْتُ مِنْ تَنْبِيهِكَ لَهُ أَحَبَّ إِلَيَّ مِنْ إِسْلاَمِكَ إِلَى أَمْرٍ لاَ آمَنُ عَلَيْكَ بِهِ الْهَلَكَةَ (39) ، وَرَجَوْتُ أَنْ يُوَفِّقَكَ اللهُ فِيهِ لِرُشْدِكَ، وَأَنْ يَهْدِيَكَ لِقَصْدِكَ، فَعَهِدْتُ إِلَيْكَ وَصِيَّتِي هذِهِ.

وَاعْلَمْ يَا بُنَيَّ، أَنَّ أَحَبَّ مَا أَنْتَ آخِذٌ بِهِ إِلَيَّ مِنْ وَصِيَّتِي تَقْوَى اللهِ، وَالْإِقْتِصَارُ عَلَى مَا فَرَضَهُ اللهُ عَلَيْكَ، وَالْأََخْذُ بِمَا مَضَى عَلَيْهِ الْأَوَّلُونَ مِنْ آبَائِكَ، وَالصَّالِحُونَ مِنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِكَ، فَإِنَّهُمْ لَمْ يَدَعُوا (40) أَنْ نَظَرُوا لِأَنْفُسِهِمْ كَمَا أَنْتَ نَاظِرٌ، وَفَكَّرُوا كَمَا أَنْتَ مُفَكِّرٌ، ثُمَّ رَدَّهُمْ آخِرُ ذلِكَ إِلَى الْأَخْذِ بِمَا عَرَفُوا، والْإِمْسَاك ِ عَمَّا لَمْ يُكَلَّفُوا، فَإِنْ أَبَتْ نَفْسُكَ أَنْ تَقْبَلَ ذلِكَ دُونَ أَنْ تَعْلَمَ كَمَا عَلِمُوا فَلْيَكُنْ طَلَبُكَ ذلِكَ بَتَفَهُّمٍ وَتَعَلُّمٍ، لاَبِتَوَرُّطِ الشُّبُهَاتِ، وَعُلَقِ الْخُصُومَاتِ. وَابْدَأْ قَبْلَ نَظَرِكَ فِي ذلِكَ بِالْإِسْتِعَانَةِ بِإِلهِكَ، وَالرَّغْبَةِ إِلَيْهِ فِي تَوْفِيقِكَ، وَتَرْكِ كُلِّ شَائِبَة (41) أَوْلَجَتْكَ (42) فِي شُبْهَة، أَوْ أَسْلَمَتْكَ إِلَى ضَلاَلَة. فَإنَّ أَيْقَنْتَ أَنْ قَدْ صَفَا قَلْبُكَ فَخَشَعَ، وَتَمَّ رَأْيُكَ وَاجْتَمَعَ، وَكَانَ هَمُّكَ فِي ذلِكَ هَمّاً وَاحِداً، فَانْظُرْ فِيَما فَسَّرْتُ لَكَ، وَإِنْ لَمْ يَجْتَمِعْ لَكَ مَا تُحِبُّ مِنْ نَفْسِكَ، وَفَرَاغِ نَظَرِكَ وَفِكْرِكَ، فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّكَ إِنَّمَا تَخْبِطُ الْعَشْوَاءَ (43) ]، وَتَتَوَرَّطُ (44) الظَّلْمَاءَ، وَلَيْسَ طَالِبُ الدِّينِ مَنْ خَبَطَ أَوْ خَلَّطَ، والْإِمْسَاكُ (45) عَنْ ذلِكَ أَمْثَلُ (46) .

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فَتَفَهَّمْ يَا بُنَيَّ وَصِيَّتِي، وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ مَالِكَ الْمَوْتِ هُوَ مَالِكُ الحَيَاةِ، وَأَنَّ الْخَالِقَ هُوَ الْمُمِيتُ، وَأَنَّ الْمُفْنِيَ هُوَ الْمُعِيدُ، وَأَنَّ الْمُبْتَلِيَ هُوَ الْمُعَافِي، وَأَنَّ الدُّنْيَا لَمْ تَكُنْ لِتَسْتَقِرَّ إِلاَّ عَلَى مَا جَعَلَهَا اللهُ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ النَّعْمَاءِ، وَالْاِبْتِلاَءِ، وَالْجَزَاءِ فِي الْمَعَادِ، أَوْ مَاشَاءَ مِمَّا لاَ تعْلَمُ، فَإِنْ أَشْكَلَ عَلَيْكَ شَيْءٌ مِنْ ذلِكَ فَاحْمِلْهُ عَلَى جَهَالَتِكَ ، فَإِنَّكَ أَوَّلُ مَا خُلِقْتَ جَاهِلاً ثُمَّ عَلِمْتَ، وَمَا أَكْثَرَ مَا تَجْهَلُ مِنَ الْأَمْرِ، وَيَتَحَيَّرُ فِيهِ رَأْيُكَ، وَيَضِلُّ فِيهِ بَصَرُكَ ثُمَّ تُبْصِرُهُ بَعْدَ ذلِكَ ! فَاعْتَصِمْ بِالَّذِي خَلَقَكَ وَرَزَقَكَ وَسَوَّاكَ، وَلْيَكُنْ لَهُ تَعَبُّدُكَ، وَإِلَيْهِ رَغْبَتُكَ، وَمِنْهُ شَفَقَتُكَ (47) .

وَاعْلَمْ يَا بُنَيَّ أَنَّ أَحَداً لَمْ يُنْبِىءْ عَنِ اللهِ سُبْحَانَهُ كَمَا أَنْبَأَ عَنْهُ الرَّسُولُ _ صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ_ فَارْضَ بِهِ رَائِداً (48) ، وَإِلَى النَّجَاةِ قَائِدَاً، فَإِنِّي لَمْ آلُك (49) نَصِيحَةً. وَإِنَّكَ لَنْ تَبْلُغَ فِي النَّظَرِ لِنَفْسِكَ _ وَإِنِ اجْتَهَدْتَ _ مَبْلَغَ نَظَرِي لَكَ. وَاعْلَمْ يَا بُنَيَّ، أَنَّهُ لَوْ ك َانَ لِرَبِّكَ شَرِيكٌ لأََتَتْكَ رُسُلُهُ، وَلَرَأَيْتَ آثَارَ مُلْكِهِ وَسُلْطَانِهِ، وَلَعَرَفْتَ أَفْعَالَهُ وصِفَاتِهِ، وَلكِنَّهُ إِلهٌ وَاحدٌ كَمَا وَصَفَ نَفْسَهُ، لاَ يُضَادُّهُ فِي مُلْكِهِ أَحَدٌ، وَلاَ يَزُولُ أَبَداً وَلَمْ يَزَلْ، أَوَّلٌ قَبْلَ الْأََشْيَاءِ بِلاَ أَوَّلِيَّة، وَآخِرٌ بَعْدَ الْأَشْيَاءِ بِلاَ نِهَايَةٍ. عَظُمَ عَنْ أَنْ تَثْبُتَ رُبُوبِيَّتُهُ بَإحَاطَةِ قَلْبٍ أَوْ بَصَرٍ. فَإِذَا عَرَفْتَ ذلِكَ فَافْعَلْ كَمَا يَنْبَغِي لِمِثْلِكَ أَنْ يَفْعَلَهُ فِي صِغَرِ خَطَرِهِ (50) ، وَقِلَّةِ مَقْدِرَتِهِ، وَكَثْرَةِ عَجْزِهِ، عَظِيمِ حَاجَتِهِ إِلَى رَبِّهِ، فِي طَلَبِ طَاعَتِهِ، وَالْخَشْيَةِ مِنْ عُقُوبَتِهِ، وَالشَّفَقَةِ مِنْ سُخْطِهِ، فَإِنَّهُ لَمْ يَأْمُرْكَ إِلاَّ بِحَسَنٍ، وَلَمْ يَنْهَكَ إِلاَّ عَنْ قَبِيحٍ.

يَا بُنَيَّ، إِنِّي قَدْ أَنْبَأْتُكَ عَنِ الدُّنْيَا وَحَالِهَا، وَزَوَالِهَا وَانْتِقَالِهَا، وَأَنْبَأْتُكَ عَنِ الْآخِرَةِ وَمَا اُعِدَّ لِأََهْلِهَا فِيهَا، وَضَرَبْتُ لَكَ فِيهِمَا الْأَمْثَالَ، لِتَعْتَبِرَ بِهَا، وَتَحْذُوَ عَلَيْهَا. إِن َّمَا مَثَلُ مَنْ خَبَرٍ (51) الدُّنْيَا كَمَثَلِ قَوْمٍ سَفْرٍ (52) ، نَبَا (53) بِهِمْ مَنْزِلٌ جَدِيبٌ (54) ، فأَمُّوا (55) مَنْزِلاً خَصِيباً وَجَنَاباً (56) مَرِيعاً (57) ، فَاحْتَمَلُوا وَعْثَاءَ (58) الطَّرِيقِ، وَفِرَاقَ الصَّدِيقِ، وَخُشُونَةَ السَّفَرِ، وَجُشُوبَةَ (59) الْمَطْعَمِ، لِيَأتُوا سَعَةَ دَارِهِمْ، وَمَنْزِلَ قَرَارِهِمْ، فَلَيْسَ يَجِدُونَ لِشَيْءٍ مِنْ ذلِكَ أَلَماً، وَلاَ يَرَوْنَ نَفَقَةً مَغْرَماً، وَلاَ شَيْءَ أَحَبُّ إِلَيْهِمْ مِمَّا قَرَّبَهُمْ مِنْ مَنْزِلِهِمْ، وَأَدْنَاهُمْ مِنْ مَحَلِّهِمْ. وَمَثَلُ مَنِ اغْتَرَّ بِهَا كَمَثَلِ قَوْمٍ كَانُوا بِمَنْزِلٍ خَصِيبٍ، فَنَبا بِهِمْ إِلَى مَنْزِلٍ جَدِيب، فَلَيْسَ شَيْءٌ أَكْرَهَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ أَفْظَعَ عِنْدَهُمْ مِنْ مُفَارَقَةِ مَا كَانُوا فيِهِ، إِلَى مَا يَهْجُمُونَ عَلَيْهِ (60) ، وَيَصِيرُونَ إِلَيْهِ.

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يَا بُنَيَّ اجْعَلْ نَفْسَكَ مِيزَاناً فِيَما بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَ غَيْرِكَ، فَأَحْبِبْ لِغَيْرِكَ مَا تُحِبُّ لِنَفْسِكَ، وَاكْرَهْ لَهُ مَا تَكْرَهُ لَهَا، وَلاَ تَظْلمِْ كَمَا لاَ تُحِبُّ أَنْ ت ُظْلَمَ، وَأَحْسِنْ كَمَا تُحِبُّ أَنْ يُحْسَنَ إِلَيْكَ، وَ اسْتَقْبِحْ مِنْ نَفْسِكَ مَا تَسْتَقْبِحُهُ مِنْ غَيْرِكَ، وَارْضَ مِنَ النَّاسِ بِمَا تَرْضَاهُ لَهُمْ مِنْ نَفْسِكَ، وَلاَ تَقُلْ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُ وَإِنْ قَلَّ مَا تعْلَمُ، وَلاَ تَقُلْ مَا لاَ تُحِبُّ أَنْ يُقَالَ لَكَ.

وَاعْلَمْ، أَنَّ الْإِعْجَابَ (61) ضِدُّ الصَّوَابِ، وَآفَة ُالْأَلْبَابِ (62) . فَاسْعَ فِي كَدْحِكَ (63) ، وَلاَ تَكُنْ خَازِناً لِغَيْرِكَ (64) ، وَإِذَا أَنْتَ هُدِيتَ لِقَصْدِكَ فَكُنْ أَخْشَعَ مَا تَكُونُ لِرَبِّكَ.

وَاعْلَمْ، أَنَّ أَمَامَكَ طَرِيقاً ذَا مَسَافَةٍ بَعِيدَةٍ، وَمَشَقَّةٍ شَدِيدَةٍ، وَأَنَّهُ لاَ غِنَى بِكَ فِيهِ عَنْ حُسْنِ الْإِرْتِيَادِ (65) ، وَقَدْرِ بَلاَغِكَ (66) مِنَ الزَّادِ، مَعَ خِفَّةِ الظَّهْرِ، فَلاَ تَحْمِلَنَّ عَلَى ظَهْرِكَ فَوْقَ طَاقَتِكَ، فَيَكُونَ ثِقْلُ ذلِكَ وَبَالاً عَلَيْكَ، وَإِذَا وَجَدْتَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْفَاقَةِ (67) مَنْ يَحْمِلُ لَكَ زَادَكَ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ، فَيُوَافِيكَ بِهِ غَداً حَيْثُ تَحْتَاجُ إِلَيْهِ، فَاغْتَنِمْهُ وَحَمِّلْهُ إِيَّاهُ، وَأَكْثِرْ مِنْ تَزْوِيدِهِ وَأَنْتَ قَادِرٌ عَلَيْهِ، فَلَعَلَّكَ تَطْلُبُهُ فَلاَ تَجِدُهُ، وَاغْتَنِمْ مَنِ اسْتَقْرَضَكَ في حَالِ غِنَاكَ، لِيَجْعَلَ قَضَاءَهُ لَكَ في يَوْمِ عُسْرَتِكَ.

وَاعْلَمْ، أَنَّ أمَامَكَ عَقَبَةً كَؤوداً (68) ، الْمُخِفُّ (69) فِيهَا أَحْسَنُ حَالاً مِن الْمُثْقِلِ (70) ، وَالْمُبْطِىءُ عَلَيْهَا أَقْبَحُ حَالاً مِنَ الْمُسْرِعِ، وَأَنَّ مَهْبِطَك بِهَا لاَمَحَالَةََ إِمَّا عَلَى جَنَّة أَوْ عَلَى نَارٍ، فَارْتَدْ (71) لِنَفْسِكَ قَبْلَ نُزُولِكَ، وَوَطِّىءِ الْمنْزِلَ قَبْلَ حُلُولِكَ، فَلَيْسَ بَعْدَ الْمَوْتِ مُسْتَعْتَبٌ (72) ، وَلاَ إِلَى الدُّنْيَا مُنْصَرَفٌ (73) .

وَاعْلَمْ، أَنَّ الَّذِي بِيَدِهِ خَزَائِنُ السَّموَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ قَدْ أَذِنَ لَكَ فِي الدُّعَاءِ، وَتَكفَّلَ لَكَ بِالْإِِجَابَةِ، أَمَرَكَ أَنْ تَسْأَلَهُ لِيُعْطِيَكَ، وَتَسْتَرْحِمَهُ لِيَرْحَمَكَ، وَلَمْ يَجْعَلْ بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَهُ مَنْ يَحْجُبُكَ عَنْهُ، وَلَمْ يُلْجِئْكَ إِلَى مَنْ يَشْفَعُ لَكَ إِلَيْهِ، وَلَمْ يَمْنَعْكَ إِنْ أَسَأْتَ مِنَ التَّوْبَةِ، وَلَمْ يُعَاجِلْكَ بَالنِّقْمَةِ، وَلَمْ يُعَيِّرْكَ بِالْإِنَابَةِ (74) ، وَلَمْ يَفْضَحْكَ حَيْثُ الْفَضِيحَةُ بِكَ أَوْلَى، وَلَمْ يُشدِّدْ عَلَيْكَ فِي قَبُولِ الْإِنَابَةِ، وَلَمْ يُنَاقِشْكَ بِالْجَرِيمَةِ،وَلَمْ يُؤْيِسْكَ مِنَ الرَّحْمَةِ، بَلْ جَعَلَ نُزُوعَكَ (75) عَنِ الذَّنْبِ حَسَنةً، وَحَسَبَ سَيِّئَتَكَ وَاحِدَةً، وَحَسَبَ حَسَنَتَكَ عَشْراً، وَفَتحَ لَكَ بَابَ الْمَتَابِ،بَابَ الْاِسْتِعتَابِ؛ فَإِذَا نَادَيْتَهُ سَمِعَ نِدَاك، وَإِذَا نَاجَيْتَهُ عَلِمَ نَجْوَاكَ (76) ، فَأَفْضَيْتَ (77) إِلَيْهِ بِحَاجَتِكَ، وَأَبْثَثْتَهُ (78) ذَاتَ نَفْسِكَ (79) ، وَشَكَوْتَ إِلَيْهِ هُمُومَك، وَاسْتَكْشَفْتَهُ كُرُوبَكَ (80) ، وَاسْتَعَنْتَهُ عَلَى أُمُورِكَ، وَسَأَلْتَهُ مِنْ خَزَائِنِ رَحْمَتِهِ مَا لاَ يَقْدِرُ عَلَى إِعْطَائِهِ غيْرُهُ، مِنْ زِيَادَةِ الْأََعْمَارِ، وَصِحَّةِ الْأَبْدَانِ، وَسَعَةِ الْأَرْزَاقِ. ثُمَّ جَعَلَ فِي يَدَيْكَ مَفاتِيحَ خَزَائِنِهِ بِمَا أَذِنَ لَكَ فِيهِ مِنْ مَسْأَلتِهِ، فَمَتَى شِئْتَ اسْتَفْتَحْتَ بِالدُّعَاءِ أَبْوَابَ نِعَمِهِ، وَاسْتَمْطَرْتَ شآبِيبَ (81) رَحْمَتِهِ، فَلاَ يُقَنِّطَنَّكَ (82) إِبْطَاءُ إِجَابَتِهِ، فَإِنَّ الْعَطِيَّةَ عَلَى قَدْرِ النِّيَّةِ، وَرُبَّمَا أُخِّرَتْ عَنْكَ الْإِجَابَةُ، لِيَكُونَ ذلِكَ أَعْظمَ لِأَجْرِ السَّائِلِ، وَأَجْزَلَ لِعَطَاءِ الْآمِلِ. وَرُبَّمَا سَأَلْتَ الشَّيْءَ فَلاَ تُؤْتاهُ، وَأُوتِيتَ خَيْراً مِنْهُ عَاجِلاً أَوْ آجِلاً، أَوْ صُرِفَ عَنْكَ لِمَا هُوَ خَيْرٌ لَكَ، فَلَرُبَّ أَمْرٍ قَدْ طَلَبْتَهُ فِيهِ هَلاَكُ دِينِكَ لَوْ أُوتِيتَهُ، فَلْتَكُنْ مَسَأَلَتُكَ فِيَما يَبْقَى لَكَ جَمَالُهُ، وَيُنْفَى عَنْكَ وَبَالُهُ، فَالْمَالُ لاَ يَبْقَى لَكَ وَلاَ تَبْقَى لَهُ.

p: 105

وَاعْلَمْ يَا بُنيَّ أَنَّكَ إِنَّمَا خُلِقْتَ لِْآخِرِةِ لاَ لِلدُّنْيَا، وَلِلْفَنَاءِ لاَ لِلْبَقَاءِ، وَلِلْمَوْت لاَ لِلْحَيَاةِ، وَأَنَّكَ فِي قُلْعَةٍ (83) ، وَدَارِ بُلْغَةٍ (84) ، وَطرِيقٍ إِلَى الْآخِرَةِ، وَأَنَّكَ طَريدُ الْمَوْتِ الَّذِي، لاَ يَنْجُو مِنْهُ هَارِبُهُ، وَلاَ يَفُوتُةُ طَالِبُهُ ،وَلاَ بُدَّ أَنَّهُ مُدْرِكُهُ، فَكُنْ مِنْهُ عَلَى حَذرِ أَنْ يُدْرِكَكَ وَأَنْتَ عَلَى حَال سَيِّئَةٍ، قَدْ كُنْتَ تُحَدِّثُ نفْسَكَ مِنْهَا بِالتَّوْبَةِ، فَيَحُولَ بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَ ذلِكَ، فَإِذَا أَنْتَ قَدْ أَهْلَكْتَ نَفْسَكَ.

ذكر الموت

يَا بُنَيَّ، أَكْثِرْ مِنْ ذِكْرِ الْمَوْتِ، وَذِكْرِ مَا تَهْجُمُ عَلَيْهِ، وَتُفْضِي بَعْدَ الْمَوْتِ إِلَيْهِ، حَتَّى يَأْتِيَكَ وَقَدْ أَخَذْتَ مِنْهُ حِذْرَكَ (85) ، وَشَدَدْتَ لَهُ أَزْرَكَ (86) ، وَلاَ يَأْتِيَكَ بَغْتَةً فَيَبْهَرَكَ (87) . وَإِيَّاكَ أَنْ تَغْتَرَّ بِمَا تَرَى مِنْ إِخْلاَدِ أَهْلِ الدُّنْيَا (88) إِلَيْهَا، وَتَكَالُبِهِمْ (89) عَلَيْهَا، فَقَدْ نَبَّأَكَ اللهُ عَنْهَا، وَنَعَتْ (90) لَكَ نَفْسَهَا، وَتَكَشَّفَتْ لَكَ عَنْ مَسَاوِيهَا، فَإِنَّمَا أَهْلُهَا كِلاَبٌ عَاوِيَةٌ، وَسِبَاعٌ ضَارِيَةٌ (91) ، يَهِرُّ (92) بَعْضُهَا بَعْضاً،يَأْكُلُ عَزِيزُهَا ذَلِيلَهَا، وَيَقْهَرُ كَبِيرُهَا صَغِيرَهَا، نَعَمٌ (93) مُعَقَّلَةٌ (94) ، وَأُخْرَى مُهْمَلَةٌ، قَدْ أَضَلَّتْ (95) عُقُولَهَا،رَكِبَتْ مَجْهُولَهَا (96) ، سُرُوحُ (97) عَاهَةٍ (98) بِوَادٍ وَعْثٍ (99) ، لَيْسَ لَهَا رَاع يُقيِمُهَا، وَلاَ مُسِيمٌ (100) يُسِيمُهَا، سَلَكَتْ بِهِِمُ الدُّنْيَا طَرِيقَ الْعَمَى، وَأخَذَتْ بِأَبْصَارِهِمْ عَنْ مَنَارِ الْهُدَى، فَتاهُوا فِي حَيْرَتِهَا، وَغَرِقُوا فِي ن ِعْمَتِهَا، وَاتَّخَذُواهَا رَبّاً، فَلَعِبَتْ بِهِمْ وَلَعِبُوا بِهَا، وَنَسُوا مَا وَرَاءَهَا. الترفق في الطلب

رُوَيْداً يُسْفِرُ (101) الظَّلاَمُ، كَأَنْ قَدْ وَرَدَتِ الْأَظْعَانُ (102) ، يُوشِكُ مَنْ أَسْرَعَ أَنْ يَلْحَقَ! وَاعْلَمْ يَا بُنَيَّ أَنَّ مَنْ كَانَتْ مَطِيَّتُهُ اللَّيْلَ والنَّهَارَ، فَإِنَّهُ يُسَارُ بِهِ وَإِنْ كَانَ وَاقِفاً، وَيَقْطَعُ الْمَسَافَةَ وَإِنْ كَانَ مُقِيماً وَادِعاً (103) .

وَاعْلَمْ يَقِيناً، أَنَّكَ لَنْ تَبْلُغَ أَمَلَكَ، وَلَنْ تَعْدُوَ أَجَلَكَ، وَأَنَّكَ فِي سَبِيلِ مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكَ، فَخَفِّضْ (104) فِي الطَّلَبِ، وَأَجْمِلْ (105) فِي الْمُكْتَسَبِ، فَإِنَّهُ رُبَّ طَلَب قَدْ جَرَّ إِلَى حَرَبٍ (106) ، فَلَيْسَ كُلُّ طَالِبٍ بِمَرْزُوقٍ، وَلاَ كُلُّ مُجْمِلٍ بِمَحْروُمٍ. وَأَكْرِمْ نَفْسَكَ عَنْ كُلِّ دَنِيَّةٍ (107) وَإِنْ سَاقَتْكَ إِلَى الرَّغَائِبِ (108) ، فَإِنَّكَ لَنْ تَعْتَاضَ بِمَا تَبْذُلُ مِنْ نَفْسِكَ عِوَضاً (109) . وَلاَ تَكُنْ عَبْدَ غَيْرِكَ وَقَدْ جَعَلَكَ اللهُ حُرّاً. وَمَا خَيْرُ خَيْرٍ لاَ يُنَالُ إِلاَّ بِشَرٍّ، ويُسْرٍ (110) لاَ يُنَالُ إِلاَّ بِعُسْرٍ (111) ؟!

p: 106

وَإِيَّاكَ أَنْ تُوجِفَ (112) بِكَ مَطَايَا (113) الطَّمَعِ، فَتُورِدَكَ مَنَاهِلَ (114) الْهَلَكَةِ (115) ، وَإِنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ أَلاَّ يَكُونَ بَيْنَكَ بَيْنَ اللهِ ذُونِعْمَة فَافْعَلْ، فإِنَّكَ مُدْرِكٌ قِسْمَكَ، وَآخِذٌ سَهْمَكَ، وَإِنَّ الْيَسِيرَ مِنَ اللهِ سُبْحَانَهُ أَعْظَمُ وَ أَكْرَمُ مِنَ الْكَثِيرِ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ وَإِنْ كَانَ كُلٌّ مِنْهُ.

وصايا شتّى

وَتَلاَفِيكَ (116) مَا فَرَطَ (117) مِنْ صَمْتِكَ أَيْسَرُ مِنْ إِدْرَاكِكَ مَا فَاتَ (118) مِنْ مَنْطِقِكَ، وَحِفْظُ مَا فِي الْوِعَاءِ بِشَدِّ الْوِكَاءِ (119) ، وَحِفْظُ مَا فِي يَدَيْكَ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِنْ طَلَبِ مَا فِي يَدَيْ غَيْرِكَ. وَمَرَارَةُ الْيَأْسِ خَيْرٌ مِنَ الطَّلَبِ إِلَى النَّاسِ، وَالْحِرْفَةُ مَعَ الْعِفَّةِ خَيْرٌ مِنَ الْغِنَى مَعَ الْفُجُورِ، وَالْمَرْءُ أَحْفَظُ لِسِرِّهِ (120) ، وَرُبَّ سَاعٍِ فِيَما يَضُرُّهُ! مَنْ أَكْثَرَ أَهْجَرَ (121) ، وَمَنْ تَفَكَّرَ أَبْصَرَ، قَارِنْ أهْلَ الْخَيْرِ تَكُنْ مِنْهُمْ، وَبَايِنْ أَهْلَ الشَّرِّ تَبِنْ عَنْهُمْ، بِئْسَ الطَّعَامُ الْحَرَامُ! وَظُلْمُ الضَّعِيفِ أَفْحَشُ الظُّلْمِ، إِذَا كَانَ الرِّفْقُ خُرْقاً (122) كَانَ الْخُرْقُ رِفْقاً. رُبَّمَا كَانَ الدَّوَاءُ دَاءً، وَالدَّاءُ دَوَاءً، وَرُبَّمَا نَصَحَ غَيْرُ النَّاصِحِ، وَغَشَّ الْمُسْتَنْصَحُ (123) . وَإِيَّاكَ وَالْاِتِّكَالَ عَلَى الْمُنَى (124) ، فَإِنَّهَا بَضَائِعُ النَّوْكَى (125) ، وَالْعَقْلُ حِفْظُ التَّجَارِبِ، وَخَيْرُ مَا جَرَّبْتَ مَا وَعَظَكَ . بَادِرِ الْفُرْصَةَ قَبْلَ أَنْ تَكُونَ غُصَّةً، لَيْسَ كُلُّ طَالِبٍ يُصِيبُ، وَلاَ كُلُّ غَائِب يَؤُوبُ، وَمِنَ الْفَسَادِ إِضَاعَةُ الزَّادِ، وَمَفْسَدَةُ الْمَعَادِ، وَلِكُلِّ أَمْر عَاقِبَةٌ، سَوْفَ يَأْتيِكَ مَا قُدِّرَ لَكَ. التَّاجِرُ مُخَاطِرٌ، وَرُبَّ يَسِيرٍ أَنْمَى مِنْ كَثِيرٍ! لاَ خَيْرَ فِي مُعِينٍ مَهِينٍٍ (126) ، وَلاَ فِي صَدِيقٍ ظَنِينٍ (127) ، سَاهِلِ الدَّهْرَ (128) مَا ذَلَّ لَكَ قَعُودُهُ (129) ، وَلاَ تُخَاطِرْ بِشَيءٍ رَجَاءَ أَكْثَرَ مِنْهُ، وَإِيَّاك أَنْ تَجْمَحَ بِكَ مَطِيَّةُ اللَّجَاجِ (130) .

احْمِلْ نَفْسَكَ مِنْ أَخِيكَ عِنْدَ صَرْمِهِ (131) عَلَى الصِّلَةِ (132) ، وَعِنْدَ صُدُودِهِ (133) عَلَى اللَّطَفِ (134) وَالْمُقَارَبَةِ، وَعِنْدَ جُمُودِهِ (135) عَلَى الْبَذْلِ (136) ، وَعِنْدَ تَبَاعُدِهِ عَلَى الدُّنُوِّ، وَعِنْدَ شِدَّتِهِ عَلَى اللِّينِ، وَعِنْدَ جُرْمِهِ عَلَى الْعُذْرِ، حَتَّى كَأَنَّكَ لَهُ عَبْدٌ، وَكَأَنَّهُ ذُونِعْمَة عَلَيْكَ. وَإِيَّاكَ أَنْ تَضَعَ ذلِكَ فِي غَيْرِ مَوْضِعِهِ، أَوْ أَنْ تَفْعَلَهُ بِغَيْرِ أَهْلِهِ، لاَ تَتَّ خِذَنَّ عَدُوَّ صَدِيقِكَ صَدِيقاً فَتُعَادِيَ صَدِيقَكَ، وَامْحَضْ أَخَاكَ النَّصِيحَةَ، حَسَنةً كَانَتْ أَمْ قَبِيحَةً، وَتَجَرَّعِ الْغَيْظَ (137) ، فَإِنِّي لَمْ أَرَ جُرْعَةً أَحْلَى مِنْهَا عَاقِبَةً، وَلاَ أَلَذَّ مَغَبَّةً (138) ، وَلِنْ (139) لِمَنْ غَالَظَكَ (140) ، فَإِنَّهُ يُوشِكُ أَنْ يَلِينَ لَكَ، وَخُذْ عَلَى عَدُوِّكَ بِالْفَضْلِ فإِنَّهُ أَحْلَى الظَّفَرَيْنِ، وَإِنْ أَرَدْتَ قَطِيعَةَ أَخِيكَ فَاسْتَبْقِ لَهُ مِنْ نَفْسِكَ بَقِيَّةً يَرْجِعُ إِلَيْهَا إِنْ بَدَا لَهُ ذلِكَ يَوْماً مَّا، وَمَنْ ظَنَّ بِكَ خَيْراً فَصَدِّقْ ظَّنهُ، وَلاَ تُضِيعَنَّ حَقَّ أَخِيكَ اتِّكَالاً عَلَى مَا بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَهُ، فَإِنَّهُ لَيْسَ لَكَ بِأَخٍ مَنْ أَضَعْتَ حَقَّه، وَلاَ يكُنْ أَهْلُكَ أَشْقَى الْخَلْقِ بِكَ، وَلاَ تَرْغَبَنَّ فِيمَنْ زَهِدَ فِيكَ، وَلاَ يَكُونَنَّ أَخُوكَ أَقْوَى عَلَى قَطِيعَتِكَ مِنْكَ عَلَى صِلَتِهِ، وَلاَ تكُونَنَّ عَلَىالْإِسَاءَةِ أَقْوَى مِنْكَ عَلَى الْإِحْسَانِ. وَلاَ يَكْبُرَنَّ عَلَيْكَ ظُلْمُ مَنْ ظَلَمَكَ، فَإِنَّهُ يَسْعَى فِي مَضَرَّتِهِ وَنَفْعِك َ، وَلَيْسَ جَزَاءُ مَنْ سَرَّكَ أَنْ تَسُوءَهُ.

p: 107

وَاعْلَمْ يَا بُنَيَّ، أَنَّ الرِّزْقَ رِزْقَانِ: رِزْقٌ تَطْلُبُهُ، وَرِزْقٌ يَطْلُبُكَ، فَإِنْ أَنْتَ لَمْ تَأْتِهِ أَتَاكَ، مَا أَقْبَحَ الْخُضُوعَ عِنْدَ الْحَاجَةِ، وَالْجَفَاءَ عِنْدَ

الْغِنَى! إِنَّمَا لَكَ مِنْ دُنْيَاكَ، مَا أَصْلَحْتَ بِهِ مَثْوَاكَ (141) ، وَإِنْ كُنْتَ جَازِعاً عَلَى مَا تَفَلَّتَ (142) مِنْ يَدَيْكَ، فَاجْزَعْ عَلَى كُلِّ مَا لَمْ يَصِلْ إِلَيْكَ. اسْتَدِلَّ عَلَى مَا لَمْ يَكُنْ بِمَا قَدْ كَانَ، فَإِنَّ الْأُمُورَ أَشْبَاهٌ، وَلاَ تَكُونَنَّ مِمَّنْ لاَ تَنْفَعُهُ الْعِظَةُ إِلاَّ إِذَا بَالَغْتَ فِي إِيلاَمِهِ، فَإِنَّ الْعَاقِلَ يَتَّعِظُ بِالْآدَبِ، وَالْبَهَائِمَ لاَ تَتَّعِظُ إِلاَّ بِالضَّرْبِ. اطْرَحْ عَنْكَ وَارِدَاتِ الْهُمُومِ بِعَزَائِمِ الصَّبْرِ وَحُسْنِ الْيَقِينِ، مَنْ تَرَكَ الْقَصْدَ (143) جَارَ (144) ، وَالصَّاحِبُ مُنَاسِبٌ (145) ، وَالصَّدِيقُ مَنْ صَدَقَ غَيْبُهُ (146) ، وَالْهَوَى (147) شَرِيكُ الْعَمَى، رُبَّ بَعِيدٍ أَقْرَبُ مِنْ قَرِيبٍ، وَقَرِيبٍ أَبْعَدُ مِنْ بَعِيدٍ، وَالْغَر ِيبُ مَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ حَبِيبٌ، مَنْ تَعَدَّى الْحَقَّ ضَاقَ مَذْهَبُهُ، وَمَنِ اقْتَصَرَ عَلَى قَدْرِهِ كَانَ أَبْقَى لَهُ، وَأوْثَقُ سَبَب أَخَذْتَ بِهِ سَبَبٌ بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَ اللهِ سُبْحَانَهُ، وَمَنْ لَمْ يُبَالِكَ (148) فَهُوَ عَدُوُّكَ، قَدْ يَكُونُ الْيَأْسُ إِدْرَاكاً، إِذَا كَانَ الطَّمَعُ هَلاَكاً، لَيْسَ كُلُّ عَوْرَةٍ تَظْهَرُ، وَلاَ كُلُّ فُرْصَةٍ تُصَابُ، وَرُبَّمَا أَخْطَأَ الْبَصِيرُ قَصْدَهُ،أَصَابَ الْأَعْمَى رُشْدَهُ.

أَخِّرِ الشَّرَّ، فَإِنَّكَ إِذَا شِئْتَ تَعَجَّلْتَهُ (149) ، وَقَطِيعَةُ الْجَاهِلِ تَعْدِلُ صِلَةَ الْعَاقِلِ، مَنْ أَمِنَ الزَّمَانَ خَانَهُ، وَمَنْ أَعْظَمَهُ (150) أَهَانَهُ، لَيْسَ كُلُّ مَنْ رَمَى أَصَابَ، إِذَا تَغَيَّرَ السُّلْطَانُ تَغَيَّرَ الزَّمَانُ. سَلْ عَنِ الرَّفِيقِ قَبْلَ الطَّرِيقِ، وَعَنِ الْجَارِ قَبْلَ الدَّارِ. إِيَّاكَ أَنْ تَذْكُرَ مِنَ الْكَلاَمِ مَا يَكُونُ مُضْحِكاً، وَإِنْ حَكَيْتَ ذلِكَس عَنْ غَيْرِكَ. الرأي في المرأة

وَإِيَّاكَ وَمُشَاوَرَةَ النِّسَاءِ، فَإِنَّ رَأَيَهُنَّ إِلَى أَفْنٍ (151) ، وَعَزْمَهُنَّ إِلَى وَهْنٍ (152) . وَاكْفُفْ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِنْ أَبْصَارِهِنَّ بِحِجَابِكَ إِيَّاهُنَّ، فَإِنَّ شِدَّةَ الْحِجَابِ أَبْقَى عَلَيْهِنَّ، وَلَيْسَ خُرُوجُهُنَّ بِأَشَدَّ مَنْ إِدْخَالِكَ مَنْ لاَيُوثَقُ بِهِ عَلَيْهِنَّ، وَإِنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ أَلاَّ يَعْرِفْنَ غَيْرَكَ فَافْعَلْ. وَلاَ تُمَلِّكِ الْمَرْأَةَ مِنْ أَمْرِهَا مَا جَاوَزَ نَفْسَهَا، فَإِنَّ الْمَرْأَةَ رَيْحَانَةٌ، وَلَيْسَتْ بِقَهْرَمَانَةٍ (153) . وَلاَ تَعْدُ (154) بِكَرَامَتِهَا نَفْسَهَا، وَلاَ تُطْمِعْهَا أَنْ تَشْفَعَ لِغَيْرِهَا. وَإِيَّاكَ وَالتَّغايُرَ (155) فِي غَيْرِ مَوْضِعِ غَيْرَةٍ، فَإِنَّ ذلِكَ يَدْعُوالصَّحِيحَةَ إِلَى السَّقَمِ، وَالْبَرِيئَةَ إِلَى الرِّيَبِ. وَاجْعَلْ لِكُلِّ إِنْسَانٍ مِنْ خَدَمِكَ عَمَلاً تَأْخُذُهُ بِهِ، فَإِنَّهُ أَحْرَى أَلاَّ يَتَوَاكَلُوا (156) فِي خِدْمَتِكَ. وَأَكْرِمْ عَشِيرَتَكَ، فَإِنَّهُمْ جَنَاحُكَ الَّذِي بِهِ تَطِيرُ، وَأَصْلُكَ الَّذِي إِلَيْهِ تَصِيرُ، وَيَدُكَ الَّتي بِهَا تَصُول ُ.

p: 108


أسْتَوْدِعِ اللهَ دِينَكَ وَدُنْيَاكَ، وَأسْأَلُهُ خَيْرَ الْقَضَاءِ لَكَ فِي الْعَاجِلَةِ وَالْآجِلَةِ، وَالدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ، وَالْسَّلامُ .

In Persian

به حضرت مجتبي

انسان و حوادث روزگار از پدري فاني، اعتراف دارنده به گذشت زمان، زندگي را پشت سر نهاده، كه در سپري شدن دنيا چاره اي ندارد. مسكن گزيده در جايگاه گذشتگان، و كوچ كننده فردا، به فرزندي آزمند چيزي كه به دست نمي آيد، رونده راهي كه به نيستي ختم مي شود، در دنيا هدف بيماريها، در گرو روزگار، و در تيررس مصائب، گرفتار دنيا، سوداكننده دنياي فريبكار، وام دار نابوديها، اسير مرگ، هم سوگند رنجها، همنشين اندوهها، آماج بلاها، به خاك درافتاده خواهشها و جانشين گذشتگان است.

پس از ستايش پروردگار، همانا گذشت عمر، و چيرگي روزگار، و روي آوردن آخرت، مرا از ياد غير خودم باز داشته و تمام توجه مرا به آخرت كشانده است، كه به خويشتن فكر مي كنم و از غير خودم روي گردان شدم، كه نظرم را از ديگران گرفت، و از پيروي خواهشها باز گرداند، و حقيقت كار مرا نماياند، و مرا به راهي كشاند كه شوخي بردار نيست، و به حقيقتي رساند كه دروغي در آن راه ندارد. و تو را ديدم كه پاره تن من، بلكه همه جان مني، آنگونه كه اگر آسيبي به تو رسد به من رسيده است، و اگر مرگ به سراغ تو آيد، زندگي مرا گرفته است، پس كار تو را كار خود شمردم، و نامه اي براي تو نوشتم، تا تو را در سختي هاي زندگي رهنمون باشد، من زنده باشم يا نباشم.

p: 109

مراحل خودسازي پسرم! همانا تو را به ترس از خدا سفارش مي كنم كه پيوسته در فرمان او باشي، و دلت را با ياد خدا زنده كني، و به ريسمان او چنگ زني، چه وسيله اي مطمئن تر از رابطه تو با خداست اگر سررشته آن را در دست گيري.

دلت را با اندرز نيكو زنده كن، هواي نفس را با بي اعتنايي به حرام بميران، جان را با يقين نيرومند كن، و با نور حكمت روشنايي بخش، و با ياد مرگ آرام كن، به نابودي از او اعتراف گير، و با بررسي تحولات ناگوار دنيا به او آگاهي بخش، و از دگرگوني روزگار، و زشتيهاي گردش شب و روز او را بترسان، تاريخ گذشتگان را بر او بنما، و آنچه كه بر سر پيشينيان آمده است به يادش آور، در ديار و آثار ويران رفتگان گردش كن، و بيانديش كه آنها چه كرده اند؟ از كجا كوچ كرده، و در كجا فرود آمدند؟ از جمع دوستان جداشده و به ديار غربت سفر كردند، گويا زماني نمي گذرد كه تو هم يكي از آناني! پس جايگاه آينده را آباد كن، آخرت را به دنيا مفروش، و آنچه نمي داني مگو، و آنچه بر تو لازم نيست بر زبان نياور، و در جاده اي كه از گمراهي آن مي ترسي قدم مگذار. زير خودداري به هنگام سرگرداني و گمراهي، بهتر از سقوط در تباهي هاست. اخلاق اجتماعي به نيكي ها امر كن و خود نيكوكار باش، و با دست و زبان بديها را انكار كن، و بكوش تا از بدكاران دور باشي، و در راه خدا آنگونه كه شايسته است تلاش كن، و هرگز سرزنش ملامتگران تو را از تلاش در راه خدا باز ندارد، براي حق درمشكلات و سختي ها شنا كن، شناخت خود را در دين به كمال رسان، خود را براي استقامت برابر مشكلات عادت ده، كه شكيبايي در راه حق عادتي پسنديده است، در تمام كارها خود را به خدا واگذار، كه به پناهگاه مطمئن و نيرومندي رسيده اي، در دعا با اخلاص پروردگارت را بخوان، كه بخشش و محروم كردن به دست اوست، و فراوان از خدا درخواست خير و نيكي داشته باش. وصيت مرا به درستي درياب، و به سادگي از آن نگذر، زيرا بهترين سخن آن است كه سودمند باشد، بدان علمي كه سودمند نباشد فايده اي نخواهد داشت، و دانشي كه سزاوار يادگيري نيست سودي ندارد.

p: 110

شتاب در تربيت فرزند پسرم! هنگامي كه ديدم سالياني از من گذشت، و توانايي رو به كاستي رفت، به نوشتن وصيت براي تو شتاب كردم، و ارزشهاي اخلاقي را براي تو برشمردم، پيش از آنكه اجل فرا رسد، و رازهاي درونم را به تو منتقل نكرده باشم، و در نظرم كاهشي پديد آيد چنانكه در جسمم پديد آمد، و پيش از آن كه خواهشها و دگرگوني هاي دنيا به تو هجوم آورند، و پذيرش و اطاعت مشكل گردد، زيرا قلب نوجوان چونان زمين كاشته نشده، آماده پذيرش هر بذري است كه در آن پاشيده شود. پس در تربيت تو شتاب كردم، پيش از آنكه دل تو سخت شود، و عقل تو به چيز ديگري مشغول گردد، تا به استقبال كارهايي بروي كه صاحبان تجربه، زحمت آزمون آن را كشيده اند، و تو را از تلاش و يافتن بي نياز ساخته اند، و آنچه از تجربيات آنها نصيب ما شد، به تو هم رسيده، و برخي از تجربياتي كه بر ما پنهان مانده بود براي شما روشن گردد.

پسرم! درست است كه من به اندازه پيشينيان عمر نكرده ام، اما در كردار آنها نظر افكندم، و در اخبارشان انديشيدم، و در آثارشان سير كردم تا آنجا كه گويا يكي از آنان شده ام، بلكه با مطالعه تاريخ آنان، گويا از اول تا پايان عمرشان با آنان بوده ام. پس قسمتهاي روشن و شيرين زندگي آنان را از دوران تيرگي شناختم، و زندگاني سودمند آنان را با دوران زيانبارش شناسايي كردم، پس از هر چيزي مهم و ارزشمند آنرا، و از هر حادثه اي، زيبا و شيرين آنرا براي تو برگزيدم و ناشناخته هاي آنان را دور كردم، پس آنگونه كه پدري مهربان نيكي ها را براي فرزندش مي پسندد، من نيز بر آن شدم تو را با خوبيها تربيت كنم، زيرا در آغاز زندگي قرار داري، تازه به روزگار روي آوردي، نيتي سالم و روحي باصفا داري. روش تربيت فرزند پس در آغاز تربيت، تصميم گرفتم تا كتاب خداي توانا و بزرگ را همراه با تفسير آيات، به تو بياموزم، و شريعت اسلام و احكام آن از حلال و حرام، به تو تعليم دهم و به چيز ديگري نپردازم، اما از آن ترسيدم كه مبادا راي و هوايي كه مردم را دچار اختلاف كرد، و كار را بر آنان شبهه ناك ساخت، به تو نيز هجوم آورد، گرچه آگاه كردن تو را نسبت به اين امور خوش نداشتم، اما آگاه شدن و استوار ماندنت را ترجيح دادم، تا تسليم هلاكتهاي اجتماعي نگردي، و اميدوارم خداوند تو را در رستگاري پيروز گرداند، و به راه راست هدايت فرمايد، بنابراين وصيت خود را اينگونه تنظيم كردم،

p: 111

پسرم! بدان آنچه بيشتر دوست دارم از وصيت من بكارگيري، ترس از خدا، و انجام واجبات، و پيمودن راهي كه پدرانت و صالحان خاندانت پيموده اند، مي باشد. زيرا آنان آنگونه كه تو در امور خويشتن نظر مي كني در امور خويش نظر داشتند و همانگونه كه تو درباره خويشتن مي انديشي، نسبت به خودشان مي انديشيدند، و تلاش آنان دراين بود كه آنچه را شناختند، انتخاب كنند، و بر آن چه تكليف ندارند روي گردانند، و اگر نفس تو از پذيرفتن سر باز زند و خواهد چنانكه آنان دانستند بداند، پس تلاش كن تا درخواستهاي تو از روي درك و آگاهي باشد، نه آنكه به شبهات روي آوري و از دشمني ها كمك گيري. و قبل از پيمودن راه پاكان، از خداوند ياري بجوي، و در راه او با اشتياق عمل كن تا پيروز شوي. و از هر كاري كه تو را به شك و ترديد اندازد، يا تسليم گمراهي كند بپرهيز. و چون يقين كردي دلت روشن و فروتن شد، و انديشه ات گرد آمد و كامل شد، و اراده ات به يك چيز متمركز شد، پس انديشه كن در آنچه كه براي تو تفسير مي كنم، اگر در اين راه آنچه را دوست مي داري فراهم نشد، و آسودگي فكر و انديشه نداري، بدان كه راهي را كه ايمن نيستي مي پيمايي، و در تاريكي ره مي سپاري، زيرا طالب

دين نه اشتباه مي كند، و نه در ترديد و سرگرداني است، كه در چنين حالتي خودداري بهتر است.

ضرورت توجه به معنويات پسرم! در وصيت من درست بيانديش، بدان كه در اختياردارنده مرگ همان است كه زندگي در دست او، و پديدآورنده موجودات است، همو مي ميراند، و نابودكننده همان است كه دوباره زنده مي كند، و آنكه بيمار مي كند شفا نيز مي دهد، بدان كه دنيا جاودانه نيست، و آنگونه كه خدا خواسته است برقرار است، از عطا كردن نعمتها، و انواع آزمايشها، و پاداش دادن در معاد، و يا آنچه را كه او خواسته است و تو نمي داني. اگر درباره جهان، و تحولات روزگار مشكلي براي تو پديد آمد آن را به عدم آگاهي ارتباط ده، زيرا تو ابتدا با ناآگاهي متولد شدي و سپس علوم را فرا گرفتي، و چه بسيار است آنچه را كه نمي داني و خدا مي داند، كه انديشه ات سرگردان، و بينش تو در آن راه ندارد، سپس آنها را مي شناسي. پس به قدرتي پناه بر كه تو را آفريده، روزي داده، و اعتدال در اندام تو آورده است، بندگي تو فقط براي او باشد، و تنها اشتياق او را داشته باش، و تنها از او بترس.

p: 112

بدان پسرم! هيچ كس چون رسول خدا (ص) از خدا آگاهي نداده است، رهبري او را پذيرا باش، و براي رستگاري، راهنمايي او را بپذير، همانا من از هيچ اندرزي براي تو كوتاهي نكردم، و تو هر قدر كوشش كني، و به اصلاح خويش بيانديشي، همانند پدرت نمي تواني باشي.

پسرم! اگر خدا شريكي داشت، پيامبران او نيز به سوي تو مي آمدند، و آثار قدرتش را مي ديدي، و كردار و صفاتش را مي شناختي، اما خدا، خدايي است يگانه، همانگونه كه خود توصيف كرد، هيچ كس در مملكت داري او نزاعي ندارد، نابودشدني نيست، و همواره بوده است، اول هر چيزي است كه آغاز ندارد و آخر هر چيزي كه پايان نخواهد داشت، برتر از آن است كه قدرت پرورگاري او را فكر و انديشه درك كند. حال كه اين حقيقت را دريافتي، در عمل بكوش آن چنانكه همانند تو سزاوار است بكوشند، كه منزلت آن اندك، و تواناييش فعيف، و ناتوانيش بسيار، و اطاعت خدا را مشتاق، و از عذابش ترسان، و از خشم او گريزان است، زيرا خدا تو را جز به نيكوكاري فرمان نداده، و جز از زشتي ها نهي نفرموده است.

ضرورت آخرت گرايي اي پسرم! من تو را از دنيا و تحولات گوناگونش، و نابودي و دست به دست گرديدنش آگاه كردم، و از آخرت و آنچه براي انسانها در آنجا فراهم است اطلاع دادم، و براي هر دو مثالها زدم، تا پند پذيري، و راه و رسم زندگي بياموزي، همانا داستان آن كس كه دنيا را آزمود، چونان مسافراني است كه در سرمنزلي بي آب و علف و دشوار اقامت دارند. و قصد كوچ كردن به سرزميني را دارند كه در آنجا آسايش و رفاه فراهم است پس مشكلات راه را تحمل مي كنند، و جدايي دوستان را مي پذيرند، و سختي سفر، و ناگواري غذا را با جان و دل قبول مي كنند، تا به جايگاه وسيع، و منزلگاه امن، با آرامش قدم بگذارند، و از تمام سختي هاي طول سفر احساس ناراحتي ندارند، و هزينه هاي مصرف شده را غرامت نمي شمارند، و هيچ چيز براي آنان دوست داشتني نيست جز آنكه به منزل امن، و محل آرامش برسند. اما داستان دنياپرستان همانند گروهي است كه از جايگاهي پر از نعمتها مي خواهند به سرزمين خشك و بي آب و علف كوچ نمايند، پس در نظر آنان چيزي ناراحت كننده تر از اين نيست كه از جايگاه خود جدا مي شوند، و ناراحتيها را بايد تحمل كنند.

p: 113

معيارهاي روابط اجتماعي اي پسرم! نفس خود را ميزان خود و ديگران قرار ده، پس آنچه را كه براي خود دوست داري براي ديگران نيز دوست بدار، و آنچه را كه براي خود نمي پسندي، براي ديگران مپسند، ستم روا مدار، آنگونه كه دوست نداري به تو ستم شود، نيكوكار باش، آنگونه كه دوست داري به تو نيكي كنند، و آن چه را كه براي ديگران زشت مي داري براي خود نيز زشت بشمار، و چيزي را براي مردم رضايت بده كه براي خود مي پسندي، آنچه نمي داني نگو، گرچه آنچه را مي داني اندك است، آنچه را دوست نداري به تو نسبت دهند، درباره ديگران مگو، بدان كه خود بزرگ بيني و غرور، مخالف راستي، و آفت عقل است، نهايت كوشش را در زندگي داشته باش، و در فكر ذخيره سازي براي ديگران مباش، آنگاه كه به راه راست هدايت شدي، در برابر پروردگارت از هر فروتني خاضع تر باش.

تلاش در جمع آوري زاد و توشه بدان راهي پرمشقت و بس طولاني در پيش روي داري، و در اين راه بدون كوشش بايسته، و تلاش فراوان، و اندازه گيري زاد و توشه، و سبك كردن بار گناه، موفق نخواهي بود، بيش از تحمل خود بار مسووليتها بر دوش منه، كه سنگيني آن براي تو عذاب آور است، اگر مستمندي را ديدي كه توشه ات را تا قيامت مي برد، و فردا كه به آن نياز داري به تو باز مي گرداند، كمك او را غنيمت بشمار، و زاد و توشه را بر دوش او بگذار، و اگر قدرت مالي داري بيشتر انفاق كن، و همراه او بفرست، زيرا ممكن است روزي در رستاخيز در جستجوي چنين فردي باشي و او را نيابي. به هنگام بي نيازي، اگر كسي از تو وام خواهد، غنيمت بشمار، تا در روز سختي و تنگدستي به تو باز گرداند، بدان كه در پيش روي تو، گردنه هاي صعب العبوري وجود دارد، كه حال سبكباران به مراتب بهتر از سنگين باران است، و آنكه كند رود حالش بدتر از شتاب گيرنده مي باشد، و سرانجام حركت، بهشت و يا دوزخ خواهد بود، پس براي خويش قبل از رسيدن به آخرت وسائلي مهيا ساز، و جايگاه خود را پيش از آمدنت آماده كن، زيرا پس از مرگ، عذري پذيرفته نمي شود، و راه بازگشتي وجود ندارد.

p: 114

نشانه هاي رحمت الهي بدان، خدايي كه گنجهاي آسمان و زمين در دست اوست، به تو اجازه درخواست داده، و اجابت آن را بعهده گرفته است، تو را فرمان داده كه از او بخواهي تا عطا كند، درخواست رحمت كني تا ببخشايد، و خداوند بين تو و خودش كسي را قرار نداده تا حجاب و فاصله ايجاد كند، و تو را مجبور نساخته كه به شفيع و واسطه اي پناه ببري، و در صورت ارتكاب گناه در توبه را مسدود نكرده است، در كيفر تو شتاب نداشته، و در توبه و بازگشت، بر تو عيب نگرفته است، در آنجا كه رسوايي سزاوار توست، رسوا نساخته، و براي بازگشت بخويش شرائط سنگيني مطرح نفرموده است، در گناهان تو را به محاكمه نكشيده، و از رحمت خويش نااميدت نكرده، بلكه بازگشت تو را از گناهان نيكي شمرده است. هر گناه تو را يكي، و هر نيكي تو را ده بحساب آورده، و راه بازگشت و توبه را به روي تو گشوده است، هرگاه او را بخواني، ندايت را مي شنود، و چون با او راز دل گويي راز تو را مي داند، پس حاجت خود را با او بگوي، و آنچه در دل داري نزد او باز گوي، غم و اندوه خود را در پيشگاه او مطرح كن، تا غمهاي تو را برطرف، و در مشكلات تو را ياري رساند.

شرائط اجابت دعا و از گنجينه هاي رحمت او چيزهايي را درخواست كن كه جز او كسي نمي تواند عطا كند، مانند عمر بيشتر، تندرستي بدن، و گشايش در روزي، سپس خداوند كليدهاي گنجينه هاي خود را در دست تو قرار داده كه به تو اجازه دعا كردن فرمود، پس هرگاه اراده كردي مي تواني با دعا، درهاي نعمت خدا را بگشايي، تا باران رحمت الهي بر تو ببارد. هرگز از تاخير اجابت دعا نااميد مباش، زيرا بخشش الهي باندازه نيت است، گاه، در اجابت دعا تاخير مي شود تا پاداش درخواست كننده بيشتر و جزاي آرزومند كامل تر شود، گاهي درخواست مي كني اما پاسخ داده نمي شود، زيرا بهتر از آنچه خواستي به زودي يا در وقت مشخص، به تو خواهد بخشيد، يا به جهت اعطاء بهتر از آنچه خواستي، دعا به اجابت نمي رسد، زيرا چه بسا خواسته هايي داري كه اگر داده شود مايه هلاكت دين تو خواهد بود، پس خواسته هاي تو بگونه اي باشد كه جمال و زيبايي تو را تامين، و رنج و سختي را از تو دور كند، پس نه مال دنيا براي تو پايدار، و نه تو براي مال دنيا باقي خواهي ماند.

p: 115

ضرورت ياد مرگ پسرم، بدان تو براي آخرت آفريده شدي نه دنيا، براي رفتن از دنيا، نه پايدار ماندن در آن، براي مرگ، نه زندگي جاودانه در دنيا، كه هر لحظه ممكن است از دنيا كوچ كني، و به آخرت درآيي. و تو شكار مرگي هستي كه فراركننده آن نجاتي ندارد، و هر كه را بجويد به آن مي رسد، و سرانجام او را مي گيرد، پس از مرگ بترس، نكند زماني سراغ تو را گيرد كه در حال گناه يا در انتظار توبه كردن باشي، مرگ مهلت ندهد و بين تو و توبه فاصله اندازد، پس آنگاه خود را تباه كردي.

پسرم! فراوان بياد مرگ باش، و به ياد آنچه كه به سوي آن مي روي، و پس از مرگ در آن قرار مي گيري، تا هنگام ملاقات با مرگ از هر نظر آماده باش، نيروي خود را افزون، و كمر همت را بسته نگهدار كه ناگهان نيايد و تو را مغلوب سازد، مبادا دلبستگي فراوان دنياپرستان، و تهاجم حريصانه آنان به دنيا، تو را مغرور كند، چرا كه خداوند تو را از حالات دنيا آگاه كرده، و دنيا نيز از وضع خود تو را خبر داده و از زشتي هاي روزگار پرده برداشته است. شناخت دنياپرستان همانا دنياپرستان! چونان سگهاي درنده، عوعوكنان، براي دريدن صيد درشتابند، برخي به برخي ديگر هجوم آورند و نيرومندشان، ناتوان را مي خورد، بزرگترها كوچكترها را. و يا چونان شتراني هستند كه برخي از آنها پاي بسته، و برخي ديگر در بيابان رهاشده، كه راه گم كرده و در جاده هاي نامعلومي در حركتند، در وادي پر از آفتها، و در شنزاري كه حركت با كندي صورت مي گيرد گرفتارند، نه چوپاني دارند كه بكارشان برسد، و نه چراننده اي كه به چراگاهشان ببرد، دنيا آنها را به كوري كشاند، و ديدگانشان را از چراغ هدايت بپوشاند، در بيراهه سرگردان، و در نعمتها غرق شده اند، كه نعمتها را پروردگار خود برگزيدند

p: 116

، هم دنيا آنها را به بازي گرفته، و هم آنها با دنيا به بازي پرداخته اند، و آخرت را فراموش كرده اند، اندكي مهلت ده، بزودي تاريكي برطرف مي شود، گويا مسافران به منزل رسيده اند، و آن كس كه شتاب كند به كاروان خواهد رسيد.

پسرم! بدان. آن كس كه مركبش شب و روز آماده است همواره در حركت خواهد بود، هر چند خود را ساكن پندارد، و همواره راه مي پيمايد هرچند در جاي خود ايستاده و راحت باشد. به يقين بدان كه تو به همه آرزوهاي خود نخواهي رسيد، و تا زمان مرگ بيشتر زندگي نخواهي كرد، و بر راه كسي مي روي كه پيش از تو مي رفت، پس در به دست آوردن دنيا آرام باش، و در مصرف آنچه به دست آوردي نيكو عمل كن، زيرا چه بسا تلاش بي اندازه براي دنيا كه به تاراج رفتن اموال كشانده شد. پس هر تلاشگري به روزي دلخواه نخواهد رسيد، و هر مداراكننده اي محروم نخواهد شد، نفس خود را از هرگونه پستي بازدار، هر چند تو را به اهدافت رساند، زيرا نمي تواني باندازه آبرويي كه از دست مي دهي بهايي به دست آوري، برده ديگري مباش، كه خدا تو را آزاد آفريد، آن نيك كه جز با شر به دست نيايد نيكي نيست، و آن راحتي كه با سختي هاي فراوان به دست آيد، آسايش نخواهد بود. بپرهيز از آنكه مركب طمع ورزي تو را به سوي هلاكت به پيش راند، و اگر توانستي كه بين تو و خدا صاحب نعمتي قرار نگيرد، چنين باش، زيرا تو، روزي خود را دريافت مي كني، و سهم خود برمي داري، و مقدار اندكي كه از طرف خداي سبحان به

p: 117

دست مي آوري، بزرگ و گرامي تر از فراواني است كه از دست بندگان دريافت مي داري، گرچه همه از طرف خداست.

آنچه با سكوت از دست مي دهي آسان تر از آن است كه با سخن از دست برود، چرا كه نگهداري آنچه در مشك است با محكم بستن دهانه آن امكان پذير است، و نگهداري آنچه كه در دست داري، پيش من بهتر است از آنكه چيزي از ديگري بخواهي و تلخي نااميدي بهتر است از درخواست كردن از مردم است، شغل همراه با پاكدامني، بهتر از ثروت فراواني است كه با گناهان به دست آيد، مرد براي پنهان نگاه داشتن اسرار خويش سزاوارتر است، چه بسا تلاش كننده اي كه به زيان خود مي كوشد، هر كس پرحرفي كند ياوه مي گويد، و آن كس كه بيانديشد آگاهي يابد، با نيكان نزديك شو و از آنان باش، و با بدان دور شو و از آنان دوري كن، بدترين غذاها، لقمه حرام، و بدترين ستم ها، ستمكاري به ناتوان است، جايي كه مدرا كردن درشتي به حساب آيد به جاي مدارا درشتي كن، چه بسا كه دارو بر درد افزايد، و بيماري، درمان باشد، و چه بسا آن كس كه اهل اندرز نيست، اندرز دهد، و نصيحت كننده دغل كار باشد، هرگز بر آرزوها تكيه نكن كه سرمايه احمقان است، و حفظ عقل، پند گرفتن از تجربه هاست، و بهترين تجربه آنكه تو را پند آموزد، پيش از آنكه فرصت از دست برود، و اندوه ببار آورد، از فرصتها استفاده كن، هر تلاشگري به خواسته هاي خود نرسد، و هر پنهان شده اي باز نمي گردد، از نمونه هاي تباهي، نابود كردن زاد و توشه آخرت است، هر كاري پاياني دارد، و به زودي آنچه براي تو مقدر گرديده خواهد رسيد، هر بازرگاني خويش را به مخاطره افكند.

p: 118

چه بسا اندكي كه از فراواني بهتر است، نه در ياري دادن انسان پست، و نه دوستي با دوست متهم، خيري وجود دارد، حال كه روزگار در اختيار تو است آسان گير، و براي آنكه بيشتر به دست آوري خطر نكن، از سوار شدن بر مركب ستيزه جويي بپرهيز. حقوق دوستان چون برادرت از تو جدا گردد، تو پيوند دوستي را برقرار كن، اگر روي برگرداند تو مهرباني كن، و چون بخل ورزد تو بخشنده باش، هنگامي كه دوري مي گزيند تو نزديك شو، و چون سخت مي گيرد تو آسان گير، و به هنگام گناهش عذر او بپذير، چنانكه گويا بنده او مي باشي، و او صاحب نعمت تو مي باشد. مبادا دستورات يادشده را با غير دوستانت انجام دهي، يا با انسانهايي كه سزاوار آن نيستند بجا آوري، دشمن دوست خود را دوست مگير تا با دوست دشمني نكني، در پند دادن دوست بكوش، خوب باشد يا بد، و خشم را فرو خور كه من جرعه اي شيرين تر از آن ننوشيدم، و پاياني گواراتر از آن نديدم. با آن كس كه با تو درشتي كرد. نرم باش كه اميد است به زودي در برابر تو نرم شود، با دشمن خود با بخشش رفتار كن، زيرا سرانجام شيرين دو پيروزي است (انتقام گرفتن يا بخشيدن) اگر خواستي از برادرت جدا شوي، جايي براي دوستي باقي گذار تا اگر

روزي خواست به سوي تو باز گردد بتواند، كسي به تو گمان نيك برد او را تصديق كن، و هرگز حق برادرت را با اعتماد دوستي كه با او داري ضايع نكن، زيرا آن كس كه حقش را ضايع مي كني با تو برادر نخواهد بود، و افراد خانواده ات بدبخت ترين مردم نسبت به تو نباشند، و به كسي كه به تو علاقه اي ندارد دل مبند، مبادا برادرت براي قطع پيوند دوستي، دليلي محكم تر از برقراري پيوند با تو داشته باشد، و يا در بدي كردن، بهانه اي قوي تر از نيكي كردن تو بياورد، ستمكاري كسي كه بر تو ستم مي كند در ديده ات بزرگ جلوه نكند، چه او به زيان خود، و سود تو كوشش دارد، و سزاي آن كس كه تو را شاد مي كند بدي كردن نيست.

p: 119

ارزشهاي اخلاقي پسرم بدان كه روزي دو قسم است، يكي آنكه تو آن را مي جويي، و ديگر آنكه او تو را مي جويد، و اگر تو به سوي آن نروي، خود به تو خواهد رسيد، چه زشت است فروتني به هنگام نياز، و ستمكاري به هنگام بي نيازي، همانا سهم تو از دنيا آن اندازه خواهد بود كه با آن سراي آخرت را اصلاح كني، اگر براي چيزي كه از دست دادي ناراحت مي شوي، پس براي هر چيزي كه به دست تو نرسيده نيز نگران باش. با آنچه در گذشته ديده يا شنيده اي، براي آنچه كه هنوز نيامده، استدلال كن، زيرا تحولات و امور زندگي همانند يكديگرند، از كساني مباش كه اندرز سودشان ندهد، مگر با آزردن فراوان، زيرا عاقل با اندرز و آداب پند گيرد، و حيوانات پند نگيرند جز با زدن. غم و اندوه را با نيروي صبر و نيكويي يقين از خود دور ساز، كسي كه ميانه روي را ترك كند از راه حق منحرف مي گردد، يار و همنشين، چونان خويشاوندانند، دوست آن است كه در نهان آيين دوستي را رعايت كند، هواپرستي همانند كوري است، چه بسا دور كه از نزديك نزديكتر، و چه بسا نزديك كه از دور دورتر است، تنها، كسي است كه دوستي ندارد، كسي كه از حق تجاوز كند، زندگي بر او تنگ مي گردد، هركس قدر و منزلت خويش را

بداند حرمتش باقي است، استوارترين وسيله اي كه مي تواني به آن چنگ زني، رشته اي كه بين تو و خداي تو قرار دارد، كسي كه به كار تو اهتمام نمي ورزد دشمن توست. گاهي نااميدي رسيدن به هدف است، آنجا كه طمع ورزي هلاكت باشد، چنان نيست كه هر عيبي آشكار، و هر فرصتي دست يافتني باشد، چه بسا كه بينا به خطا مي رود و كور به مقصد رسد، بديها را به تاخير اندازد زيرا هر وقت بخواهي مي تواني انجام دهي، بريدن با جاهل، پيوستن به عاقل است، كسي كه از روزگار ايمن اشد به او خيانت خواهد كرد و كسي كه روزگار فاني را بزرگ بشمارد، او را خوار خواهد كرد، چنين نيست كه هر تيراندازي به هدف بزند، هر گاه انديشه سلطان تغيير كند، زمانه دگرگون شود، پيش از حركت از همسفر بپرس، و پيش از خريدن منزل همسايه را بشناس.

p: 120

از سخناني بي ارزشي و خنده آور بپرهيز، گرچه آن را از ديگري نقل كرده باشي. جايگاه زن و فرهنگ پرهيز در امور سياسي كشور از مشورت با زنان بپرهيز، كه راي آنان زود سست مي شود، و تصميم آنان ناپايدار است، در پرده حجاب نگاهشان دار، تا نامحرمان را ننگرند، زيرا كه سخت گيري در پوشش، عامل سلامت و استواري آنان است، بيرون رفتن زنان بدتر از آن نيست كه افراد غير صالح را در ميانشان آوري، و اگر بتواني بگونه اي زندگي كني كه غير تو را نشناسند چنين كن، كاري كه برتر از توانايي زن است به او وامگذار، كه زن گل بهاري است، نه پهلواني سخت كوش، مبادا در گرامي داشتن زن زياده روي كني كه او را به طمع ورزي كشانده براي ديگران شفاعت نمايد. بپرهيز از غيرت نشان دادن بيجا كه درستكار را به بيماردلي، و پاكدامن را به بدگماني رساند، كار هر كدام از خدمتكارانت را معين كن. كه او را در برابر آن كار مسئول بداني، كه تقسيم درست كار سبب مي شود كارها را به يكديگر وانگذارند، و در خدمت سستي نكنند. خويشاوندانت را گرامي دار، زيرا آنها پر و بال تو مي باشند، كه با آن پرواز مي كني، و ريشه تواند كه به آنها باز مي گردي، و دست نيرومند تواند كه با آن حمله

مي كني. دين و دنياي تو را بخدا مي سپارم، و بهترين خواسته الهي را در آينده و هم اكنون، در دنيا و آخرت، براي تو مي خواهم، با درود.


(1). Ibn Maytham al-Bahrani (vol.5 p.2) has quoted Abu Ja`far ibn Babawayh al-Qummi to have stated that Amir al-mu'minin wrote this piece of advice in the name of his son Muhammad ibn al-Hanaffiyyah while al-`Allamah as-Sayyid ar-Radi has written that its addressee is Imam al-Hasan (p.b.u.h.). But the fact is that Amir al-mu' minin wrote another piece of advice to Ibn al-Hanafiyyab in brief which included a part of the same which he wrote to al-Imam al-Hasan. (Kashf al-mahajjah Ibn Tawus pp.157- 159; al-Bihar vol.77 pp.196-198)

p: 121

In any case whether the addressee is al-Imam al-Hasan or Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah this manifesto of the Imam is a lesson of guidance to action in which the ways of success and achievement can be opened and the straying caravans of mankind can tread the path of guidance. It contains principles of correcting the matters of this world and the next creating the sense of morality and improving economic and social matters whose like cannot be produced by the epitomes of scholars and philosophers. Its truthful preachings are a strong incentive for recalling to humanity the lessons it has forgotten reviving the dead lines of social dealings and raising the standards of morality.


In English

To Mu'awiyah

You have ruined a large group of people whom you have deceived by your misguidance and have flung them into the currents of your sea where darkness has covered them and misgivings toss them about. As a result they have strayed from the right path and turned on their backs. They turned their backs and pushed forward except those wise ones who came back because they left you after understanding you and ran towards Allah away from your assistance when you put them to troubles and deviated them from the middle path. Therefore O' Mu'awiyah fear Allah about yourself and take away your rein from Satan since this world is shortly to be cut off from you and the next world is near you; and that is an end to the matter.

p: 122

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى معاوية

وَأَرْدَيْتَ (1) جِيلاً مِنَ النَّاسِ كَثِيراً، خَدَعْتَهُمْ بِغَيِّكَ (2) ، وَأَلْقَيْتَهُمْ فِي مَوْجِ بَحْرِكَ، تَغْشَاهُمُ الظُّلُمَاتُ، تَتَلاَطَمُ بِهِمُ الشُّبُهَاتُ، فَجَازُوا (3) عَنْ وِجْهَتِهِمْ (4) ، وَنَكَصُوا (5) عَلَى أَعْقَابِهِمْ، وَتَوَلَّوْا عَلَى أَدْبَارِهِمْ، وَعَوَّلُوا (6) عَلَى أحْسَابِهِمْ، إِلاَّ مَنْ فَاءَ (7) مِنْ أَهْلِ الْبَصَائِرِ، فَإِنَّهُمْ فَارَقُوكَ بَعْدَ مَعْرِفَتِكَ، وَهَرَبُوا إِلَى اللهِ سُبحانَهُ مِنْ مُوَازَرَتِكَ (8) ، إِذْ حَمَلْتَهُمْ عَلَى الصَّعْبِ، وَعَدَلْتَ بِهِمْ عَنِ الْقَصْدِ. فَاتَّقِ اللهَ يَا مُعَاوِيَةُ فِي نَفْسِكَ، وَجَاذِبِ الشَّيْطَانَ (9) قيَادَكَ (10) ، فَإِنَّ الدُّنْيَا مُنْقَطِعَةٌ عَنْكَ، وَالْآخِرَةَ قَرِيبَةٌ مِنْكَ، وَالسَّلاَمُ.

In Persian

به معاويه

افشاي سياست استحماري معاويه اي معاويه! گروهي بسيار از مردم را به هلاكت كشاندي، و با گمراهي خود فريبشان دادي، و در موج سركش درياي جهالت خود غرقشان كردي، كه تاريكيها آنان را فرا گرفت، و در امواج انواع شبهات غوطه ور گرديدند، كه از راه حق به بيراه افتادند، و به دوران جاهليت گذشتگانشان روي آوردند، و به ويژگيهاي جاهلي خاندانشان نازيدند، جز اندكي از آگاهان كه مسير خود را تغيير دادند، پس از آنكه تو را شناختند از تو جدا شدند، و از ياري كردن تو به سوي خدا گريختند، زيرا تو آنان را به كار دشوار واداشتي، و از راه راست منحرفشان ساختي. اي معاويه! در كارهاي خود از خدا بترس، و اختيارت را از كف شيطان درآور، كه دنيا از تو بريده و آخرت به تو نزديك شده است.


In English

To Qutharn ibn al- 'Abbas his Governor of Mecca

My spy in the West has written (1) to me telling me that some people of Syria have been sent for hajj who are blind of heart deaf of ears and devoid of eyesight. They confound the truth with vanity obey men in disobeying Allah claim the milk of the world in the name of religion and trade in the pleasures of this world by forsaking the rewards of the virtuous and the God- fearing. No one achieves good except he who acts for it and no one is awarded the recompense of evil except he who commits it. Therefore behave yourself in your duties like an intelligent experienced well-wishing and wise man who follows his superior and is obedient to his Imam. You should avoid what you may have to explain. Do not rise up in riches nor lose courage in distress; and that is an end to the matter.

p: 123

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى قُثَمَ بن العبّاس، وهو عامله على مكّة

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنَّ عَيْنِي (1) _ بِالْمَغْرِبِ (2) _ كَتَبَ إِلَيَّ يُعْلِمُنِي أَنَّهُ وُجِّهَ إِلَى المَوْسِمِ (3) أُنَاسٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الشَّامِ، الْعُمْيِ الْقُلُوبِ، الصُمِّ الْأَسْمَاعِ، الْكُمْهِ (4) الْأَبْصَارِ، الَّذِينَ يَلْبِسُونَ (5) الْحَقَّ بِالبَاطِلِ، وَيُطِيعُونَ الْمَخْلُوقَ فِي مَعْصِيَةِ الْخَالِقِ، وَيَحْتَلِبُونَ (6) الدُّنْيَا دَرَّهَا (7) بِالدِّينِ، وَيَشْتَرُونَ عَاجِلَهَا بِآجِلِ الْأَبْرَارِ الْمُتَّقِينَ، وَلَنْ يَفُوزَ بِالْخَيْرِ إِلاَّ عَامِلُهُ، وَلاَ يُجْزَى جَزَاءَ الشَّرِّ إِلاَّ فَاعِلُهُ. فَأَقِمْ عَلَى مَا فِي يَدَيْكَ قِيَامَ الْحَازِمِ الصَّلِيبِ (8) ، وَالنَّاصِحِ اللَّبِيبِ، التَّابِعِ لِسُلْطَانِهِ، الْمُطِيعِ لِإِِمَامِهِ. وَإِيَّاكَ وَمَا يُعْتَذَرُ مِنْهُ، وَلاَ تَكُنْ عِنْدَ النَّعْمَاءِ (9) بَطِراً (10) ، وَلاَ عِنْدَ الْبَأْسَاءِ (11) فَشِلاً (12) ، وَالسَّلاَمُ.

In Persian

به قثم بن عباس

هشدار از تبليغات دروغين ياران معاويه در مراسم حج پس از ياد خدا و درود، همانا مامور اطلاعاتي من در شام به من اطلاع داده كه گروهي از مردم شام براي مراسم حج به مكه مي آيند، مردمي كوردل، گوشهايشان در شنيدن حق ناشنوا، و ديده هايشان نابينا، كه حق را از راه باطل مي جويند، و بنده را در نافرماني از خدا، فرمان مي برند، دين خود را به دنيا مي فروشند، و دنيا را به بهاي سراي جاودانه نيكان و پرهيزكاران مي خرند، در حالي كه در نيكي ها، انجام دهنده آن پاداش گيرد، و در بديها جز بدكار كيفر نشود. پس در اداره امور خود هشيارانه و سرسختانه استوار باش، نصيحت دهنده اي عاقل، پيرو حكومت، و فرمانبردار امام خود باش، مبادا كاري انجام دهي كه به عذرخواهي روي آوري، نه به هنگام نعمتها شادمان و نه هنگام مشكلات سست باشي. با درود.

p: 124


(1). Mu'awiyah sent some men in the garb of pilgrims to Mecca in order to create sensation in the peaceful atmosphere of the place by taking common men into their confidence by a show of piety and God-fearing and then convincing them that 'Ali ibn Abi Talib has instigated the people against 'Uthman and in the end succeeded in getting him killed. In this way they were to hold him responsible for the killing of 'Uthman and to turn the people against him and also to incline the people towards him (Mu'a- wiyah) by mentioning the greatness of his character the sublimity of his manners and stories of his generosity. But when the men whom Amir al-mu'- minin had put on the job gave him the information he wrote

this letter to Qutham ibn al-'Abbas to keep an eye on their

movements and to put a stop to their mischief - mongerings.


In English

To Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr on coming to know that he had taken over the Position of (Malik) al-Ashtar as Governor of Egypt after the latter had died on his way to Egypt.

I have come to know of your anger at the posting of al-Ash- tar in your place but I did not do so because of any shortcoming on your part or to get you to increase your efforts but when I had taken away what was under your authority I would have placed you at a position which would have been less exacting and more attractive to you.

p: 125

The man whom I have made Governor of Egypt was my well-wisher and very harsh and vengeful towards our enemies. May Allah have mercy on him as he has finished his days and met his death. I am quite pleased with him. May Allah too accord him His pleasure and multiply his reward. Now get ready for your enemy and act according to your intelligence. Prepare for fighting him who fights you and calling to the path of Allah. Seek Allah's help exceedingly. If Allah wills He will assist you in what worries you and help you with what befalls you.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى محمد بن أبي بكر، لما بلغه توجّده (1) من عزله بالاشتر عن مصر، ثم توفي الاشتر في توجهه إلى هناك قبل وصوله إليها

أَمَّا بَعْدُ ،فََقَدْ بَلَغَنِي مَوْجِدَتُكَ (2) مِنْ تَسْرِيحِ (3) الْأَشْتَرِ إِلَى عَمَلِكَ (4) ، وَإِنِّي لَمْ أَفْعَلْ ذلِكَ اسْتِبْطَاءً لَكَ فِي الجَهْدِ، وَلاَ ازدِياداً لَكَ فِي الْجِدِّ، وَلَوْ نَزَعْتُ مَا تَحْتَ يَدِكَ مِنْ سُلْطَانِكَ، لَوَلَّيْتُكَ مَا هُوَ أَيْسَرُ عَلَيْكَ مَؤُونَةً، وَأَعْجَبُ إِلَيْكَ وِلاَيَةً.

إِنَّ الرَّجُلَ الَّذِي كُنْتُ وَلَّيْتُهُ أَمْرَ مِصْرَ كَانَ رَجُلاً لَنَا نَاصِحاً، وَعَلَى عَدُوِّنَا شَدِيداً نَاقِماً (5) ، فَرَحِمَهُ اللهُ! فَلَقَدِ اسْتَكْمَلَ أَيَّامَهُ، وَلاَقَى حِمَامَهُ (6) ، وَنَحْنُ عَنْهُ رَاضونَ، أَوْلَاهُ اللهُ رِضْوَانَهُ، وَضَاعَفَ الثَّوَابَ لَهُ. فَأَصْحِرْ (7) لِعَدُوِّكَ، وَامْضِ عَلَى بَصيرَتِكَ، وَشَمِّرْ لِحَرْبِ مَنْ حَارَبَكَ، وَادْعُ إِلَى سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ، وَأَكْثِرِالْإِسْتِعَانَةَ بِاللهِ يَكْفِكَ مَا أَهَمَّكَ، وَيُعِنْكَ عَلَى مَا يُنْزِلُ بِكَ، إِنْ شَاءَ اللهُ.

In Persian

به محمد بن ابي بكر

روش دلجويي از فرماندار معزول پس از ياد خدا و درود، به من خبر داده اند كه از فرستادن اشتر به سوي محل فرمانداريت، ناراحت شده اي، اين كار را انجام ندادم كه تو در تلاش خود كند شدي، يا انتظار كوشش بيشتري از تو دارم، اگر تو را از فرمانداري مصر عزل كردم، فرماندار جايي قرار دادم كه اداره آنجا بر تو آسان تر، و حكومت تو در آن سامان خوش تر است. همانا مردي را فرماندار مصر قرار دادم، كه نسبت به ما خيرخواه، و به دشمنان ما سخت گير و درهم كوبنده بود، خدا او را رحمت كند، كه ايام زندگي خود را كامل و مرگ خود را ملاقات كرد، در حالي كه ما از او خشنود بوديم و خداوند خشنودي خود را نصيب او گرداند، و پاداش او را چند برابر عطا كند. پس براي مقابله با دشمن سپاه را بيرون بياور، و با آگاهي لازم به سوي دشمن حركت كن، و با كسي كه با تو در جنگ است آماده پيكار باش. مردم را به راه پروردگارت بخوان، و از خدا فراوان ياري خواه كه تو را در مشكلات كفايت مي كند، و در سختيهايي كه بر تو فرود مي آيد ياريت مي دهد.

p: 126

ان شاء الله


In English

To 'Abdullah ibn al-'Abbas after Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr had been killed.

Now then Egypt has been conquered and Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr may Allah have mercy on him has been martyred. We seek his reward from Allah. He was a son who was a well - wisher a hard worker a sharp sword and a bastion of defence. I had roused the people to join him and ordered them to reach him to help before this incident. I called to them secretly as well as openly repeatedly. Some of them came half-heartedly some put up false excuses and some sat away leaving me. I ask Allah the Sublime to give me early relief from them for by Allah had I not been yearning to meet the enemy for martyrdom and not prepared myself for death I would not have liked to be with these people for a single day nor ever to face the enemy with them.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى عبدالله بن العباس، بعد مقتل محمّد بن أبي بكر

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنَّ مِصْرَ قَدِ افْتُتِحَتْ، وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبِي بَكْر _ رَحِمَهُ اللهُ _ قَدِ اسْتُشْهِدَ، فَعِنْدَ اللهِ نَحْتَسِبُهُ (1) ، وَلَداً نَاصِحاً، وَعَامِلاً كَادِحاً (2) ، وَسَيْفاً قَاطِعاً، وَرُكْناً دَافِعاً. وَقَدْ كُنْتُ حَثَثْتُ النَّاسَ عَلَى لَحَاقِهِ، وَأَمَرْتُهُمْ بِغِيَاثِهِ قَبْلَ الْوَقْعَةِ، وَدَعَوْتُهُمْ سِرّاً وَجَهْراً، وَعَوْداً وَبَدْءاً، فَمِنْهُمُ الْآتِي كَارِهاً، وَمِنْهُمُ الْمُعْتَلُّ كَاذِباً، وَمِنْهُمُ الْقَاعِدُ خَاذِلاً. أَسْأَلُ اللهَ تَعَالى أَنْ يَجْعَلَ لِي مِنْهُمْ فَرَجاً عَاجلاً، فَوَاللهِ لَوْلاَ طَمَعِي عِنْدَ لِقَائِي عَدُوِّي فِي الشَّهَادَةِ، وَتَوْطِينِي نَفْسِي عَلَى الْمَنِيَّةِ، لاََحْبَبْتُ أَلاَّ أَلْقَى مَعَ هؤُلاَءِ يَوْماً وَاحِداً، وَلاَ أَلْتَقِيَ بِهِمْ أَبَداً.

p: 127

In Persian

به عبدالله بن عباس

علل سقوط مصر پس از ياد خدا و درود! همانا مصر سقوط كرد، و فرماندارش محمد بن ابي بكر (كه خدا او را رحمت كند) شهيد گرديد، در پيشگاه خداوند، او را فرزندي خيرخواه، و كارگزاري كوشا، و شمشيري برنده، و ستوني باز دارنده مي شماريم، همواره مردم را براي پيوستن به او برانگيختم، و فرمان دادم تا قبل از اين حوادث ناگوار به ياريش بشتابند، مردم را نهان و آشكار، از آغاز تا انجام فرا خواندم، عده اي با ناخوشايندي آمدند، و برخي به دروغ بهانه آوردند، و بعضي خوار و ذليل بر جاي ماندند. از خدا مي خواهم به زودي مرا از اين مردم نجات دهد. بخدا سوگند اگر در پيكار با دشمن، آرزوي من شهادت نبود، و خود را براي مرگ آماده نكرده بودم، دوست مي داشتم حتي يك روز با اين مردم نباشم، و هرگز ديدارشان نكنم.


In English

To his brother 'Aqil ibn Abi Talib (1) in reply to his letter which contained a reference to the army Amir al-mu'minin had sent to some enemy.

I had sent towards him a large army of Muslims. When he came to know of it he fled away and retreated repenting. They met him on the way when the sun was about to set. They grappled for a while like nothing. It was about an hour and then he rescued himself half-dead as he had almost been taken by the neck and only the last breath had remained in him. In this way he escaped in a panic.

p: 128

Leave the Quraysh in their rushing into misguidance their galloping in disunity and their leaping over destruction. They have joined together to fight me as they had joined to fight the Messenger of Allah (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) before me. I wish the Quraysh will get the reward of their treatment of me. For they disregarded my kinship and deprived me of the power due to me from the son of my mother (i.e. the Holy Prophet). ( 376 )

As for your enquiry about my opinion to fight till I die I am in favour of fighting those who regard fighting lawful. The crowd of men around me does not give me strength nor does their dispersal from me cause any loneliness. Surely do not consider the son of your father weak or afraid even though all people have forsaken him bow down submissively before injustice or hand over his reins into the hand of the puller or allow his back to be used by the rider to sit upon. But he is as the man of Banu Salim has said:

If you enquire how I am then listen that I am enduring and strong against the vicissitudes of time. I do not allow myself to be grieved lest the foe feels joyed and the friend feels sorry.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلي أخيه عقيل بن أبي طالب، في ذكر جيش أنفذه إلى بعض الأعداء، وهو جواب كتاب كتبه إليه عقيل

فَسَرَّحْتُ إِلَيْهِ جَيْشاً كَثِيفاً مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ، فَلَمَّا بَلَغَهُ ذلِكَ شَمَّرَ هَارباً، وَنَكَصَ نَادِماً، فَلَحِقُوهُ بِبَعْضِ الطَّرِيقِ، وَقَدْ طَفَّلَتِ (1) الشَّمْسُ لِلْإِِيَابِ (2) ، فَاقْتَتَلُوا شَيْئاً كَلاَ وَلاَ (3) ، فَمَا كَانَ إِلاَّ كَمَوْقِفِ سَاعَةٍ حَتَّى نَجَا جَرِيضاً (4) بَعْدَمَا أُخِذَ مِنْهُ بِالْمُخَنَّقِ (5) ، وَلَمْ يَبْقَ مِنْهُ غَيْرُ الرَّمَقِ (6) ، فَلَأْْياً بِلَأْيٍ (7) مَا نَجَا. فَدَعْ عَنْكَ قُرَيشاً وَتَرْكَاضَهُمْ (8) فِي الضَّلاَلِ، وَتَجْوَالَهُمْ (9) فِي الشِّقَاقِ (10) ، وَجِمَاحَهُمْ (11) فِي التِّيهِ (12) ، فَإِنَّهُمْ قَدْ أَجْمَعُوا عَلَى حَرْبِي كَإِجمَاعِهِمْ عَلَى حَرْبِ رَسوُلِ اللهِ_صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَ سَلّم_َ قَبْلِي، فَجَزَتْ قُرَيْشاً عَنِّي الْجَوَازِي (13) ! فَقَدْ قَطَعُوا رَحِمِي، وَسَلَبُونِي سُلْطَانَ ابْنِ أُمِّي (14) . وَأَمَّا مَا سَأَلْتَ عَنْهُ مِنْ رَأيِي فِي الْقِتَالِ، فَإِنَّ رَأْيِي قِتَالُ الْمُحِلِّينَ (15) حَتَّى أَلْقَى اللهَ، لاَ يَزِيدُنِي كَثْرَةُ النَّاسِ حَوْلِي عِزَّةً، وَلاَ تَفَر ُّقُهُمْ عَنِّي وَحْشَةً، وَلاَ تَحْسَبَنَّ ابْنَ أَبِيكَ _ وَلَوْ أَسْلَمَهُ النَّاسُ _ مُتَضَرِّعاً مُتَخَشِّعاً، وَلاَ مُقِرّاً لِلضَّيْمِ (16) وَاهِناً (17) ، وَلاَ سَلِسَ (18) الزِّمَامِ (19) لِلْقَائِدِ، وَلاَ وَطِىءَ (20) الظَّهْرِ لِلرَّاكِبِ المُقْتَعِدَ (21) وَلكِنَّهُ كَمَا قَالَ أَخُو بَنِي سُلِيم:

p: 129

فَإِنْ تَسْأَلِينِي كَيْفَ أَنْتَ فَإِنَّنِي صَبُورٌ عَلَى رَيْبِ الزَّمَانِ صَلِيبُ (22) يَعِزُّ عَلَيَّ (23) أَنْ تُرَى بِي كَآبَةٌ (24) فَيَشْمَتَ عَادٍ (25) أَوْ يُسَاءَ حَبِيبُ.

In Persian

به عقيل

آمادگي رزمي امام (ع) لشكري انبوه از مسلمانان را به سوي بسر بن ارطاه (كه به يمن يورش برد) فرستادم، هنگامي كه اين خبر به او رسيد، دامن برچيد و فرار كرد، و پشيمان بازگشت، اما در سر راه به او رسيدند و اين به هنگام غروب آفتاب بود، لحظه اي نبرد كردند، گويا ساعتي بيش نبود، كه بي رمق با دشواري جان خويش از ميدان نبرد بيرون برد. برادر! قريش را بگذار تا در گمراهي بتازند، و در جدايي سرگردان باشند، و با سركشي و دشمني زندگي كنند، همانا آنان در جنگ با من متحد شدند آنگونه كه پيش از من در نبرد با رسول خدا (ص) هماهنگ بودند، خدا قريش را به كيفر زشتي هايشان عذاب كند، آنها پيوند خويشاوندي مرا بريدند، و حكومت فرزند مادرم (پيامبر (ص)) را از من ربودند. اعلام مواضع قاطعانه در جنگ اما آنچه را كه از تداوم جنگ پرسيدي، و راي مرا خواستي بداني، همانا راي من پيكار با پيمان شكنان است تا آنگاه كه خدا را ملاقات كنم، نه فراواني مردم مرا توانمند مي كند، و نه پراكندگي آنان مرا هراسناك مي سازد، هرگز گمان نكني مرا توانمند مي كند، و نه پراكندگي آنان مرا هراسناك مي سازد، هرگز گمان نكني كه فرزند پدرت، اگر مردم او را رها كنند، خود را زار و فروتن خواهد داشت، و يا در برابر ستم سست مي شود، و يا مهار اختيار خود را به دست هركسي مي سپارد، و يا از دستور هر كسي اطاعت مي كند، بلكه تصميم من آنگونه است كه آن شاعر قبيله بني سليم سروده: (اگر از من بپرسي چگونه اي؟ همانا من در برابر مشكلات روزگار شكيبا هستم. بر من دشوار است كه مرا با چهره اي اندوهناك بنگرند، تا دشمن سرزنش كند و دوست ناراحت شود.)

p: 130


(1). When after arbitration Mu'awiyah started a campaign of killing and devastation he sent a force of four thousand under ad-Dahhak ibn Qays al-Fihri to attack Amir al-mu'minin's cities. When Amir al-mu'minin came to know of his activities he roused the people of Kufah to put up a defence but they began to offer lame excuses. At last Hujr ibn 'Adi al-Kindi rose with a.force of four thousand men and chasing the enemy overtook him at Tadmur. The two parties had only a few grappings when darkness came in and ad-Dahhak fled away under its cover. This was the time when 'Aqil ibn Abi Talib had come to Mecca for 'umrah. When he came to know that after attacking al-Hirah ad -Dahhak had escaped alive and that the people of Kufah were afraid of war and all their activities had come to a stop he sent a letter to Amir al-mu'minin through 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn 'Ubayd al-Azdi offering his help. In reply to that Amir al-mu'minin wrote this Ietter wherein He complains of the behaviour of the people of Kufah and mentions the flight of ad-Dahhak. No doubt Mu'awiyah wished 'Uthman to be killed so that he should create confusion in the name of his blood and through these disturbances clear the way for allegiance to himself (as Caliph). That is why he neither helped him when he was surrounded nor thought it necessary to trace the murderers of 'Uthman after securing power.


In English

To Muawiyah

Glory be to Allah! How staunchly you cling to innovated passions and painful bewilderment along with ignoring the facts and rejecting strong reasons which are liked by Allah and serve as pleas for the people. As regards your prolonging the question of 'Uthman's (1) murder the position is that you helped 'Uthman when it was really your own help while you forsook him when he was in need of help; and that is an end to the matter.

p: 131

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى معاوية

فَسُبْحَانَ اللهِ! مَا أَشَدَّ لُزُومَكَ لِلْأَهْوَاءِ الْمُبْتَدَعَةِ، وَالْحَيْرَةِ الْمُتَّبَعَةِ (1) ، مَعَ تَضْيِيعِ الْحَقَائِقِ وَاطِّرَاحِ الْوَثَائِقِ، الَّتِي هِيَ لِلَّهِ طِلْبَةٌ (2) ، وَعَلَى عِبَادِهِ حُجَّةٌ. فَأَمَّا إِكْثَارُكَ الْحِجَاجَ (3) فِي عُثْمانَ وَقَتَلَتِهِ، فَإِنَّكَ إِنَّمَا نَصَرْتَ عُثْمانَ حَيْثُ كَانَ النَّصْرُ لَكَ، وَخَذَلْتَهُ حَيْثُ كَانَ النَّصْرُ لَهُ، وَالسَّلاَمُ.

In Persian

به معاويه

افشاي ادعاي دروغين معاويه پس خداي را سپاس! معاويه تو چه سخت به هوسهاي بدعتزا، و سرگرداني پايدار، وابسته اي؟ حقيقتها را تباه كرده، و پيمانها را شكسته اي، پيمانهايي كه خواسته خدا و حجت خدا بر بندگان او بود. اما پرگويي تو نسبت به عثمان و كشندگان او را جواب آن است كه: تو عثمان را هنگامي ياري دادي كه انتظار پيروزي او را داشتي، و آنگاه كه ياري تو به سود او بود او را خوار گذاشتي، با درود.


(1). There is no question of denying that Mu'awiyah claimed to help 'Uthman after he had been killed although when he was surrounded and clamoured for his help by writing letter after letter Mu'awiyah never budged an inch. However just to make a show he had sent a contingent towards Medina under Yazid ibn Asad al-Qasri but had ordered it to remain in waiting in the valley of Dhu Khushub near Medina. Eventually 'Uthman was murdered and he went back with his contingent.


In English

To the people of Egypt when he appointed (Malik) al-Ashtar as their Governor.

From the slave of Allah 'Ali Amir al-mu'minin to the people who became wrathful for the sake of Allah when He was disobeyed on His earth and His rights were ignored and oppression had spread its coverings over the virtuous as well as the vicious on the local as well as the foreigner. Consequently no good was acted upon nor any evil was avoided.

p: 132

Now I have sent to you a man from among the servants of Allah who allows himself no sleep in days of danger nor does He shrink from the enemy at critical moments. He is severer on the wicked than a blazing fire. He is Malik ibn al-Harith our brother from (the tribe of) Madhhij. Therefore listen to him and obey his orders that accord with right because he is a sword among the swords of Allah whose edge is not dull and which does not miss its victim. If he orders you to advance advance and if he orders you to stay stay because he surely neither advances or attacks nor puts anyone backward or forward save with my command. I have preferred him for you rather than for myself because of his being your well-wisher and (because of) the severity of his harshness over your enemies.

In Arabic

[ 38 ] ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى أهل مصر، لما ولّى عليهم الأشتر

مِنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ عَلِيٍّ أَمِيرِالْمُؤْمِنينَ، إِلَى الْقَومِ الَّذِينَ غَضِبُوا لِلَّهِ حِينَ عُصِيَ فِي أَرْضِهِ، وَذُهِبَ بِحَقِّهِ، فَضَرَبَ الْجَوْرُ (1) سُرَادِقَهُ (2) عَلَى الْبَرِّ (3) وَالْفَاجِرِ، وَالْمُقِيمِ وَالظَّاعِنِ (4) ، فَلاَ مَعْرُوفٌ يُسْتَرَاحُ إِلَيْهِ (5) ، وَلاَ مُنْكَرٌ يُتَنَاهَى عَنْهُ.

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَقَدْ بَعَثْتُ إِلَيْكُمْ عَبْداً مِنْ عِبَادِاللهِ عَزَّوَجَلَّ، لاَيَنَامُ أَيَّامَ الخَوْفِ، وَلاَ يَنْكُلُ (6) عَنِ الْأَعْدَاءِ سَاعَاتِ الرَّوْعِ (7) ، أَشَدَّ عَلَى الْفُجَّارِ مِنْ حَرَيقِ النَّارِ، وَهُوَ مَالِكُ بْنُ الْحَارِثِ أَخُو مَذْحِجٍ (8) ، فَاسْمَعُوا لَهُ أَطِيعُوا أَمْرَهُ فِيَما طَابَقَ الْحَقَّ، فَإِنَّهُ سَيْفٌ مِنْ سُيُوفِ اللهِ، لاَ كَلِيلُ (9) الظُّبَةِ (10) ، وَلاَ نَابِي (11) الضَّرِيبَةِ (12) : فَإِنْ أَمَرَكُمْ أَنْ تَنْفِرُوا فانْفِرُوا، وَإِنْ أَمَرَكُمْ أَنْ تُقيِمُوا فَأَقِيمُوا، فَإِنَّهُ لاَ يُقْدِمُ وَلاَ يُحْجِمُ، وَلاَ يُؤَخِّرُ وَلاَ يُقَدِّمُ إِلاَّ عَنْ أَمْرِي، وَقَدْ آثَرْتُكُمْ بِهِ (13) عَلَى نَفْسِي لِنَصِيحَتِ هِ لَكُمْ، وَشِدَّةِ شَكِيمَتِهِ (14) عَلَى عَدُوِّكُمْ.

p: 133

In Persian

به مردم مصر

ويژگيهاي بي مانند مالك اشتر از بنده خدا، علي امير مومنان، به مردمي كه براي خدا به خشم آمدند، آن هنگام كه ديگران خدا را در زمين نافرماني كردند، و حق او را نابود نمودند، پس ستم، خيمه خود را بر سر نيك و بد، مسافر و حاضر، و بر همگان، برافراشت، نه معروفي ماند كه در پناه آن آرامش يابند، و نه كسي از زشتيها نهي مي كرد پس از ستايش پروردگار! من بنده اي از بندگان خدا را به سوي شما فرستادم، كه در روزهاي وحشت، نمي خوابد، و در لحظه هاي ترس از دشمن روي نمي گرداند، بر بدكاران از شعله هاي آتش تندتر است، او مالك پسر حارث مذحجي است، آنجا كه با حق است، سخن او بشنويد، و از او اطاعت كنيد، او شمشيري از شمشيرهاي خداست، كه نه تيزي آن كند مي شود، و نه ضربت آن بي اثر است، اگر شما را فرمان كوچ كردن داد، كوچ كنيد، و اگر گفت بايستيد، بايستيد، كه او در پيش روي و عقب نشيني و حمله، بدون فرمان من اقدام نمي كند مردم مصر! من شما را بر خود برگزيدم كه او را براي شما فرستادم، زيرا او را خيرخواه شما ديدم، و سرسختي او را در برابر دشمنانتان پسنديدم.


In English

To 'Amr ibn al-'As

You have surely made your religion subservient to the worldly seekings of a man whose misguidance is not a concealed affair and whose veil has been torn away. He mars an honourable man with his company and befools those who keep his society. You are following in his footsteps and seeking his favours like the dog that follows the lion looking at his paws and waiting for whatever remnants of his prey fall down to him. In this way you have ruined your world as well as the next life although if you had stuck to the right you would have got what you were after. If Allah grants me power over you and Ibn Abi Sufyan (Mu'awiyah) I shall award you both recompense of what you have done but if you escape and survive then hereafter there is only evil for you both; and that is an end to the matter.

p: 134

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى عمروبن العاص

فَإِنَّكَ جَعَلْتَ دِينَكَ تَبْعاً لِدُنْيَا امْرِىءٍ ظَاهِرٍ غَيُّهُ، مَهْتُوكٍ سِتْرُهُ، يَشِينُ الْكَرِيمَ بِمَجْلِسِهِ، وَيُسَفِّهُ الْحَلِيمَ بِخِلْطَتِهِ، فَاتَّبَعْتَ أَثَرَهُ، وَطَلَبْتَ فَضْلَهُ، اتِّبَاعَ الْكَلْبِ لِلضِّرْغَامِ (1) ، يَلُوذُ إلَى مَخَالِبِهِ، وَيَنْتَظِرُ مَا يُلْقَى إِلَيْهِ مِنْ فَضْلِ فَرِيسَتِهِ، فَأَذْهَبْتَ دُنْيَاكَ وَآخِرَتَكَ! وَلَوْ بِالْحَقِّ أَخَذْتَ أَدْرَكْتَ مَا طَلَبْتَ، فَإِنْ يُمَكِّنِّي اللهُ مِنْكَ وَمِنِ ابْنِ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ أَجْزِكُمَا بِمَا قَدَّمْتُما، وَإِنْ تُعْجِزَا (2) وَتَبْقَيَا فَمَا أَمَامَكُمَا شَرٌ لَكُمَا، وَالسَّلاَمُ.

In Persian

به عمروعاص

افشاي بردگي عمروعاص تو دين خود را پيرو كسي قرار دادي كه گمراهيش آشكار است، پرده اش دريده، و افراد بزرگوار در همنشيني با او لكه دار، و در معاشرت با او به سبك مغزي متهم مي گردند، تو در پي او مي روي، و چونان سگي گرسنه بدنبال پس مانده شكار شير هستي، به بخشش او نظر دوختي كه قسمتهاي اضافي شكارش را به سوي تو افكند، پس دنيا و آخرت خود را تباه كردي، در حالي كه اگر به حق مي پيوستي به خواسته هاي خود مي رسيدي. اگر خدا مرا بر تو و پسر ابوسفيان مسلط گرداند، سزاي زشتيهاي شما را خواهم داد، اما اگر قدرت آن را نيافتم و باقي مانديد آنچه در پيش روي داريد براي شما بدتر است. با درود.


In English

To one of his officers

Now I have come to know such a thing about you that if you have done so then you have displeased your Lord disobeyed your Imam and betrayed your trust.

I have come to know that you have razed the ground and taken away whatever was under your feet and devoured what ever was in your hands. Send me your account and know that the accounting to Allah will be severer than that to the people; and that is an end to the matter.

p: 135

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى بعض عماله

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَقَدْ بَلَغَنِي عَنْكَ أَمْرٌ، إِنْ كُنْتَ فَعَلْتَهُ فَقَدْ أَسْخَطْتَ رَبَّكَ، وَعَصَيْتَ إِمَامَكَ، وَأَخْزَيْتَ أَمَانَتَكَ (1) . بَلَغَنِي أَنَّكَ جَرَّدْتَ (2) الْأَرْضَ فأَخَذْتَ مَا تَحْتَ قَدَمَيْكَ، وَأَكَلْتَ مَا تَحْتَ يَدَيْكَ، فَارْفَعْ إِلَيَّ حِسَابَكَ، وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ حِسَابَ اللهِ أَعْظَمُ مِنْ حِسَابِ النَّاسِ، وَالسَّلاَمُ.

In Persian

به يكي از كارگزاران خود

نكوهش يك كارگزار پس از ياد خدا و درود! از تو خبري رسيده است كه اگر چنان كرده باشي، پروردگار خود را به خشم آورده، و امام خود را نافرماني كردي، و در امانت خود خيانت كردي. به من خبر رسيده كه كشت زمينها را برداشته، و آن چه را كه مي توانستي گرفته، و آنچه در اختيار داشتي به خيانت خورده اي، پس هر چه زودتر حساب اموال را براي من بفرست و بدان كه حسابرسي خداوند از حسابرسي مردم سخت تر است. با درود.


In English

To one of his officers

Now I had made you a partner in my trust and made you my chief man. And for me no other person from my kinsmen was more trustworthy than you in the matter of sympathizing with me assisting and respecting my trusts. But when you saw that time had attacked your cousin the enemy had waged war the trust of the people was being humiliated and the whole community was trackless and disunited you turned your back against your cousin and forsook him when others forsook him you abandoned him when others abandoned him and you betrayed him when others betrayed him. Thus you showed no sympathy to your cousin nor discharged the trust.

p: 136

It seems as if you do not want (to please) Allah by your jihad and as if you do not stand upon a clear sign from your Lord and as if you have been playing tricks with this ummah (Muslim community) to earn (the pleasure of) this world and watching for the moment of their neglectfulness to usurp their share of the wealth. As soon as it was possible for you to misappropriate the ummah's trust you hastened to turn around and attack (them) and made a swift leap to snatch away whatever you could from their property meant for their widows and their orphans as a wolf snatches a wounded and helpless goat. Then you happily loaded it off to the Hijaz without feeling guilty for having appropriated it. Allah's woe be to your ill-wishers; it was as though you were sending to your family what you had inherited from your father and mother.

Glory be to Allah! Do you not believe in the Day of Judge- ment or do you not fear the exaction of account? O' you who were counted by us among the men possessed of mind how can you enjoy food and drink when you know that you are eating the unlawful and drinking the unlawful. You are purchasing slavemaids and wedding women with the money of the orphans the poor the believers and the participants in jihad to whom Allah had dedicated this money and through whom He had strengthened these cities. Fear Allah and return to these people their properties. If you do not do so and Allah grants me power over you I shall excuse myself before Allah about you and strike you with my sword with which I did not strike anyone but that he went to hell.

p: 137

By Allah even if Hasan and Husayn had done what you did there would have been no leniency with me for them and they could not have won their way with me till I had recovered from them the right and destroyed the wrong produced by their unjust action. I swear by Allah the Lord of all beings that I would not be pleased to regard their money which you have appropriated as lawful for me and to leave it to my successors by way of inheritance. Mind yourself and consider for a while as though you had reached the end of life and had been buried under the earth. Then your actions will be presented before you in the place where the oppressor cries "Alas" while he who wasted his life yearns for return (to the world) but time was none to escape. (Qur'an 38:3)

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى بعض عماله

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنِّي كُنْتُ أَشْرَكْتُكَ فِي أَمَانَتِي (1) ، وَجَعَلْتُكَ شِعَارِي وَبِطَانَتِي، وَلَمْ يَكُنْ مِنْ أَهْلِي رَجُلٌ أَوْثَقَ مِنْكَ فِي نَفَسِي، لِمُوَاسَاتِي (2) وَمُوَازَرَتِي (3) وَأَدَاءِ الْأَمَانَةِ إِلَيَّ. فَلَمَّا رَأَيْتَ الزَّمَانَ عَلَى ابْنِ عَمِّكَ

قَدْ كَلِبَ (4) ، وَالْعَدُوَّ قَدْ حَرِبَ (5) ، وَأَمَانَةَ النَّاسِ قَدْ خَزِيَتْ (6) ، وَهذهِ الْأَُمَّةَ قَدْ فَنَكَتْ (7) وَشَغَرَتْ (8) ، قَلَبْتَ لِإِبْنِ عَمِّكَ ظَهْرَ الِْمجَنِّ (9) ، فَفَارَقْتَهُ مَعَ الْمُفَارِقِينَ، وَخَذَلْتَهُ مَعَ الْخَاذِلِينَ، وَخُنْتَهُ مَعَ الْخَائِنِينَ، فَلاَ ابْنَ عَمِّكَ آسَيْتَ (10) ، وَلاَ الْأَمَانَةَ أَدَّيْتَ. وَكَأَّنكَ لَمْ تَكُنِ اللهَ تُرِيدُ بِجِهَادِكَ، وَكَأَنَّكَ لَمْ تَكُنْ عَلَى بَيِّنَةٍ مِنْ رَبِّكَ، وَكَأَنَّكَ إِنَّمَا كُنْتَ تَكِيدُ (11) هذِهِ الْأُمَّةَ عَنْ دُنْيَاهُمْ، وَتَنْوِي غِرَّتَهُمْ (12) عَنْ فَيْئِهِمْ (13) ! فَلَمَّا أَمْكَنَتْكَ الشِّدَّةُ فِي خِيَانَةِ الْأُمَّةِ، أَسْرَعْتَ الْكَرَّةَ، وَعَاجَلْتَ الْوَثْبَةَ، وَاخْتَطَفْتَ مَا قَدَ رْتَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمُ الْمَصُونَةِ لِأَرَامِلِهِمْ وَأَيْتَامِهِمُ، اخْتِطَافَ الذِّئْبِ الْأَزَلِّ (14) دَامِيَةَ (15) الْمِعْزَى (16) الْكَسِيرَةَ (17) ، فَحَمَلْتَهُ إِلَى الْحِجَازِ رَحيِبَ الصَّدْرِ بِحَمْلِهِ، غَيْرَ مُتَأَثِّمٍ (18) مِنْ أَخْذِهِ، كَأَنَّكَ _ لاَ أَبَا لِغَيْرِكَ (19) _ حَدَرْتَ (20) إِلَى أَهْلِكَ تُرَاثَكَ (21) مِنْ أَبِيكَ وَأُمِّكَ، فَسُبْحَانَ اللهِ! أَمَا تُؤْمِنُ بِالْمَعَادِ؟ أَوَ مَا تَخَافُ نِقَاشَ (22) الْحِسَابِ! أَيُّهَا الْمَعْدُودُ _ كَانَ _ عِنْدَنَا مِنْ أُولِي الْأَلْبَابَ، كَيْفَ تُسِيغُ (23) شَرَاباً وَطَعَاماً، وَأَنْتَ تَعْلَمُ أَنَّكَ تَأْكُلُ حَرَاماً، وَتَشْرَبُ حَرَاماً، وَتَبْتَاعُ الْإِمَاءَ وَتَنْكِحُ النِّسَاءَ مِنْ مَالِ الْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُجَاهِدِينَ، الَّذِينَ أَفَاءَ اللهُ عَلَيْهِمْ هذِهِ الْأَمْوَالَ، وَأَحْرَزَ بِهِمْ هذِهِ الْبِلاَدَ! فَاتَّقِ اللهَ، وَارْدُدْ إِلَى هؤُلاَءِ الْقَوْمِ أمَوَالَهُمْ، فإِنَّكَ إِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلْ ثُمَّ أَمْكَنَنِي اللهُ مِنْكَ لَأُعْذِرَنَّ إِلَى اللهِ فِيكَ (24) ، وَلاََضْرِبَنَّكَ بِسَيْفِي الَّذِي مَا ضَرَبْتُ بِهِ أَحَداً إِلاَّ دَخَلَ النَّارَ! وَ وَاللهِ لَوْ أَنَّ الْحَسَنَ وَالْحُسَيْنَ فعَلاَ مِثْلَ الَّذِي فَعَلْتَ، مَا كَانَتْ لَهُمَا عِنْدِي هَوَادَةٌ (25) ، وَلاَ ظَفِرَا مِنِّي بَإِرَادَة، حَتَّى آخُذَ الْحَقَّ مِنْهُمَا، وَأُزِيحَ الْبَاطِلَ عَنْ مَظْلَمَتِهِمَا. وَأُقْسِمُ بِاللهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ مَا يَسُرُّنِي أَنَّ مَا أَخَذْتَهُ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ حَلاَلٌ لِي، أَتْرُكُهُ مِيرَاثاً لِمَنْ بَعْدِي، فَضَحِّ رُوَيْداً (26) ، فَكَأنَّكَ قَدْ بَلَغَتَ الْمَدَى (27) ، وَدُفِنْتَ تَحْتَ الثَّرَى (28) ، وَعُرِضَتْ عَلَيْكَ أَعْمَالُكَ بِالْمَحَلِّ الَّذِي يُنَادِي الظَّالِمُ فِيهِ بِالْحَسْرَةِ، وَيَتَمَنَّى الْمُضَيِّعُ الرَّجْعَةَ، (وَلاَتَ حِينَ مَنَاصٍ) (29) ! وَالسَّلامُ.

p: 138

In Persian

به يكي از كارگزارانش

علل نكوهش يك كارگزار خيانتكار پس از ياد خدا و درود! همانا من تو را در امانت خود شركت دادم، و همراز خود گرفتم، و هيچ يك از افراد خاندانم براي ياري و مددكاري، و امانت داري، چون تو مورد اعتمادم نبود، آن هنگام كه ديدي روزگار بر پسر عمويت سخت گرفته، و دشمن به او هجوم آورده، و امانت مسلمانان تباه گرديده. و امت اختيار از دست داده، و پراكنده شدند، پيمان خود را با پسر عمويت دگرگون ساختي، و همراه با ديگراني كه از او جدا شدند فاصله گرفتي، تو هماهنگ با ديگران دست از ياريش كشيدي، و با ديگر خيانت كنندگان خيانت كردي، نه پسر عمويت را ياري كردي، و نه امانتها را رساندي. گويا تو در راه خدا جهاد نكردي! و برهان روشني از پروردگارت نداري، و گويا براي تجاوز به دنياي اين مردم نيرنگ مي زدي، و هدف تو آن بود كه آنها را بفريبي! و غنائم و ثروتهاي آنان را در اختيار گيري، پس آنگاه كه فرصت خيانت يافتي شتابان حمله ور شدي، و با تمام توان، اموال بيت المال را كه سهم بيوه زنان و يتيمان بود، چونان گرگ گرسنه اي كه گوسفند زخمي يا استخوان شكسته اي را مي ربايد، به يغما بردي، و آنها را به سوي حجاز با خاطري آسوده، روانه كردي، بي آنكه در اين كار احساس گناهي داشته باشي. نكوهش از سوءاستفاده در بيت المال دشمنت بي پدر باد، گويا ميراث پدر و مادرت را به خانه مي بري! سبحان الله!! آيا به معاد ايمان نداري؟ و از حسابرسي دقيق قيامت نمي ترسي؟ اي كسي كه در نزد ما از خردمندان بشمار مي آمدي، چگونه نوشيدن و خوردن را بر خود گوارا نمودي در حالي كه مي داني حرام مي خوري! و حرام مي نوشي! چگونه با اموال يتيمان و مستمندان و مومنان و مجاهدان راه خدا، كنيزان مي خري و با زنان ازدواج مي كني؟ كه خدا اين اموال را به آنان واگذاشته، و اين شهرها را به دست ايشان امن فرموده است! برخورد قاطع با خيانتكار پس از خدا بترس، و اموال آنان را باز گردان، و اگر چنين نكني و خدا مرا فرصت دهد تا بر تو دست يابم، تو را كيفر خواهم نمود، كه نزد خدا عذرخواه من باشد، و با شمشيري تو را مي زنم كه به هر كس زدم وارد دوزخ گرديد. سوگند بخدا! اگر حسن و حسين چنان مي كردند كه تو انجام دادي، از من روي خوش نمي ديدند و به آرزو نمي رسيدند تا آنكه حق را از آنان باز پس ستانم، و باطلي را كه به ستم پديد آمده نابود سازم، به پروردگار جهانيان سوگند، آنچه كه تو از اموال مسلمانان به ناحق بردي، بر من حلال بود، خشنود نبودم كه آن را ميراث بازماندگانم قرار دهم، پس دست نگهدار و انديشه نما، فكر كن كه به پايان زندگي رسيده اي، و در زير خاكها پنهان شده، و اعمال تو را بر تو عرضه داشتند، آنجا كه ستمكار با حسرت فرياد مي زند، و تباه كننده عمر و فرصتها، آرزوي بازگشت دارد اما راه فرار و چاره مسدود است.

p: 139


In English

To `Umar ihn Abi Salamah al-Makhzumi (foster son of the Holy Prophet from Umm al-mu'minin Umm Salamah) who was Amir al-mu'minin's Governor of Bahrain hut whom he removed and replaced by an- Nu'man ibn Ajlan az-Zuraqi.

Now I have posted an-Nu'man ibn `Ajlan az-Zuraqi at Bahrain and have released you from that position without anything bad from you nor reproach on you because you managed the governorship well and discharged the obligations. Therefore proceed to me when you are neither suspected nor rebuked neither blamed nor guilty. I have just intended to proceed towards the recalcitrant of Syria and desired that you should be with me because you are among those on whom I rely in fighting the enemy and erecting the pillars of religion if Allah wills.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى عمر بن أبي سلمة المخزومي وكان عامله على البحرين، فعزله، واستعمل النعمان بن عجلان الزّرقي مكانه

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنِّي قَدْ وَلَّيْتُ النُعْمَانَ بْنَ عَجْلاَنَ الزُّرَقيَّ عَلَى الْبَحْرَيْنِ، وَنَزَعْتُ يَدَكَ، بِلاَ ذَمٍّ لَكَ، وَلاَ تَثْرِيبٍ (1) عَلَيْكَ، فَلَقَدْ أَحْسَنْتَ الْوِلاَيَةَ، وَأَدَّيْتَ الْأَمَانَةَ، فَأَقْبِلْ غَيْرَ ظَنِينٍ (2) ، وَلاَ مَلُومٍ، وَلاَ مُتَّهَمٍ، وَلاَ مَأْثُومٍ، فَقَدْ أَرَدْتُ الْمَسِيرَ إِلَى ظَلَمَةِ (3) أَهْلِ الشَّامِ، وَأَحْبَبْتُ أَنْ تَشْهَدَ مَعِي، فَإِنَّكَ مِمَّنْ أَسْتَظْهِرُ بِهِ (4) عَلَى جِهَادِ الْعَدُوِّ، وَإِقَامَةِ عَمُودِ الدِّيِنِ، إِنْ شَاءَ اللهُ.

In Persian

به عمر بن ابي سلمه

روش دلجويي در عزل و نصبها پس از ياد خدا و درود! همانا من نعمان ابن عجلان زرقي، را به فرمانداري بحرين نصب كردم، و بي آنكه سرزنشي و نكوهشي براي تو وجود داشته باشد تو را از فرمانداري آن سامان گرفتم، كه تاكنون زمامداري را به نيكي انجام دادي، و امانت را پرداختي، پس به سوي ما حركت كن، كه تصميم دارم به سوي ستمگران شام حركت كنم، دوست دارم در اين جنگ با من باشي، زيرا تو از دلاوراني هستي كه در جنگ با دشمن، و برپا داشتن ستون دين از آنان ياري مي طلبم. ان شاء الله

p: 140


In English

To Masqalah ibn Hubayrah ash-Shaybani the Governor of Ardashir Khurrah (Iran).

I have come to know concerning you a matter which if you have done it you have displeased your Allah and disobeyed your Imam. You are distributing among the Arabs (Bedouins) of your kin who tend towards you the property of the Muslims which they collected by dint of their spears and horses and on which their blood was shed. By-Allah Who germinated the seed and created living beings if this is true you will be humbled in my view and you will become light in weight. Therefore do not treat lightly the obligations of your Lord and do not reform your world by ruining your religion since then you will be among losers by the way of (your) actions.

Know that the right of those Muslims who are around you and those who are around me in this property is equal. For that reason they come to me and take from it.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى مصقلة بن هُبَيرة الشيباني وهو عامله على أردشير خُرّة (1)

بَلَغَنِي عَنْكَ أَمْرٌ إِنْ كُنْتَ فَعَلْتَهُ فَقَدْ أَسْخَطْتَ إِلهَكَ، وَأَغْضَبْتَ إِمَامَكَ: أَنَّكَ تَقْسِمُ فَيْءَ (2) الْمُسْلِمِينَ الَّذِي حَازَتْهُ رِمَاحُهُمْ وَخُيُولُهُمْ، وَأُرِيقَتْ عَلَيْهِ دِمَاؤُهُمْ، فِيمَنِ اعْتَامَكَ (3) مِنْ أَعْرَابِ قَوْمِكَ، فَوَالَّذِي فَلَقَ الْحَبَّةَ، وَبَرَأَ النَّسَمَةَ (4) ، لَئِنْ كَانَ ذلِكَ حَقّاً لَتَجِدَنَّ لَِكَ عَلَيَّ هَوَاناً، وَلَتَخِفَّنَّ عِنْدِي مِيزَاناً، فَلاَ تَسْتَهِنْ بِحَقِّ رَبِّكَ، وَلاَ تُصلِحْ دُنْيَاكَ بِمَحْقِ دِينِكَ، فَتَكُونَ مِنَ الْأَخْسَرِينَ أَعْمَالاً.

أَلاَ وَإِنَّ حَقَّ مَنْ قِبَلَكَ (5) وَقِبَلَنَا مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ فِي قِسْمَةِ هذَا الْفَيْءِ سَوَاءٌ، يَرِدُونَ عِنْدِي عَلَيْهِ،يَصْدُرُونَ عَنْهُ، والسَّلامُ.

p: 141

In Persian

به مصقله بن هبيره

سخت گيري در مصرف بيت المال گزارشي از تو به من دادند كه اگر چنان كرده باشي، خداي خود را به خشم آوردي، و امام خويش را نافرماني كردي، خبر رسيد كه تو غنيمت مسلمانان را كه نيزه ها و اسبهاشان گرد آورده، و با ريخته شدن خونهايشان به دست آمده، به اعرابي كه خويشاوندان تواند، و تو را برگزيدند، مي بخشي. به خدايي كه دانه را شكافت، و پديده ها را آفريد، اگر اين گزارش درست باشد، در نزد من خوارشده، و منزلت تو سبك گرديده است، پس حق پروردگارت را سبك مشمار، و دنياي خود را با نابودي دين آباد نكن، كه زيانكارترين انساني، آگاه باش، حق مسلماناني كه نزد من يا پيش تو هستند در تقسيم بيت المال مساوي است، همه بايد به نزد من آيند و سهم خود را از من گيرند.


In English

To Ziyad ibn Abih when Amir al-mu'minin had come to know that Mn`awiyah had written to Ziyad to deceive him and to attach him to himself in kinship.

I have learnt that Mu`awiyah has written to you to deceive your wit and blunt your sharpness. You should be on guard against him because he is the Satan who approaches a believer from the front and from the back from the right and from the left to catch him suddenly in the hour of his carelessness and overcome his intelligence.

In the days of `Umar ibn al-Khattab Abu Sufyan (1) happened to utter a thoughtless point which was an evil suggestion of Satan from which neither kinship is established nor entitlement to succession occurs. He who relies on it is like the uninvited guest to a drink-party or like the dangling cup (tied to a saddle).

p: 142

as-Sayyid ar-Radi says: When Ziyad read this letter he said By Allah he has testified to it. This point remained in his mind till Mu`awiyah claimed him (as his brother by his father). Amir al-mu'minin's word "al-waghil" means the man who joins the drinking group so as to drink with them but he is not one of them. He is therefore constantly turned out and pushed off. As for the words "an-nawtu'l-mudhabdhab" it is a wooden cup or a bowl or the like attached to the saddle of the rider so that it dangles when the rider drives the beast or quickens its pace.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى زياد بن أبيه وقد بلغه أن معاوية كتب إليه يريد خديعته باستلحاقه

وَقَدْ عَرَفْتُ أَنَّ مُعَاويَةَ كَتَبَ إِلَيْكَ يَسْتَزِلُّ (1) لُبَّكَ (2) ، وَيَسْتَفِلُّ (3) غَرْبَكَ (4) ، فاحْذَرْهُ، فَإِنَّمَا هُوَ الشَّيْطَانُ يَأْتِي الْمَرْءَ مِنْ بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِ، وَعَنْ يَمينِهِ وَعَنْ شِمَالِهِ، لِيَقْتَحِمَ غَفْلَتَهُ (5) ، وَيَسْتَلِبَ غِرَّتَهُ (6) .

وَقَدْ كَانَ مِنْ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ فِي زَمَنِ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ فَلْتَهٌ (7) مِنْ حَدِيثِ النَّفْسِ، وَنَزْغَةٌ مِنْ نَزَغَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ، لاَ يَثْبُتُ بِهَا نَسَبٌ، وَلاَ يُسْتَحَقُّ بِهَا إِرْثٌ، وَالْمُتَعَلِّقُ بِهَا كَالْوَاغِلِ الْمُدَفَّعِ، وَالنَّوْطِ الْمُذَبْذَبِ.

فلمّا قرأ زياد الكتاب قال: شهد بها وربّ الكعبة، ولم يزل في نفسه حتى ادّعاه معاويةُ.

قال الرضي: قوله عليه السلام: ِ( الواغل)ُ: هوالذي يهجم على الشّرْب ليشرب معهم وَليس منهم، فلا يزال مُدفّعاً محاجزاً. و"النّوْط المُذَبْذَب": هو ما يناط برحل الراكب من قعب أو قدح أو ما أشبه ذلك، فهو أبداً يتقلقل إذا حث ظهره واستعجل سيره.

p: 143

In Persian

به زياد بن ابيه

افشاي توطئه معاويه نسبت به زياد: اطلاع يافتم كه معاويه براي تو نامه اي نوشته تا عقل تو را بلغزد، و اراده تو را سست كند، از او بترس كه شيطان است، و از پيش رو، و پشت سر، و از راست و چپ به سوي انسان مي آيد تا در حال فراموشي، او را تسليم خود سازد، و شعور و دركش را بربايد، آري ابوسفيان در زمان عمر بن خطاب ادعايي بدون انديشه و با وسوسه شيطان كرد كه نه نسبي را درست مي كند، و نه كسي با آن سزاوار ارث است، ادعاكننده چونان شتري بيگانه است كه در جمع شتران يك گله واردشده تا از آبشخور آب آنان بنوشد كه او را از خود ندانند و از جمع خود دور كنند. يا چونان ظرفي كه بر پالان مركبي آويزان پيوسته از اين سو بدان سو لرزان باشد. (وقتي زياد نامه را خواند گفت به پروردگار كعبه سوگند كه امام (ع) به آنچه در دل من مي گذشت گواهي داد تا آنكه معاويه او را به همكاري دعوت كرد. (واغل) حيواني است كه براي نوشيدن آب هجوم مي آورد اما از شمار گله نيست و همواره ديگر شتران او را به عقب مي رانند، و (نوط مذبذب) ظرفي است كه به مركب مي آويزند، كه هميشه به اين سو و آن سو مي جهد، و در حال حركت لرزان است).


(1). Caliph `Umar sent Ziyad to Yemen for some encounter. When he returned after finishing the job he addressed a gathering which included Amir al-mu `minin `Umar `Amr ibn al-`As and Abu Sufyan. Impressed with the speech `Amr ibn al-`As said:

p: 144

"What a good man! Had he been from the Quraysh he would have led the whole of Arabia with his stick." Whereupon Abu Sufyan said "He is from the Quraysh as I know who is his father." `Amr ibn al-`As enquired "Who was his father?" Abu Sufyan said "It is I." History also conclusively holds that Ziyad's mother Sumayyah who was the slave-maid of al-Harith ibn Kaldah and was married to a slave named `Ubayd used to lead an immoral life in a quarter of at-Ta'if known as Haratu 'l-Baghaya and immoral men used to visit her. Once Abu Sufyan also got to her through Abu Maryam as-Saluli. As a result Ziyad was born. When `Amr ibn al-`As heard this from Abu Sufyan he asked why he had not declared it. Abu Sufyan pointed to `Umar and said that he was afraid of him otherwise he would have declared him his own son. Although he would not have dared to do this when Mu`awiyah acquired power he started correspondence with him because Mu`awiyah was in need of such persons who were intelligent and cunning and expert in machinations. In any case when Amir al-mu 'minin got information about this correspondence he wrote this letter to Ziyad wherein he warned him against Mu`awiyah so that he should not fall in the trap. But he did fall in his trap and joined Mu`awiyah and the latter declared him his brother by attaching him in his kin although the Prophet had declared.

The child goes to the (lawful) husband while the adulterer gets stones.

p: 145


In English

To `Uthman ibn Hunayf al-Ansari who was Amir al-mu' minin's Governor of Basrah when he came to know that the people of that place had invited `Uthman to a banquet and he had attended.

O' Ibn Hunayf I have come to know that a young man of Basrah invited you to a feast and you leapt towards it. Foods of different colours were being chosen for you and big bowls were being given to you. I never thought that you would accept the feast of a people who turn out the beggars and invite the rich. Look at the morsels you take leave out that about which you are in doubt and take that about which you are sure that it has been secured lawfully.

Remember that every follower has a leader whom he follows and from the effulgence of whose knowledge he takes light. Real ize that your Imam has contented himself with two shabby pieces of cloth out of the (comforts of the) world and two loaves for his meal. Certainly you cannot do so but at least support me in piety exertion chastity and uprightness because by Allah I have not treasured any gold out of your world nor amassed plentiful wealth nor collected any clothes other than the two shabby sheets. ( 394 )

Of course all that we had in our possession under this sky was Fadak but a group of people felt greedy for it and the other party withheld themselves from it. Allah is after all the best arbiter. What shall I do: Fadak (1) or no Fadak while tomorrow this body is to go into the grave in whose darkness its traces will be destroyed and (even) news of it will disappear. It is a pit that even if its width is widened or the hands of the digger make it broad and open the stones and clods of clay will narrow it and the falling earth will close its apperture. I try to keep myself engaged in piety so that one the day of great fear it will be peaceful and steady in slippery places.

p: 146

If I wished I could have taken the way leading towards (worldly pleasures like) pure honey fine wheat and silk clothes but it cannot be that my passions lead me and greed take me to choosing good meals while in the Hijaz or in Yamamah there may be people who have no hope of getting bread or who do not have a full meal. Shall I lie with a satiated belly while around me there may be hungry bellies and thirsty livers? Or shall I be as the poet has said?

It is enough for you to have a disease that you lie with your belly full while around you people may be badly yearning for dried leather.

Shall I be content with being called `Amir al-mu 'minin' (The Commander of the Believers) although I do not share with the people the hardships of the world? Or shall I be an example for them in the distresses of life? I have not been created to keep myself busy in eating good foods like the tied animal whose only worry is his fodder or like a loose animal whose activity is to swallow. It fills its belly with its feed and forgets the purpose behind it. Shall I be left uncontrolled to pasture freely or draw the rope of misguidance or roam aimlessly in the paths of bewilderment?

I see as if one of you would say that if this is what the son of Abi Talib eats then weakness must have made him unfit to fight his foes and encounter the brave. Remember that the tree of the forest is the best for timber while green twigs have soft bark and the wild bushes are very strong for burning and slow in dying off. My relation with the Messenger of Allah is that of one branch with another or of the wrist with the forearm. By Allah if the Arabs join together to fight me I will not run away from them and if I get the opportunity I will hasten to catch them by their necks. I shall surely strive to relieve the earth of this man of perverse mind and uncouth body till the bits of earth are removed from the grain.

p: 147

A part of the same which is the end of the letter

Get away from me O' world. Your rein is on your

own shoulders as I have released myself from your

ditches removed myself of your snares and avoided

walking into your slippery places. Where are those whom you have deceived by your jokes? Where are those communities whom you have enticed with your embellishments? They are all confined to graves and hidden in burial places. By Allah if you had been a visible personality aud a body capable of feeling I would have awarded you the penalties fixed by Allah because of the people whom you received through desires and the communities whom you threw into destruction and the rulers whom you consigned to ruin and drove to places of distress ( 398 )

after which there is neither going nor returning. Indeed whoever stepped on your slippery place slipped whoever rode your waves was drowned and whoever evaded your snares received in ward support. He who keeps himself safe from you does not worry even though his affairs may be straitened and the world to him is like a day which is near expiring.

Get away from me for by Allah I do not bow before you so that you may humiliate me nor do I let loose the reins for you so that you may drive me away. I swear by Allah an oath wherein I except the will of Allah that I shall so train my self that it will feel joyed if it gets one loaf for eating and be content with only salt to season it. I shall let my eyes empty themselves of tears like the stream whose water has flown away. Should `Ali eat whatever he has and fall asleep like the cattle who fill their stomachs from the pasture land and lie down or as the goats (who) graze eat the green grass and go into their pen! His eyes may die if he after long years follows loose cattle and pasturing animals.

p: 148

Blessed is he who discharges his obligations towards Allah and endures his hardships allows himself no sleep in the night but when sleep overpowers him lies down on the ground using his hand as a pillow along with those who keep their eyes wakeful in fear of the Day of Judgement whose bodies are ever awav from beds whose lips are humming in remembrance of Allah and whose sins have been erased through their prolonged beseechings for forgiveness. They are the party of Allah; Be it known verily the party of Allah alone shall be the successful ones (Qur'an 58:22). Therefore O Ibn Hunayf fear Allah and be content with your own loaves so that you may escape Hell.

In Arabic

[ 45 ] ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى عثمان بن حنيف الأنصاري و كان عامله على البصرة، وقد بلغه أنه دعي إلى وليمة قوم من أهلها، فمضى إليها قوله:

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، يَابْنَ حُنَيْف، فَقَدْ بَلَغَنِي أَنَّ رَجُلاً مِنْ فِتْيَةِ أَهْلِ الْبَصْرَةِ دَعَاكَ إلى مَأْدُبَة (1) ، فَأَسْرَعْتَ إِلَيْهَا، تُسْتَطَابُ (2) لَكَ الْأَلْوَانُ (3) ، وَتُنْقَلُ إِلَيْكَ الْجِفَانُ (4) ، وَمَا ظَنَنْتُ أَنَّكَ تُجِيبُ إِلى طَعَامِ قَوْمٍ، عَائِلُهُمْ (5) مَجْفُوٌّ (6) ، وَغَنِيُّهُمْ مَدْعُوٌّ. فَانْظُرْ إِلَى مَا تَقْضَمُهُ (7) مِنْ هذَ الْمَقْضَمِ، فَمَا اشْتَبَهَ عَلَيْكَ عِلْمُهُ فَالْفِظْهُ (8) ، وَمَا أَيْقَنْتَ بِطِيبِ وُجُوهِهِ فَنَلْ مِنْهُ. أَلاَ وَإِنَّ لِكُلِّ مَأمُومٍ إِمَاماً، يَقْتَدِي بِهِ، وَيَسْتَضِيءُ بِنُورِ عِلْمِهِ. أَلاَ وَإِنَّ إِمَامَكُمْ قَدِ اكْتَفَى مِنْ دُنْيَاهُ بِطِمْرَيْهِ (9) ، وَمِنْ طُعْمِهِ (10) بِقُرْصَيْهِ (11) . أَلاَ وَإِنَّكُمْ لاَ تَقْدِرُونَ عَلَى ذلِكَ، وَلكِنْ أَعِينُوني بِوَرَعٍ وَاجْتِهَادٍ، وَعِفَّةٍ وَسَدَادٍ (12) . فَوَاللهِ مَا كَنَزْتُ مِنْ دُنْيَاكُمْ تِبْراً (13) ، وَلاَ ادَّخَرْتُ مِنْ غَنَائِمِهَا وَفْراً (14) ، وَلاَ أَعْدَدْتُ لِبَالِي ثَوْبِي طِمْراً (15) .وَ لاَحُزتُ مِنْ أَرْضِهاَ شِبْراً ،ولاَ أخَذتُ مِنْهُ إلَّا كَقُوتِ أَتَانٍ دَبِرَةٍ (16) ،وَلَهِيَ فِي عَيْنِي أَوْهَي وَ أَهْوَنُ مِنْ عَفْصَةٍ مَقِرَةٍ (17) بَلَى! كَانَتْ في أَيْدِينَا فَدَكٌ مِنْ كلِّ مَا أَظَلَّتْهُ السَّماءُ، فَشَحَّتْ عَلَيْهَا نُفُوسُ قَوْمٍ، وَسَخَتْ عَنْهَا نُفُوسُ قُوْمٍ آخَرِينَ، وَنِعْمَ الْحَكَمُ اللهُ. وَمَا أَصْنَعُ بِفَدَك (18) وَغَيْرِ فَدَك، وَالنَّفْسُ مَظَانُّهَا (19) فِي غَدٍ جَدَثٌ (20) ، تَنْقَطِعُ فِي ظُلْمَتِهِ آثَارُهَا، وَتَغِيبُ أَخْبَارُهَا، وَحُفْرَةٌ لَوْ زِيدَ فِي زِيدَ فِي فُسْحَتِهَا، وَأَوْسَعَتْ يَدَا حَافِرِهَا،لَأَضْغَطَهَا (21) الْحَجَرُ وَالْمَدَرُ (22) ، وَسَدَّ فُرَجَهَا (23) التُّرَابُ الْمُتَرَاكِمُ، وَإِنَّمَا هِيَ نَفْسِي أَرُوضُهَا (24) بِالتَّقْوَى لِتَأْتِيَ آمِنَةً يَوْمَ الْخَوْفِ الْأَكْبَرِ، وَتَثْبُتَ عَلَى جَوَانِبِ الْمَزْلَقِ (25) . وَلَوْ شِئْتُ لاَهْتَدَيْتُ الطَّرِيقَ، إِلَى مُصَفَّى هذَا الْعَسَلِ، وَلُبَابِ هذَا الْقَمْحِ، وَنَسَائِجِ هذَا الْقَزِّ (26) ، وَلكِنْ هَيْهَاتَ أَنْ يَغْلِبَنِي هَوَايَ، وَيَقُودَنِي جَشَعِي (27) إِلَى تَخَيُّرِ الْأَطْعِمَةِ _ وَلَعَلَّ بِالْحِجَازِ أَوِ الْيَمَامَةِ مَنْ لاَطَمَعَ لَهُ فِي الْقُرْصِ (28) ، وَلاَ عَهْدَ لَهُ بِالشِّبَعِ _ أَوْ أَبِيتَ مِبْطَاناً وَحَوْلِي بُطُونٌ غَرْثَى (29) وَأَكْبَادٌ حَرَّى (30) ، أَوْ أَكُونَ كَمَا قَالَ الْقَائِلُ:

p: 149

وَحَسْبُكَ دَاءً أَنْ تَبِيتَ بِبِطْنَةٍ (31) وَحَوْلَكَ أَكْبَادٌ تَحِنُّ إِلَى الْقِدِّ (32) .أَأَقْنَعُ مِنْ نَفْسِي بِأَنْ يُقَالَ: أَمِيرُالْمُؤْمِنِينَ، وَلاَ أُشَارِكُهُمْ فِي مَكَارِهِ الدَّهْرِ، أَوْ أَكُونَ أُسْوَةً لَهُمْ فِي جُشُوبَةِ (33) الْعَيْشِ! فَمَا خُلِقْتُ لِيَشْغَلَنِي أَكْلُ الطَّيِّبَاتِ، كَالْبَهِيمَةِ الْمَرْبُوطَةِ هَمُّهَا عَلَفُهَا، أَوِ الْمُرْسَلَةِ شُغُلُهَا تَقَمُّمُهَا (34) ، تَكْتَرِشُ (35) مِنْ أَعْلاَفِهَا (36) ، وَتَلْهُو عَمَّا يُرَادُ بِهَا، أَوْ أُتْرَكَ سُدىً، أَوْ أُهْمَلَ عَابِثاً، أَوْ أَجُرَّ حَبْلَ الضَّلاَلَةِ، أَوْ أَعْتَسِفَ (37) طَرِيقَ الْمَتَاهَةِ (38) ! وَكَأَنِّي بِقَائِلِكُمْ يَقُولُ: إِذَا كَانَ هذَا قُوتُ ابْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ، فَقَدْ قَعَدَ بِهِ الضَّعْفُ عَنْ قِتَالِ الْأَقْرَانِ وَمُنَازَلَةِ الشُّجْعَانِ. أَلاَ وَإِنَّ الشَّجَرَةَ الْبَرِّيَّةَ (39) أَصْلَبُ عُوداً، وَالْرَّوَائِعَ الْخَضِرَةَ (40) أَرَقُّ جُلُوداً، وَالنَّابِتَاتِ العِذْيَةَ (41) أَقْوَى وَقُوداً (42) ، وَأَبْطَأُ خُمُوداً، وَأَنَا مِنْ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ كَالضَّوءِ مِنَ الضَّوءِ (43) ، وَالذِّرَاعِ مِنَ الْعَضُدِ (44) . وَاللهِ لَوْ تَظَاهَرَتِ الْعَرَبُ عَلَى قِتَالِي لَمَا وَلَّيْتُ عَنْهَا، وَلَوْ أَمْكَنَتِ الْفُرَصُ مِنْ رِقَابِهَا لَسَارَعْتُ إِلَيْهَا،سَأَجْهَدُ (45) فِي أَنْ أُطَهِّرَ الْأَرضَ مِنْ هذَا الشَّخْصِ الْمَعْكُوسِ، وَالْجِسْمِ الْمَرْكُوسِ (46) ، حَتَّى تَخْرُجَ الْمَدَرَةُ (47) مِنْ بَيْنِ حَبِّ الْحَصِيدِ (48) .

ومن هذا الكتاب، و هو آخره:

إِلَيْكَ عَنِّي (49) يَا دُنْيَا، فَحَبْلُكِ عَلَى غَارِبِكِ (50) ، قَدِ انْسَلَلْتُ مِنْ مَخَالِبِكِ (51) ، وَأَفْلَتُّ مِنْ حَبَائِلِكِ (52) ، وَاجْتَنَبْتُ الذَّهَابَ فِي مَدَاحِضِكِ (53) . أَيْنَ الْقُرُونُ الَّذِينَ غَرَرْتِهِمْ بَمَدَاعِبِكَ (54) ! أَيْنَ

الْأَُمَمُ الَّذِينَ فَتَنْتِهِم بِزَخَارِفِكِ! فَهَا هُمْ رَهَائِنُ الْقُبُورِ، وَمَضَامِينُ اللُّحُودِ (55) . وَاللهِ لَوْ كُنْتِ شَخْصاً مَرْئِيّاً، وَقَالَباً حِسِّيّاً، لاََقَمْتُ عَلَيْكِ حُدُودَ اللهِ فِي عِبَاد غَرَرْتِهِمْ بِالْأَمَانِي، وَأُمَم أَلْقَيْتِهِمْ فِي الْمَهَاوِي (56) ، وَمُلُوكٍ أَسْلَمْتِهِمْ إِلَى التَّلَفِ، وَأَوْرَدْتِهِمْ مَوَارِدَ الْبَلاَءِ، إِذْ لاَ وِرْدَ (57) وَلاَ صَدَرَ (58) ! هَيْهَاتَ! مَنْ وَطِىءَ دَحْضَكِ (59) زَلِقَ (60) ، وَمَنْ رَكِبَ لُجَجَكِ غَرِقَ، وَمَنِ ازْوَرَّ (61) عَنْ حَبَائِلِكِ وُفِّقَ، وَالسَّالِمُ مِنْكِ لاَيُبَالِي إِنْ ضَاقَ بِهِ مُنَاخُهُ (62) ، وَالدُّنْيَا عِنْدَهُ كَيَوْم حَانَ (63) انْسِلاَخُهُ (64) .

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اعْزُبِي (65) عَنِّي! فَوَاللهِ لاَ أَذِلُّ لَكِ فَتَسْتَذِلِّينِي، وَلاَ أَسْلَسُ (66) لَكِ فَتَقُودِينِي. وَايْمُ اللهِ _ يَمِيناً أسْتَثْنِي فِيهَا بِمَشِيئَةِ اللهِ _ لَأَرُوضَنَّ نَفْسِي رِيَاضَةً تَهشُّ (67) مَعَها إِلَى الْقُرْصِ إِذَا قَدَرتْ عَلَيْهِ مَطْعُوماً، وَتَقْنَعُ بِالْمِلْحِ مَأْدُوماً (68) ; وَلَأَدَعَنَّ (69) مُقْلَتِي (70) كَعَيْنِ مَاءٍ، نَضَبَ (71) مَعِينُهَا (72) ، مُسْتَفْرِغَةً دُمُوعَهَا. أَتَمْتَلِىءُ السَّائِمَةُ (73) مِنْ رِعْيِهَا (74) فَتَبْرُكَ؟ وَتَشْبَعُ الرَّبِيضَةُ (75) مِنْ عُشْبِهَا فَتَرْبِضَ (76) ؟ وَيَأْكُلُ عَلِيٌّ مِنْ زَادِهِ فَيَهْجَعَ (77) ؟ قَرَّتْ إِذاً عَيْنُهُ (78) إِذَا اقْتَدَى بَعْدَ السِّنِينَ الْمُتَطَاوِلَةِ بِالْبَهِيمَةِ الْهَامِلَةِ (79) ، وَالسَّائِمَةِ الْمَرْعِيَّةِ!

طُوبَى لِنَفْس ٍأَدَّتْ إِلَى رَبِّهَا فَرْضَهَا، وَعَرَكَتْ بِجَنْبِهَا بُؤْسَهَا (80) ، وَهَجَرَتْ فِي اللَّيْلِ غُمْضَهَا (81) ، حَتَّى إِذَا غَلَبَ الْكَرَى (82) عَلَيْهَا افْتَرَشَتْ أَرْضَهَا (83) ، وَتَوَسَّدَتْ كَفَّهَا (84) ، فِي مَعْشَرٍ أَسْهَرَ عُيُونَهُمْ خَوْفُ مَعَادِهِمْ، تَجَافَتْ (85) عَنْ مَضَاجِعِهِمْ (86) جُنُوبُهُمْ، وَهَمْهَمَتْ (87) بِذِكْرِ رَبِّهِم شِفَاهُهُمْ، وَتَقَشَّعَتْ (88) بِطُولِ اسْتِغْفَارِهِم ذُنُوبُهُمْ (أُولئِكَ حِزْبُ الله، أَلاَ إِنَّ حِزْبَ اللهِ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ) فَاتَّقِ اللهَ يَابْنَ حُنَيْفٍ، وَلْتَكْفُفْ أَقْرَاصُكَ (89) ، لِيَكُونَ مِنْ النَّارِ خَلاَصُكَ.

In Persian

به عثمان بن حنيف

ضرورت ساده زيستي كارگزاران: پس از ياد خدا و درود! اي پسر حنيف، به من گزارش دادند كه مردي از سرمايه داران بصره، تو را به مهماني خويش فرا خواند و تو به سرعت به سوي آن شتافتي، خوردنيهاي رنگارنگ براي تو آوردند، و كاسه هايي پر از غذا پي در پي جلوي تو مي نهادند، گمان نمي كردم مهماني مردمي را بپذيري كه نيازمندانشان با ستم محروم شده، و ثروتمندانشان بر سر سفره دعوت شده اند، انديشه كن در كجايي؟ و بر سر كدام سفره مي خوري؟ پس آن غذايي كه حلال و حرام بودنش را نمي داني دور بيافكن، و آنچه را به پاكيزگي و حلال بودنش يقين داري مصرف كن.

p: 151

امام الگوي ساده زيستي آگاه باش! هر پيروي را امامي است كه از او پيروي مي كند، و از نور دانشش روشني مي گيرد، آگاه باش! امام شما از دنياي خود به دو جامه فرسوده، و دو قرص نان رضايت داده است، بدانيد كه شما توانايي چنين كاري را نداريد اما با پرهيزكاري و تلاش فراوان و پاكدامني و راستي، مرا ياري دهيد. پس سوگند به خدا! من از دنياي شما طلا و نقره اي نياندوخته، و از غنيمتهاي آن چيزي ذخيره نكرده ام، بر دو جامه كهنه ام جامه اي نيفزودم، و از زمين دنيا حتي يك وجب در اختيار نگرفتم و دنياي شما در چشم من از دانه تلخ درخت بلوط ناچيزتر است.

آري از آنچه آسمان بر آن سايه افكنده، فدك در دست ما بود كه مردمي بر آن بخل ورزيده، و مردمي ديگر سخاوتمندانه از آن چشم پوشيدند، و بهترين داور خداست، مرا با فدك و غير فدك چه كار است؟ در صورتيكه جايگاه فرداي آدمي گور است. كه در تاريكي آن، آثار انسان نابود و اخبارش پنهان مي گردد، گوالي كه هر چه بر وسعت آن بيفزايند، و دستهاي گوركن فراخش نمايد، سنگ و كلوخ آن را پر كرده، و خاك انباشته رخنه هايش را مسدود كند. من نفس خود را با پرهيزكاري مي پرورانم، تا در روز قيامت كه هراسناكترين روزهاست در امان، و در لغزشگاههاي آن ثابت قدم باشد.

من اگر مي خواستم، مي توانستم از عسل پاك، و از مغز گندم، و بافته هاي ابريشم، براي خود غذا و لباس فراهم آورم، اما هيهات كه هواي نفس بر من چيره گردد، و حرص و طمع مرا وادارد كه طعامهاي لذيذ برگزينم، در حالي كه در (حجاز) يا (يمامه) كسي باشد كه به قرص ناني نرسد، و يا هرگز شكمي سير نخورد، يا من سير بخوابم و پيرامونم شكمهايي كه از گرسنگي به پشت چسبيده، و جگرهاي سوخته وجود داشته باشد، يا چنان باشم كه شاعر گفت: (اين درد تو را بس كه شب را با شكم سير بخوابي.) (و در اطراف تو شكمهايي گرسنه و به پشت چسبيده باشد.)

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آيا به همين رضايت دهم كه مرا اميرالمومنين (ع) خوانند؟ و در تلخي هاي روزگار با مردم شريك نباشم؟ و در سختي هاي زندگي الگوي آنان نگردم؟ آفريده نشده ام كه غذاهاي لذيذ و پاكيزه مرا سرگرم سازد، چونان حيوان پرواري كه تمام همت او علف، و يا چون حيوان رهاشده كه شغلش چريدن و پر كردن شكم بوده، و از آينده خود بي خبر است. آيا مرا بيهوده آفريدند؟ آيا مرا به بازي گرفته اند؟ آيا ريسمان گمراهي در دست گيرم؟ و يا در راه سرگرداني قدم بگذارم؟ گويا مي شنوم كه شخصي از شما مي گويد: (اگر غذاي فرزند ابيطالب همين است، پس سستي او را فرا گرفته و از نبرد با هماوردان و شجاعان بازمانده است.) آگاه باشيد! درختان بياباني، چوبشان سخت تر، اما درختان كناره جويبار را پوست نازك تر است، درختان بياباني كه با باران سيراب مي شوند آتش چوبشان شعله ورتر و پردوام تر است. من و رسول خدا (ص) چونان روشنايي يك چراغيم، يا چون آرنج به يك بازو پيوسته، به خدا سوگند! اگر اعراب در نبرد با من پشت به پشت يكديگر بدهند، از آن روي برنتابم، و اگر فرصت داشته باشم به پيكار همه مي شتابم، و تلاش مي كنم كه زمين را از اين شخص (معاويه) مسخ شده، و اين جسم كج انديش، پاك

سازم تا سنگ و شن از ميان دانه ها جدا گردد. (قسمتي از آخر نامه) اي دنيا از من دور شو، مهارت را بر پشت تو نهاده، و از چنگالهاي تو رهايي يافتم، و از دامهاي تو نجات يافته، و از لغزشگاههايت دوري گزيده ام، كجايند بزرگاني كه به بازيچه هاي خود فريبشان داده اي؟ كجايند امتهايي كه با زور و زيورت آنها را فريفتي؟ كه اكنون در گورها گرفتارند! و درون لحدها پنهان شده اند.

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امام و دنياي دنياپرستان اي دنيا به خدا سوگند! اگر شخصي ديدني بودي، و قالب حس كردني داشتي، حدود خدا را بر تو جاري مي كردم، به جهت بندگاني كه آنها را با آرزوهايت فريب دادي، و ملتهايي كه آنها را به هلاكت افكندي، و قدرتمنداني كه آنها را تسليم نابودي كردي، و هدف انواع بلاها قرار دادي كه ديگر راه پس و پيش ندارند، اما هيهات! كسي كه در لغزشگاه تو قدم گذارد سقوط كرد، و آن كس كه بر امواج تو سوار شد غرق گرديد، كسي كه از دامهاي تو رست پيروز شد، آن كس كه از تو به سلامت گذشت نگران نيست كه جايگاهش تنگ است، زيرا دنيا در پيش او چونان روزي است كه گذشت. از برابر ديدگانم دور شو، سوگند به خدا، رام تو نگردم كه خوارم سازي، و مهارم را به دست تو ندهم كه هر كجا خواهي مرا بكشاني، به خدا سوگند، سوگندي كه تنها اراده خدا در آن است، چنان نفس خود را به رياضت وادارم كه به يك قرص نان، هرگاه بيابم، و به نمك به جاي نان خورش قناعت كند، و آنقدر از چشم ها اشك ريزم كه چونان چشمه اي خشك درآيد، و اشك چشم پايان پذيرد. آيا سزاوار است كه چرندگان فراوان بخورند و راحت بخوابند، و گله گوسفندان پس از چرا كردن به آغل رو كنند، و علي نيز از زاد و

توشه خود بخورد و استراحت كند؟ چشمش روشن باد! كه پس از ساليان دراز، چهار پايان رهاشده، و گله هاي گوسفندان را الگو قرار دهد!! خوشا به حال آن كس كه مسووليتهاي واجب را در پيشگاه خدا به انجام رسانده، و در راه خدا هرگونه سختي و تلخي را به جان خريده، و به شب زنده داري پرداخته است، و اگر خواب بر او چيره شود بر روي زمين خوابيده، و كف دست را بالين خود قرار مي دهد، در گروهي كه ترس از معاد خواب را از چشمانشان ربوده، و پهلو از بسترها گرفته، و لبهايشان به ياد پروردگار در حركت و با استغفار طولاني گناهان را زدوده اند. (آنان حزب خداوندند، و همانا حزب خدا رستگار است.)

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(1). Fadak was a green fertile village near Medina in the Hijaz and it also had a fortress called ash-Shumrukh. (Mu `jam al-buldan vol.4 p.238; Mu`jam masta`jam al-Bakri vol.3 p.l015; ar-Rawd al-mi`tar al-Himyari p.437; Wafa' al-wafa vol.4 p. 1280). Fadak belonged to the Jews and in the year 7 A. H. its ownership went from them to the Prophet under the terms of a settlement for peace. The reason for this settlement was that when after the fall of Khaybar the Jews realized the real power of the Muslims their martial aspirations were lowered and noting that the Prophet had spared some Jews on their seeking protection they also sent a message of peace to the Prophet and expressed their wish that Fadak might be taken from them and their area should not be made a battlefield. Consequently the Prophet accepted their request and allowed them an amnesty and this land became his personal property wherein no one else had any interest nor could there be any such interest; because the Muslims have a share only in those properties which they might have acquired as booty after jihad while the property acquired without jihad is called fay' and the Prophet alone is entitled to it. No other person has a share in it. Thus Allah says:

And whatever hath Allah bestowed on His Apostle from them ye pricked not against it any horse or a camel but Allah granteth authority unto His apostles against whomsoever He willeth: And Allah over all things is All-powerful. (Qur'an 59:6)

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No one has ever disputed the fact that Fadak was secured without battle. It was therefore the Prophet's personal property to which no one else had any title. The Historians write:

Fadak was personal to the Prophet as the Muslims did not use their horses or camels for it. (at-Tarikh at-Tabari vol.1 pp.1582-1583 1589; al-Kamil Ibn al-Athir vol.2 pp.224-225;as-Sirah Ibn Hisham vol.3 p.368; at-Tarikh Ibn Khaldum vol.2 part 2 p.40; Tarikh al-khamis ad-Diyar'bakri vol.2 p.58; as-Sirah al-Halabiyyah vol.3 p.50)

The historian and geographical scholar Ahmad ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri (d. 279/892) writes: Fadak was the personal property of the Prophet as the Muslims had not used their horses or camels for it. (Futuh al-buldan vol.1 p.33)

`Umar ibn al-Khattab had himself regarded Fadak as the unshared property of the Holy Prophet when he declared:

The property of Banu an-Nadir was among that which Allah has bestowed on His Messenger; against them neither horses nor camels were pricked but they belonged to the Messenger of Allah especially. (as-Sahih al-Bukhari vol.4 p.46; vol.7 p.82; vol.9 pp.121-122; as-Sahih Muslim vol.5 p.151; as-Sunan Abu Dawud vol.3 pp. 139-141; as-Sunan an-Nasa'i vol.7 p.132; al-Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal vol.1 pp.25.48.60 208: as-Sunan al-kubra al-Bayhayqi vol.6 pp.296-299)

It is also proved in the accepted way that the Prophet had in his lifetime given this land (Fadak) to Fatimah as a gift. It is narrated through al-Bazzar Abu Ya`la Ibn Abi Hatim Ibn Marduwayh and others from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri and through Ibn Marduwayh from `Abdullah ibn al-`Abbas that when the verse:

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"And give to the near of kin his due. . ." (Qur'an 17:26) was revealed the Holy Prophet called Fatimah' and gifted Fadak to her. (ad-Durr al-manthur as-Suyuti vol.4 p.177; Majma` az-zawa'id al-Haythami vol.7 p.46; Kanz al-'ummal al-Muttaqi vol.3 p.439; Ruh al-ma`ani al-Alusi vol.15 p.62)

When Abu Bakr assumed power then in view of some benefits of State he turned out Fatimah from Fadak and took it from her possession. Thus the historians writes:

Certainly Abu Bakr snatched Fadak from Fatimah (p.b.u.h.) (Sharh Nahj al-balaghah Ibn Abi'l-Hadid vol.16 p. 219; Wafa' al-wafa as-Samhudi vol.3 p.1OOO; as-Sawa`iq al-muhriqah Ibn Hajar p.32) Fatimah raised a voice against it. Protesting to Abu Bakr she said "You have taken over possession of Fadak although the Prophet had gifted it to me during his lifetime." On this Abu Bakr asked her to produce witness of the gift. Consequently Amir al-mu'minin and Umm Ayman gave evidence in her favour. (Umm Ayman was the freed bond maid and the dry nurse of

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the Holy Prophet. She was the mother of Usamah ibn Zayd ibn al-Harithah. The Holy Prophet used to say "Umm Ayman is my mother after my mother. [al-Mustadrak vol.4 p.63; at-Tabari vol.3 p. 3460; al-Isti`ab. vol.4 p. 1793; Usd al-ghabah vol.5 p.567] The Holy Prophet bore witness that she is among the people of Paradise. [Ibn Sa`d vol.8 p.192; al-Isabah vol.4 p.432]). But this evidence was held inadmissible by Abu Bakr and Fatimah's claim was rejected as being based on false statement. About this al-Baladhuri writes:

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Fatimah said to Abu Bakr "The Messenger of Allah had apportioned Fadak to me. Therefore give it to me." Then he asked her for another witness than Umm Ayman saying "O' daughter of the Prophet you know that evidence is not admissible except by two men or one man and two women."

After these facts there remains no possibility of denying that Fadak was the personal property of the Prophet and that he had completed its gifting to her by handing over possession in his lifetime. But Abu Bakr took over its possession and dislodged her from it. In this connection he rejected the evidence of `Ali and Umm Ayman on the ground that the requirement of evidence was not completed by the evidence of one man and one woman. Besides them Imam Hasan and Imam Husayn gave evidence in support of Fatimah but their evidence was rejected too on the ground that the evidence of the offspring and minors was not acceptable in favour of their parents. Then Rabah the slave of the Holy Prophet was also produced as a witness in support of the claim of Fatimah but he was rejected too. (Futuh al-buldan al-Baladhuri vol. 1 p.35: at-Tarikh al-Ya`qubi vol.3 p.195; Muruj adh-dhahab al-Mas`udi vol.3 p.237; al-Awa'il Abu Hilal al-`Askari p.209; Wafa' al-wafa vol.3 pp.999 1000-1001; Mu`jam al-buldan Yaqut al-Hamawi vol.4 p.239; Sharh Ibn Abi'l-Hadid vol.16 pp.216 219 - 220 274; al-Muhalla Ibn Hazm vol.6 p.507; as-Sirah al-Halabiyyah vol.3 p.361 ; at-Tafsir al-Fakhr ar-Razi vol.29 p.284).

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At this stage the question arises that when Fatimah's possession over Fadak is admitted as Amir al-mu 'minin has also clarified in this letter by saying "We had Fadak in our possession " what was the sense in asking Fatimah to produce evidence in support of her claim because the onus of proof does not lie on the person in possession. The onus of proof lies on the person filing a counter claim because possession itself constitutes a proof.

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As such it was on Abu Bakr to produce a proof of the lawfulness of his taking over the land and in the case of his being unable to do so Fatimah's possession would mean a proof for her lawful ownership. As such it would be wrong to ask her to produce some more proof or evidence.

It is strange that when other claims of this nature came before Abu Bakr he allowed them in favour of the claimant merely on the basis of the claim and the claimant is neither asked to furnish proof of his claim nor to produce witnesses. In this connection the traditionalists write:

It is related from Jabir ibn `Abdillah al-Ansari that he said that the Messenger of Allah had said that when the booty from Bahrain arrived he would allow him such and such out of it but the booty did not arrive till the Prophet's death. When it arrived in the days of Abu Bakr he went to him and Abu Bakr made the announcement that whoever had a claim against the Messenger of Allah or to whomever he had made a promise should come for his claim. So I went to him and told him that the Prophet had promised to give me such and such property out of the booty from Bahrain whereupon he gave me all that. (as-Sahih al-Bukhari vol.3 pp.119 209 236; vol.4 p.110; vol.5 p.218; as- Sahih Muslim vol.7 pp.75-76; al-Jami' as-sahih at-Tirmidhi vol.5 p.129; al-Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal vol.3 pp.307-308; at-Tabaqat al-kabir Ibn Sa'd vol.2 part 2 pp.88-89).

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In the annotations of this tradition Shihabu'd-Din Ahmad ibn `Ali (Ibn Hajar) al-`Asqalani ash-Shafi`i (773/1372 - 852/1449) and Badru'd- Din Mabmud ibn Ahmad al-`Ayni al-Hanafi (762/1361 - 855/1451) have written:

This tradition leads to the conclusion that the evidence of one just companion can also be admitted as full evidence even though it may be in his own favour because Abu Bakr did not ask jabir to produce any witness in proof of his claim. (Fath al-bari fi sharh sahih al-Bukhari vol.5 p.380; `Umdatu'l-qari fi sharh sahih al-Bukhari vol.12 p.121) If it was lawful to allow property to Jabir on the basis of good impression without calling for witness or evidence then what stopped allowing Fatimah's claim on the basis of similar good impression. If good impression could exist in the case of Jabir to such an effect that he would not benefit

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by speaking a lie then why should there not be the good belief about Fatimah that she would not attribute a false saying to the Prophet just for a piece of land. Firstly her admitted truthfulness and honesty was enough for holding her truthful in her claim and the evidence of `Ali and Umm Ayman in her favour was also available besides other evidences. It has been said that the claim could not be decided in favour of Fatimah on the basis of these two witnesses because the holy Qur'an lays down the principle of evidence that:

. . .then call to witness two witnesses from among your men and if there not be two men then (take) a man and two women (Qur'an 2:282)

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If this principle is universal and general then it should be taken into regard on every occasion but on some occasions it is found not to have been followed; for example when an Arab had a dispute with the Prophet about a camel khuzaymah ibn Thabit al-Ansari gave evidence in favour of the Prophet and this one evidence was deemed to be equal to two because there was no doubt in the honesty and truthfulness of the individual in whose favour the evidence was led. It was for this reason that the Holy Prophet granted him the title of Dhu'sh-Shahadatayn (i.e. one whose evidence is equivalent to the evidence of two witnesses). (al-Bukhari vol.4 p.24; vol.6 p.146; Abu Dawud vol.3 p.308; an-Nasa'i vol.7 p.302; Ahmad ibn Hanbal vol.5 pp.188 189 216; al-Isti`ab vol.2 p.448; Usd al-ghabah vol.2 p.114; al-Isabah vol.1 pp.425 -426; al-Musannaf as-San`ani vol.8 pp.366 - 368).

Consequently neither was the generality of the verse about evidence affected by this action nor was it deemed to be against the cannons of evidence. So if here in view of the Prophet's truthfulness one evidence in his favour was deemed to be equal to two then could not the evidence of `Ali and Umm Ayman be regarded enough for Fatimah in view of her moral greatness and truthfulness? Besides this verse does not show that there can be no other way of establishing a claim other than these two ways. In this connection al-Qadi Nuru'llah al-Mar'ashi at-Tustari (956/1549 - 1019/ 1610) has written in Ihqaq al-haqq chapter on al-Mata`in:

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The view of the objector that by Umm Ayman's evidence the requirement of evidence remains incomplete is wrong on the grounds that

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from certain traditions it is seen that it is lawful to give a decision on the basis of one witness and it does not necessarily mean that the injunction of the Qur'an has been violated because this verse means that a decision can be given on the strength of the evidence of two men or one man and two women and that their evidence is enough. From this it does not appear that if there are some other grounds besides evidence of witnesses that are unacceptable and that verdict cannot be given on its basis unless it is argued that this is the only sense of the verse. But since every sense is not final argument this sense can be brushed aside particularly because the tradition clearly points to a contrary sense and ignoring the sense does not necessarily mean violation of the verse. Secondly the verse allows a choice between the evidence of two men or of one man and two women. If by virtue of the tradition a third choice is added namely that a verdict can be passed by means of other evidence as well then how does it necessitate that the Qur'anic verse should stand violated?

In any case from this reply it is clear that a claimant is not obliged to produce the evidence of two men or one man and two women in support of the claim because if there is one witness and the claimant swears on oath then he can be taken to have legitimacy in his claim and a decision can be given in his favour. In this connection it has been narrated by more than twelve companions of the Holy Prophet that:

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The Messenger of Allah used to decide cases on the strength of one witness and the taking of oath.

It has been explained by some companions (of the Prophet) and some scholars ofjurisprudence that this decision is specially related to rights property and transactions and this decesion was practised by the three Caliphs Abu Bakr `Umar and `Uthman. (Muslim vol.5 p.128; Abu Dawud vol.3 pp.308-309; at-Tirmidhi vol.3 pp.627-629; Ibn Majah vol.2 p.793; Ahmad ibn Hanbal vol.1 pp.248 315 323 vol.3 p.305; vol.5 p.285; Malik ibn Anas al-Muwatta' vol.2 pp.721-725; al-Bayhaqi as-Sunan al-kubra vol.10 pp.167 - 176;as-Sunan ad-Dar'qutni vol.4 pp.212 - 215; Majma` az-zawa'id vol.4 p.202; Kanz al-'ummal vol.7 p.13) When decisions were passed on the strength of one witness and swearing then even if in Abu Bakr's view the requirement of evidence was in-

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complete he should have asked her to swear and given the judgement in her favour. But here the very object was to tarnish the truthfulness of Fatimah so that in future the question of her testimony should not arise.

However when Fatimah's claim was rejected in this manner and Fadak was not accepted as the Prophet's gift to her she claimed it on the basis of inheritance saying:

"If you do not agree that the Prophet had gifted it to me you cannot at least deny that Fadak and the revenues of Khaybar as well as the lands around Medina were the Prophet's personal properties and I am his only successor." But she was deprived of her inheritance on the basis of a tradition related by Abu Bakr himself that the Holy Prophet said We prophets have no successors and whatever we leave behind constitutes charity." (al-Bukhari vol.4 p. 96; vol.5 pp.25 - 26 115 117; vol.8 p.185; Muslim vol.5 pp.153-l55; at-Tirmidhi vol.4 pp.157-158; Abu Dawud vol.3 pp.l42-143; an-Nasa'i vol.7 p.l32; Ahmad ibn Hanbal vol.1 pp.4 6 9 lO; al-Bayhaqi vol.6 p.300; lbn Sa'd vol.2 part2 pp.86-87; at-Tabari vol.1 p.1825; Tarikh al-khamis vol.2 pp.173-174).

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Besides Abu Bakr no one else had knowledge of this saying which was shown to be a tradition of the Prophet nor had anyone from among the. companions heard it. Thus Jalalu'd-Din `Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr as-Suyuti ash-Shafi`i (849/1445-911/1505) and Shihabu'd-Din Ahmad ibn Muhammad (Ibn Hajar) al-Haytami ash-Shafi'i (909/1504-974/ 1567) have written:

After the death of the Prophet there was a difference of view about the inheritance and no one had any information in this matter. Then Abu Bakr said that he had heard the Messenger of Allah saying that: "We prophets leave no successors and whatever we leave behind constitutes charity". (Tarikh al-khulafa' p.73; as Sawa'iq al-muhriqah p. 19) The mind refuses to believe that the Prophet should not tell those individuals who could be deemed his successors that they would not inherit and inform a third party who had not the remotest kinship that there would be no successor to him.Then this story was made public only when the case

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for Fadak had been filed in his court and he himself constituted the contesting party. In such circumstances how can his presenting in his own support a tradition which no one else had heard be deemed permissible. If it is argued that this tradition should be relied upon in view of the greatness of position of Ahu Bakr then why cannot Fatimah's claim to the gift be relied upon because of her honesty and truthfulness more so when the evidence of Amir al-mu'minin and Umm Ayman as well as others was also in her favour. If necessity was felt to call more evidence in her case then evidence can also be called for about this tradition particularly since this tradition hits against the general instructions of the Qur'an on succession. How can a tradition which is weak in the manner of its relating and altered and is questioned on the basis of facts be deemed to particularize a generality of the Qur'anic injunction on succession because the question of the inheritance of the prophets is clearly mentioned in the Qur'an. Thus Allah says:

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And Soloman inherited David . . . (Qur'an 27:16)

At another place it is stated through the words of Prophet Zakariyya:

So grant me from yourselfan heir who shall inherit me and inherit from the family of Jacob. . . (Qur'an 19:5-6)

In these verses succession refers to succession in estate and to take it in its figurative meaning of succession in prophetic knowledge would not only be obtuse but also against facts because knowledge and prophethood are not objects of succession nor do they possess the quality of transmission through inheritance for in that case all the progeny of the prophets would have been prophets. There is no sense in making a distinction that the progeny of some prophets may inherit prophethood while others should remain deprived of it. It is strange that the theory of transmission of prophethood through inheritance is propagated by those who have always laid the objection against the Shi'ahs that they regard the Imamate and the caliphate as an object of inheritance and confined to one family only. Will not prophethood become an object of inheritance by taking succession in this verse to mean succession to the prophethood?

If in Abu Bakr's view by virtue of this tradition there could be no successor of the Prophet then where was this tradition when a document had been written admitting Fatimah's claim for succession? Thus Nuru'd-

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Din `Ali ibn Ibrahim al-Halabi ash-Shafi'i (975/1567 - 1044/1635) quoting from Shamsu'd-Din Yusuf (Sibt ibn al-Jawzi) al-Hanafi (581/1185 - 654/ 1256) narrated:

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Abu Bakr was on the pulpit when Fatimah came to him and said "O' Abu Bakr the Qur'an should allow your daughter to inherit you but I am not to inherit my father!" Abu Bakr started weeping and alighted from the pulpit. Then he wrote for her about Fadak. At that time `Umar arrived and enquired what it was. Abu Bakr replied "It is a document I have written for Fatimah about her inheritance from her father." `Umar said "What will you spend on the Muslims while the Arabs are waging war against you as you see?" Then `Umar took the document and tore it. (as-Sirah al-Halabiyyah vol.3 pp. 361-362)

Every sensible person who remarks this behaviour can easily reach the conclusion that this tradition is concocted and wrong and was fabricated only to secure possession over Fadak and other inheritances. Consequently Fatimah refused to accept it and expressed her anger in this way that she made a will about Abu Bakr and `Umar that the two should not join in her funeral prayer. `A'ishah narrated:

Fatimah (p.b.u.h.) the daughter of the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) sent for Abu Bakr (after he became Caliph after the death of the Holy Prophet) claiming from him her inheritance left by the Messenger of Allah from what Allah had bestowed (especially) upon him at Medina and Fadak and what was left from one-fifth (khums) of the income (annually received) from Khaybar. . . Abu Bakr refused to hand over anything from it to Fatimah. Then Fatimah became angry with Abu Bakr and forsook him and did not talk to him until the end of her life...When she died her husband `Ali ibn Abi Talib buried her at night. He did not inform Abu Bakr about her death and offered the funeral prayer over her himself. . . (al-Bukhari vol.5 p.177; vol.8; p.185; Muslim vol.5 pp.153-155; al-Bayhari vol.4 p.29; vol.6 pp. 300-301; Ibn Sa'd vol.2 part 2 p.86; Ahmad ibn Hanbal vol.1 p.9; at-Tabari vol.1 p.1825; Ibn Kathir at-Tarikh vol.5 pp.285-286; Ibn Abi'l-Hadid vol.6 p.46 and Wafa' al-wafa' vol.3 p.995)

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In this connection Umm Ja'far the daughter of Muhammad ibn

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Ja`far narrated about the request of Fatimah (p.b.u.h.) to Asma' bint `Umays near her death that:

When I die I want you and `Ali to wash me and do not allow anyone to go in to me (in my house).

When she died `A'ishah came to enter Asma' told her "Do not enter." `A'ishah complained to Abu Bakr (her father) saying "This Khath`amiyyah (a woman from the tribe of Kath'am i.e. Asma') intervenes between us and the daughter of the Messenger of Allah . . ." Then Abu Bakr came and stood at the door and said "O' Asma' what makes you prevent the wives of the Prophet from entering in to the daughter of the Messenger of Allah?" Asma' replied "She had herself ordered me not to allow anyone to enter into her . . ." Abu Rakr said "Do what she has ordered you." (Hilyah al-awliya' vol.2 p.43; as-Sunan al-kubra vol.3 p.396; vol.4 p.334; Ansab al-ashraf vol.1 p.405; al-Isti`ab vol.4 pp.1897-1898; Usd al-ghabah vol.5 p.524; al-Isabah vol.4 pp.378-379)

Fatimah (p.b.u.h.) had also made a request to Amir al-mu'minin `Ali that she must be buried at night and that no one should come to her that Abu Bakr and `Umar should not be notified about her death and burial and that Abu Bakr should not be allowed to say the prayer over her body.

When she died `Ali washed and buried her in the quietness of the night not notifying Abu Bakr and `Umar. So these two were not aware of her burial.

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Muhammad ibn `Umar al-Waqidi (130/747 - 207/823) said:

It has been proved to us that `Ali (p.b.u.h.) performed her funeral prayer and buried her by night accompanied by al-`Abbas (ibn `Abd al-Muttalib) and (his son) al-Fadl and did not notify anyone. it was for this reason that the burial place of Fatimah (p.b.u.h.) was hidden and unknown and no one is sure about it. (al-Mustadrak vol.3 pp.162-163; al-Musannaf vol.4 p.141; Ansab al-ashraf vol.1 pp.402 405. al-Isti`ab vol.4 p.1898; Usd al-ghabah vol.5 pp. 524-525: al-Isabah vol.4 pp.379-380; at-Tabari vol.3 pp.2435-2436; Ibn Sa`d vol.8 pp.19-20; Wafa' al-wafa vol.3 pp.901-902 904 905; Ibn Abi'l-Hadid vol.16 pp.279-281)

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To attribute this displeasure of Fatimah to sentiments and thereby to lower its importance does not evince a correct sentiment because if this displeasure had been the result of sentiments then Amir al-mu'minin would have stopped her from this misplaced displeasure but no history shows that Amir al-mu'minin took this displeasure to be misplaced. Besides how could her displeasure be the result of personal feelings or sentiments since her pleasure or displeasure always accord with Allah's will. The Prophet's following saying is a proof of this:

O' Fatimah surely Allah is enraged in your rage and is pleased in your pleasure. (al-Mustadrak vol.3 p.153; Usd al-ghabah vol.5 p.522; al-Isabah vol.4 p.366; Tahdhib at-tahdhib vol.12 p.441; al-Khasa'is al-kubra vol.2 p.265; Kanz al-`ummal vol.13 p.96; vol.16 p.280; Majma` az-zawa'id vol.9 p.203)

A short history of Fadak after the death of Fatimah

The motive which causes us to pursue the history of Fadak and to extract the continuation of events after it for a period of three centuries from the texts of historical books is to clarify three questions:-

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a. The rule of annulment of inheritance from prophets made by the Holy Prophet in other words that the property of the Holy Prophet is a part of the public treasury and belongs to all Muslims. This was claimed by the first caliph Abu Bakr and was rejected by his successors both by next the two caliphs (Umar and Uthman) and by the Umayyads and the `Abbassids. We must consider that the lawfulness and rightfulness of their caliphate depended upon the correctness and lawfulness of the caliphate of the first Caliph and his actions.

b. Amir al-mu'minin (`Ali p.b.u.h.) and the descendants of Fatimah never had any hesitation regarding the rightfulness and justifiability of their claim. They insisted and confirmed that Fatimah (p.b.u.h.) had always been right and that Abu Bakr's claim had always been rejected and they did not yield to the false claim.

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c. Whenever one of the Caliphs made a decision to put into effect Allah's command in regard to Fadak to observe justice and equity and to restore the right to the entitled one in conformity with Islamic rules he used to return hack the Fadak to the descendants of Fatimah (p.b.u.h.) and to hand it over to them.

1. `Umar ibn al-Khattab was the most harsh person in keeping Fatimah (p.b.u.h.) from Fadak and her inheritance as he himself confessed:

When the Messenger of Allah died I came along with Abu Bakr to `Ali ibn Abi Talib and said "What do you say about what has been left by the Messenger of Allah? "He replied "We have the most rights with the Holy Prophet." I (`Umar) said "Even those properties of Khaybar?" He said "Yes even those of Khaybar." I said "Even those of Fadak?" He replied "Yes even those of Fadak." Then I said "By Allah we say no even if you cut our necks with saws." (Majma` az-zawa'id vol.9 pp.39-40)

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As it has been mentioned before `Umar then took the document of Fadak and tore it up. But when `Umar became Caliph (13/634 - 23/644) he gave back the Fadak to inheritors of the Holy Prophet. Yaqut al-Hamawi (574/1178 - 626/1229) the famous historian and geographer following the event of Fadak said:

...Then when `Umar ibn al-Khattab became caliph and gained victories and the Muslims had secured abundant wealth (i.e. the public treasury satisfied the Caliphate's needs) he made his judgement contrary to that of his predecessor and that was to give it (Fadak) back to the Prophet's heirs. At that time `Ali ibn Abi Talib and `Abbas ibn `Abd al-Muttalib disputed Fadak.

`Ali said that Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) had bestowed it on Fatimah during his lifetime. `Abbas denied this and used to say "This was in the possession of the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) and I am sharing with his heirs." They were disputing this* among each other and asked `Umar to settle the case. He refused to judge between them and said "Both of you are more conscious and aware to your problem; but I only give it to you..." (Mu`jam al-buldan vol.4 pp.238-239: Wafa' al-wafa vol.3 p.999; Tahdhib aL-lughah vol.1O p.124; Lisan al-`Arab

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vol.10 p.473; Taj al-`arus vol.7 p.166)

The reason that `Umar and Abu Bakr were trying to seize Fadak was an economic and political reason not merely a religious one as the previous episode shows for when the economic and political condition of the caliphate improved and there was no need of the income obtained from Fadak `Umar's judgement changed also.

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The last part of this historic event has been inserted afterwards to demonstrate the matter of inheritance by the brother of the deceased or the paternal uncle of the deceased when he has no sons. This problem is a matter of dispute between Islamic sects. The judicial and jurisprudencial discussion is separate from our goal. We are only discussing the matter historically.

`Abbas had no claim in this case because he had not shown that he had a share in this property nor did his descendants consider it to be among their own assests even when they had became caliphs and were reigning. They owned this estate either in their position as caliphs or they used to return it to the descendants of Fatimah when they had decided to be just governors.

2. When `Uthman ibn Affan became caliph after the death of `Umar (23/644 - 35/656) he granted Fadak to Marwan ibn al-Hakam his cousin (as-Sunan al-kubra vol.6 p.3O1; Wafa' al-wafa vol.3 p. 1000; Ibn Abi'l- Hadid vol.1 p.198) and this was one of the causes of vindictive feelings among the Muslims towards `Uthman (al-Ma `arif Ibn Qutaybah p. 195; al-`Iqd al-farid vol.4 pp.283 435; at-Tarikh Abu'l-Fida' vol.1 p.168; at-Tarikh Ibn al-Wardi vol.1 p.204) which ended in the revolt against him and his murder. "While previously Fatimah used to claim it. sometimes as her inheritance and sometimes as a gift (from her father) she was driven away from it (Fadak)" as Ibn Abi'l-Hadid said. (Sharh Nahj al-balaghah). In this way Fadak fell into the possession of Marwan. He used to sell its crops and products for at least ten thousand Dinars per year and if in some years its income decreased this drop was not very pronounced. This was its usual profit until the time of the caliphate of `Umar ibn `Abd al- `Aziz (in 100/718). (Ibn Sa`d. vol.5 pp.286 287; Subh al-a`sha vol.4 p.291)

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3. When Mu`awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan became caliph (41/661 - 60/ 680) he became a partner with Marwan and others in Fadak. He alloted one third to Marwan and one third to `Amr ibn `Uthman ibn `Affan and one third to his son Yazid. This was after the death of al-Hasan ibn `Ali (p.b. u.h.). "To make angry the progeny of the Holy Prophet" al-Ya`qubi states: (at-Tarikh vol.2 p.199)

It was in the possession of the three above mentioned persons until Marwan became caliph (64/684 - 65/685) and he completely took over possession of it. Then he donated it to his two sons `Abd al-Malik and `Abd al-'Aziz. Then `Abd al-`Aziz donated his share to his son (`Umar ibn `Abd al.`Aziz).

4. When `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz became caliph (99/717 - 101/ 720) he delivered a lecture and mentioned that: "Verily Fadak was among the things that Allah had bestowed on His Messenger and no horse nor camel was pricked against it..." and mentioned the case of Fadak during the past caliphates until He said: "Then Marwan gave it (Fadak) to my father and to `Abd al-Malik. It became mine and al-Walid's and Sulayman's (two sons of `Abd al-Malik). When al-Walid became caliph (86/705 - 96/715)I asked him for his share and He gave it to me. I asked also for Sulayman's share and he gave it to me. Then I gathered the three parts and I possess no property more preferable to me than this. Be witness that I returned it to its original state." He wrote this to his governor of Medina (Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn `Amr ibn Hazm) and ordered him to carry out what he had declared in the speech he delivered. Then Fadak came into the possession of the children of Fatimah. "This was the first removal of oppression by returning it (Fadak) to the children of `Ali." (al-Awa'il Abu Hilal al-`Askari p.209). They possessed it during the reign of this caliph.

p: 172

5. When Yazid ibn `Abd al-Malik became caliph (101/720 - 105/ 724) he seized Fadak and they (the children of `Ali) were dispossessed. It fell into the possession of the Banu Marwan as it had been previously. They passed it from hand to hand until their caliphate expired and passed away to the Banu al-Abbas.

6. When Abu'l-`Abbas Abdullah as-Saffah became the first caliph of the `Abbasid dynasty (132/749-136/754) he gave back Fadak to the children of Fatimah and submitted it to`Abdullah ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Hasan ibn `Ali ibn Abi Talib.

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7. When Abu Ja`far `Abdullah al-Mansur ad-Dawanaqi (136/754 - 158/775) became caliph he seized Fadak from the children of al-Hasan.

8. When Muhammad al-Mahdi ibn al-Mansur became caliph (158/775 - 169/785) he returned Fadak to the children of Fatimah.

9. Then Musa al-Hadi ibn al-Mahdi (169/785 - 170/786) and his brother Harun ar-Rashid (170/786 - 193/809) seized it from the descendants of Fatimah and it was in the possession of Banu al-`Abbas until the time that al-Ma'mun became caliph (198/813 - 218/833).

10. al-Ma'mun al-`Abbasi gave it back to the descendants of Fatimah (210/826). It is narrated through al-Mahdi ibn Sabiq that:

al-Ma'mun one day sat to hear the complaints of the people and to judge in cases. The first utter of complaint which he received caused him to weep when he looked at it. He asked where the attorney of Fatimah daughter of the Holy Prophet was? An old man stood up and came forth arguing with him about Fadak and al-Ma'mun also argued with him until he overcame al-Ma'mun. (al-Awa'il p.209)

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al-Ma'mun summoned the Islamic jurisprudents (al-Fuqaha') and interrogated them about the claim of the Banu Fatimah. They narrated to al-Ma'mun that the Holy Prophet gifted Fadak to Fatimah and that after the death of the Holy Prophet Fatimah demanded Abu Bakr to return Fadak to her. He asked her to bring witnesses to her claim regarding this gift. She brought `Ali al-Hasan al-Husayn and Umm Ayman as her witnesses. They witnessed the case in her favour. Abu Bakr rejected their witness. Then al-Ma'mun asked the Islamic jurisprudents: "What is your view about Umm Ayman?" They replied She is a woman to whom the Holy Prophet bore witness that she is an inhabitant of Paradise. al-Ma'mun disputed at length with them and forced them to accept the argument by proofs till they confessed that `Ali al-Hasan al-Husayn and Umm Ayman had witnessed only the truth. When they unanimously accepted this matter he restored Fadak to the descendants of Fatimah. (at-Tarikh al-Ya`qubi vol.3 pp. 195 - 196)

Then al-Ma'mun ordered that the estate (of Fadak) should be registered among the property (of the descendants of Fatimah) and it was

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registered and al-Ma'mun signed it.

Then he wrote a letter to his governor in Medina named Qutham ibn ja`far as follows:

"Know that Amir al-mu'minin in exercise of the authority vested upon him by the divine religion as the Caliph successor and the kinsman of the Holy Prophet has considered himself more deserving to follow the precedent of the Holy Prophet (sunnatu'n-nabi) and to carry out his commands. And (the chief is more entitled) to restore to the rightful persons any endowment gifted by the Holy Prophet or thing which the Holy Prophet had gifted to someone. The success and safeguard of Amir al-mu'minin is by Allah and he is particularly anxious to act in a way which will win the pleasure of the Almighty Allah for him.

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"Verily the Holy Prophet had gifted the estate of Fadak to his daughter Fatimah (p.b.u.h.). He had transferred its ownership to her. It is a clear and established fact. None of the kindred of the Holy Prophet have any difference of view. Fatimah always claimed that which was more deserving (to be justified) than the person (Abu Bakr) whose word was accepted. Amir al-mu'minin considers it right and proper to restore Fadak to the heirs of Fatimah. He would hereby win nearness to Almighty Allah by establishing His justice and right. It would win the appreciation of the Holy Prophet by carrying into effect his commandments. Amir al-mu'minin has commanded that this restoration of Fadak should duly be registered. The commands should he transmitted to all the officials.

"Then if as it was a custom to proclaim on every hajj gathering (every year) following the death of the Holy Prophet that anyone to whom the Holy Prophet had promised (the donation) of a gift or a present should come forward his statement will be accepted and the promise will be fulfilled. Certainly Fatimah (p.b.u.h.) had a superior right to have her statements accepted in the matter of the gifting of Fadak by the Holy Prophet (may Allah bless him and his descendants) to her.

"Verily Amir al-mu'minin has commanded his slave Mubarak at-Tabari to restore Fadak to the descendants of Fatimah the daughter of the holy Prophet with all its borders its rights and all slaves attached thereto. cereal crops and other things.

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"The same has been restored to Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn al-Hasan ibn Zayd ibn `Ali ibn al-Husayn ibn `Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muhammad ibn `Abdullah ibn al-Hasan ibn `Ali ibn al-Husayn ibn `Ali ibn Abi Talib.

"Amir al-mu'minin has appointed the two of them as the agents representing the owners of the lands - the heirs of Fatimah. Know then this is the view of Amir al-mu'minin and that Allah has inspired him to obey the order of Allah and to win His pleasure and the pleasure of the Holy Prophet. Let also your subordinates know this. Behave towards Muhammad ibn Yahya and Muhammad ibn `Abdillah in the same manner as you used to behave towards Mubarak at-Tabari. Help them both to everything which has to do with its flourishing and prosperity and its improvement in abundance of cereals by Allah's will; and that is an end to the matter."

This is written this Wednesday two nights past Dhu'l-qi'dah the year 210 (15/2/826).

11. During the period of al-Ma'mun's caliphate Fadak was in the possession of Fatimah's descendants and this continued during the caliphate of al-Mu'tasim (218/833 - 227/842) and al-Wathiq (227/842 - 232/ 847).

12. When Ja`far al-Mutawakkil became caliph (232/847 - 247/ 861) the one among them who was marked as an archenemy of the progeny of the Holy Prophet both of those alive and of those dead gave the order to recapture Fadak from the descendants of Fatimah. (He seized it and granted it to Harmalah al-Hajjam or the Cupper) and after the death of al-Hajjam he granted it to al-Bazyar or the Falconer a native of Tabaristan. (Kashf al-ghumnah vol.2 pp.121 - 122; al-Bihar [lst ed.] vol.8. p.108; Safinah al-bihar vol.2 p.351). Abu Hilal al-`Askari- mentioned that his name was `Abdullah ibn `Umar al-Bazyar and added: "And there were in it (Fadak) eleven date-palm trees which the Holy Prophet had planted by his own hands. The descendants of Abu Talib used to gather these dates. When pilgrims (al-Hujjaj) entered Medina they donated the dates to them. Through this they received a considerable ruturn. This news reached al-Mu- tawakkil. He ordered `Abdullah ibn `Umar to cut up the fruits and to squeeze the juice from them. `Abdullah ibn `Umar sent a man named Bishr ibn Umayyah ath-Thaqafi who squeezed the fruits. It was reported that he made it

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into wine. It had not reached Basrah (on its way to the Caliph) before it decayed and al-Mutawakkil was killed." (al-Awa'il p.209).

13. When al-Mutawakkil was killed and al-Muntasir (his son) succeeded him (247/861 - 248/862) he gave the order to restore Fadak to the descendants of al-Hasan and al-Husayn and delivered the donations of Abu Talib to them and this was in 248/862.

(Ref. for Nos.3-13-Futuh al-buldan vol.1 pp.33-38; Mu`jam al-buldan vol.4 pp.238-240; at-Tarikh al-Ya`qubi vol.2 p.199; vol.3 pp.48 195-196; al-Kamil Ibn al-Athir vol.2 pp. 224-225; vol.3 pp. 457 497; vol.5 p.63; vol.7 p.116; al-`Iqd al-farid vol.4 PP:216 283 435; Wafa' alwafa vol.3 pp.999-1000; at-Tabaqat al-kabir vol.5 pp. 286-287; Tarikh al-Khulafa' pp.231-232 356; Muruj adh-dhahab vol.4 p.82; Sirah `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz Ibn al-Jawzi p.1l0;Subh al-a`sha vol.4 p.291; Jamharah rasa'il al-`Arab vol.2 pp.331-332; vol. 3 pp. 509-510; `Alam an-nisa' vol.3 pp.1211 -1212; Ibn Abi'l-Hadid vol.16 pp.277- 278: al-Awa'il p.209; Kashf al-ghummah vol.2 pp.120-122; al-Bihar vol.8 pp.107-108).

14. It seemed that Fadak was recaptured from the descendants of Fatimah after the death of al-Muntasir (248/862) because Abu'l-Hasan `Ali ibn `Isa al-Irbili (d. 692/1293) mentioned al-Mu`tadid (279/892 - 289/902) returned Fadak to the descendants of Fatimah. Then he mentioned that al-Muqtafi (289/902 - 295/908) seized it from them. It is said also that al-Muqtadir (295/908 - 320/932) returned it to them (the descendants of Fatimah). (Kash al-ghummah vol.2 p.122; al-Bihar vol.8 p.108: Safinah vol.2 p.351).

15. And after this long period of recapturing and restoration Fadak was returned to the possession of the usurpers and their heirs as it seems no further mention was made in history and the curtain fell.

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Is it (then that) the judgement of (the times of pagan) ignorance they desire? And who (else) can be better than Allah to judge for a people of assured faith. (Qur'an 5:50)


In English

To One of his Officers

Now you are surely one of those whose help I take in establishing religion and with whose help I break the haughtiness of the sinful and guard critical boundaries. You should seek Allah's help in whatever causes you anxiety. Add a little harshness to the mixture of leniency and remain lenient where leniency is more appropriate. Adopt harshness when you cannot do without harshness. Bend your wings (in humbleness) before the subjects. Meet them with your face broad and keep yourself lenient (in behaviour) with them. Treat them equally in looking at them with half eyes or full eyes in signalling and in greeting so that the great should not expect transgression on your part and the weak should not lose hope in your justice; and that is an end to the matter.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى بعض عمّاله

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنَّكَ مِمَّنْ أَسْتَظْهِرُ (1) بِهِ عَلَى إِقَامَةِ الدِّينِ، وَأَقْمَعُ (2) بِهِ نَحْوَةَ (3) الْأَثِيمِ (4) ، وَأَسُدُّ بِهِ لَهَاةَ (5) الثَّغْرِ (6) الْمَخُوفِ (7) . فَاسْتَعِنْ بِاللهِ عَلَى مَا أَهَمَّكَ، وَاخْلِطِ الشِّدَّةَ بِضِغْثٍ (8) مِنَ اللِّينِ، وَارْفُقْ مَا كَانَ الرِّفْقُ أَرْفَقَ، وَاعْتَزِمْ بِالشِّدَّةِ حِينَ لاَ تُغْنِي عَنْكَ إِلاَّ الشِّدَّةُ، وَاخْفِضْ لِلرَّعِيَّةِ جَنَاحَكَ، وَابْسِطْ لَهُمْ وَجْهَكَ وَأَلِنْ لَهُمْ جَانِبَكَ، وَآسِ (9) بَيْنَهُمْ فِي اللَّحْظَةِ وَالنَّظْرَةِ، وَالْإِشَارَةِ وَالتَّحِيَّةِ، حَتَّى لاَ يَطْمَعَ الْعُظَمَاءُ فِي حَيْفِكَ (10) ، وَلاَ يَيْأَسَ الضُّعَفَاءُ مِنْ عَدْلِكَ، وَالسَّلاَمُ.

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In Persian

به يكي از فرماندهان خود

مسووليت فرمانداري و اخلاق اجتماعي پس از ياد خدا و درود! همانا از تو كساني هستي كه در ياري دين از آنها كمك مي گيرم، و سركشي و غرور گناهكاران را درهم مي كوبم، و مرزهاي كشور اسلامي را كه در تهديد دشمن قرار دارند حفظ مي كنم، پس در مشكلات از خدا ياري جوي، و درشتخويي را با اندك نرمي بياميز، در آنجا كه مدارا كردن بهتر است مدارا كن، و در جايي كه جز با درشتي كار انجام نگيرد، درشتي كن، پر و بالت را برابر رعيت بگستران، با مردم گشاده روي و فروتن باش، و در نگاه و اشاره چشم، در سلام كردن و اشاره نمودن با همگان يكسان باش، تا زورمندان در ستم تو طمع نكنند، و ناتوانان از عدالت تو مايوس نگردند. با درود.


In English


For Imam al-Hasan and Imam al-Husayn (peace be upon them) when (`Abd ar-Rahman) Ibn Muljam (the curse of Allah be upon him) struck him (fatally with a sword).

I advise you (both) to fear Allah and that you should not hanker after the (pleasures of this) world even though it may run after you. Do not be sorry for anything of this world that you have been denied. Speak the truth and act (in expectation) for reward. Be an enemy of the oppressor and helper of the oppressed. I advise you (both) and all my children and members of my family and everyone whom my writing reaches to fear Allah to keep your affairs in order and to maintain good relations among yourselves for I have heard your grand-father (the Holy Prophet - p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) saying Improvement of mutual differences is better than general prayers and fastings."

p: 179

(Fear) Allah (and) keep Allah in view in the matter of orphaus. So do not allow them to starve and they should not be ruined in your presence.

(Fear)Allah (and) keep Allah in view in the matter of your neighbours, because they were the subject of the Prophet's advice. He went on advising in their favour till we thought he would allow them a share in inheritance.

(Fear) Allah (and) keep Allah in view in the matter of the Qur'an. No one should excel you in acting upon it.

(Fear) Allah (and) keep Allah in view in the matter of prayer, because it is the pillar of your religion.

(Fear) Allah (and) keep Allah in view in the matter of your Lord's House (Ka'bah). Do not forsake it so long as you live, because if it is abandoned you will not be spared.

(Fear) Allah (and) keep Allah in view in the matter of jihad with the help of your property, lives and tongues in the way of Allah.

You should keep to a respect for kinship and spending for others. Avoid turning away from one another and severing mutual relations. Do not give up bidding for good and forbidding from evil lest the mischievous gain positions over you, and then if you will pray, the prayers will not be granted. Then he said: O' sons of `Abd al-Muttalib, certainly I do not wish to see you plunging harshly into the blood of Muslims shouting "Amir al-mu'minin has been killed. Beware do not kill on account of me except my killer.

p: 180

Wait till I die by his (Ibn Muljam's) existing stroke. Then strike him one stroke for his stroke and do not dismember the limbs of the man for I have heard the Messenger of Allah (p.b. u.h.a.h.p.) saying Avoid cutting limbs even though it may be a rabid dog.

In Arabic

ومن وصية له عليه السلام

للحسن والحسين عليهم السلام لما ضربه ابن ملجم لعنه الله

أُوصِيكُمَا بِتَقْوَى اللهِ، وأَلَّا تَبْغِيَا الدُّنْيَا وَإِنْ بَغَتْكُمَا (1) ، وَلاَ تَأْسَفَا عَلَى شَيْءٍ مِنْهَا زُوِيَ (2) عَنْكُمَا، وَقُولاَ بِالْحَقِّ، وَاعْمَلاَ لِلْأجْرِ، وَكُونَا لِلظَّالِمِ خَصْماً، وَلِلْمَظْلُومِ عَوْناً.

أُوصِيكُمَا، وَجَمِيعَ وَلَدِي وَأَهْلِي وَمَنْ بَلَغَهُ كِتَابِي، بِتَقْوَى اللهِ، وَنَظْمِ أَمْرِكُمْ، وَصَلاَحِ ذَاتِ بَيْنِكُمْ، فَإِنِّي سَمِعْتُ جَدَّكُمَا _ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ _ يَقُولُ: "صَلاَحُ ذَاتِ الْبَيْنِ أَفْضَلُ مِنْ عَامَّةِ الصَّلاَةِ الصِّيَامِ".

اللهَ اللهَ فِي الأََيْتَامِ، فَلاَ تُغِبُّوا (3) أَفْوَاهَهُمْ، وَلاَ يَضِيعُوا بِحَضْرَتِكُمْ. وَاللهَ اللهَ فِي جِيرَانِكُمْ، فَإِنَّهُمْ وَصِيَّةُ نَبِيِّكُمْ، مَا زَالَ يُوصِي بِهِمْ حَتَّى ظَنَنَّا أَنَّهُ سَيُوَرِّثُهُمْ (4) .

وَاللهَ اللهَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ، لاَ يَسْبِقْكُمْ بِالْعَمَلِ بِهِ غَيْرُكُمْ.

وَاللهَ اللهَ فِي الصَّلاَةِ، فَإِنَّهَا عَمُودُ دِينِكُمْ.

وَاللهَ اللهَ فِي بَيْتِ رَبِّكُمْ، لاَ تُخْلُوهُ مَا بَقِيتُمْ، فَإِنَّهُ إِنْ تُرِكَ لَمْ تُنَاظَرُوا (5) .

وَاللهَ اللهَ فِي الْجِهَادِ بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ وَأَنْفُسِكُمْ وَأَلْسِنَتِكُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ.

وَعَلَيْكُمْ بِالتَّوَاصُلِ وَالتَّبَاذُلِ (6) ، وَإِيَّاكُمْ وَالتَّدَابُرَ وَالتَّقَاطُعَ. لاَ تَتْرُكُوا الْأَمْرَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَالنَّهْيَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ فَيُوَلَّى عَلَيْكُمْ أَشْرَارُكُمْ، ثُمَّ تَدْعُونَ فَلاَ يُسْتَجَابُ لَكُمْ. ثمّ قال:

يَا بَنِي عَبْدِالْمُطَّلِبِ، لاَ أُلْفِيَنَّكُمْ (7) تَخُوضُونَ (8) دِمَاءَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ خَوْضاً، تَقُولُونَ: قُتِلَ أَمِيرُالْمُؤْمِنِينَ. أَلاَ لاَ تَقْتُلُنَّ بِي إِلاَّ قَاتِلِي.

p: 181

انْظُرُوا إِذَا أَنَا مِتُّ مِنْ ضَرْبَتِهِ هذِهِ، فَاضْرِبُوهُ ضَرْبَةً بِضَرْبَةٍ، وَلاَ يُمَثَّلوُا (9) بِالرَّجُلِ، فَإِنِّي سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَمَ يَقُولُ:( إِيَّاكُمْ وَالْمُثْلَةَ (10) وَلَوْ بَالْكَلْبِ الْعَقُورِ).

In Persian

وصيت به حسن و حسين

پندهاي جاودانه شما را به ترس از خدا سفارش مي كنم به دنيا روي نياوريد، گرچه به سراغ شما آيد، و بر آنچه از دنيا از دست مي دهيد اندوهناك مباشيد، حق را بگوييد، و براي پاداش الهي عمل كنيد. دشمن ستمگر و ياور ستمديده باشيد. شما را، و تمام فرزندان و خاندانم را، و كساني را كه اين وصيت به آنها مي رسد، به ترس از خدا، و نظم در امور زندگي، و ايجاد صلح و آشتي در ميانتان سفارش مي كنم، زيرا من از جد شما پيامبر (ص) شنيدم كه مي گفت: (اصلاح دادن بين مردم از نماز و روزه يكسان برتر است.) خدا را! خدا را! درباره يتيمان، نكند آنان گاهي سير و گاه گرسنه بمانند، و حقوقشان ضايع گردد. خدا را! خدا را! درباره همسايگان، حقوقشان را رعايت كنيد كه وصيت پيامبر (ص) شماست، همواره به خوش رفتاري با همسايگان سفارش مي كرد تا آنجا كه گمان برديم براي آنان ارثي معين خواهد كرد. خدا را! خدا را! درباره قرآن، مبادا ديگران در عمل كردن به دستوراتش از شما پيشي گيرند. خدا را! خدا را! درباره نماز همانا كه ستون دين شماست. خدا را! خدا را! درباره خانه خدا، تا هستيد آن را خالي مگذاريد، زيرا اگر كعبه خالي شود مهلت داده نمي شويد. خدا را! خدا را! درباره

p: 182

جهاد با اموال و جانها و زبانهاي خويش در راه خدا. بر شما باد به پيوستن با يكديگر، و بخشش همديگر، مبادا از هم روي گردانيد، و پيوند دوستي را از بين ببريد، امر به معروف و نهي از منكر را ترك كنيد كه بدان شما بر شما مسلط مي گرداند، آنگاه هر چه خدا را بخوانيد جواب ندهد. (سپس فرمود).

سفارش به رعايت مقررات عدالت در قصاص اي فرزندان عبدالمطلب: مبادا پس از من دست به خون مسلمين فرو بريد و بگوييد: امير مومنان كشته شد، بدانيد جز كشنده من كسي ديگر نبايد كشته شود. درست بنگريد! اگر من از ضربت او مردم، او را تنها يك ضربت بزنيد، و دست و پا و ديگر اعضاي او را مبريد، من از رسول خدا (ص) شنيدم كه فرمود: (بپرهيزيد از بريدن اعضاي مرده، هر چند سگ ديوانه باشد.)


In English

To Mu'awiyah

Surely revolt and falsehood abase a man in his religious as well as worldly matters and manifest his shortcomings before his critic. You know that you cannot catch what is destined to remain away from you. Many people had aims other than right (ones) and began to swear by Allah (that they will attain their goal) but He falsified them. Therefore fear the Day when happy is he who made his end happy (by good actions) while repentant is he who allowed Satan to lead him and did not resist him. You called us to a settlement through the Qur'an although you were not a man of the Qur'an and we responded to the Qur'an through its judgement and not to you; and that is an end to the matter.

p: 183

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى معاوية

وَإِنَّ الْبَغْيَ وَالزُّورَ يُوتِغَانِ (1) الْمَرْءَ فِي دِينِهِ وَدُنْيَاهُ، وَيُبْدِيَانِ خَلَلَهُ عِنْدَ مَنْ يَعِيبُهُ، وَقَدْ عَلِمْتُ أَنَّكَ غَيْرُ مُدْرِكٍ مَا قُضِيَ فَوَاتُهُ (2) ، وَقَدْ رَامَ أَقْوَامٌ أَمْراً بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ، فَتَأَوَّلوا (3) عَلَى اللهِ فَأَكْذَبَهُمْ (4) ، فَاحْذَرْ يَوْماً يُغْتَبطُ (5) فِيهِ مَنْ أَحْمَدٍ (6) عَاقِبَةَ عَمَلِهِ، وَيَنْدَمُ مَنْ أَمْكَنٍَ (7) الشَّيْطَانَ مِنْ قِيَادِهِ فَلَمْ يُجَاذِبْهُ. وَقَدْ دَعَوْتَنَا إِلَى حُكْمِ الْقُرْآنِ وَلَسْتَ مِنْ أَهْلِهِ، وَلَسْنَا إِيَّاكَ أَجَبْنَا، وَلَكِنَّا أَجَبْنَا الْقُرْآنَ إِلى فِي حُكْمِهِ، وَالسَّلاَمُ.

In Persian

به معاويه

اندرز دادن دشمن همانا ستمگري و دروغ پردازي، انسان را در دين و دنيا رسوا مي كند، و عيب او را نزد عيب جويان آشكار مي سازد، و تو مي داني آنچه كه از دست رفت باز نمي گردد، گروهي باطل طلبيدند، و خواستند با تفسير دروغين، حكم خدا را دگرگون سازند، و خدا آنان را دروغگو خواند، معاويه، از روزي بترس كه صاحبان كارهاي پسنديده خوشحالند، و تاسف مي خورند كه چرا عملشان اندك است، آن روز كساني كه مهار خويش در دست شيطان دادند سخت پشيمانند. تو ما را به داوري قرآن خواندي، در حالي كه خود اهل قرآن نيستي، و ما هم پاسخ مثبت به تو نداديم، بلكه داوري قرآن را گردن نهاديم. با درود.


In English

To Mu`awiyah

So now this world turns away from the next one. He who is devoted to it achieves nothing from it except that it increases his greed and coveting for it. He who is devoted to it is not satisfied with what he gets from it because of what he has not got. Eventually there is separation from what has been amassed and a breaking of what has been strengthened. If you take a lesson from the past you can be safe in the future; and that is an end to the matter.

p: 184

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلي معاويه إيضاً

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنَّ الدُّنْيَا مَشْغَلَةٌ عَنْ غَيْرِهَا، وَلَمْ يُصِبْ صَاحِبُهَا مِنْهَا شَيْئاً إِلاَّ فَتَحَتْ لَهُ حِرْصاً عَلَيْهَا، وَلَهَجاً بِهَا (1) ، وَلَنْ يَسْتَغْنِيَ صَاحِبُهَا بِمَا نَالَ فِيهَا عَمَّا لَمْ يَبْلُغْهُ مِنْهَا، وَمِنْ وَرَاءِ ذلِكَ فِرَاقُ مَا جَمَعَ، وَنَقْضُ مَا أَبْرَمَ! لَوِ اعْتَبَرْتَ بِمَا مَضَى حَفِظْتَ مَا بَقِيَ، وَالسَّلاَمُ.

In Persian

به معاويه

هشدار به معاويه از دنياپرستي پس از ياد خدا و درود! همانا دنيا انسان را به خود سرگرم و از ديگر چيزها باز مي دارد، دنياپرستان چيزي از دنيا به دست نمي آورند جز آن كه دري از حرص برويشان گشوده، و آتش عشق آنان تندتر مي گردد، كسي كه به دنياي حرام برسد آنچه به دست آورده راضي نيست، و در فكر آن است كه به دست نياورده، اما سرانجام آن، جداشدن از فراهم آورده ها، و به هم ريختن بافته شده هاست، اگر از آنچه گذشته عبرت گيري، آنچه را كه باقي مانده تواني حفظ كرد. با درود.


In English

To the officers of his army

From the servant of Allah `Ali Amir al-mu'minin to the Officer-in-charge of garrisons:

Now it is obligatory on an officer that the distinction he achieves or the wealth with which he has been exclusively endowed should not make him change his behaviour towards those under him and that the riches Allah has bestowed on him should increase him in nearness to his people and kindness over his brethren.

Beware that it is obligatory for you on me that I should not keep anything secret from you except during war nor should I decide any matter without consulting you except the commands of religion nor should I ignore the fulfilment of any of your rights nor desist till I discharge it fully and that for me all of you should be equal in rights. When I have done all this it becomes obligatory on you to thank Allah for this bounty and to obey me and you should not hold back when called nor shirk good acts and you should face harships for the sake of right. If you do not remain steadfast in this there will be no one more humiliated in my view than the one among you who has deviated and then I will increase the punishment for him wherein no one will get any concession from me. Take this (pledge) from your (subordinate) officers and accord to them such behaviour from your side by which Allah may improve your matters; and that is an end to the matter.

p: 185

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إِلى أمرائه على الجيوش

مِنْ عَبْدِاللهِ عَلِيِّ بْن أبِي طَالِبٍ أَمِيرِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِلَى أَصْحَابِ الْمَسَالِحِ (1) :

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنَّ حَقّاً عَلَى الْوَالِي أَلاَّ يُغَيِّرَهُ عَلَى رَعِيَّتِهِ فَضْلٌ نَالَهُ، وَلاَ طَوْلٌ (2) خُصَّ بِهِ، وَأَنْ يَزِيدَهُ مَا قَسَمَ اللهُ لَهُ مِنْ نِعَمِهِ دُنُوّاً مِنْ عِبَادِهِ، وَعَطْفاً عَلَى إِخْوَانِهِ.

أَلاَ وَإِنَّ لَكُمْ عِنْدِي أَلاَّ أَحْتَجِزَ (3) دُونَكُمْ سِرّاً إِلاَّ فِي حَرْبٍ، وَلاَ أَطْوِيَ (4) دُونَكُمْ أَمْراً إِلاَّ فِي حُكْمٍ، وَلاَ أُؤَخِّرَ لَكُمْ حَقّاً عَنْ مَحَلِّهِ، وَلاَ أَقِفَ بِهِ دُونَ مَقْطَعِهِ (5) ، وَأَنْ تُكُونُوا عِندِي فِي الْحَقِّ سَوَاءً، فَإِذَا فَعَلْتُ ذلِكَ وَجَبَتْ لله عَلَيْكُمُ النِّعْمَةُ، وَلِي عَلَيْكُمُ الطَّاعَةُ، وَأَلاَّ تَنْكُصُوا (6) عَنْ دَعْوَة، وَلاَ تُفَرِّطُوا فِي صَلاَحٍ، وَأَنْ تَخُوضوا الْغَمَرَاتِ (7) إِلَى الْحَقِّ، فَإِنْ أَنْتُمْ لَمْ تَسْتَقِيمُوا لِي عَلَى ذلِكَ لَمْ يَكُنْ أَحَدٌ أَهْوَنَ عَلَيَّ مِمَّنْ اعْوَجَّ مِنْكُمْ، ثُمَّ أُعْظِمُ لَهُ الْعُقُوبَةَ، وَلاَ يَجِدُ عِنْدِي فِيها رُخْصَةً، فَخُذُوا هذَا مِنْ أُمَرَائِكُمْ، وَأَعْطُوهُمْ مِنْ أَنْفُسِكُمْ مَا يُصْلِحُ اللهُ بِهِ أ َمْرَكُمْ. وَالسَّلامُ .

In Persian

به اميران سپاه خود

پرهيز از غرورزدگي در نعمتها از بنده خدا، علي بن ابيطالب، امير مومنان به نيروهاي مسلح و مرزداران كشور پس از ياد خدا و درود! همانا بر زمامدار واجب است كه اگر اموالي به دست آورد، يا نعمتي مخصوص او شد، دچار دگرگوني نشود، و با آن اموال و نعمتها، بيشتر به بندگان خدا نزديك، و به برادرانش مهرباني روا دارد. مسووليتهاي رهبري و نظاميان آگاه باشيد حق شما بر من آن است كه جز اسرار جنگي هيچ رازي را از شما پنهان ندارم، و كاري را جز حكم شرع، بدون مشورت، با شما انجام ندهم، و در پرداخت حق شما كوتاهي نكرده، و در وقت تعيين شده آن بپردازم، و با همه شما بگونه اي مساوي رفتار كنم. پس وقتي من مسووليتهاي يادشده را انجام دهم، بر خداست كه نعمتهاي خود را بر شما ارزاني دارد، و اطاعت من بر شما لازم است، و نبايد از فرمان من سرپيچي كنيد، و در انجام آن چه صلاح است سستي ورزيد، و در سختيها براي رسيدن به حق تلاش كنيد، حال اگر شما پايداري نكنيد، خوارترين افراد نزد من انسان كج رفتار است، كه او را به سختي كيفر خواهم داد، و هيچ راه فراري نخواهد داشت، پس دستورالعملهاي ضروري را از فرماندهانتان دريافت داشته و از فرماندهان خود در آنچه كه

p: 186

خدا امور شما را اصلاح مي كند، اطاعت كنيد، با درود.


In English

To his collectors of (land) tax

From the servant of Allah `Ali Amir al-mu'minin to the tax collectors:

So now he who does not fear where he is going does not send forward for himself that which could protect him. You should know that the obligations laid on you are few while their reward is much. Even if there had been no fear of punishment for revolt and disobedience which Allah has prohibited the reward in keeping aloof from it would be enough (incentive) to abstain from going after it. Behave yourselves justly with the people and act with endurance with regard to their needs because you are the treasurers of the people representatives of the community and the ambassadors of the Imams.

Do not deprive anyone of his needs and do not prevent him from (securing) his requirements.For the collection of tax (kharaj) from the people do not sell their winter or summer clothes nor cattle with which they work nor slaves. Do not whip anyone for the sake of one Dirham. Do not touch the property of any person whether he be one who prays (a Muslim) or a protected unbeliever unless you find a horse or weapons used for attack against Muslims because it is not proper for the Muslims to leave these things in the hands of the enemies of Islam to enable them to have power over Islam.

Do not deny good counsel to yourself good behaviour to the army succour to the subjects and strength to the religion of Allah. Strive in the way of Allah as is obligatory on you because Allah the Glorified desires us and you to be thankful to Him as best as we can and that we should help Him to the best of our power. And there is no power save with Allah the All-high the All - glorious.

p: 187

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى عماله على الخراج

مِنْ عَبْدِاللهِ عَلِيٍّ أَمِيرِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِلَى أَصْحَابِ الْخَرَاجِ: أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنَّ مَنْ لَمْ يَحْذَرْ مَا هُوَ صَائرُ إِلَيْهِ لَمْ يُقَدِّمْ لِنَفْسِهِ مَا يُحْرِزُهَا. وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ مَا كُلِّفْتُمْ يَسِيرٌ، وَأَنَّ ثَوَابَهُ كَثِيرٌ، وَلَوْ لَمْ يَكُنْ فِيَما نَهَى اللهُ عَنْهُ مِنَ الْبَغْيِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ عِقَابٌ يُخَافُ لَكَانَ فِي ثَوَابِ اجْتِنَابِهِ مَا لاَ عُذْرَ فِي تَرْكِ طَلَبِهِ. فَأَنْصِفُوا النَّاسَ مِنْ أَنْفُسِكُمْ، وَاصْبِرُوا لِحَوَائِجِهِمْ، فَإِنَّكُمْ خُزَّانُ (1) الرَّعِيَّةِ، وَ وُكَلاَءُ الْأُمَّةِ، وَسُفَرَاءُ الْأَئِمَّةِ. وَلاَ تَحشمُوا (2) أَحَداً عَنْ حَاجَتِهِ، وَلاَتَحْبِسُوهُ عَنْ طَلِبَتِهِ (3) ، وَلاَ تَبِيعُنَّ لِلنَّاسِ فِي الْخَرَاجِ كِسْوَةَ شِتَاءٍ وَلاَ صَيْفٍ، وَلاَ دَابَّةً يَعْتَمِلُونَ عَلَيْهَا (4) ، وَلاَ عَبداً، وَلاَ تَضْرِبُنَّ أَحَداً سَوْطاً لِمَكَانِ دِرْهَمٍ (5) ، وَلاَ تَمَسُّنَّ مَالَ أَحَدٍ مِنَ النَّاسِ، مُصَلٍّ وَلاَ مُعَاهَدٍ (6) ، إِلاَّ أَنْ تَجِدُوا فرَساً أَوْ سِلاَحاً يُعْدى بِهِ عَلَى أَهْلِ الْإِسْلاَمِ، فَإِنَّهُ لاَ يَنْبَغِي لِلْمُسْلِمِ أَنْ يَدَعَ ذلِكَ فِي أَيْدِي أَعْدَاءِ الْإِسْلاَمِ، فَيَكُونَ شَوْكَةً عَلَيْهِ. وَلاَ تَدَّخِرُوا (7) أَنْفُسَكُمْ نَصِيحَةً، وَلاَ الْجُنْدَ حُسْنَ سِيرَةٍ، وَلاَ الرَّعِيَّةَ مَعُونَةً، وَلاَ دِينَ اللهِ قُوَّةً، وَأَبْلُوا (8) فِي سَبيلِ اللهِ مَا اسْتَوْجَبَ عَلَيْكُمْ، فَإِنَّ اللهَ سُبْحَانَهُ قَدِ اصْطَنَعَ (9) عِنْدَنَا وَعِنْدَكُمْ أَنْ نَشْكُرَهُ بِجُهْدِنَا، وَأَنْ نَنْصُرَهُ بِمَا بَلَغَتْ قُوَّتُنَا، وَلاَ قُوَّةَ إِلاَّ بِاللهِ الْعَلِيِّ الْعَظِيمِ.

In Persian

به ماموران ماليات

اخلاق اجتماعي كارگزاران اقتصادي از بنده خدا علي امير مومنان به كارگزاران جمع آوري ماليات. پس از ياد خدا و درود، همانا كسي از روز قيامت نترسد، زاد و توشه اي از پيش نخواهد فرستاد. بدانيد، مسووليتي را كه به عهده گرفته ايد اندك اما پاداش آن فراوان است، اگر براي آنچه كه خدا نهي كرد (مانند ستمكاري و دشمني)، كيفري نبود، براي رسيدن به پاداش در ترك آن نيز عذري وجود نداشت، در روابط خود با مردم انصاف داشته باشيد، و در برآوردن نيازهايشان شكيبا باشيد همانا شما خزانه داران مردم، و نمايندگان ملت، و سفيران پيشوايان هستيد، هرگز كسي را از نيازمندي او باز نداريد، و از خواسته هاي مشروعي محروم نسازيد، و براي گرفتن ماليات از مردم، لباسهاي تابستاني يا زمستاني، و مركب سواري، و برده كاري او را نفروشيد، و براي گرفتن درهمي، كسي را با تازيانه نزنيد، و دست اندازي به مال كسي (نمازگزار باشد، يا غير مسلماني كه در پناه اسلام است)، نكنيد، جز اسب يا اسلحه اي كه براي تجاوز به مسلمانها بكار گرفته مي شود، زيرا براي مسلمان جايز نيست آنها را در اختيار دشمنان اسلام بگذارد، تا نيرومندتر از سپاه اسلام گردند. از پند دادن به نفس خويش هيچ گونه كوتاهي نداشته، و از خوش رفتاري با سپاهيان، و كمك به رعايا، و تقويت دين خدا، غفلت نكنيد، و از آنچه در راه خدا بر شما واجب است انجام دهيد، همانا خداي سبحان از ما و شما خواسته است كه در شكرگزاري كوشا بوده، و با تمام قدرت او را ياري كنيم، (و نيروئي جز قدرت خدائي نيست.)

p: 188


In English

To the Governors of various places concerning prayers

Now say the zuhr (noon) prayers with the people when the shade of the wall of the goats' pen is equal to the wall. Say the `asr (afternoon) prayers with them when the sun is still shining in a portion of the day enough for covering the distance of two farsakhs (about six miles). Say the maghrib (sunset) prayers when he who is fasting ends the fast and the pilgrim rushes (from `Arafat) to Mina. Say the `isha' (night) prayers with them when twilight disappears and upto one third of the night. Say the (early) morning prayers with them when a man can recognize the face of his companion. Say the prayers with the people as the weakest of them would do and do not be a source of trouble to them.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى أمراء البلاد في معنى الصلاة

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَصَلُّوا بَالنَّاسِ الظُّهْرَ حَتَّى تَفِيءَ (1) الشَّمْسُ مِنْ مَرْبِضِ الْعَنْزِ (2) . وَصَلُّوا بِهِمُ الْعَصْرَ وَالشَّمْسُ بَيْضَاءُ حَيَّةٌ فِي عُضْوٍ مِنَ النَّهَارِ حِينَ يُسَارُ فِيهَا فَرْسَخَانِ. وَصَلُّوا بِهِمُ الْمَغْرِبَ حِينَ يُفْطِرُ الصَّائِمُ، وَيَدْفَعُ (3) الْحَاجُّ إِلَي مِنًي. وَصَلُّوا بِهِمُ الْعِشَاءَ حِينَ يَتَوَارَى الشَّفَقُ إِلَى ثُلُثِ اللَّيْلِ. وَصَلُّوا بِهِمُ الْغَدَاةَ والرَّجُلُ يَعْرِفُ وَجْهَ صَاحِبِهِ. وَصَلُّوا بِهِمْ صَلاَةَ أَضْعَفِهِمْ (4) ، وَلاَ تَكُونُوا فَتَّانِينَ (5)

In Persian

به فرمانداران شهرها

وقتهاي نماز پنجگانه پس از ياد خدا و درود! نماز ظهر را با مردم وقتي بخوانيد كه آفتاب به طرف مغرب رفته، سايه آن به اندازه ديوار خوابگاه بز گردد، و نماز عصر را با مردم هنگامي بخوانيد كه خورشيد سفيد و جلوه دارد، در پاره اي از روز كه تا غروب مي شود دو فرسخ راه پيمود. و نماز مغرب را با مردم زماني بخوانيد كه روزه دار افطار، و حاجي از عرفات به سوي مني كوچ مي كند. و نماز عشاء را با مردم وقتي بخوانيد كه شفق پنهان مي گردد تا يك سوم از شب بگذرد و نماز صبح را با مردم هنگامي بخوانيد كه شخص چهره همراه خويش را بشناسد، و در نماز جماعت در حد ناتوان آنان نماز بگذاريد، و فتنه گر مباشيد.

p: 189


In English

Written for (Malik) al-Ashtar an-Nakha'i when the position of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr had become precarious and Amir al-mu'minin had appointed al- Ashtar as the Governor of Egypt and the surrounding areas; it is the longest document and contains the greatest number of beautiful sayings.

In the Name of Allah the Compassionate the Merciful

This is what Allah's servant `Ali Amir al-mu'minin has ordered Malik ibn al-Harith al-Ashtar in his instrument (of appointment) for him when he made him Governor of Egypt for the collection of its revenues fighting against its enemies seeking the good of its people and making its cities prosperous.

He has ordered him to fear Allah to prefer obedience to Him and to follow what He has commanded in His Book (Qur'an) out of His obligatory and elective commands without following which one cannot achieve virtue nor (can one) be evil save by opposing them and ignoring them and to help Allah the Glorified with his heart hand and tongue because Allah whose name is Sublime takes the responsibility for helping him who helps Him and for protecting him who gives Him support.

He also orders him to break his heart off from passions and to restrain it at the time of their increase because the heart leads towards evil unless Allah has mercy.

The qualifications of a governor and his responsibilities

Then know O' Malik that I have sent you to an area where there have been governments before you both just as well as oppressive. People will now watch your dealings as you used to watch the dealings of the rulers before you and they (people) will criticise you as you criticised them (rulers). Surely the virtuous are known by the reputation that Allah circulates for them through the tongues of His creatures. Therefore the best collection with you should be the collection of good deeds. So control your passions and check your heart from doing what is not lawful for you because checking the heart means detaining it just half way between what it likes and dislikes.

p: 190

Habituate your heart to mercy for the subjects and to affection and kindness for them. Do not stand over them like greedy beasts who feel it is enough to devour them since they are of two kinds either your brother in religion or one like you in creation. They will commit slips and encounter mistakes. They may act wrongly wilfully or by neglect. So extend to them your forgiveness and pardon in the same way as you would like Allah to extend His forgiveness and pardon to you because you are over them and your responsible Commander (Imam) is over you while Allah is over him who has appointed you. He (Allah) has sought you to manage their affairs and has tried you through them.

Do not set yourself to fight Allah because you have no power before His power and you cannot do without His pardon and mercy. Do not repent of forgiving or be merciful in punishing. Do not act hastily during anger if you can find way out of it. Do not say: "I have been given authority I should be obeyed when I order because it engenders confusion in the heart, weakens the religion and takes one near ruin. If the authority in which you are placed produces pride or vanity in you then look at the greatness of the realm of Allah over you and His might the like of which might you do not even possess over yourself. This will curb your haughtiness, cure you of your high temper and bring back to you your wisdom which had gone away from you.

p: 191

Beware of comparing yourself to Allah in His greatness or likening yourself to Him in His power for Allah humiliates every claimant of power and disgraces every one who is haughty.

Do justice for Allah and do justice towards the people as against yourself your near ones and those of your subjects for whom you have a liking because if you do not do so you will be oppressive and when a person oppresses the creatures of Allah then instead of His creatures Allah becomes his opponent and when Allah is the opponent of a person He tramples his plea; and he will remain in the position of being at war with Allah until he gives it up and repents. Nothing is more inducive of the reversal of Allah's bounty or for the hastening of His retribution than continuance in oppression because Allah hears the prayer of the oppressed and is on the look out for the oppressors.

Ruling should be in favour of the people as a whole

The way most coveted by you should be that which is the most equitable for the right the most universal by way ofjustice and the most comprehensive with regard to the agreement among those under you because the disagreement among the common people sweeps away the arguments of the chiefs while the disagreement among the chiefs can be disregarded when compared with the agreement of the common people. No one among those under you is more burdensome to the ruler in the comfort of life less helpful in distress more disliking of equitable treatment more tricky in asking favours less thankful at the time of giving less appreciative of reasons at the time of refusal and weaker in endurance at the time of the discomforts of life than the chiefs. It is the common people of the community who are the pillars of the religion the power of the Muslims and the defence against the enemies. Your leanings should therefore be towards them and your inclination with them. The one among the people under you who is furthest from you and the worst of them in your view should be he who is the most inquisitive of the shortcomings of the people because people do have shortcomings and the ruler is the most appropriate person to cover them. Do not disclose whatever of it is hidden from you because your obligation is to correct what is manifest to you while Allah will deal with whatever is hidden from you. Therefore cover shortcomings so far as you can; Allah would cover those of your shortcomings which you would like to remain under cover from your subjects. Unfasten every knot of hatred in the people and cut away from yourself the cause of every enmity. Feign ignorance from what is not clear to you. Do not hasten to second a backbiter because a backbiter is a cheat although he looks like those who wish well.

p: 192

About counsellors

Do not include among those you consult a miser who would keep you back from being generous and caution you against destitution nor a coward who would make you feel too weak for your affairs nor a greedy person who would make beautiful to you the collection of wealth by evil ways. This is because although miserliness cowardice and greed are different qualities yet they are common in having an incorrect idea about Allah.

The worst minister for you is he who has been a minister for mischievous persons before you and who joined them in sins. Therefore he should not be your chief man because they are abettors of sinners and brothers of the oppressors. You can find good substitutes for them who will be like them in their views and influence while not being like them in sins and vices. They have never assisted an oppressor in his oppression or a sinner in his sin. They will give you the least trouble and the best support. They will be most considerate towards you and the least inclined towards others. Therefore make them your chief companions in privacy as well as in public. ( 440 )

Then more preferable among them for you should be those who openly speak better truths before you and who support you least in those of your actions which Allah does not approve in His friends even though they may be according to your wishes. Associate yourself with God-fearing and truthful people; then educate them so that they should not praise you or please you by reason of an action you did not perform because an excess of praise produces pride and drives you near haughtiness.

p: 193

The virtuous and the vicious should not be in equal position before you because this means dissuasion of the virtuous from virtue and persuasion of the vicious to vice. Keep everyone in the position which is his. You should know that the most conducive thing for the good impression of the ruler on his subjects is that he should extend good behaviour towards them lighten their hardships and avoid putting them to unbearable troubles. You should therefore in this way follow a course by which you will leave a good impression with your subjects because such good ideas will relieve you of great worries. Certainly the most appropriate for good impression of you is he to whom your behaviour has not been good.

Do not discontinue the good lives in which the earlier people of this community had been acting by virtue of which there was general unity and through which the subjects prospered. Do not innovate any line of action which injures these earlier ways because (in that case) the reward for those who had established those ways will continue but the burden for discontinuing them will be on you. Keep on increasing your conversations with the scholars and discussions with the wise to stabilize the prosperity of the areas under you and to continue with that in which the earlier people had remained steadfast.

The different classes of people

Know that the people consist of classes who prosper only with the help of one another and they are not independent of one another. Among them are the army of Allah then the secretarial workers of the common people and the chiefs then the dispensers of justice then those engaged in law and order then the payers of head tax (jizyah) and land tax (kharaj) from the protected unbelievers and the common Muslims then there are the traders and the men of industry and then the lowest class of the needy and the destitute. Allah has fixed the share of every one of them and laid down His precepts about the limits of each in His Book (Qur'an) and the sunnah of His Prophet by way of of a settlement which is preserved with us.

p: 194

Now the army is by the will of Allah the fortress of the subjects the ornament of the ruler the strength of the religion and the means of peace. The subjects cannot exist without them while the army can be maintained only by the funds fixed by Allah in the revenues through which they acquire the strength to fight the enemies on which they depend for their prosperity and with which they meet their needs. These two classes cannot exist without the third class namely the judges the executives and the secretaries who pass judgements about contracts collect revenues and are depended upon in special and general matters.

And these classes cannot exist except with the traders and men of industry who provide necessities for them establish markets and make it possible for others not to do all this with their own hands. Then is the lowest class of the needy and the destitute support of and help for whom is an obligation and everyone of them has (a share in) livelihood in the name of Allah. Everyone of them has a right on the ruler according to what is needed for his prosperity. The ruler cannot acquit himself of the obligations laid on him by Allah in this matter except by striving and seeking help from Allah and by training himself to adhere to the right and by enduring on that account all that is light or hard.

1. The Army

Put in command of your forces the man who in your view is the best well - wisher of Allah His Prophet and your Imam. The chastest of them in heart and the highest of them in endurance is he who is slow in getting enraged accepts excuses is kind to the weak and is strict with the strong; violence should not raise his temper and weakness should not keep him sitting.

p: 195

Also associate with considerate people from high families virtuous houses and decent traditions then people of courage valour generosity and benevolence because they are repositories of honour and springs of virtues. Strive for their matters as the parents strive for their child. Do not regard anything that you do to strengthen them as big nor consider anything that you have agreed to do for them as little (so as to give it up) even though it may be small because this will make them your well-wishers and create a good impression of you. Do not neglect to attend to their small matters confining yourself to their important matters because your small favours will also be of benefit to them while the important ones are such that they cannot ignore them. ( 446 )

That commander of the army should have such a position before you that he renders help to them equitably and spends from his money on them and on those of their families who remain behind so that all their worries converge on the one worry for fighting the enemy. Your kindness to them will turn their hearts to you. The most pleasant thing for the rulers is the establishment of justice in their areas and the manifestation of the love of their subjects but the subjects' love manifests itself only when their hearts are clean. Their good wishes prove correct only when they surround their commanders (to protect them). Do not regard their positions to be a burden over them and do not keep watching for the end of their tenure. Therefore be broad-minded in regard to their desires continue praising them and recounting the good deeds of those who have shown such deeds because the mention of good actions shakes the brave and rouses the weak if Allah so wills.

p: 196

Appreciate the performance of every one of them do not attribute the performance of one to the other and do not minimize the reward below the level of the performance. The high position of a man should not lead you to regard his small deeds as big nor should the low position of a man make you regard his big deeds as small.

Refer to Allah and His Prophet the affairs which wory you and matters which appear confusing to you because addressing the people whom Allah the Sublime wishes to guide He said:

O' you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Prophet and those vested with authority from among you: and then if you quarrel about anything refer it to Allah and the Prophet if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day (of Judgement). . . (Qur'an 4:59)

Referring to Allah means to act according to what is clear in His Book and referring to the Prophet means to follow his unanimously agreed sunnah in regard to which there are no differences.

2. The Chief Judge

For the settlement of disputes among people select him who is the most distinguished of your subjects in your view. The cases (coming before him) should not vex him disputation should not enrage him he should not insist on any wrong point and should not grudge accepting the truth when he perceives it; he should not lean towards greed and should not content himself with a cursory understanding (of a matter) without going thoroughly into it. He should be most ready to stop (to ponder) on doubtful points most regardful of arguments least disgusted at the quarrel of litigants most patient at probing into matters and most fearless at the time of passing judgement. Praise should not make him vain and elation should not make him lean (to any side). Such people are very few.

p: 197

Then very often check his decisions and allow him so much money (as remuneration) that he has no excuse worth hearing (for not being honest) and there remains no occasion for him to go to others for his needs. Give him that rank in your audience for which no one else among your chiefs aspires so that he remains safe from the harm of those around you. You should have a piercing eye in this matter because this religion has formerly been a prisoner in the hands of vicious persons when action was taken according to passion and worldly wealth was sought.

3. Executive Officers

Thereafter look into the affairs of your executives. Give them appointment after tests and do not appoint them according to partiality or favouritism because these two things constitute sources of injustice and unfairness. Select from among them those who are people of experience and modesty hailing from virtuous houses having been previously in Islam because such persons possess high manners and untarnished honour. They are the least inclined towards greed and always have their eyes on the ends of matters.

Give them an abundant livelihood (by way of salary) because this gives them the strength to maintain themselves in order and not to have an eye upon the funds in their custody and it would be an argument against them if they disobeyed your orders or misappropriated your trust. You should also check their activities and have people who report on them who should be truthful and faithful because your watching their actions secretly will urge them to preserve trust with and to be kind to the people. Be careful of assistants. If any one of them extends his hands towards misappropriation and the reports of your reporters reaching you confirm it that should be regarded enough evidence. You should then inflict corporal punishment on him and recover what he has misappropriated. You should put him in a place of disgrace blacklist him with (the charge of) misappropriation and make him wear the necklace of shame for his offence.

p: 198

4. The Administration of Revenues

Look after the revenue (kharaj or land tax) affairs in such a way that those engaged in it remain prosperous because in their prosperity lies the prosperity of all others. The others cannot prosper without them because all people are dependent on revenue and its payers. You should also keep an eye on the cultivation of the land more than on the collection of revenue because revenue cannot be had without cultivation and whoever asks for revenue without cultivation ruins the area and brings death to the people. His rule will not last only a moment.

If they complain of the heaviness (of the revenue) or of diseases or dearth of water or excess of water or of a change in the condition of the land either due to flood or to drought you should remit the revenue to the extent that you hope will improve their position. The remission granted by you for the removal of distress from them should not be grudged by you because it is an investment which they will return to you in the shape of the prosperity of your country and the progress of your domain in addition to earning their praise and happiness for meeting out justice to them. You can depend upon their strength because of the investment made by you in them through catering to their convenience and can have confidence in them because of the justice cxtended to them by being kind to them. After that circumstances may so turn that you may have to ask for their assistance when they will bear it happily for prosperity is capable of hearing whatever you load on it. The ruin of the land is caused hy the poverty of the cultivators while the cultivators become poor when the officers concentrate on the collection (of money) having little hope for continuance (in their posts) and deriving no benefit from objects of warning.

p: 199

5. The Clerical Establishment

Then you should take care of your secretarial workers. Put the best of them in charge of your affairs. Entrust those of your letters which contain your policies and secrets to him who possesses the best character who is not elated by honours lest he dares speak against you in common audiences. He should also not be negligent in presenting the communications of your officers before you and issuing correct replies to them on your behalf and in matters of your receipts and payments. He should not make any damaging argreement on your behalf and should not fail in repudiating an agreement against you. He should not be ignorant of the extent of his own position in matters because he who is ignorant of his own position is (even) more ignorant of the position of others. ( 454 )

Your selection of these people should not be on the basis of your understanding (of them) confidence and your good impression because people catch the ideas of the officers through affectation and personal service and there is nothing in it which is like well-wishing or trustfulness. You should rather test them by what they did under the virtuous people before you. Take a decision in favour of one who has a good name among the common people and is the most renowned in trustworthiness because this will be a proof of your regard for Allah and for him on whose behalf you have been appointed to this position (namely your Imam). Establish one chief for every department of work. He should not be incapable of big matters and a rush of work should not perplex him. Whenever there is a defect in your secretaries which you overlook then you will be held responsible for it.

p: 200

6. Traders and Industrialists

Now take some advice about traders and industrialists. Give them good counsel whether they be settled (shop-keepers) or traders or physical labourers because they are sources of profit and the means of the provision of useful articles. They bring them from distant and far-flung areas throughout the land and sea plains or mountains from where people cannot come and to where they do not dare to go for they are peaceful and there is no fear of revolt from them and they are quite without fear of treason.

Look after their affairs before yourself or wherever they may be in your area. Know along with this that most of them are very narrow-minded and awfully avaricious. They hoard goods for profiteering and fix high prices for goods. This is a source of harm to the people and a blot on the officers in charge. Stop people from hoarding because the Messenger of Allah (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) has prohibited it. The sale should be smooth with correct weights and prices not harmful to either party the seller or the purchaser; whoever commits hoarding after you prohibit it give him exemplary but not excessive punishment.

7. The Lowest Class

(Fear) Allah and keep Allah in view in respect of the lowest class consisting of those who have few means: the poor the destitute the penniless and the disabled; because in this class are both the discontented and those who beg. Take care for the sake of Allah of His obligations towards them for which He has made you responsible. Fix for them a share from the public funds and a share from the crops of lands taken over as booty for Islam in every area because in it the remote ones have the same shares as the near ones. All these people are those whose rights have been placed in your charge. Therefore a luxurious life should not keep you away from them You cannot be excused for ignoring small matters because you were deciding big problems. Consequently do not be unmindful of them nor turn your face from them out of vanity.

p: 201

Take care of the affairs of those of them who do not approach you because they are of unsightly appearance or those whom people regard as low. Appoint for them some trusted people who are God-fearing and humble. They should infrom you of these people's conditions. Then deal with them with a sense of responsibility to Allah on the day you will meet Him because of all the subjects these people are the most deserving of equitable treatment while for others also you should fulfil their rights so as to render account to Allah.

Take care of the orphans and the aged who have no means (for livelihood) nor are they ready for begging. This is heavy on the officers; in fact every right is heavy. Allah lightens it for those who seek the next world and so they endure (hardships) upon themselves and trust on the truthfulness of Allah's promise to them. And fix a time for complainants wherein you make yourself free for them and sit for them in common audience and feel humble therein for the sake of Allah who created you. (On that occasion) you should keep away your army and your assistants such as the guards and the police so that anyone who like to speak may speak to you without fear because I have heard the Messenger of Allah (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) say in more than one place The people among whom the right of the weak is not secured from the strong without fear will never achieve purity. Tolerate their awkwardness and inability to speak. Keep away from you narrowness and haughtiness; Allah would on this account spread over you the skirts of His mercy and assign the reward of His obedience for you. Whatever you give give it joyfully but when you refuse do it handsomely and with excuses.

p: 202

Then there are certain matters which you cannot avoid performing yourself. For example replying to your officers when your secretaries are unable to do so or disposing of the complaints of the people when your assistants shirk them. Finish every day the work meant for it because every day has its own work. Keep for yourself the better and greater portion of these periods for the worship of Allah although all these items are for Allah provided the intention is pure and the subjects prosper thereby. Communion with Allah

The particular thing by which you should purify your religion for Allah should be the fulfilment of those obligations which are especially for Him. Therefore devote to Allah some of your physical activity during the night and the day and whatever (worship) you perform for seeking nearness to Allah should be complete without defect or deficiency whatsoever physical exertion it may involve. When you lead the prayers for the people it should be neither (too long as to be) boring nor (too short as to be) wasteful because among the people there are the sick as well as those who have needs of their own. When the Messenger of Allah (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) sent me to Yemen I enquired how I should offer prayers with them and he replied Say the prayers as the weakest of them would say, and be considerate to the believers.

On the behaviour and action of a Ruler

Then do not keep yourself secluded from the people for a long time because the seclusion of those in authority from the subjects is a kind of narrow-sightedness and causes ignorance about their affairs. Seclusion from them also prevents them from the knowledge of those things which they do not know and as a result they begin to regard big matters as small and small matters as big good matters as bad and bad matters as good while the truth becomes confused with falsehood. After all a governor is a human being and cannot have knowledge of things which people keep hidden from him.

p: 203

No writ is big on the face of truth to differentiate its various expressions from falsehood. Then you can be one of two kinds of men. Either you may be generous in granting rights; and then why this hiding in spite of (your) discharging the obligations and good acts that you perform? Or you are a victim of stinginess; in that case people will soon give up asking you since they will lose hope of generous treatment from you. In spite of that there are many needs of the people towards you which do not involve any hardship on you such as the complaint against oppression or the request for justice in a matter.

Further a governor has favourites and people of easy access to him. They misappropriate things are high-handed and do not observe justice in matters. You should destroy the root of evil in the people by cutting away the causes of these defects. Do not make any land grants to your hangers on or supporters. They should not expect from you the possession of land which may cause harm to adjoining people over the question of irrigation or common services whose burden the grantees place on others. In this way the benefit will be rather theirs than yours and the blame will lie on you in this world and the next.

Allow rights to whomsoever it is due whether near you or far from you. In this matter you should be enduring and watchful even though it may involve your relations and favourites and keep in view the reward of that which appears burdensome on you because its reward is handsome.

p: 204

If the subjects suspect you of high-handedness explain to them your position openly and remove their suspicion with your explanation because this would mean exercise for your soul and consideration to the subjects while this explanation will secure your aim of keeping them firm in truth.

Do not reject peace to which your enemy may call you and wherein there is the pleasure of Allah because peace brings rest to your army and relief from your worries and safety for your country. But after peace there is great apprehension from the enemy because often the enemy offers peace to benefit by your negligence. Therefore be cautious and do not act by wishfulness in this matter.

If you conclude an agreement between yourself and your enemy or enter into a pledge with him then fulfil your agreement and discharge your pledge faithfully. Place yourself as a shield against whatever you have pledged because among the obligations of Allah there is nothing on which people are more strongly united despite the difference of their ideas and variation of their views than respect for fulfiling pledges.Besides Muslims even unbelievers have abided by agreements because they realized the dangers which would come in the wake of violation (thereof). Therefore do not deceive your enemy because no one can offend Allah save the ignorant and the wicked. Allah made His agreement and pledged the sign of security which He has spread over His creatures through His mercy and an asylum in which they stay in His protection and seek the benefit of nearness to Him. Therefore there should be no deceit cunning or duplicity in it.

p: 205

Do not enter into an agreement which may admit of different interpretations and do not change the interpretation of vague words after the conclusion and confirmation (of the agreement). If an agreement of Allah involves you in hardship do not seek its repudiation without justification because the bearing of hardships through which you expect relief and a handsome result is better than a violation whose consequence you fear and that you fear that you will be called upon by Allah to account for it and you will not be able to seek forgiveness for it in this world or the next.

You should avoid shedding blood without justification because nothing is more inviting of Divine retribution greater in (evil) consequence and more effective in the decline of prosperity and cutting short of life than the shedding of blood without jus tification. On the Day of Judgement Allah the Glorified would commence giving His judgement among the people with the cases of bloodshed committed by them. Therefore do not strengthen your authority by shedding prohibited blood because this will weaken and lower the authority moreover destroy it and shift it. You cannot offer any excuse before Allah or before me for wilful killing because there must be the question or revenge in it. If you are involved in it be error and you exceed in the use of your whip or sword or are hard in inflicting punishment as sometimes even a blow by the fist or a smaller stroke causes death then the haughtiness of your authority should not prevent you from paying the blood price to the successors of the killed person.

p: 206

You should avoid self-admiration having reliance in what appears good in yourself and love of exaggerated praise because this is one of the most reliable opportunities for Satan to obliterate the good deeds of the virtuous.

Avoid showing (the existence of) obligation on your subjects for having done good to them or praising your own actions or making promises and then breaking them because showing (the existence of) obligation destroys good self-praise takes away the light of truth and breaking promises earns the hatred of Allah and of the people. Allah the Glorified says:

Most hateful is it unto Allah that you say what you (yourselves) do (it) not. (Qur'an 61:3)

Avoid haste in matters before their time slowness at their proper time insistence on them when the propriety of action is not known or weakens when it becomes clear. Assign every matter its proper place and do every job at the appropriate time.

Do not appropriate to yourself that in which the people have an equal share nor be regardless of matters which have come to light with the excuse that you are accountable for others. Shortly the curtains of all matters will be raised from your view and you will be required to render redress to the oppressed. Have control over (your) sense of prestige any outburst of anger the might of your arm and the sharpness of your tongue. Guard against all this by avoiding haste and by delaying severe action till your anger subsides and you regain your self-control. You cannot withhold yourself from this unless you bear in mind that you have to return to Allah.

p: 207

It is necessary for you to recall how matters went with those who preceded you be it a government or a great tradition or a precedent of our Prophet (may Allah bless him and his descendants) or the obligatory commands contained in the Book of Allah. Then you should follow them as you have seen us acting upon them and should exert yourself in following that I have enjoined upon you in this document in which I have exhausted my pleas on you so that if your heart advances towards its passions you may have no plea in its support.

I ask Allah through the extent of His mercy and the greatness of His power of giving a good inclination that He may prompt me and you to advance a clear plea before Him and His creatures in a manner that may attract His pleasure along with handsome praise among the people good effect in the country an increase in prosperity and a hightening of honour; and that He may allow me and you to die a death of virtue and martyrdom. Surely we have to return to Him. Peace be on the Messenger of Allah - may Allah- shower His blessings and plentyful salutation on him and his pure and chaste descendants; and that is an end to the matter.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

كتبه للأشتر النَّخَعي رحمه الله، لمّا ولاه على مصر وأعمالها حين اضطرب أمرمحمّد بن أبي بكر رحمه الله، وهو أطول عهد كتبه وأجمعه للمحاسن

p: 208

بِسمِ اللهِ الرَّحمنِ الرَّحيم

هذَا مَا أَمَرَ بِهِ عَبْدُ اللهِ عَلِيٌ أَميِرُالْمُؤْمِنِينَ، مَالِكَ بْنَ الْحَارِثِ الْأَشْتَرَ فِي عَهْدِهِ إِلَيْهِ، حِينَ وَلاَّهُ مِصْرَ: جِبْايَةَ خَرَاجِهَا، وَجِهَادَ عَدُوِّهَا، وَاسْتِصْلاَحَ أَهْلِهَا، وَعِمَارَةَ بِلاَدِهَا.

أَمَرَهُ بِتَقْوَى اللهِ، وَإِيثَارِ طَاعَتِهِ، وَاتِّبَاعِ مَا أَمَرَ بِهِ فِي كِتَابِهِ: مِنْ فَرَائِضِهِ وَسُنَنِهِ، الَّتِي لاَ يَسْعَدُ أَحَدٌ إِلاَّ بِاتِّبَاعِهَا، وَلاَ يَشْقَى إِلاَّ مَعَ جُحُودِهَا وَإِضَاعَتِهَا، وَأَنْ يَنْصُرَ اللهَ سُبْحَانَهُ بَيَدِهِ وَقَلْبِهِ وَلِسَانِهِ، فَإِنَّهُ، جَلَّ اسْمُهُ، قَدْ تَكَفَّلَ بِنَصْرِ مَنْ نَصَرَهُ، وَإِعْزَازِ مَنْ أَعَزَّهُ.

وَأَمَرَهُ أَنْ يَكْسِرَ نَفْسَهُ مِنْ الشَّهَوَاتِ، وَيَزَعَهَا (1) عِنْدَ الْجَمَحَاتِ (2) ، فَإِنَّ النَّفْسَ أَمَّارَةٌ بِالسُّوءِ، إِلاَّ مَا رَحِمَ اللهُ.

ثُمَّ اعْلَمْ يَا مَالكُ، أَنِّي قَدْ وَجَّهْتُكَ إِلَى بِلاَدٍ قَدْ جَرَتْ عَلَيْهَا دُوَلٌ قَبْلَكَ، مِنْ عَدْلٍ وَجَوْرٍ، وَأَنَّ النَّاسَ يَنْظُرُونَ مِنْ أُمُورِكَ فِى مِثْلِ مَا كُنْتَ تَنْظُرُ فِيهِ مِنْ أُم ُورِ الْوُلاَةِ قَبْلَكَ، وَيَقُولُونَ فِيكَ مَا كُنْتَ تَقُولُ فِيهِمْ، إِنَّمَا يُسْتَدَلُّ عَلَى الصَّالِحِينَ بِمَا يُجْرِي اللهُ لَهُمْ عَلَى أَلْسُنِ عِبَادِهِ. فَلْيَكُنْ أَحَبَّ الذَّخَائِرِ إِلَيْكَ ذَخِيرَةُ الْعَمَلِ الصَّالِحِ، فَامْلِكْ هَوَاكَ، وَشُحَّ بِنَفْسِكَ (3) عَمَّا لاَ يَحِلُّ لَكَ، فَإِنَّ الشُّحَّ بِالنَّفْسِ الْإِنْصَافُ مِنْهَا فَيَما أَحْبَبْتَ وَكَرِهْتَ. وَأَشْعِرْ قَلْبَكَ الرَّحْمَةَ لِلرَّعِيَّةِ، وَالْمَحَبَّةَ لَهُمْ، وَاللُّطْفَ بِهِمْ، وَلاَ تَكُونَنَّ عَلَيْهِمْ سَبُعاً ضَارِياً تَغْتَنِمُ أَكْلَهُمْ، فَإِنَّهُمْ صِنْفَانِ: إِمَّا أَخٌ لَكَ فِي الدِّينِ، وَإمّا نَظِيرٌ لَكَ فِي الْخَلْقِ، يَفْرُطُ (4) مِنْهُمُ الزَّلَلُ (5) ، وَتَعْرِضُ لَهُمُ الْعِلَلُ،يُؤْتَى عَلَى أَيْدِيهِمْ فِي الَعَمْدِ وَالْخَطَاءِ، فَأَعْطِهِمْ مِنْ عَفْوِكَ وَصَفْحِكَ مِثْلَ الَّذِي تُحِبُّ أَنْ يُعْطِيَكَ اللهُ مِنْ عَفْوِهِ وَصَفْحِهِ، فَإِنَّكَ فَوْقَهُمْ، وَ وَالِي الْأَمْرِ عَلَيْكَ فَوْقَكَ، وَاللهُ فَوْقَ مَنْ وَلاَّكَ! وَقَدِ اسْتَكْفَاكَ أَمْرَهُمْ (6) ، وَابْتَ لاَكَ بِهِمْ. وَلاَ تَنْصِبَنَّ نَفْسَكَ لِحَرْبِ اللهِ (7) ، فَإِنَّهْ لاَيَدَ لَكَ بِنِقْمَتِهِ (8) ، وَلاَ غِنَى بِكَ عَنْ عَفْوِهِ وَرَحْمَتِهِ. وَلاَ تَنْدَمَنَّ عَلَى عَفْوٍ، وَلاَ تَبْجَحَنَّ (9) بِعُقُوبَة، وَلاَ تُسْرِعَنَّ إِلَى بَادِرَة (10) وَجَدْتَ مِنْهَا مَنْدُوحَةً (11) ، وَلاَ تَقُولَنَّ: إِنِّي مُؤَمَّرٌ (12) آمُرُ فَأُطَاعُ، فَإِنَّ ذلِكَ إِدْغَالٌ (13) فِي الْقَلْبِ، وَمَنْهَكَةٌ (14) لِلدِّينِ، وَتَقَرُّبٌ مِنَ الْغِيَرِ (15) . وَإِذَا أَحْدَثَ لَكَ مَا أَنْتَ فِيهِ مِنْ سُلْطَانِكَ أُبَّهَةً (16) أَوْ مَخِيلَةً (17) ، فَانْظُرْ إِلَى عِظَمِ مُلْكِ اللهِ فَوْقَكَ، وَقُدْرَتِهِ مَنْكَ عَلَى مَا لاَ تَقْدرُِ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ نَفْسِكَ، فَإِنَّ ذلِكَ يُطَامِنُ (18) إِلَيْكَ مِنْ طِمَاحِكَ (19) ، وَيَكُفُّ عَنْكَ مِنْ غَرْبِكَ (20) ، يَفِيءُ (21) إِلَيْكَ بِمَا عَزَبَ (22) عَنْكَ مِنْ عَقْلِكَ!

p: 209

إِيَّاكَ وَمُسَامَاةَ (23) اللهِ فِي عَظَمَتِهِ، وَالتَّشَبُّهَ بِهِ فِي جَبَرُوتِهِ، فَإِنَّ اللهَ يُذِلُّ كُلَّ جَبَّارٍ، وَيُهِينُ كُلَّ مُخْتَالٍ.

أَنْصِفِ اللهَ وَأَنْصِفِ النَّاسَ مِنْ نَفْسِكَ، وَمِنْ خَاصَّةِ أَهْلِكَ، وَمَنْ لَكَ فِيهِ هَوىً (24) مِنْ رَعِيَّتِكَ، فَإِنَّكَ إِلاَّ تَفْعَلْ تَظْلِمْ، وَمَنْ ظَلَمَ عِبَادَ اللهِ كَانَ اللهُ خَصْمَهُ دُونَ عِبَادِهِ، وَمَنْ خَاصَمَهُ اللهُ أَدْحَضَ (25) حُجَّ تَهُ، وَكَانَ لِلَّهِ حَرْباً (26) حَتَّى يَنْزعَ (27) وَيَتُوبَ. وَلَيْسَ شَيْءٌ أَدْعَى إِلَى تَغْيِيرِ نِعْمَةِ اللهِ وَتَعْجِيلِ نِقْمَتِهِ مِنْ إِقَامَةٍ عَلَى ظُلْمٍ، فَإِنَّ اللهَ سَميِعٌ دَعْوَةَ الْمَضْطَهَدِينَ، وَهُوَ لِلظَّالِمِينَ بِالْمِرْصَادِ.

وَلْيَكُنْ أَحَبَّ الْأُمُورِ إِلَيْكَ أَوْسَطُهَا فِي الْحَقِّ، وَأَعَمُّهَا فِي الْعَدْلِ، وَأَجْمَعُهَا لِرِضَى الرَّعِيَّةِ، فَإِنَّ سُخْطَ الْعَامَّةِ يُجْحِفُ (28) بِرِضَى الْخَاصَّةِ، وَإِنَّ سُخْطَ الْخَاصَّةِ يُغْتَفَرُ مَعَ رِضَى الْعَامَّةِ. وَلَيْسَ أَحَدٌ مِنَ الرَّعِيَّةِ، أَثْقَلَ عَلَى الْوَالِي مَؤُونَةً فِي الرَّخَاءِ، وَأَقَلَّ مَعُونَةً لَهُ فِي الْبَلاَءِ، وَأَكْرَهَ لِلْإِنْصَافِ، وَأَسْأَلَ بِالْإِلْحَافِ (29) ، وَأَقَلَّ شُكْراً عِنْدَ الْإِعْطَاءِ، وَأَبْطَأَ عُذْراً عِنْدَ الْمَنْعِ، وَأَضْعَفَ صَبْراً عِنْدَ مُلِمَّاتِ الدَّهْرِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْخَاصَّةِ. وَإِنَّمَا عَمُودُ الدِّينِ، وَجِمَاعُ (30) الْمُسْلِمِينَ، وَالْعُدَّةُ لِلْأَعْدَاءِ، الْعَامَّةُ مِنَ الْأُمَّةِ، فَلْيَكُنْ صِغْوُكَ (31) لَهُمْ ، وَمَيْلُكَ مَعَهُمْ. وَلْيَكُنْ أَبْعَدَ رَعِيَّتِكَ مِنْكَ، وَأشْنَأَهُمْ (32) عِنْدَكَ، أَطْلَبُهُمْ (33) لِمَعَائِبِ النَّاسِ، فإنَّ في النَّاسِ عُيُوباً، الْوَالِي أَحَقُّ مَنْ سَتَرَهَا، فَلاَ تَكْشِفَنَّ عَمَّا غَابَ عَنْكَ مِنْهَا، فَإنَّمَا عَلَيْكَ تَطْهِيرُ مَا ظَهَرَ لَكَ، وَاللهُ يَحْكُمُ عَلَى مَا غَابَ عَنْكَ، فَاسْتُرِ الْعَوْرَةَ مَا اسْتَطَعْتَ يَسْتُرِ اللهُ مِنْكَ ما تُحِبُّ سَتْرَهُ مِنْ رَعِيَّتِكَ. أَطْلِقْ (34) عَنِ النَّاسِ عُقْدَةَ كُلِّ حِقْدٍ، وَاقْطَعْ عَنْكَ سَبَبَ كُلِّ وِتْرٍ (35) ، وَتَغَابَ (36) عَنْ كُلِّ مَا لاَ يَضِحُ (37) لَكَ، وَلاَ تَعْجَلَنَّ إِلَى تَصْدِيقِ سَاعٍ، فَإِنَّ السَّاعِيَ (38) غَاشٌ، وَإِنْ تَشَبَّهَ بِالنَّاصِحِينَ.

وَلاَ تُدْخِلَنَّ فِي مَشُورَتِكَ بَخِيلاً يَعْدِلُ بِكَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ (39) ، وَيَعِدُكَ الْفَقْرَ (40) ، وَلاَ جَبَاناً يُضعِّفُكَ عَنِ الْأُمُورِ، وَلاَ حَرِيصاً يُزَيِّنُ لَكَ الشَّرَهَ (41) بِالْجَوْرِ، فَإِنَّ الْبُخْلَ وَالْجُبْنَ وَالْحِرْصَ غَرَائِزُ شَتَّى (42) يَجْمَعُهَا سُوءُ الظَّنِّ بِاللهِ.

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شَرُّ وُزَرَائِكَ مَنْ كَانَ لِلْأَشْرَارِ قَبْلَكَ وَزِيراً، وَمَنْ شَرِكَهُمْ فِي الْآثَامِ، فَلاَ يَكُونَنَّ لَكَ بِطَانَةً (43) ، فَإِنَّهُمْ أَعْوَانُ الْأَثَمَةِ (44) ، وَإِخْوَانُ الظَّلَمَةِ (45) ، وَأَنْتَ وَاجِدٌ مِنْهُمْ خَيْرَ الْخَلَفِ مِمَّنْ لَهُ مِثْلُ آرَائِهِمْ وَنَفَاذِهِمْ، وَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ مِثْلُ آصَارِهِمْ (46) وَأَوْزَارِهِمْ (47) وَ آثَامِهِمْ، مِمَّنْ لَمْ يُعَاوِنْ ظَالِماً عَلَى ظُلْمِهِ، وَلاَ آثِماً عَلَى إِثْمِهِ: أُولئِكَ أَخَفُّ عَلَيْكَ مَؤُونَةً، وَأَحْسَنُ لَكَ مَعُونَةً، وَأَحْنَى عَلَيْكَ عَطْفاً، وَأَقَلُّ لِغَيْرِكَ إِلْفاً (48) ، فَاتَّخِذْ أُولئِكَ خَاصَّةً لِخَلَوَاتِكَ حَفَلاَتِكَ، ثُمَّ لْيَكُنْ آثَرُهُمْ عِنْدَكَ أَقْوَلَهُمْ بِمُرِّ الْحَقِّ لَكَ، وأَقَلَّهُمْ مُسَاعَدَةً فِيَما يَكُونُ مِنْكَ مِمَّا كَرِهَ اللهُ لِأَوْلِيَائِهِ، وَاقِعاً ذلِكَ مِنْ هَوَاكَ حَيْثُ وَقَعَ. وَالْصَقْ بِأَهْلِ الْوَرَعِ وَالصِّدْقِ، ثُمَّ رُضْهُمْ (49) عَلَى أَلاَّ يُطْرُوكَ وَلاَ يُبَجِّحُوكَ (50) بِبَاطِلٍ لَمْ تَفْعَلْهُ، فَإِنَّ كَثْرَةَ الْإِطْرَاءِ تُحْدِثُ الزَّهْوَ (51) ، وَتُدْنِي (52) مِنَ الْعِزَّةِ.

وَلاَ يَكُونَنَّ الْمُحْسِنُ وَالْمُسِيءُ عِنْدَكَ بِمَنْزِلَةٍ سَوَاءٍ، فَإِنَّ فِي ذلِكَ تَزْهِيداً لِأَهْلِ الْإِحْسَانِ فِي الْإِحْسَانِ، تَدْرِيباً لِأَهْلِ الْإِسَاءَةِ عَلَى الْإِسَاءَةِ، وَأَلْزِمْ كُلاًّ مِنْهُمْ مَا أَلْزَمَ نَفْسَهُ. وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَيْسَ شَيْءٌ بِأَدْعَى إِلَى حُسْنِ ظَنِّ رَاعٍ بِرَعِيَّتِهِ مِنْ إحْسَانِهِ إِلَيْهِمْ، وَتَخْفِيفِهِ الْمَؤُونَاتِ عَلَيْهِمْ، وَتَرْكِ اسْتِكْرَاهِهِ إِيَّاهُمْ عَلَى مَا لَيْسَ لهُ قِبَلَهُمْ (53) . فَلْيَكُنْ مِنْكَ فِي ذلِكَ أَمْرٌ يَجَتَمِعُ لَكَ بِهِ حُسْنُ الظَّنِّ بِرَعِيَّتِكَ، فَإِنَّ حُسْنَ الظَّنِّ يَقْطَعُ عَنْكَ نَصَباً (54) طَوِيلاً. وَإِنَّ أَحَقَّ مَنْ حَسُنَ ظَنُّكَ بِهِ لَمَنْ حَسُنَ بَلاَؤُكَ عِنْدَهُ، وَإِنَّ أَحَقَّ مَنْ سَاءَ ظَنُّكَ بِهِ لَمَنْ سَاءَ بَلاَؤُكَ عِنْدَهُ (55) .

وَلاَ تَنْقُضْ سُنَّةً صَالِحَةً عَمِلَ بِهَا صُدُورُ هذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ، وَاجْتَمَعتْ بِهَا الْأُلْفَةُ، وَصَلَحَتْ عَلَيْهَا الرَّعِيَّةُ. وَلاَ تُحْدِثَنَّ سُنَّةً تَضُرُّ بِشَيءٍ مِنْ مَاضِي تِلْكَ السُّنَنِ، فَيَكُونَ الْأَجْرُ بِمَنْ سَنَّهَا، وَالْوِزْرُ عَلَيْكَ بِمَا نَقَضْتَ مِنْهَا.

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وَأَكْثِرْ مُدَارَسَةَ الَعُلَمَاءِ، وَمُنَاقَشَةَ الْحُكَمَاءِ، فِي تَثْبِيتِ مَا صَلَحَ عَلَيْهِ أَمْرُ بِلاَدِكَ، وَإِقَامَةِ مَا اسْتَقَامَ بِهِ النَّاسُ قَبْلَكَ.

وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ الرَّعِيَّةَ طَبَقَاتٌ لاَ يَصْلُحُ بَعْضُهَ ا إلاَّ بِبَعْضٍ، وَلاَ غِنَى بِبَعْضِهَا عَنْ بَعْضٍ: فَمِنْهَا جُنُودُ اللهِ، مِنْهَا كُتَّابُ الْعَامَّةِ وَالْخَاصَّةِ، وَمِنْهَا قُضَاةُ الْعَدْلِ، وَمِنهَا عُمَّالُ الْإِنْصَافِ وَالرِّفْقِ، وَمِنْهَا أَهْلُ الْجِزْيَةِ وَالْخَراجِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الذِّمَّةِ وَمُسْلِمَةِ النَّاسِ، وَمِنْهَا التُّجَّارُ وَأَهْلُ الصِّنَاعَاتِ، وَمِنهَا الطَّبَقَةُ السُّفْلَى مِنْ ذَوِي الْحَاجَةِ وَالْمَسْكَنَةِ، وَكُلٌّ قَدْ سَمَّى اللهُ سَهْمَهُ (56) ، وَوَضَعَ عَلَى حَدِّهِ وَفَرِيضَتِهً فِي كِتَابِهِ أَوْ سُنَّةِ نَبِيِّهِ -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَ سَلَّمَ- عَهْداً مِنْهُ عِنْدَنَا مَحْفُوظاً.

فَالْجُنُودُ، بِإِذْنِ اللهِ، حُصُونُ الرَّعِيَّةِ، وَزَيْنُ الْوُلاَةِ، وعِزُّ الدِّينِ، وَسُبُلُ الْأَمْنِ، وَلَيْسَ تَقُومُ الرَّعِيَّةُ إِلاَّ بِهِمْ. ثُمَّ لاَ قِوَامَ لِلْجُنُودِ إِلاَّ بِمَا يُخْرِجُ اللهُ لَهُمْ مِنَ الْخَرَاجِ الَّذِي يَقْوَوْنَ بِهِ فِي جِهَادِ عَدُوِهِمْ، وَيَعْتَمِدُونَ عَلَيْهِ فِيَما يُصْلَحهُمْ، وَيَكُونُ مِنْ وَرَاءِ حَاجَتِهِمْ (57) . ثُمَّ لاَ قِوَامَ لِهذَيْنِ الصّ ِنْفَيْنِ إِلاَّ بِالصِّنْفِ الثَّالِثِ مِنَ الْقُضَاةِ وَالْعُمَّالِ وَالْكُتَّابِ، لِمَا يُحْكِمُونَ مِنَ الْمَعَاقِدِ (58) ، وَيَجْمَعُونَ مِنْ الْمَنَافِعِ، وَيُؤْتَمَنُونَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ خَوَاصِّ الْأُمُورِ وَعَوَامِّهَا. وَلاَ قِوَامَ لَهُمْ جَمِيعاً إِلاَّ بِالتُّجَّارِ وَذَوِي الصِّنَاعَاتِ، فِيَما يَجْتَمِعُونَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ مَرَافِقِهِمْ (59) ، وَيُقِيمُونَهُ مِنْ أَسْوَاقِهِمْ، وَيَكْفُونَهُمْ مِنَ التَّرَفُّقِ (60) بِأَيْدِيهِمْ ما لاَ يَبْلُغُهُ رِفْقُ غَيْرِهِمْ. ثُمَّ الطَّبَقَةُ السُّفْلَى مِنْ أَهْلِ الْحَاجَةِ وَالْمَسْكَنَةِ الَّذِينَ يَحِقُّ رِفْدُهُمْ (61) وَمَعُونَتُهُمْ. وَفِي اللهِ لِكُلٍّ سَعَةٌ، وَلِكُلٍّ عَلَى الْوَالِي حَقٌ بِقَدْرِ مَا يُصْلِحُهُ. وَلَيْسَ يَخْرُجُ الْوَالِي مِنْ حَقِيقَةِ مَا أَلْزَمَهُ اللهُ مِنْ ذلِكَ إِلاَّ بِالْإِهْتَِمامِ وَالْإِسْتِعَانَةِ بِاللهِ، وَتَوْطِينِ نَفْسِهِ عَلَى لُزُومِ الْحَقِّ. وَالصَّبْرِ عَلَيْهِ فِيَما خَفَّ عَلَيْهِ أَوْ ثَقُلَ. فَوَلِّ مِنْ جُنُودِكَ أَنْصَحَهُمْ فِي نَفْسِكَ لِلَّهِ وَلِرَسُولِهِ وَلِإِمَامِكَ، وَأَنْقَاهُمْ جَيْباً (62) ، وَأَفْضَلَهُمْ حِلْماً (63) مِمَّنْ يُبْطِىءُ عَنِ الْغَضَبِ، وَيَسْتَرِيحُ إِلَى الْعُذْرِ، وَيَرْأَفُ بِالضُّعَفَاءِ، وَيَنْبُو عَلَى الْأَقْوِيَاءِ (64) ، وَمِمَّنْ لاَ يُثِيرُهُ الْعُنْفُ، وَلاَ يَقْعُدُ بِهِ الضَّعْفُ.

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ثُمَّ الْصَقْ بَذَوِي الْمُرُوءَاتِ وَالْأَحْسَابِ، وَأَهْلِ الْبُيُوتَاتِ الصَّالِحَةِ، وَالسَّوَابِقِ الْحَسَنَةِ، ثُمَّ أَهْلِ النَّجْدَةِ وَالشَّجَاعَةِ، وَالسَّخَاءِ وَالسَّماحَةِ، فَإِنَّهُمْ جِمَاعٌ (65) مِنَ الْكَرَمِ، وَشُعَبٌ (66) مِنَ الْعُرْفِ (67) . ثُمَّ تَفَقَّدْ مِنْ أُمُورِهِمْ مَا يَتَفَقَّدُهُ الْوَالِدَانِ مِنْ وَلَدِهِمَا، وَلاَ يَتَفَاقَمَنَّ (68) فِي نَفْسِكَ شَيْءٌ قَوَّيْتَهُمْ بِهِ، وَلاَ تَحْقِرَنَّ لُطْفاً (69) تَعَاهَدْتَهُمْ بِهِ وَإِنْ قَلَّ، فَإِنَّهُ دَاعِيَةٌ لَهُمْ إِلَى بَذْلِ النَّصِيحَةِ لَكَ، وَحُسْنِ الظَّنِّ بِكَ. وَلاَ تَدَعْ تَفَقُّدَ لَطيِفِ أُمُورِهِمُ اتِّكَالاً عَلَى جَسِيمِهَا، فَإِنَّ لِلْيَسِيرِ مِنْ لُطْفِكَ مَوْضِعاً يَنْتَفِعُونَ بِهِ، وَلِلْجَسِيمِ مَوْقِعاً لاَ يَسْتَغْنُونَ عَنْهُ. وَلْيَكُنْ آثَرُ (70) رُؤوسِ جُنْدِكَ عِنْدَكَ مَنْ وَاسَاهُمْ (71) فِي مَعُونَتِهِ، وَأَفْضَلَ (72) عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ جِدَتِهِ (73) بِمَا يَسَعُهُمْ يَسَعُ مَنْ وَرَاءَهُمْ مِنْ خُلُوفِ (74) أَهْلِيهِمْ، حَتَّى يَكُونَ هَمُّهُمْ هَمّاً وَاحِداً فِي جِهَادِ الْعَدُوِّ، فَإِنَّ عَطْفَكَ عَلَيْهِمْ يَعْطِفُ قُلُوبَهُمْ عَلَيْكَ. وَإِنَّ أَفْضَلَ قُرَّةِ عَيْنِ الْوُلاَةِ اسْتِقَامَةُ الْعَدْلِ فِي الْبِلاَدِ، وَظُهُورُ مَوَدَّةِ الرَّعِيَّةِ. وَإِنَّهُ لاَ تَظْهَرُ مَوَدَّتُهُمْ إِلاَّ بَسَلاَمَةِ صُدُورِهِمْ، وَلاَ تَصِحُّ نَصِيحَتُهُمْ إِلاّ بِحِيطَتِهِمْ (75) عَلَى وُلاَةِ الْأُمُورِ، وَقِلَّةِ اسْتِثْقَالِ دُوَلِهِمْ، وَتَرْكِ اسْتِبْطَاءِ انْقِطَاعِ مُدَّتِهِمْ. فَافْسَحْ فِي آمَالِهِمْ، وَوَاصِلْ فِي حُسْنِ الثَّنَاءِ عَلَيْهِمْ، وَتَعْدِيدِ مَا أَبْلى ذَوُوالْبَلاَءِ (76) مِنْهُمْ، فَإِنَّ كَثْرَةَ الذِّكْرِ لِحُسْنِ أَفْعَالِهِمْ تَهُزُّ الشُّجَاعَ، وَتُحَرِّضُ النَّاكِلَ (77) ، إِنْ شَاءَ اللهُ.

ثُمَّ اعْرِفْ لِكُلِّ امْرِىءٍ مِنْهُمْ مَا أَبْلى، وَلاَ تَضُمَّنَّ بَلاَءَ (78) امْرِىءٍ إِلَى غَيْرِهِ، وَلاَ تُقَصِّرَنَّ بِهِ دُونَ غَايَةِ بَلاَئِهِ، وَلاَ يَدْعُوَنَّكَ شَرَفُ امْرِىءٍ إِلَى أَنْ تُعْظِمَ مِنْ بَلاَئِهِ مَا كَانَ صَغِيراً، وَلاَضَعَةُ امْرِىءٍ إِلَى أَنْ تَسْتَصْغِرَ مِنْ بَلاَئِهِ مَاكَانَ عَظيِماً.

وَارْدُدْ إِلَى اللهِ وَرَسُولِهِ مَا يُضْلِعُكَ (79) مِنَ الْخُطُوبِ، وَيَشْتَبِهُ عَلَيْكَ مِنَ الْأُمُورِ، فَقَدْ قَالَ اللهُ سبحانه لِقَوْم أَحَبَّ إِرْشَادَهُمْ: (يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ فَإنْ تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي

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شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللهِ وَالرَّسُولِ)، فَالرَّدُّ إِلَى اللهِ: الْأَخْذُ بِمُحْكَمِ كِتَابِهِ (80) ،وَالرَّدُّ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ: الْأَخْذُ بِسُنَّتِهِ الْجَامِعةِ غَيْرِ الْمُفَرِّقَةِ.

ثُمَّ اخْتَرْ لِلْحُكْمِ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ أَفْضَلَ رَعِيَّتِكَ فِي نَفْسِكَ، مِمَّنْ لاَ تَضِيقُ بِهِ الْأُمُورُ، وَلاَ تُمَحِّكُهُ (81) الْخُصُومُ، وَلاَ يَتَمادَى (82) فِي الزَّلَّةِ (83) ، وَلاَ يَحْصَرُ (84) مِنَ الْفَيْءِ (85) إِلَى الْحَقِّ إذَا عَرَفَهُ، وَلاَ تُشْرِفُ (86) نَفْسُهُ عَلَى طَمَعٍ، وَلاَ يَكْتَفِي بِأَدْنَى فَهْمٍ دُونَ أَقصَاهُ (87) ، أَوْقَفَهُمْ فِي الشُّبُهَاتِ (88) ، وَآخَذَهُمْ بِالْحُجَجِ، وَأَقَلَّهُمْ تَبَرُّماً (89) بِمُرَاجَعَةِ الْخَصْمِ، وَأَصْبَرَهُمْ عَلَى تَكَشُّفِ الْأُمُورِ، وَأَصْرَمَهُمْ (90) عِنْدَ اتِّضَاحِ الْحُكْمِ، مِمَّنْ لاَ يَزْدَهِيهِ إطْرَاءٌ (91) ، وَلاَ يَسْتَمِيلُهُ إِغْرَاءٌ، أُولئِكَ قَلِيلٌ. ثُمَّ أَكْثِرْ تَعَاهُدَ (92) قَضَائِهِ، وافْسَحْ لَهُ فِي الْبَذْلِ (93) مَا يُزيِلُ عِلَّتَهُ، وَتَقِلُّ مَعَهُ حَاجَتُهُ إِلَى النَّاسِ، وَأَعْطِهِ مِنَ الْمَنْزِلَةِ لَدَيْكَ مَا لاَ يَطْمَعُ فِيهِ غَيْرُهُ مِنْ خَاصَّتِكَ، لِيَأْمَنَ بِذلَكَ اغْتِيَالَ الرِّجَالِ لَهُ عِنْدَكَ. فَانْظُرْ فِي ذلِكَ نَظَراً بِلِيغاً، فَإِنَّ هذَا الدِّينَ قَدْ كَانَ أَسِيراً فِي أَيْدِي الْأَشْرَارِ، يُعْمَلُ فِيهِ بِالْهَوَى، وَتُطْلَبُ بِهِ الدُّنْيَا.

ثُمَّ انْظُرْ فِي أُمُورِ عُمَّالِكَ، فَاسْتَعْمِلْهُمُ اخْتِبَاراً (94) ، وَلاَ تُوَلِّهِمْ مُحَابَاةً (95) وأَثَرَةً (96) ، فَإِنَّهُمَا جِمَاعٌ مِنْ شُعَبِ (97) الْجَوْرِ وَالْخِيَانَةِ. وَتوَخَّ (98) مِنْهُمْ أَهْلَ التَّجْرِبَةِ وَالْحَيَاءِ، مِنْ أَهْلِ الْبُيُوتَاتِ الصَّالِحَةِ، ( 451 )

وَالْقَدَمِ (99) فِي الْإِسْلاَمِ الْمُتَقَدِّمَةِ، فَإِنَّهُمْ أَكْرَمُ أَخْلاَقاً، وَأَصَحُّ أَعْرَاضاً، وَأَقَلُّ فِي الْمَطَامِعِ إِشْرَافاً، وَأَبْلَغُ فِي عَوَاقِبِ الْأُمُورِ نَظَراً. ثُمَّ أَسْبِغْ (100) عَلَيْهِمُ الْأَرْزَاقَ، فَإِنَّ ذلِكَ قُوَّةٌ لَهُمْ عَلَى اسْتِصْلاَحِ أَنْفُسِهِمْ، وَغِنىً لَهُمْ عَنْ تَنَاوُلِ مَا تَحْتَ أَيْدِيهِمْ، وَحُجَّةٌ عَلَيْهِمْ إِنْ خَالَفُوا أَمْرَكَ أَوْ ثَلَمُوا أَمَانَتَكَ (101) . ثُمَّ تَفَقَّدْ أَعْمَالَهُمْ، وَابْعَثِ الْعُيُونَ (102) مِنْ أَهْلِ الصِّدْقِ وَالوَفَاءِ عَلَيْهِمْ، فَإِنَّ تَعَاهُدَكَ فِي السِّرِّ لِأُمُورِهِمْ حَدْوَةٌ لَهُمْ (103) عَلَى اسْتِعْمَالِ الْأَمَانَةِ، وَالرِّفْقِ بِالرَّعِيَّةِ. وَتَحَفَّظْ مِنَ الْأَعْوَانِ، فَإِنْ أَحَدٌ مِنْهُمْ بَسَطَ يَدَهُ إِلَى خِيَانَةٍ اجْتَمَعَتْ بِهَا عَلَيْهِ عِنْدَكَ أَخْبَارُ عُيُونِكَ، اكْتَفَيْتَ بِذلِكَ شَاهِداً، فَبَسَطْتَ عَلَيْهِ الْعُقُوبَةَ فِي بَدَنِهِ، وَأَخَذْتَهُ بِمَا أَصَابَ مِنْ عَمَلِهِ، ثُمَّ نَصَبْتَهُ بِمَقَامِ الْمَذَلَّةِ، وَ وَسَمْتَهُ بِالْخِيانَةِ، وَقَلَّدْتَهُ عَارَ التُّهَمَةِ.

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وَتفَقَّدْ أَمْرَ الْخَرَاجِ بِمَا يُصْلِحُ أَهْلَهُ، فَإِنَّ فِي صلاَحِهِ وَصلاَحِهِمْ صَلاَحاً لِمَنْ سِوَاهُمْ، وَلاَ صَلاَحَ لِمَنْ سِوَاهُمْ إِلاَّ بِهِمْ، لِأَنَّ النَّاسَ كُلَّهُمْ عِيَا لٌ عَلَى الْخَرَاجِ وَأَهْلِهِ. وَلْيَكُنْ نَظَرُكَ فِي عِمَارَةِ الْأَرْضِ أَبْلَغَ مِنْ نَظَرِكَ فِي اسْتِجْلاَبِ الْخَرَاجِ، لِأَنَّ ذلِكَ لاَ يُدْرَكُ إِلاَّ بَالْعِمَارَةِ، وَمَنْ طَلَبَ الْخَرَاجَ بِغَيْرِ عِمَارَة أَخْرَبَ الْبِلاَدَ، وَأَهْلَكَ الْعِبَادَ، وَلَمْ يَسْتَقِمْ أَمْرُهُ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً. فَإِنْ شَكَوْا ثِقَلاً أَوْ عِلَّةً (104) ، أَوِ انْقِطَاعَ شِرْبٍ (105) أَوْ بَالَّةٍ (106) ، أَوْ إِحَالَةَ أَرْضٍ (107) اغْتَمَرَهَا (108) غَرَقٌ، أَوْ أَجْحَفَ (109) بِهَا عَطَشٌ، خَفَّفْتَ عَنْهُمْ بِما تَرْجُو أَنْ يصْلُحَ بِهِ أَمْرُهُمْ، وَلاَ يَثْقُلَنَّ عَلَيْكَ شَيْءٌ خَفَّفْتَ بِهِ الْمَؤُونَةَ عَنْهُمْ، فَ إِنَّهُ ذُخْرٌ يَعُودُونَ بِهِ عَلَيْكَ فِي عِمَارَةِ بِلادِكَ، وَتَزْيِينِ وِلاَيَتِكَ، مَعَ اسْتِجْلاَبِكَ حُسْنَ ثَنَائِهِمْ، وَ تَبَجُّحِكَ (110) بِاسْتِفَاضَةِ (111) الْعَدْلِ فِيهِمْ، مُعْتَمِداً فَضْلَ قُوَّتِهِمْ (112) ، بِمَا ذَخَرْتَ (113) عِنْدَهُمْ مِنْ إِجْمَامِكَ (114) لَهُمْ، وَالثِّقَةَ مِنْهُمْ بِمَا عَوَّدْتَهُمْ مِنْ عَدْلِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَ رِفْقِكَ بِهِمْ، فَرُبَّمَا حَدَثَ مِنَ الْأُمُورِ مَا إِذَا عَوَّلْتَ فِيهِ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ بَعْدُ احْتَمَلُوهُ طَيِّبَةً أَنْفُسُهُمْ بِهِ، فَإِنَّ الْعُمْرَانَ مُحْتَمِلٌ مَا حَمَّلْتَهُ، وَإِنَّمَا يُؤْتَى خَرَابُ الْأَرْضِ مِنْ إِعْوَازِ (115) أَهْلِهَا، إِنَّمَا يُعْوِزُ أَهْلُهَا لِإِشْرَافِ أَنْفُسِ الْوُلاَةِ عَلَى الْجَمْعِ (116) ، وَسُوءِ ظَنِّهِمْ بِالْبَقَاءِ، وَقِلَّةِ انْتِفَاعِهِمْ بِالْعِبَرِ.

ثُمَّ انْظُرْ فِي حَالِ كُتَّابِكَ، فَوَلِّ عَلَى أُمُورِكَ خَيْرَهُمْ، وَاخْصُصْ رَسَائِلَكَ الَّتِي تُدْخِلُ فِيهَا مَكَائِدَكَ وأَسْرَارَكَ بِأَجْمَعِهِمْ لِوُجُودِ صَالِحِ الْأَخْلاَقِ مِمَّنْ لاَ تُبْطِرُهُ (117) الْكَرَامَةُ، فَيَجْتَرِىءَ بِهَا عَلَيْكَ فِي خِلاَف

لَكَ بِحَضْرَةِ مَلاَءِ (118) ، وَلاَ تُقَصِّرُ بِهِ الْغَفْلَةُ (119) عَنْ إِيرَادِ مُكَاتَبَاتِ عُمَّالِكَ عَلَيْكَ، وَإِصْدَارِ جَوَابَاتِهَا عَلَى الصَّوابِ عَنْكَ، وَفِيَما يَأْخُذُ لَكَ وَيُعْطِي مِنْكَ، وَلاَ يُضْعِفُ عَقْداً اعْتَقَدَهُ لَكَ (120) ، وَلاَ يَعْجِزُ عَنْ إِطْلاَقِ مَا عُقِدَ عَلَيْكَ (121) ، وَلاَ يَجْهَلُ مَبْلَغَ قَدْرِ نَفسِهِ فِي الْأُمُورِ، فَإِنَّ الْجَاهِلَ بِقَدْرِ نَفْسِهِ يَكُونُ بَقَدْرِ غَيْرِهِ أَجْهَلَ. ثُمَّ لاَ يَكُنِ اخْتِيَارُكَ ( 455 )

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إِيَّاهُمْ عَلَى فِرَاسَتِكَ (122) وَاسْتِنَامَتِكَ (123) وَحُسْنِ الظَّنِّ مِنْكَ، فَإِنَّ الرِّجَالَ يَتَعَرَّفُونَ لِفِرَاسَاتِ (124) الْوُلاَةِ بِتَصَنُّعِهِمْ (125) وَحُسْنِ خِدْمَتِهِمْ، لَيْسَ وَرَاءَ ذلِكَ مِنَ النَّصِيحَةِ وَالْأَمَانَةِ شَيْءٌ، وَلكِنِ اخْتَبِرْهُمْ بِمَاوَلُوا لِلصَّالِحِينَ قَبْلَكَ، فَاعْمِدْ لِأَحْسَنِهِمْ كَانَ فِي الْعَامَّةِ أَثَراً، وَأَعْرَفِهِمْ بِالْأَمَانَةِ وَجْهاً، فَإِنَّ ذلِكَ دَلِيلٌ عَلَى نَصِيحَتِكَ لِلَّهِ وَلِمَنْ وَلِّيتَ أَمْرَهُ. وَاجْعَلْ لِرَأْسِ كُلِّ أَمْرٍ مِنْ أُمُورِكَ رَأْساً مِنْهُمْ، لاَ يَقْهَرُهُ كَبِيرُهَا، وَلاَ يَتَشَتَّتُ عَلَيْهِ كَثِيرُهَا، وَمَهْمَا كَانَ فِي كُتَّابِكَ مِنْ عَيْبٍ فَتَغَابَيْتَ (126) عَنْه أُلْزِمْتَهُ.

ثُمَّ اسْتَوْصِ بِالتُّجَّارِ وَذَوِي الصِّنَاعَاتِ، وَأَوْصِ بِهِمْ خَيْراً: الْمُقِيمِ مِنْهُمْ، وَالْمُضْطَرِبِ بِمَالِهِ (127) ، وَالْمُتَرَفِّقِ (128) بِبَدَنِهِ، فَإِنَّهُمْ مَوَادُّ الْمَنَافِعِ، وَأَسْبَابُ الْمَرَافِقِ (129) ، وَجُلاَّبُهَا مِنَ الْمَباعِدِ وَالْمَطَارِحِ (130) ، فِي بَرِّكَ وَبَحْرِكَ، وَسَهْلِكَ وَجَبَلِكَ، وَحَيْثُ لاَ يَلْتَئِمُ النَّاسُ لِمَوَاضِعِهَا (131) ، وَلاَ يَجْتَرِئُونَ عَلَيْهَا، فَإِنَّهُمْ سِلْمٌ (132) لاَ تُخَافُ بَائِقَتُهُ (133) ، وَصُلْحٌ لاَ تُخْشَى غَائِلَتُهُ، وَتَفَقَّدْ أُمُورَهُمْ بِحَضْرَتِكَ وَفِي حَوَاشِي بِلاَدِكَ. وَاعْلَمْ _ مَعَ ذلِكَ _ أَنَّ فِي كَثِيٍر مِنْهُمْ ضِيقاً (134) فَاحِشاً، وَشُحّاً (135) قَبِيحاً، وَاحْتِكَاراً (136) لِلْمَنَافِعِ، وَتَحَكُّماً فِي الْبِيَاعَاتِ، وَذلِكَ بَابُ مَضَرَّةٍ لِلْعَامَّةِ، وَعَيْبٌ عَلَى الْوُلاَةِ. فَامْنَعْ مِنَ الْإِحْتِكَارِ، فَإِنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ مَنَعَ مِنْهُ. وَلْيَكُنِ الْبَيْعُ بَيْعاً سَمْحاً: بِمَوَازِينِ عَدْلٍ، وَأَسْعَارٍ لاَ تُجْحِفُ بِالْفَرِيقَيْنِ مِنَ الْبَائِعِ وَالْمُبْتَاعِ (137) ، فَمَنْ قَارَفَ (138) حُكْرَةً (139) بَعْدَ نَهْيِكَ إِيَّاهُ فَنَكِّلْ بِهِ (140) ، وَعَاقِبْهُ فِي غَيْرِ إِسْرَافٍ (141) .

ثُمَّ اللهَ اللهَ فِي الطَّبَقَةِ السُّفْلَى مِنَ الَّذِينَ لاَ حِيلَةَ لَهُمْ وَالْمَسَاكِينَ وَالْمُحْتَاجِينَ وَأَهْلِ الْبُؤْسَى (142) وَالزَّمْنَى (143) ، فإِنَّ فِي هذِهِ الطَّبَقَةِ قَانِعاً (144) وَمُعْتَرّاً (145) ، وَاحْفَظْ لِلَّهِ مَا اسْتَحْفَظَكَ (146) مِنْ حَقِّهِ فِيهِمْ، وَاجْعَلْ لَهُمْ قِسمْاً مِنْ بَيْتِ مَالِكَ، وَقِسماً مِنْ غَلاَّتِ (147) صَوَافِي (148) الْإِسْلاَمِ فِي كُلِّ بَلَدٍ، فإِنَّ لِلْأَقْصَى مِنْهُمْ مِثْلَ الَّذِي لِلْأَدْنَى، وَكُلٌّ قَدِ اسْتُرْعِيتَ حَقَّهُ، فَلاَ يَشْغَلنَّكَ عَنْهُمْ بَطَرٌ (149) ، فَإِنَّكَ لاَ تُعْذَرُ بِتَضْيِيعِ التَّافِهَ (150) لِإِحْكَامِكَ الْكَثِيرَ الْمُهِمَّ. فَلاَ تُشْخِصْ هَمَّكَ (151) عَنْهُمْ، وَلاَ تُصَعِّرْ خَدَّكَ لَهُمْ (152) ، وَتَفَقَّدْ أُمُورَ مَنْ لاَ يَصِلُ إِلَيْكَ مِنْهُمْ مِمَّنْ تَقْتَحِمُهُ الْعُيُونُ (153) ، وَتَحْقِرُهُ الرِّجَالُ، فَفَرِّغْ لِأُولئِكَ ثِقَتَكَ (154) مِنْ أَهْلِ الْخَشْيَةِ وَالتَّوَاضُع، فَلْيَرْفَعْ إِلَيْكَ أُمُورَهُمْ، ثُمَّ اعْمَلْ فِيهِمْ بَالْإِعْذَارِ إِلَى اللهِ تَعَالَى (155) يَوْمَ تَلْقَاهُ، فَإِنَّ هؤُلاَءِ مِنْ بَيْنِ الرَّعِيَّةِ أَحْوَجُ إِلَى الْإِنصَافِ مِنْ غَيْرِهِمْ، وَكُلٌّ فَأَعْذِرْ إِلَى اللهِ تَعَالَى فِي تَأْدِيَةِ حَقِّهِ إِلَيهِ. وَتَعَهَّد ْ أَهْلَ الْيُتْمِ وَذَوِي الرِّقَّةِ فِي السِّنِّ (156) مِمَّنْ لاَحِيلَةَ لَهُ، وَلاَ يَنْصِبُ لِلْمَسْأَلَةِ نَفْسَهُ، وَذلِكَ عَلَى الْوُلاَةِ ثَقِيلٌ، وَالْحَقُّ كُلُّهُ ثَقِيلٌ، وَقَدْ يُخَفِّفُهُ اللهُ عَلَى أَقْوَامٍ طَلَبُوا الْعَاقِبَةَ فَصَبَرُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ، وَوَثِقُوا

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بِصِدْقِ مَوْعُودِ اللهِ لَهُمْ.

وَاجْعلْ لِذَوِي الْحَاجَاتِ (157) مِنْكَ قِسْماً تُفَرِّغُ لَهُمْ فِيهِ شَخْصَكَ، وَتَجْلِسُ لَهُمْ مَجْلِساً عَامّاً، فَتَتَواضَعُ فِيهِ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَكَ، وَتُقعِدَ عَنْهُمْ جُنْدَكَ وَأَعْوَانَكَ (158) مِنْ أَحْرَاسِكَ (159) وَشُرَطِكَ (160) ، حَتَّى يُكَلِّمَكَ مُتَكَلِّمُهُمْ غَيْرَ مُتَتَعْتِعٍ (161) ، فَإِنِّي سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ فِي غَيْرِ مَوْطِنٍ (162) : "لَنْ تُقَدَّسَ (163) أُمَّةٌ لاَ يُؤْخَذُ لِلضَّعِيفِ فِيهَا حَقُّهُ مِنَ الْقَوِيِّ غَيْرَ مُتَتَعْتِعٍ". ثُمَّ احْتَمِلِ الْخُرْقَ (164) مِنْهُمْ وَالْعِيَّ (165) ، وَنَحِّ (166) عَنْهُمُ الضِّيقَ (167) وَالْأَنَفَ (168) ، يَبْسُطِ اللهُ عَلَيْكَ بَذلِكَ أَكْنَافَ رَحْمَتِهِ (169) ، وَيُوجِبُ لَكَ ثَوَابَ طَاعَتِهِ، وَأَعْطِ مَا أَعْطَيْتَ هَنِيئاً (170) ، وَامْنَعْ فِي إِجْمَالٍ وَإِعْذَارٍ (171) !

ثُمَّ أُمُورٌ مِنْ أُمُورِكَ لاَبُدَّ لَكَ مِنْ مُبَاشَرَتِهَا: مِنْهَا إِجَابَةُ عُمَّالِكَ بِمَا يَعْيَا (172) عَنْهُ كُتَّابُكَ، وَمِنْهَا إِصْدَارُ حَاجَاتِ النَّاسِ يَوْمَ وَرُودِهَا عَلَيْكَ مِمَّا تَحْرَجُ (173) بِهِ صُدُورُ أَعْوَانِكَ. وَأَمْضِ لِكُلِّ يَوْمٍ عَمَلَهُ، فإِنَّ لِكُلِّ يَوْمٍ مَا فِيهِ، وَاجْعَلْ لِنَفْسِكَ فِيَما بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَ اللهِ أَفْضَلَ تِلْكَ الْمَوَاقِيتِ، وَأَجْزَلَ (174) تِلْكَ الْأَقْسَامِ، وَإِنْ كَانَتْ كُلُّهَا لِلَّهِ إِذَا صَلَحَتْ فيهَا النِّيَّةُ، وَسَلِمَتْ مِنْهَا الرَّعِيَّةُ. وَلْيَكُنْ فِي خَاصَّةِ مَا تُخْلِصُ لِلَّهِ بِهِ دِينَكَ: إِقَامَةُ فَرَائِضِهِ الَّتي هِيَ لَهُ خَاصَّةً، فَأَعْطِ اللهَ مِن بَدَنِكَ فِي لَيْلِكَ وَنَهَارِكَ، وَوَفِّ مَا تَقَرَّبْتَ بِهِ إِلَى اللهِ مِنْ ذلِكَ كَاملاً غَيْرَ مَثْلُومٍ (175) وَلاَ مَنْقُوصٍ، بَالِغاً مِنْ بَدَنِكَ مَا بَلَغَ. وَإِذَا قُمْتَ فِي صَلاَتِكَ لِلنَّاسِ، فَلاَ تَكُونَنَّ مُنَفّرِاً وَلاَ مُضَيِّعاً (176) ، فَإِنَّ فِي النَّاسِ مَنْ بِهِ الْعِلَّةُ وَلَهُ الْحَاجَةُ. وَقَدْ سَأَلْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ- حِينَ وَجَّهَنِي إِلَى الَيمنِ كَيْفَ أُصَلِّي بِهِمْ؟ فَقَالَ: "صَلِّ بِهِمْ كَصَلاَةِ أَضْعَفِهِمْ، وَكُنْ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَحِيماً".

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وَأَمَّا بَعْدَ ، فَلاَ تُطَوِّلَنَّ احْتِجَابَكَ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِكَ، فَإِنَّ احْتِجَابَ الْوُلاَةِ عَنِ الرَّعِيَّةِ شُعْبَةٌ مِنَ الضِّيقِ، وَقِلَّةُ عِلْمٍ بِالْأُمُورِ، وَالْإِحْتِجَابُ مِنْهُمْ يَقْطَعُ عَنْهُمْ عِلْمَ مَا احْتَجَبُوا دوُنَهُ فَيَصْغُرُ عِندَهُمْ الْكَبِيرُ، وَيَعْظَُمُ الصَّغِيرُ، وَيَقْبُحُ الْحَسَنُ، وَيَحْسُنُ الْقَبِيحُ، وَيُشَابُ الْحَقُّ بِالْبَاطِلِ. وَإِنَّمَا الْوَالِي بَشَرٌ لاَ يَعْرِفُ مَا تَوَارَى عَنْهُ النَّاسُ بِهِ مِنَ الْأُمُورِ، وَلَيْسَتْ عَلَى الْحَقِّ سِمَاتٌ (177) تُعْرَفُ بِهَا ضُرُوبُ الصِّدْقِ مِنَ الْكَذِبِ، وَإِنَّمَا أَنْتَ أَحَدُ رَجُلَيْنَِ: إِمَّا امْرُؤٌ سَخَتْ نَفْسُكَ بِالْبَذْلِ (178) فِي الْحَقِّ، فَفِيمَ احْتِجَابُكَ مِنْ وَاجِبِ حَقٍّ تُعْطِيهِ، أَوْ فِعْلٍ كَرِيمٍ تُسْدِيهِ، أَوْ مُبْتَلَىً بِالْمَنعِ، فَمَا أَسْرَعَ كَفَّ النَّاسِ عَنْ مَسْأَلَتِكَ إِذَا أَيِسُوا (179) مِنْ بَذْلِكَ! مَعَ أَنَّ أَكْثَرَ حَاجَاتِ النَّاسِ إِلَيْكَ مِمَّا لاَ مَؤُونَةَ فِيهِ عَلَيْكَ، مِنْ شَكَاةِ (180) مَظْلِمَةٍ، أَوْ طَلَبِ إِنْصَافٍ فِي مُعَامَلَةٍ.

ثُمَّ إِنَّ لِلْوَالِي خَاصَّةً وبِطَانَةً، فِيهِمُ اسْتِئْثَارٌ وَتَطَاوُلٌ، وَقِلَّةُ إِنْصَافٍ فِي مُعَامَلَةٍ، فَاحْسِمْ (181) مَادَّةَ أُولئِكَ بِقَطْعِ أَسْبَابِ تِلْكَ الْأَحْوَالِ، وَلاَ تُقْطِعَنَّ (182) لِأَحَد مِنْ حَاشِيتِكَ وَحَامَّتِكَ (183) قَطِيعةً، وَلاَ يَطْمَعَنَّ مِنْكَ فِي اعْتِقَادِ (184) عُقْدَةٍ، تَضُرُّ بِمَنْ يَلِيهَا مِنَ النَّاسِ، فِي شِرْبٍ (185) أَوْ عَمَلٍ مُشْتَرَكٍ، يَحْمِلُونَ مَؤُونَتَهُ عَلَى غَيْرِهِمْ، فَيَكُونَ مَهْنَأُ (186) ذلِكَ لَهُمْ دُونَكَ، وَعَيْبُهُ عَلَيْكَ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ. وَأَلْزِمِ الْحَقَّ مَنْ لَزِمَهُ مِنَ الْقَرِيبِ وَالْبَعِيدِ، وَكُنْ فِي ذلِكَ صَابِراً مُحْتَسِباً، وَاقِعاً ذلِكَ مِنْ قَرَابَتِكَ خَاصَّتِكَ حَيْثُ وَقَعَ، وَابْتَغِ عَاقِبَتَهُ بِمَا يَثْقُلُ عَلَيْكَ مِنْهُ، فَإِنَّ مَغَبَّةَ (187) ذلِكَ مَحْمُودَةٌ.

وَإِنْ ظَنَّتِ الرَّعِيَّةُ بِكَ حَيْفاً (188) ، فَأَصْحِرْ (189) لَهُمْ بِعُذْرِكَ، وَاعْدِلْ (190) عَنكَ ظُنُونَهُمْ بِإِصْحَارِكَ، فَإِنَّ فِي ذلِكَ رِيَاضَةً (191) مِنْكَ لِنَفْسِكَ، وَرِفْقاً بِرَعِيَّتِكَ، وَ إِعْذَاراً (192) تَبْلُغُ فِيهِ حَاجَتَكَ مِنْ تَقْوِيمِهِمْ عَلَى الْحَقِّ.

وَلاَ تَدْفَعَنَّ صُلْحاً دَعَاكَ إِلَيْهِ عَدُوُّ كَ لِلَّهِ فِيهِ رِضىً، فإِنَّ فِي الصُّلْحِ دَعَةً (193) لِجُنُودِكَ، وَرَاحَةً مِنْ هُمُومِكَ، وأَمْناً لِبِلاَدِكَ، وَلَكِنِ الْحَذَرَ كُلَّ الْحَذَرِ مِنْ عَدُوِّكِ بَعْدَ صُلْحِهِ، فَإِنَّ الْعَدُوَّ رُبَّمَا قَارَبَ لِيَتَغَفَّلَ (194) ، فَخُذْ بِالْحَزْمِ، وَاتَّهِمْ فِي ذلِكَ حُسْنَ الظَّنِّ. وَإِنْ عَقَدْتَ بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَ عَدُوّ لَكَ عُقْدَةً، أَوْ أَلْبَسْتَهُ مِنْكَ ذِمَّةً (195) ، فَحُطْ (196) عَهْدَكَ بِالْوَفَاءِ، وَارْعَ ذِمَّتَكَ بِالْأَمَانَةِ، وَاجْعَلْ نَفْسَكَ جُنَّةً (197) دُونَ مَا أَعْطَيْتَ، فَإِنَّهُ لَيْسَ مِنْ فَرَائِضِ اللهِ شَيْءٌ النَّاسُ أَشدُّ عَلَيْهِ اجْتَِماعاً، مَعَ تَفْرِيقِ أَهْوَائِهِمْ، وَتَشْتِيتِ آرَائِهِمْ، مِنَ تَعْظيمِ الْوَفَاءِ بِالْعُهُودِ. وَقَدْ لَزِمَ ذلِكَ الْمُشْرِكُونَ فِيَما بَيْنَهُمْ دُونَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ لِمَا اسْتَوْبَلُوا (198) مِنْ عَوَاقِبِ الْغَدْرِ، فَلاَ تَغْدِرَنَّ بِذِمَّتِكَ، وَلاَ تَخِيسَنَّ بَعَهْدِكَ (199) ، وَلاَ تَخْتِلَنَّ (200) عَدُوَّكَ، فَإِنَّهُ لاَ يَجْتَرِىءُ عَلَى اللهِ إِلاَّ جَاهِلٌ شَقِيٌّ. وَقَدْ جَعَلَ اللهُ عَهْدَهُ وَذِمَّتَهُ أَمْناً أَفْضَاهُ (201) بَيْنَ الْعِبَادِ بِرَحْمَتِهِ، وَحَرِيماً (202) يَسْكُنُونَ إِلَى مَنَعَتِهِ (203) ، يَسْتَفِيضُونَ إِلَى جِوَارِهِ (204) ، فَلاَ إِدْغَالَ (205) ، وَلاَ مُدَالَسَةَ (206) ، وَلاَ خِدَاعَ فِيهِ، وَلاَ تَعْقِدْ عَقْداً تَجُوزُ فِيهِ الْعِلَلُ (207) ، وَلاَ تُعَوِّلَنَّ عَلَى لَحْنِ القَوْلٍ (208) بَعْدَ التَّأْكِيدِ وَالتَّوْثِقَةِ، وَلاَ يَدْعُوَنَّكَ ضِيقُ أَمْرٍ لَزِمَكَ فِيهِ عَهْدُ اللهِ، إِلَى طَلَبِ انْفِسَاخِهِ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ، فَإنَّ صَبْرَكَ عَلَى ضِيقِ أَمْرٍ تَرْجُو انْفِرَاجَهُ وَفَضْلَ عَاقِبَتِهِ، خَيْرٌ مِنْ غَدْرٍ تَخَافُ تَبِعَتَهُ، وَأَنْ تُحِيطَ بِكَ مِنَ اللهِ فِيهِ طَلِبَةٌ (209) ، لاَتَسْتَقِيلُ فِيهَا دُنْيَاكَ وَلاَ آخِرَتَكَ.

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إِيَّاكَ وَالدَّمَاءَ و َسَفْكَهَا بِغَيْرِ حِلِّهَا، فَإِنَّهُ لَيْسَ شَيْءٌ أَدْعَى لِنِقْمَةٍ، وَلاَ أَعْظَمَ لِتَبِعَةٍ، وَلاَ أَحْرَى بِزَوَالِ نِعْمَةٍ، وَانْقِطَاعِ مُدَّةٍ، مِنْ سَفْكِ الدِّمَاءِ بِغَيْرِ حَقِّهَا. وَاللهُ سُبْحَانَهُ مُبْتَدِىءٌ بِالْحُكْمِ بَيْنَ الْعِبَادِ، فِيَما تَسَافَكُوا مِنَ الدِّمَاءِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامةِ، فَلاَ تُقَوِّيَنَّ سُلْطَانَكَ بِسَفْكِ دَمٍ حَرَامٍ، فَإِنَّ ذلِكَ مِمَّا يُضْعِفُهُ وَيُوهِنُهُ، بَلْ يُزيِلُهُ وَيَنْقُلُهُ، وَلاَ عُذْرَ لَكَ عِنْدَ اللهِ وَلاَ عِنْدِي فِي قَتْلِ الْعَمدِ، لِأَنَّ فِيهِ قَوَدَ (210) الْبَدَنِ، وَإِنِ ابْتُلِيتَ بِخَطَإٍ وَأَفْرَطَ عَلَيْكَ (211) سَوْطُكَ أَوْ سَيْفُكَ أَوْ يَدُكَ بِعُقُوبَة، فَإِنَّ فِي الْوَكْزَةِ (212) فَمَا فَوْقَهَا مَقْتَلَةً، فَلاَ تَطْمَحَنَّ (213) بِكَ نَخْوَةُ سُلْطَانِكَ عَنْ أَنْ تُؤَدِّيَ إِلَى أَوْلِيَاءِ الْمَقْتُول حَقَّهُمْ.

وَإِيَّاكَ وَالْإِعْجَابَ بِنَفْسِكَ، وَالثِّقَةَ بِمَا يُعْجِبُكَ مِنْهَا، وَحُبَّ الْإِطْرَاءِ (214) ، فَإِنَّ ذلِكَ مِنْ أَوْثَقِ فُرَصِ الشَّيْطَانِ فِي نَفْسِهِ، لِيَمْحَقَ مَا يَكُونُ مِنْ إِحْسَانِ الْمُحْسِنِينَ.

وَإِيَّاكَ وَالْمَنَّ عَلَى رَعِيَّتِكَ بِإِحْسَانِكَ، أَوِ التَّزَيُّدَ (215) فِيَما كَانَ مِنْ فِعْلِكَ، أَوْ أَنْ تَعِدَهُمْ فَتُتْبِعَ مَوْعِدَكَ بِخُلْفِكَ، فَإِنَّ الْمَنَّ يُبْطِلُ الْإِحْسَانَ، وَالتَّزَيُّدَ يَذْهَبُ بِنُورِ الْحَقِّ، وَالخُلْفَ يُوجِبُ الْمَقْتَ (216) عِنْدَاللهِ وَالنَّاسِ، قَالَ اللهُ سبحانه: (كَبُرَ مَقْتاً عِنْدَ اللهِ أَنْ تَقُولُوا مَا لاَ تَفْعَلُونَ)

و إيَّاكَ وَالْعَجَلَةَ بِالْأُمُورِ قَبْلَ أَوَانِهَا، أَوِ التَّسَاقُطَ (217) فِيهَا عِنْدَ إِمْكَانِهَا، أَوِ الَّلجَاجَةَ فِيهَا إِذا تَنَكَّرَتْ (218) ، أَوِ الْوَهْنَ (219) عَنْهَا إذَا اسْتَوْضَحَتْ، فَضَعْ كُلَّ أَمْرٍ مَوْضِعَهُ، وَأَوْقِعْ كُلَّ أَمَرٍ مَوْقِعَهُ.

وَإيَّاكَ وَالْإِسْتِئْثَارَ (220) بِمَا النَّاسُ فِيهِ أُسْوَةٌ (221) ، وَالتَّغَابِيَ (222) عَمَّا تُعْنَى بِهِ مِمَّا قَدْ وَضَحَ لِلْعُيُونِ، فَإِنَّهُ مَأْخُوذٌ مِنْكَ لِغَيْرِكَ، وَعَمَّا قَلَيلٍ تَنْكَشِفُ عَنْكَ أَغْطِيَةُ الْأُمُورِ، وَيُنْتَصَفُ مِنْكَ لِلْمَظْلُومِ، امْلِكْ حَمِيَّةَ أَنْفِكَ (223) ، وَسَوْرَةَ (224) حَدِّكَ (225) ، وَسَطْوَةَ يَدِكَ، وَغَرْبَ (226) لِسَانِكَ، وَاحْتَرِسْ مِنْ كُلِّ ذلِكَ بِكَفِّ الْبَادِرَةِ (227) ، وَتَأْخِيرِ السَّطْوَةِ، حَتَّى يَسْكُنَ غَضَبُكَ فَتَمْلِكَ الْإِخْتِيَارَ: وَلَنْ تَحْكُمْ ذلِكَ مِنْ نَفْسِكَ حَتَّى تُكْثِرَ هُمُومَكَ بِذِكْرِ الْمَعَادِ إِلَى رَبِّكَ.

p: 219

وَالْوَاجِبُ عَلَيْكَ أَنْ تَتَذَكَّرَ مَا مَضَى لِمَنْ تَقَدَّمَكَ مِنْ حُكُومَةٍ عَادِلَةٍ، أَوْ سُنَّةٍ فَاضِلَةٍ، أَوْ أَثَرٍ عَنْ نَبِيِّنَا-صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ- أَوْ

فَرِيضَة فِي كِتَابِ اللهِ، فَتَقْتَدِيَ بِمَا شَاهَدْتَ مِمَّا عَمِلْنَا بِهِ فِيهَا، وَتَجْتَهِدَ لِنَفْسِكَ فِي اتِّبَاعِ مَا عَهِدْتُ إِلَيْكَ فِي عهْدِي هذَا، وَاسْتَوْثَقْتُ بِهِ مِنَ الْحُجَّةِ لِنَفْسِي عَلَيْكَ، لِكَيْلاَ تَكُونَ لَكَ عِلَّةٌ عِنْدَ تَسَرُّعِ نَفْسِكَ إِلَى هَوَاهَا. وَأَنَا أَسْأَلُ اللهَ بِسَعَةِ رَحْمَتِهِ، وَعَظِيمِ قُدْرَتِهِ عَلَى إِعْطَاءِ كُلِّ رَغْبَةٍ، أَنْ يُوَفِّقَنِي وَإِيَّاكَ لِمَا فيهِ رِضَاهُ مِنَ الْإِقَامَةِ عَلَى الْعُذْرِ الْوَاضِحِ إِلَيْهِ وَإِلَى خَلْقِهِ، مَعَ حُسْنِ الثَّنَاءِ فِي الْعِبَادِ، وَجَمِيلِ الْأَثَرِ فِي الْبَلاَدِ، ( 471 )

وَتَمَامِ النِّعْمَةِ، وَتَضْعِيفِ الْكَرَامَةِ (228) ، وَأَنْ يَخْتِمَ لِي وَلَكَ بالسَّعَادَةِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ، (إِنَّا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ)، وَالسَّلاَمُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللهِ -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ-الطَيِّبِينَ الطَاهِرِينَ, وَسَلََّمَ تَسْلِيمًا كَثِيراً وَالسَّلَامُ.

In Persian

به مالك اشتر نخعي

به نام خداوند بخشنده مهربان، اين فرمان بنده خدا علي امير مومنان، به مالك اشتر پسر حارث است، در عهدي كه با او دارد، هنگامي كه او را به فرمانداري مصر برمي گزيند تا خراج آن ديار را جمع آورد، و با دشمنانش نبرد كند، كار مردم را اصلاح، و شهرهاي مصر را آباد سازد. ضرورت خودسازي او را به ترس از خدا فرمان مي دهد، و اينكه اطاعت خدا را بر ديگر كارها مقدم دارد، و آنچه كه در كتاب خدا آمده، از واجبات و سنتها را پيروي كند، دستوراتي كه جز با پيروي آن رستگار نخواهد شد، و جز با نشناختن و ضايع كردن آن جنايتكار نخواهد گرديد. به او فرماني مي دهد كه خدا را با دل و دست و زبان ياري كند، زيرا خداوند پيروزي كسي را تضمين كند كه او را ياري دهد، و بزرگ دارد آن كس را كه او بزرگ شمارد. و به او فرمان مي دهد تا نفس خود را از پيروي آرزوها باز دارد، و به هنگام سركش رامش نمايد، كه (همانا نفس همواره به بدي وامي دارد جز آنكه خدا رحمت آورد.)

p: 220

پس اي مالك بدان! من تو را به سوي شهرهايي فرستادم كه پيش از تو دولتهاي عادل يا ستمگري بر آن حكم راندند، و مردم در كارهاي تو چنان مي نگرند كه تو در كارهاي حاكمان پيش از خود مي نگري، و درباره تو آن مي گويند كه تو نسبت به زمامداران گذشته مي گويي، و همانا نيكوكاران را به نام نيكي توان شناخت كه خدا از آنان بر زبان بندگانش جاري ساخت. پس نيكوترين اندوخته تو بايد اعمال صالح و درست باشد، هواي نفس را در اختيار گير، و از آنچه حلال نيست خويشتن داري بكن، زيرا بخل ورزيدن به نفس خويش، آن است كه در آنچه دوست دارد، يا براي او ناخوشايند است، راه انصاف پيمايي. اخلاق رهبري (روش برخورد با مردم) مهرباني با مردم را پوشش دل خويش قرار ده، و با همه دوست و مهربان باش. مبادا هرگز، چونان حيوان شكاري باشي كه خوردن آنان را غنيمت داني، زيرا مردم دو دسته اند، دسته اي برادر ديني تو، و دسته ديگر همانند تو در آفرينش مي باشند، اگر گناهي از آنان سر مي زند، يا علتهايي بر آنان عارض مي شود، يا خواسته و ناخواسته، اشتباهي مرتكب مي گردند، آنان را ببخشاي و بر آنان آسان گير، آن گونه كه دوست داري خدا تو را ببخشايد و بر تو آسان گيرد. همانا تو

از آنان برتر، و امام تو از تو برتر، و خدا بر آن كس كه تو را فرمانداري مصر داد والاتر است، كه انجام امور مردم مصر را به تو واگذارده، و آنان را وسيله آزمودن تو قرار داده است، هرگز با خدا مستيز، كه تو را از كيفر او نجاتي نيست، و از بخشش و رحمت او بي نياز نخواهي بود، بر بخشش ديگران پشيمان مباش، و از كيفر كردن شادي مكن، و از خشمي كه تواني از آن رها گردي شتاب نداشته باش، به مردم نگو، به من فرمان دادند و من نيز فرمان مي دهم، بايد اطاعت شود، كه اين گونه خود بزرگ بيني دل را فاسد، و دين را پژمرده، و موجب زوال نعمتهاست. و اگر با مقام و قدرتي كه داري، دچار تكبر يا خود بزرگ بيني شدي به بزرگي حكومت پروردگار كه برتر از تو است بنگر، كه تو را از آن سركشي نجات مي دهد، و تندروي تو را فرو مي نشاند، و عقل و انديشه ات را به جايگاه اصلي باز مي گرداند. پرهيز از غرور و خودپسندي بپرهيز كه در بزرگي خود را همانند خداوند پنداري، و در شكوه خداوندي همانند او داني، زيرا خداوند هر سركشي را خوار مي سازد، و هر خودپسندي را بي ارزش مي كند،

p: 221

با خدا و با مردم، و با خويشاوندان نزديك، و با افرادي از رعيت خود كه آنان را دوست داري، انصاف را رعايت كن. كه اگر چنين نكني ستم روا داشتي، و كسي كه به بندگان خدا ستم روا دارد خدا بجاي بندگانش دشمن او خواهد بود، و آن را كه خدا دشمن شود، دليل او را ستمكاري نعمت خدا را دگرگون نمي كند، و كيفر او را نزديك نمي سازد، كه خدا دعاي ستمديدگان را مي شنود، و در كمين ستمكاران است. مردم گرايي، حق گرايي دوست داشتني ترين چيزها در نزد تو، در حق ميانه ترين، و در عدل فراگيرترين، و در جلب خشنودي مردم گسترده ترين باشد، كه همانا خشم عمومي مردم خشنودي خواص را از بين مي برد، اما خشم خواص را خشنودي همگان بي اثر مي كند. خواص جامعه همواره بار سنگيني را بر حكومت تحميل مي كنند زيرا در روزگار سختي ياريشان كمتر، و در اجراي عدالت از همه ناراضي تر، و در خواسته هايشان پافشارتر، و در عطا و بخشش ها كم سپاس تر، و به هنگام منع خواسته ها دير عذر پذيرتر، و در برابر مشكلات كم استقامت تر مي باشند. در صورتيكه ستونهاي استوار دين، و اجتماعات پرشور مسلمين، و نيروهاي ذخيره دفاعي، عموم مردم مي باشند، پس به آنها گرايش داشته و اشتياق تو با آنان باشد.

ضرورت رازداري از رعيت، آنان كه عيبجوترند از خود دور كن، زيرا مردم عيوبي دارند كه والي در پنهان داشتن آن از همه سزاوارتر است، پس مبادا آنچه بر تو پنهان است آشكار گرداني، و آنچه كه هويداست بپوشاني، كه داوري در آنچه از تو پنهان است با خداي جهان مي باشد، پس چندان كه مي تواني زشتي ها را بپوشان، تا آن را كه دوست داري بر رعيت پوشيده ماند خدا بر تو بپوشاند، گره هر كينه اي را در مردم بگشاي، و رشته هر نوع دشمني را قطع كن، و از آنچه كه در نظر روشن نيست كناره گير، در تصديق سخن چين شتاب مكن، زيرا سخن چين گرچه در لباس اندرزدهنده ظاهر مي شود اما خيانتكار است. جايگاه صحيح مشورت بخيل را در مشورت كردن، دخالت نده، كه تو را از نيكوكاري باز مي دارد، و از تنگدستي مي ترساند، ترسو را در مشورت كردن دخالت نده، كه در انجام كارها روحيه تو را سست مي كند. حريص را در مشورت كردن دخالت نده، كه حرص را با ستمكاري در نظرت زينت مي دهد. همانا بخل و ترس و حرص، غرائز گوناگوني هستند كه ريشه آنها بدگماني به خداي بزرگ است.

p: 222

بدترين وزيران تو، كسي است كه پيش از تو وزير بدكاران بوده، و در گناهان آنان شركت داشت، پس مبادا چنين افرادي محرم راز تو باشند، زيرا كه آنان ياوران گناهكاران، و ياري دهندگان ستمكارانند، تو بايد جانشيناني بهتر از آنان داشته باشي كه قدرت فكري امثال آنها را داشته اما گناهان و كردار زشت آنها را نداشته باشند. كساني كه ستمكاري را بر ستمي ياري نكرده، و گناهكاري را در گناهي كمك نرسانده باشند، هزينه اين گونه از افراد بر تو سبك تر، و ياريشان بهتر، و مهربانيشان بيشتر، و دوستي آنان جز با تو كمتر است، آنان را از خواص، و دوستان نزديك، و رازداران خود قرار ده، سپس از ميان آنان افرادي را كه در حق گويي از همه صريح ترند، و در آنچه را كه خدا براي دوستانش نمي پسندد تو را مددكار نباشند، انتخاب كن، چه خوشايند تو باشد يا ناخوشايند. اصول روابط اجتماعي رهبران تا مي تواني با پرهيزكاران و راستگويان بپيوند، و آنان را چنان پرورش ده كه تو را فراوان نستايند، و تو را براي اعمال زشتي كه انجام نداده اي تشويق نكنند، كه ستايش بي اندازه خودپسندي مي آورد، و انسان را به سركشي وامي دارد.

هرگز نيكوكار و بدكار در نظرت يكسان نباشند. زيرا نيكوكاري در نيكوكاري بي رغبت، و بدكاران در بدكاري تشويق مي گردند، پس هر كدام از آنان را بر اساس كردارشان پاداش ده. بدان اي مالك! هيچ وسيله اي براي جلب اعتماد والي به رعيت بهتر از نيكوكاري به مردم، و تخفيف ماليات، و عدم اجبار مردم به كاري كه دوست ندارند، نمي باشد، پس در اين راه آنقدر بكوش تا به وفاداري رعيت، خوشبين شوي، كه اين خوشبيني بار سنگين رنج آور مشكلات را از تو برمي دارد، پس به آنان كه بيشتر احساس كردي بيشتر خوشبين باش، و به آنان كه بدرفتاري نمودي بدگمان تر باش. و آداب پسنديده اي را كه بزرگان اين امت به آن عمل كردند، و ملت اسلام با آن پيوند خورده، و رعيت با آن اصلاح شدند، بر هم مزن، و آدابي كه به سنتهاي خوب گذشته زيان وارد مي كند، پديد نياور، كه پاداش براي آورنده سنت، و كيفر آن براي تو باشد كه آنها را درهم شكستي. با دانشمندان، فراوان گفتگو كن، و با حكيمان فراوان بحث كن، كه مايه آباداني و اصلاح شهرها، و برقراري نظم و قانوني است كه در گذشته نيز وجود داشت.شناخت اقشار گوناگون اجتماعي اي مالك بدان! مردم از گروههاي گوناگوني مي باشند كه اصلاح هر يك جز با ديگري امكان ندارد، و هيچ يك از گروهها از گروه ديگر بي نياز نيست. از آن قشرها، لشگريان خدا، و نويسندگان عمومي و خصوصي، قضات دادگستر، كارگزاران عدل و نظم اجتماعي، جزيه دهندگان، پرداخت كنندگان ماليات، تجار و بازرگانان، صاحبان صنعت و پيشه وران، و طبقه پايين جامعه از نيازمندان و مستمندان مي باشند، كه براي هر يك خداوند سهمي مقرر داشته، و مقدار واجب آن را در قرآن يا سنت پيامبر (ص) تعيين كرده، كه پيماني از طرف خداست و نگهداري آن بر ما لازم است. پس سپاهيان به فرمان خدا، پناهگاه استوار رعيت، و زينت و وقار زمامداران، شكوه دين، و راههاي تحقق امنيت كشورند، امور مردم جز با سپاهيان استوار نگردد، و پايداري سپاهيان جز به خراج و ماليات رعيت انجام نمي شود كه با آن براي جهاد با دشمن تقويت گردند، و براي اصلاح امور خويش به آن تكيه كنند، و نيازمنديهاي خود را برطرف سازند. سپس سپاهيان و مردم، جز با گروه سوم نمي توانند پايدار باشند، و آن قضات، و كارگزاران دولت، و نويسندگان حكومتند، كه قراردادها و معاملات را استوار مي كنند، و

p: 223

آنچه به سود مسلمانان است فراهم مي آورند، و در كارهاي عمومي و خصوصي مورد اعتمادند. و گروههاي يادشده بدون بازرگانان، و صاحبان صنايع نمي توانند دوام بياورند، زيرا آنان وسائل زندگي را فراهم مي آورند، و در بازارها عرضه مي كنند، و بسياري از وسايل زندگي را با دست مي سازند كه از توان ديگران خارج است. قشر ديگر، طبقه پايين از نيازمندان و مستمندانند كه بايد به آنها بخشش و ياري كرد. براي تمام اقشار گوناگون يادشده، در پيشگاه خدا گشايشي است، و همه آنان به مقداري كه امورشان اصلاح شود بر زمامدار حقي مشخص دارند، و زمامدار از انجام آنچه خدا بر واجب كرده است نمي تواند موفق باشد جز آنكه تلاش فراوان نمايد، و از خدا ياري بطلبد، و خود را براي انجام حق آماده سازد، و در همه كارها، آسان باشد يا دشوار، شكيبايي ورزد. براي فرماندهي سپاه كسي را برگزين كه خيرخواهي او براي خدا و پيامبر (ص) و امام تو بيشتر، و دامن او پاكتر، شكيبايي او برتر باشد، از كساني كه دير به خشم آيد، و عذر پذيرتر باشد، و بر ناتوان رحمت آورد، و با قدرتمندان، با قدرت برخورد نمايد، درشتي او را به تجاوز نكشاند، و ناتواني او را از حركت باز ندارد. سپس در نظاميان با خانواده هاي ريشه دار، داراي شخصيت حساب شده، خانداني پارسا، داراي سوابقي نيكو و درخشان، كه دلاور و سلحشور و بخشنده و بلندنظرند، روابط نزديك برقرار كن، آنان همه بزرگواري را در خود جمع كرده، و نيكي ها را در خود گرد آورده اند، پس در كارهاي آنان بگونه اي بينديش كه پدري مهربان درباره فرزندش مي انديشد، و مبادا آنچه را كه آنان را نيرومند مي كند در ديده ات بزرگ جلوه كند، و نيكوكاري تو نسبت به آنان هرچند اندك باشد را خوار مپندار، زيرا نيكي آنان را به خيرخواهي تو خواند، و گمانشان رانسبت به تو نيكو گرداند، و رسيدگي به امور كوچك آنان را به اعتماد رسيدگي به كارهاي بزرگشان وامگذار، زيرا نيكي اندك تو را جايگاهي است كه از آن سود مي برند و نيكي هاي بزرگ تو را جايي است كه از آن بي نياز نيستند.

p: 224

برگزيده ترين فرماندهان سپاه تو، كسي باشد كه: از همه بيشتر به سربازان كمك رساند، و از امكانات مالي خود بيشتر در اختيارشان گذارد، به اندازه اي كه خانواده هايشان در پشت جبهه، و خودشان در آسايش كامل باشند، تا در نبرد با دشمن، سربازان اسلام تنها به يك چيز بينديشند. همانا مهرباني تو نسبت به سربازان، دلهايشان را به تو مي كشاند، و همانا، روشني چشم زمامداران، برقراري عدل در شهرها و آشكار شدن محبت مردم نسبت به والي است، كه محبت دلهاي رعيت جز با پاكي قلبها پديد نمي آيد، و خيرخواهي آنان زماني است كه با رغبت و شوق پيرامون والي را گرفته، و حكومت بار سنگيني را بر دوش رعيت نگذاشته باشد، و طولاني شدن مدت زمامداري بر ملت ناگوار نباشد. پس آرزوهاي سپاهيان را برآور، و همواره از آنان ستايش كن، و كارهاي مهمي كه انجام داده اند بر شمار، زيرا يادآوري كارهاي ارزشمند آنان، شجاعان را برمي انگيزاند، و ترسوها را به تلاش وامي دارد، ان شاءالله.

و در يك ارزشيابي دقيق، رنج و زحمات هر يك از آنان را شناسايي كن، و هرگز تلاش و رنج كسي را به حساب ديگري مگذار، و ارزش خدمت او را ناچيز مشمار، تا شرافت و بزرگي كسي موجب نگردد كه كار كوچكش را بزرگ بشماري، يا گمنامي كسي باعث شود كه كار بزرگ او را ناچيز بداني مشكلاتي كه در احكام نظاميان براي تو پديد مي آيد، و اموري كه براي تو شبهه ناكند، به خدا، و رسول خدا (ص) بازگردان، زيرا خدا براي مردمي كه علاقه داشت هدايتشان كند فرمود. (اي كساني كه ايمان آورديد، از خدا و رسول و اماماني كه از شما هستند اطاعت كنيد، و اگر در چيزي نزاع داريد، آن را به خدا و رسولش باز گردانيد.) پس بازگرداندن چيزي به خدا يعني عمل كردن به قرآن، و بازگرداندن به پيامبر (ص) يعني عمل كردن به سنت او كه وحدت بخش است، نه عامل پراكندگي. سپس از ميان مردم!

p: 225

برترين فرد نزد خود را براي قضاوت انتخاب كن، كساني كه مراجعه فراوان، آنها را به ستوه نياورد، و برخورد مخالفان با يكديگر او را خشمناك نسازد، در اشتباهاتش پافشاري نكند، و بازگشت به حق پس از آگاهي براي او دشوار نباشد، طمع را از دل ريشه كن كند، و در شناخت مطالب با تحقيقي اندك رضايت ندهد، و در شبهات از همه بااحتياط تر عمل كند، و در يافتن دليل اصرار او از همه بيشتر باشد، و در مراجعه پياپي شاكيان خسته نشود، در كشف امور از همه شكيباتر، و پس از آشكار شدن حقيقت در فصل خصومت از همه برنده تر باشد، كسي كه ستايش فراوان او را فريب ندهد، و چربزباني او را منحرف نسازد و چنين كساني بسيار اندكند!! پس از انتخاب قاضي، هر چه بيشتر در قضاوتهاي او بينديش، و آنقدر به او ببخش كه نيازهاي او برطرف گردد، و به مردم نيازمند نباشد، و از نظر مقام و منزلت آنقدر او را گرامي دار كه نزديكان تو به نفوذ در او طمع نكنند، تا از توطئه آنان در نزد تو درامان باشد. در دستوراتي كه دادم نيك بنگر كه همانا اين دين در دست بدكاران گرفتار آمده بود، كه با نام دين به هواپرستي پرداخته، و دنياي خود را به دست مي آوردند. سپس در امور كارمندانت بينديش، و پس از آزمايش به كارشان بگمار، و با ميل شخصي، و بدون مشورت با ديگران آنان را به كارهاي مختلف وادار نكن، زيرا نوعي ستمگري و خيانت است. كارگزاران دولتي را از ميان مردمي باتجربه و باحيا، از خاندانهاي پاكيزه و باتقوي، كه در مسلماني سابقه درخشاني داردند انتخاب كن، زيرا اخلاق آنان گرامي تر، و آبرويشان محفوظتر، و طمع ورزيشان كمتر، و آينده نگري آنان بيشتر است. سپس روزي فراوان بر آنان ارزاني دار، كه با گرفتن حقوق كافي در اصلاح خود بيشتر مي كوشند، و با بي نيازي، دست به اموال بيت المال نمي زنند، و اتمام حجتي است بر آنان اگر فرمانت را نپذيرند يا در امانت تو خيانت كنند.

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سپس رفتار كارگزاران را بررسي كن، و جاسوساني راستگو، و وفاپيشه بر آنان بگمار، كه مراقبت و بازرسي پنهاني تو از كار آنان، سبب امانتداري، و مهرباني با رعيت خواهد بود. و از همكاران نزديكت سخت مراقبت كن، و اگر يكي از آنان دست به خيانت زد، و گزارش جاسوسان تو هم آن خيانت را تاييد كرد، به همين مقدار گواهي قناعت كرده او را با تازيانه كيفر كن، و آنچه از اموال كه در اختيار دارد از او بازپس گير، سپس او را خوار دار، و خيانتكار بشمار، و طوق بدنامي به گردنش بيافكن.

ماليات و بيت المال را بگونه اي وارسي كن كه صلاح ماليات دهندگان باشد، زيرا بهبودي ماليات و ماليات دهندگان، عامل اصلاح امور ديگر اقشار جامعه مي باشد، و تا امور ماليات دهندگان اصلاح نشود كار ديگران نيز سامان نخواهد گرفت. زيرا همه مردم نان خور ماليات و ماليات دهندگانند، بايد تلاش تو در آباداني زمين بيشتر از جمع آوري خراج باشد كه خراج جز با آباداني فراهم نمي گردد، و آن كس كه بخواهد خراج را بدون آباداني مزارع به دست آورد، شهرها را خراب، و بندگان خدا را نابود، و حكومتش جز اندك مدتي دوام نياورد. پس اگر مردم شكايت كردند، از سنگيني ماليات، يا آفت زدگي، يا خشك شدن آب چشمه ها، يا كمي باران، يا خراب شدن زمين در سيلابها، يا خشكسالي، در گرفتن ماليات به ميزاني تخفيف ده تا امورشان سامان گيرد، و هرگز تخفيف دادن در خراج تو را نگران نسازد. زيرا آن، اندوخته اي است كه در آباداني شهرهاي تو، و آراستن ولايتهاي تو نقش دارد، و رعيت تو را مي ستايند، و تو از گسترش عدالت ميان مردم خشنود خواهي شد، و به افزايش قوت آنان تكيه خواهي كرد، بدانچه در نزدشان اندوختي و به آنان بخشيدي، و با گسترش عدالت در بين مردم، و مهرباني با رعيت، به

p: 227

آنان اطمينان خواهي داشت. آنگاه اگر در آينده كاري پيش آيد و به عهده شان بگذاري، با شادماني خواهند پذيرفت، زيرا عمران و آبادي قدرت تحمل مردم را زياد مي كند. همانا ويراني زمين به جهت تنگدستي كشاورزان است كه به آينده حكومتشان اعتماد ندارند، و از تاريخ گذشتگان عبرت نمي گيرند.

سپس در امور نويسندگان و منشيان به درستي بينديش، و كارهايت را به بهترين آنان واگذار، و نامه هاي محرمانه، كه دربردارنده سياستها و اسرار تو است، از ميان نويسندگان به كسي اختصاص ده كه صالح تر از ديگران باشد، كسي كه گرامي داشتن او را به سركشي و تجاوز نكشاند تا در حضور ديگران با تو مخالفت كند، و در رساندن نامه كارگزارانت به تو، يا رساندن پاسخهاي تو به آنان كوتاهي نكند، و در آنچه براي تو مي ستاند يا از طرف تو به آنان تحويل مي دهد. فراموشكار نباشد. و در تنظيم هيچ قراردادي سستي نورزد، و در برهم زدن قراردادي كه به زيان توست كوتاهي نكند، و منزلت و قدر خويش را بشناسد، همانا آنكه از شناخت قدر خويش عاجز باشد، در شناخت قدر ديگران جاهل تر است مبادا در گزينش نويسندگان و منشيان، بر تيزهوشي و اطمينان شخصي و خوش باوري خود تكيه نمايي، زيرا افراد زيرك با ظاهرسازي و خوش خدمتي، نظر زمامداران را به خود جلب مي نمايند، كه در پس اين ظاهرسازي ها، نه خيرخواهي وجود دارد، و نه از امانتداري نشاني يافت مي شود. لكن آنها را با خدماتي كه براي زمامداران شايسته و پيشين انجام داده اند بيازماي، به كاتبان و نويسندگاني اعتماد داشته باش كه در ميان مردم آثاري نيكو گذاشته، و به امانتداري از همه مشهورترند، كه چنين انتخاب درستي نشان دهنده خيرخواهي تو براي خدا، و مردمي است كه حاكم آناني. براي هر يك از كارهايت سرپرستي برگزين كه بزرگي كار بر او چيرگي نيابد، و فراواني كار او را درمانده نسازد، و بدان كه هرگاه در كار نويسندگان و منشيان تو كمبودي وجود داشته باشد كه تو بي خبر باشي خطرات آن دامنگير تو خواهد بود. سپس سفارش مرا به بازرگانان و صاحبان صنايع بپذير، و آنها را به نيكوكاري سفارش كن، بازرگاناني كه در شهر ساكنند، يا آنان كه همواره در سير و كوچ كردن مي باشند، و بازرگاناني كه با نيروي جسماني كار مي كنند، چرا كه آنان منابع اصلي منفعت، و پديدآورندگان وسايل زندگي و آسايش، و آورندگان وسايل زندگي از نقاط دوردست و دشوار مي باشند، از بيابانها و درياها، و دشتها و كوهستانها، جاهاي سختي كه مردم در آن اجتماع نمي كنند، يا براي رفتن به آنجاها شجاعت ندارند.

p: 228

بازرگانان مردمي آرامند، و از ستيزه جويي آنان ترسي وجود نخواهد داشت، مردمي آشتي طلبند كه فتنه انگيزي ندارند، در كار آنها بينديش چه در شهري باشند كه تو به سر مي بري، يا در شهرهاي ديگر، با توجه به آنچه كه تذكر دادم اين را هم بدان كه در ميان بازرگانان، هستند كساني كه تنگنظر و بدمعامله و بخيل و احتكاركننده اند، كه تنها با زورگوئي به سود خود مي انديشند. و كالا را به هر قيمتي كه مي خواهند مي فروشند، كه اين سودجوئي و گران فروشي براي همه افراد جامعه زيانبار، و عيب بزرگي بر زمامدار است. پس از احتكار كالا جلوگيري كن، كه رسول خدا (ص) از آن جلوگيري مي كرد، بايد خريد و فروش در جامعه اسلامي، به سادگي و با موازين عدالت انجام گيرد، با نرخهايي كه بر فروشنده و خريدار زياني نرساند، كسي كه پس از منع تو احتكار كند، او را كيفر ده تا عبرت ديگران شود اما در كيفر او اسراف نكن.

سپس خدا را! خدا را! در خصوص طبقات پايين و محروم جامعه كه هيچ چاره اي ندارند، از زمين گيران، نيازمندان، گرفتاران، دردمندان، همانا در اين طبقه محروم گروهي خويشتن داري نموده، و گروهي به گدايي دست نياز برمي دارند، پس براي خدا پاسدار حقي باش كه خداوند براي اين طبقه معين فرموده است، بخشي از بيت المال، و بخشي از غله هاي زمينهاي غنيمتي اسلام را در هر شهري به طبقات پايين اختصاص ده، زيرا براي دورترين مسلمانان همانند نزديكترينشان سهمي مساوي وجود دارد و تو مسوول رعايت آن مي باشي، مبادا سرمستي حكومت تو را از رسيدگي به آنان بازدارد، كه هرگز انجام كارهاي فراوان و مهم عذري براي ترك مسووليتهاي كوچك تر نخواهد بود، همواره در فكر مشكلات آنان باش، و از آنان روي برمگردان، به ويژه امور كساني را از آنان بيشتر رسيدگي كن كه از كوچكي به چشم نمي آيند و ديگران آنان را كوچك مي شمارند و كمتر به تو دسترسي دارند، براي اين گروه از افراد مورد اطمينان خود كه خداترس و فروتنند انتخاب كن، تا پيرامونشان تحقيق و مسائل آنان را به تو گزارش كنند. سپس در رفع مشكلاتشان بگونه اي عمل كن كه در پيشگاه خدا عذري داشته باشي، زيرا اين گروه، در ميان

p: 229

رعيت بيشتر از ديگران به عدالت نيازمندند، و حق آنان را بگونه اي بپرداز كه در نزد خدا معذور باشي، از يتيمان خردسال، و پيران سالخورده كه راه چاره اي ندارند. و دست نياز برنمي دارند، پيوسته دلجويي كن كه مسووليتي سنگين بر دوش زمامداران است. اگرچه حق، تمامش سنگين است اما خدا آن را بر مردمي آسان مي كند كه آخرت مي طلبند، نفس را به شكيبايي وامي دارند، و به وعده هاي پروردگار اطمينان دارند.

پس بخشي از وقت خود را به كساني اختصاص ده كه به تو نياز دارند، تا شخصا به امور آنان رسيدگي نمايي، و در مجلس عمومي با آنان بنشين و در برابر خدايي كه تو را آفريده فروتن باش، و سربازان و ياران و نگهبانان خود را از سر راهشان دور كن تا سخنگوي آنان بدون اضطراب در سخن گفتن با تو گفتگو كند، من از رسول خدا (ص) بارها شنيدم كه مي فرمود: (ملتي كه حق ناتوانان را از زورمندان، بي اضطراب و بهانه اي بازنستاند، رستگار نخواهد شد.) پس درشتي و سخنان ناهموار آنان را بر خود هموار كن، و تنگخويي و خود بزرگ بيني را از خود دور ساز تا خدا درهاي رحمت خود را به روي تو بگشايد، و تو را پاداش اطاعت ببخشايد، آنچه به مردم مي بخشي بر تو گوارا باشد، و اگر چيزي را از كسي باز مي داري با مهرباني و پوزش خواهي همراه باشد.

اخلاق اختصاصي رهبري بخشي از كارها بگونه اي است كه خود بايد انجام دهي، مانند پاسخ دادن به كارگزاران دولتي، در آنجا كه منشيان تو از پاسخ دادن به آنها درمانده اند و ديگر، برآوردن نياز مردم در همان روزي كه به تو عرضه مي دارند، و يارانت در رفع نياز آنان ناتوانند، كار هر روز را در همان روز انجام ده، زيرا هر روزي، كاري مخصوص به خود دارد. نيكوترين وقتها و بهترين ساعات شب و روزت را براي خود و خداي خود انتخاب كن، اگرچه همه وقت براي خداست، آنگاه كه نيت درست و رعيت در آسايش قرار داشته باشد. از كارهايي كه به خدا اختصاص دارد و بايد بااخلاص انجام دهي، انجام واجباتي است كه ويژه پروردگار است، پس در بخشي از شب و روز، تن را به پرستش خدا اختصاص ده، و آنچه تو را به خدا نزديك مي كند بي عيب و نقصاني انجام ده، اگر چه دچار خستگي جسم شوي. هنگامي كه نماز به جماعت مي خواني، نه با طولاني كردن نماز مردم را بپراكني و نه آنكه آن را تباه سازي، زيرا در ميان مردم، بيمار يا صاحب حاجتي وجود دارد، آنگاه كه پيامبر (ص) مرا به يمن مي فرستاد از او پرسيدم، با مردم چگونه نماز بخوانم؟ فرمود: (در حد توان ناتوانان نماز بگذار و بر مومنان مهربان باش.)

p: 230

هيچگاه خود را فراوان از مردم پنهان مدار، كه پنهان بودن واليان، نمونه اي از تنگخويي و كم اطلاعي در امور جامعه مي باشد. نهان شدن از رعيت، زمامداران را از دانستن آنچه بر آنان پوشيده است باز مي دارد، پس كار بزرگ، اندك، و كار اندك بزرگ جلوه مي كند، زيبا زشت، و زشت زيبا مي نمايد، و باطل به لباس حق درآيد، همانا زمامدار، آنچه را كه مردم از او پوشيده دارند نمي داند، و حق را نيز نشانه اي نباشد تا با آن راست از دروغ شناخته شود، و تو به هر حال يكي از آن دو نفر مي باشي: يا خود را براي جانبازي در راه حق آماده كردي پس نسبت به حق واجبي كه بايد بپردازي يا كار نيكي كه بايد انجام دهي ترسي نداري، پس چرا خود را پنهان مي داري؟ و يا مردي بخيل و تنگ نظري، پس مردم چون تو را بنگرند مايوس شده از درخواست كردن بازمانند. با اينكه بسياري از نيازمنديهاي مردم رنجي براي تو نخواهد داشت، كه شكايت از ستم دارند يا خواستار عدالتند، يا در خريد و فروش خواهان انصافند.

اخلاق رهبري با خويشاوندان همانا زمامداران را خواص و نزديكاني است كه خودخواه و چپاولگرند، و در معاملات انصاف ندارند، ريشه ستمكاريشان را با بريدن اسباب آن بخشكان، و به هيچكدام از اطرافيان و خويشاوندانت زمين را واگذار مكن، و بگونه اي با آنان رفتار كن كه قراردادي به سودشان منعقد نگردد كه به مردم زيان رساند، مانند آبياري مزارع، يا زراعت مشترك، كه هزينه هاي آن را بر ديگران تحميل كنند، در آن صورت سودش براي آنان، و عيب و ننگش در دنيا و آخرت براي تو است. حق را مال هر كس كه باشد، نزديك يا دور بپرداز، و در اين كار شكيبا باش، و اين شكيبايي را به حساب خدا بگذار، گرچه اجراي حق مشكلاتي براي نزديكانت فراهم آورد، تحمل سنگيني آن را به ياد قيامت بر خود هموار ساز. و هرگاه رعيت بر تو بدگمان گردد، افشاگري نموده عذر خويش را آشكارا در ميان بگذار، و با اينكار از بدگماني نجاتشان ده، كه اين كار رياضتي براي خودسازي تو، و مهرباني كردن نسبت به رعيت است، و اين پوزش خواهي تو آنان را به حق وامي دارد.

p: 231

روش برخورد با دشمن هرگز پيشنهاد صلح از طرف دشمن را كه خشنودي خدا در آن است رد مكن، كه آسايش رزمندگان، و آرامش فكري تو، و امنيت كشور در صلح تامين مي گردد. لكن زنهار! زنهار! از دشمن خود پس از آشتي كردن، زيرا گاهي دشمن نزديك مي شود تا غافلگير كند، پس دورانديش باش، و خوشبيني خود را متهم كن. حال اگر پيماني بين تو و دشمن منعقد گرديد، يا در پناه خود او را امان دادي، به عهد خويش وفادار باش، و آنچه برعهده گرفتي امانت دار باش، و جان خود را سپر پيمان خود گردان، زيرا هيچ يك از واجبات الهي همانند وفاي به عهد نيست كه همه مردم جهان با تمام اختلافاتي كه در افكار و تمايلات دارند، در آن اتفاق نظر داشته باشند. تا آنجا كه مشركين زمان جاهليت به عهد و پيماني كه با مسلمانان داشتند وفادار بودند، زيرا كه آينده ناگوار پيمان شكني را آزمودند، پس هرگز پيمان شكن مباش، و در عهد خود خيانت مكن، و دشمن را فريب مده، زيرا كسي جز نادان بدكار، بر خدا گستاخي روا نمي دارد، خداوند عهد و پيماني كه با نام او شكل مي گيرد با رحمت خود مايه آسايش بندگان، و پناهگاه امني براي پناه آورندگان قرار داده است، تا همگان به حريم امن آن روي بياورند. پس

فساد، خيانت، فريب، در عهد و پيمان راه ندارد، مبادا قراردادي را امضا كني كه در آن براي دغلكاري و فريب راههايي وجود دارد، و پس از محكم كاري و دقت در قرارداد نامه، دست از بهانه جويي بردار، مبادا مشكلات پيماني كه بر عهده ات قرار گرفته، و خدا آن را بر گردنت نهاده، تو را به پيمان شكني وادارد، زيرا شكيبايي تو در مشكلات پيمانها كه اميد پيروزي در آينده را به همراه دارد، بهتر از پيمان شكني است كه از كيفر آن مي ترسي، و در دنيا و آخرت نمي تواني پاسخ گوي پيمان شكني باشي.

p: 232

هشدارها اول- هشدار از خون ناحق از خونريزي بپرهيز، و از خون ناحق پروا كن، كه هيچ چيز همانند خون ناحق كيفر الهي را نزديك، مجازات را بزرگ، و نابودي نعمتها را سرعت ، و زوال حكومت را نزديك نمي گرداند، و روز قيامت خداي سبحان قبل از رسيدگي اعمال بندگان، نسبت به خونهاي ناحق ريخته شده داوري خواهد كرد، پس با ريختن خوني حرام، حكومت خود را تقويت مكن. زيرا خون ناحق حكومت را سست، و پست، و بنياد آن را بركنده به ديگري منتقل سازد، و تو، نه در نزد من، و نه در پيشگاه خداوند، عذري در خون ناحق نخواهي داشت چرا كه كيفر آن قصاص است و از آن گريزي نيست، اگر به خطا خون كسي ريختي، يا تازيانه يا شمشير، يا دستت دچار تندروي شد، كه گاه مشتي سبب كشتن كسي مي گردد، چه رسد به بيش از آن، مبادا غرور قدرت تو را از پرداخت خونبها به بازماندگان مقتول باز دارد!

دوم- هشدار از خودپسندي مبادا هرگز! دچار خودپسندي گردي! و به خوبيهاي خود اطمينان كني، و ستايش را دوست داشته باشي، كه اينها همه از بهترين فرصتهاي شيطان براي هجوم آوردن به توست، و كردار نيك، نيكوكاران را نابود سازد. سوم- هشدار از منت گذاري مبادا هرگز! با خدمتهايي كه انجام دادي بر مردم منت گذاري، يا آن چه را انجام داده اي بزرگ بشماري، يا مردم را وعده اي داده، سپس خلف وعده نمايي، منت نهادن، پاداش نيكوكاري را از بين مي برد، و كاري را بزرگ شمردن، نور حق را خاموش گرداند، و خلاف وعده عمل كردن، خشم خدا و مردم را برمي انگيزاند كه خداي بزرگ فرمود: (دشمني بزرگ نزد خدا آنكه بگوييد و عمل نكنيد.) چهارم- هشدار از شتابزدگي مبادا هرگز! در كاري كه وقت آن فرا نرسيده شتاب كني، يا كاري كه وقت آن رسيده سستي ورزي، و يا در چيزي كه روشن نيست ستيزه جويي نمايي و يا در كارهاي روشن كوتاهي كني، تلاش كن تا هر كاري را در جاي خود، و در زمان مخصوص به خود، انجام دهي. پنجم- هشدار از امتيازخواهي مبادا هرگز! در آنچه كه با مردم مساوي هستي امتيازي خواهي، و از اموري كه بر همه روشن است، غفلت نداشته باش، زيرا به هر حال نسبت به آن در

p: 233

برابر مردم مسئولي، و به زودي پرده از كارها يك سو رود، و انتقام ستمديده از تو باز مي گيرند، باد غرورت، جوشش خشمت، تجاوز دستت، تندي زبانت، را در اختيار خود گير، و با پرهيز از شتابزدگي، و فروخوردن خشم، خود را آرامش ده تا خشم فرونشيند و اختيار نفس در دست تو باشد. و تو بر نفس مسلط نخواهي شد مگر با ياد فراوان قيامت، و بازگشت به سوي خدا.

آنچه بر تو لازم است آن كه، حكومتهاي دادگستر پيشين، سنتهاي باارزش گذشتگان، روشهاي پسنديده رفتگان، و آثار پيامبر (ص) و واجباتي كه در كتاب خداست، را همواره به ياد آوري، و به آنچه ما عمل كرده ايم پيروي كني، و براي پيروي از فرامين اين عهدنامه اي كه براي تو نوشته ام، و با آن حجت را بر تو تمام كرده ام، تلاش كن، زيرا اگر نفس سركشي كرد و بر تو چيره شد عذري نزد من نداشته باشي.

از خداوند بزرگ با رحمت گسترده، و قدرت برترش در انجام تمام خواسته ها، درخواست مي كنيم كه به آنچه موجب خشنودي اوست ما و تو را موفق فرمايد، كه نزد او و خلق او، داراي عذري روشن باشيم، برخوردار از ستايش بندگان، يادگار نيك در شهرها، رسيدن به همه نعمتها، و كرامتها بوده، و اينكه پايان عمر من و تو را به شهادت و رستگاري ختم فرمايد، كه همانا به سوي او باز مي گرديم، با درود به پيامبر اسلام (ص) و اهل بيت پاكيزه و پاك او، درودي فراوان و پيوسته. با درود.


(1). This document which deserves to be called the constitution of Islamic polity was prepared by the person who was the greatest scholar of Divine law and acted upon it more than anyone else. From the study of Amir al-mu 'minin's way of governance in these pages it can be concluded that his aim was only the enforcement of Divine law and the improvement of social conditions and not to disrupt public security or to fill treasures by plunder or to strive to extend the country's boundaries by fair means or foul. Worldly governments generally adopt such constitutions which cater to their utmost benefit and try to change every law which is against that aim or is injurious for their objective. But every article of this constitution serves as a custodian of common interests and protector of collective organization. Its enforcement has no touch of selfishness or any iota of self- interest. It contains such basic principles of the fulfilment of Allah's obligations the protection of human rights without distinction of religion or community the care of the destitute and the poor and the provision of succour to the low and the down-trodden from which full guidance can be had for the propagation of right and justice the establishment of peace and security and the prosperity and well-being of the people.

p: 234

Amir al-mu'minin wrote this instrument for Malik ibn al-Harith al- Ashtar when he was appointed the Governor of Egypt in 38 A. H. Malik al-Ashtar was one of the chief companions of Amir al-mu'minin. He had shown great endurance and steadfastness and perfect confidence and trust in Amir al-mu'minin. He had attained the utmost nearness and attachment to him by moulding his conduct and character after the conduct and character of Amir al-mu'minin. This can be gauged by Amir al-mu'minin's words: "Malik was to me as I was to the Messenger of Allah." (lbn Abi'l-Hadid vol.15 p.98;al-A`lam vol.6 p.131). Malik al-Ashtar too actuated by self- less feelings of service took a very active part in military encounters and proved himself to be Amir al-mu'minin's arm in all battles and encounters. He showed such feats of courage and daring

that his bravery was acknowledged throughout Arabia.

Along with this bravery he was also conspicuous

in endurance and forebearing. In this connection Warram ibn Abi Firas an-Nakha`i has written that once Malik was passing through the market of Kufah with the dress and turban made of gunny-cloth when a shopkeeper finding him in this condition and clothing he threw some rotten leaves upon him but he did not at all mind this dirty behaviour nor did he even look at him. Rather he quietly stepped forward. Then someone said to this shopkeeper Do you know to whom you have been so insolent? He replied that he did not know who he was whereupon he said that it was Malik al-Ashtar the companion of Amir al-mu'minin. Hearing this he lost his senses and at once ran behind him to seek pardon for this insolence and humiliating ti!'tment. While in his search he reached a mosque where Malik was offering prayers. When he finished the prayers this man went forward and fell on his feet and begged pardon with great pertinacity and weeping. Malik raised the man's beard up and said By Allah, I have come to the mosque to pray to Allah to forgive you. I myself had pardoned you that very moment, and I hope Allah too will pardon you. (Tanbihu 'l-khawatir wa nuzhatu 'n-nawazir vol.1 p.2;al-Bihar vol.42 p.157). This is the forgiveness and tolerance of a warrior at who name courage trembled and whose swordsmanship was acknowledged by the brave men of Arabia. And this is the real sign of bravery that a man should exercise self-control during bitterness of anger and rage and endure hardships with patience and calmness. In this connection Amir al-mu'minin's saying is that The bravest of men is he who over-powers his passions.

p: 235

However besides these characteristics and qualities he had a perfect aptitude for organization and administration. Thus when the `Uthmani (al-`Uthmaniyyah) party began to spread the germs of destruction in Egypt and tried to upset the law and order of the country by mischief and revolt then Amir al-mu'minin removed Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr from the govern-ship and decided to appoint Malik al-Ashtar in his place although at that time he was posted as the Governor of Nasibin. However Amir al-mu' minin sent him word that he should name someone as his deputy and come to Amir al-mu'minin. On receipt of this order Malik al-Ashtar appointed Shabib ibn `Amir al-Azdi in his place and himself came to Amir al-mu'minin. Amir al- mu'minin gave him a warrant of appointment and sent him off to Egypt and also sent a written order to Egyptians to obey him. When Mu`awiyah got the news of Malik al-Ashtar's appointment through his spies he was perplexed because he had promised `Amr ibn al-`As

that he would give him the governship of Egypt in

reward of his services and he had hoped that `Amr ibn al-`As would easily defeat Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr and wrest the power from him but could not imagine conquering Egypt by defeating Malik al-Ashtar. He therefore decided to do away with him before he took over the charge. For this he arranged with a landlord of the city of al-`Arish (or al-Qulzum) that when Malik passed through al-`Arish on his way to Egypt he should kill him by some device or other and in reward for this the revenue of his estate would be written off. So when Malik al-Ashtar reached al-`Arish with retinue and force the chief of al-`Arish gave him a good ovation and insisted on having Malik as his guest. Malik agreed and stayed at his place. When he finished the meal the host gave him some syrup of honey to drink in which he had mixed with poison. Soon after drinking it the poison began to show its effect and before the eyes of everyone this great warrior known for his swordsmanship and for putting the rows of the enemy to flight calmly went into the embrace of death.

p: 236

When Mu`awiyah got news of his success of this device he was overjoyed and shouted in merriment Oh, honey is also an army of Allah and then said during a speech:

`Ali ibn Abi Talib had two right hand men. One was chopped off on the day of Siffin and he was `Ammar ibn Yasir and the second has been severed now and he is Malik al-Ashtar.

But when the news of Malik's assassination reached Amir al-mu'minin he was highly grieved and sorrowful then he said:

Malik! who is Malik? If Malik was a stone he was hard and solid; if he was a rock he was a great rock which had no parallel. It seems his death has made me also lifeless. I swear by Allah that his death made the Syrians joyous and insulted the Iraqis.

Then he continued:

Women have become barren to give birth to such as Malik. (at-Tabari vol.1 pp.3392-3395; Ibn al-Athir vol.3 pp.352-353; al-Ya`qubi vol.2 p.194; al-Isti`ab vol.3 p.1366; Ibn Abi'l-Hadid vol.6 pp. 74-77; Ibn Kathir vol.7 pp.313-314; Abu'l-Fida' vol.1 p.179)


In English


To Talhah and az-Zubayr (through `Imran ibn al-Husayn al-Khuza`i (1)). Abu Ja`far al-Iskafi has mentioned this in his "Kitab al-maqamat" on the excellent qualities (manaqib) of Amir al-mu'minin (peace be upon him).

Now both of you know although you conceal it that I did not approach the people till they approached me and I did not ask them to swear allegiance to me till they themselves swore allegiance to me and both of you were among those who approached me and swore me allegiance. Certainly the common people did not swear me allegiance under any force put on them or for any money given to them. If you two swore allegiance to me obediently come back and offer repentance to Allah soon but if you swore allegiance to me reluctantly you have certainly given me cause for action by showing your obedience and concealing your disobedience. (2) By my life you were not more entitled than other muhajirun to conceal and hide the matter. Your refusing allegiance before entering into it would have been easier than getting out of it after having accepted it.

p: 237

You have indicated that I killed `Uthman; then let someone from among the people of Medina who supported neither me nor you decide the matter between me and you. Then one of us shall face (the command of law) according to (their) involvement. You should give up your way now when the great question before you is only one of shame before you face the question of shame coupled with the Hell-fire; and that is an end to the matter.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى طلحة والزبير( مع عمران بن الحصين الخزاعي) ذكره أبوجعفر الإسكافي في كتاب ( المقامات) في مناقب أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام .

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَقَدْ عَلِمْتُما، وَإِنْ كَتَمْتُما، أَنِّي لَمْ أُرِدِ النَّاسَ حَتَّى أَرَادُونِي، وَلَمْ أُبَايِعْهُمْ حَتَّى بَايَعُونِي. وَإِنَّكُمَا مِمَّنْ أَرَادَنِي وَبَايَعَنِي، وَإِنَّ العَامَّةَ لَمْ تُبَايِعْنِي لِسُلْطَان غَالِبٍ، وَلاَ لِعَرَضٍ (1) حَاضِرٍ، فَإِنْ كُنْتُما بَايَعْتُمانِي طَائِعَيْنِ، فارْجِعَا وَتُوبَا إِلَى اللهِ مِنْ قَرِيبٍ، وَإِنْ كُنْتُما بَايَعْتُمانِي كَارِهَيْنِ، فَقَدْ جَعَلْتُما لِي عَلَيْكُمَا السَّبِيلَ (2) بِإِظْهَارِكُمَا الطَّاعَةَ، وَإِسْرَارِكُمَا الْمَعْصِيَةَ، وَلَعَمْرِي مَا كُنْتُمَا بِأَحَقِّ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ بِالتَّقِيَّةِ وَالْكِتْمانِ، وَإِنَّ دَفْعَكُمَا هذَا الْأَمْرَ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ تَدْخُلاَ فِيهِ، كَانَ أَوْسَعَ عَلَيْكُمَا مِنْ خُرُوجِكُمَا مِنْهُ، بَعْدَ إِقْرَارِكُمَا بِهِ.

وَقَدْ زَعَمْتُما أَنِّي قَتَلْتُ عُثْمانَ، فَبَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمَا مَنْ تَخَلَّفَ عَنِّي وَعَنْكُمَا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ، ثُمَّ يُلْزَمُ كُلُّ امْرِىءٍ بَقَدْرِ مَا احْتَمَلَ. فَارْجِعَا أَيُّهَا الشَّيْخَانِ عَنْ رَأْيِكُمَا، فَإِنَّ الْآنَ أَعْظَمَ أَمْرِكُمَا الْعَارُ، مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ يَجْتَمِعَ الْعَارُ وَالنَّارُ،السَّلاَمُ.

In Persian

به طلحه و زبير

پاسخ به ادعاهاي سران جمل پس از ياد خدا و درود! شما مي دانيد گرچه پنهان مي داريد. كه من براي حكومت در پي مردم نرفته، آنان به سوي من آمدند، و من قول بيعت نداده تا آنكه آنان با من بيعت كردند، و شما دو نفر از كساني بوديد كه مرا خواستيد و بيعت كرديد. همانا بيعت عموم مردم با من نه از ترس قدرتي مسلط بود، و نه براي به دست آوردن متاع دنيا، اگر شما دو نفر از روي ميل و انتخاب بيعت كرديد تا ديرنشده باز گرديد، و در پيشگاه خدا توبه كنيد، و اگر در دل با اكراه بيعت كرديد خود دانيد، زيرا اين شما بوديد كه مرا در حكومت بر خويش راه داديد، اطاعت از من را ظاهر، و نافرماني را پنهان داشتيد. به جان خودم سوگند! شما از ساير مهاجران سزاوارتر به پنهان داشتن عقيده و پنهان كاري نيستيد، اگر در آغاز بيعت كنار مي رفتيد آسان تر بود كه بيعت كنيد و سپس به بهانه سر باز زنيد. شما پنداشته ايد كه من كشنده عثمان مي باشم، بياييد تا مردم مدينه بين من و شما داوري كنند، آنان كه نه به طرفداري من برخاستند نه شما، سپس هر كدام به اندازه جرمي كه در آن حادثه داشته، مسووليت آنرا پذيرا باشد. اي دو پيرمرد، از آن چه در انديشه داريد باز گرديد، هم اكنون بزرگترين مسئله شما عار است، پيش از آنكه عار و آتش خشم پروردگار دامنگيرتان گردد. با درود.

p: 238


(1). `Imran ibn al-Husayn al-Khuza`i was a high ranking companion distinguished in learning and achievements and very cautious in relating traditions. He accepted Islam in the year of Khaybar and participated in jihad with the Prophet. Was honoured with the judicial position at Kufah and died at Basrah in 52 A.H. ( 476 )

One of the genuine traditions related by `Imran ibn al-Husayn about Amir al-mu'minin is:

The Messenger of Allah raised and sent an army under the command of `Ali ibn Abi Talib. From the khums (one-fifth) received by him `Ali set aside a slave girl for himself. This was distasteful to some of his men and four of them decided to complain of this to the Prophet (p.b.u.h.a.h.p). On their return they approached the Prophet and one of them stood up and said: "O' Messenger of Allah! Do you not see that `Ali did so and so?" The Prophet turned away his face from him. Another man stood up and made the same complaint and the Prophet turned away his face from him. Still another man stood up and repeated what his two colleagues had said and met the same reaction. Then the fourth man stood up and spoke like his predecessors. The Prophet (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) then turned to them with signs of anger on his face and said: "What do you want me to do to `Ali? (repeating thrice). Surely `Ali is from me and I am from him and after me he is the Master of all the believers." (al-Jami` as -sahih at-Tirmidhi vol.5 p.632; al-Musnad Abmad ibn Hanbal vol.4 pp.437-438; al-Musnad Abu Dawud at-Tayalisi p.111;al-Mustadrak al-Hakim vol.3 pp.110-111; Hilyah al-awliya' Abu Nu`aym vol.6 p.294; Tarikh al-Islam adh- Dhahabi vol.2 p.196; at-Tarikh Ibn Kathir vol.7 p.345; Usd al- ghabah Ibn al-Athir vol.4 p.27 al-Isabah Ibn Hajar vol.2 p.509)

p: 239

(2). That is you are men of riches and means having a large tribe and community. What is the need to you to do for this double dealing of concealing the real feelings of the heart showing obedience and swearing allegiance loathsomely and unwillingly. Of course if someone else who was weak and helpless said that he was obliged to swear allegiance his point could be accepted to some extent. But when no one else has expressed his helplessness in the matter why did this helplessness befall you so that you now regard your swearing of allegiance to be the result of your helplessness.


In English

To Mu`awiyah

Now Allah the Glorified has made this world for what is to come hereafter and put its inhabitants to trial as to which of you is good in action and we have not been created for this world nor ordered to strive for it but we have been made to stay in it to stand trial therein. So Allah has tried me with you and tried you with me. He has therefore made either of us a plea for the other.

Now you have leapt on the world by a wrong interpretation of the Qur'an and wanted me to account for what neither my hand nor tongue was responsible but you and the Syrians put the blame on me and your scholar incited against me the ignorant and one who is sitting incited the one who is standing. You should fear Allah- about yourself and not allow Satan to lead you. Turn your face towards the next world because that is our path and your path and fear that Allah may not entangle you in any sudden infliction which may destroy the root as well as cut away the branches. I swear to you by Allah an oath which will not be broken that if destiny brings me and you together I shall steadfastly hold before you: Until Allah judges between us and He is the Best of the judges. (Qur'an 7:87)

p: 240

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى معاوية

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنَّ اللهَ سُبْحَانَهُ قَدْ جَعَلَ الدُّنْيَا لِمَا بَعْدَهَا، وَابْتَلَى فِيهَا أَهْلَهَا، لِيَعْلَمَ أَيُّهُمْ أَحْسَنُ عَمَلاً، وَلَسْنَا لِلدُّنْيَا خُلِقْنَا، وَلاَ بِالسَّعْيِ فِيهَا أُمِرْنَا، وَإِنَّمَا وُضِعْنَا فِيها لِنُبْتَلَى بِهَا، وَقَدِ ابْتَلاَنِي اللهُ بِكَ وَابْتَلاَكَ بِي: فَجَعَلَ أَحَدَنَا حُجَّةً عَلَى الْآخَرِ، فَعَدَوْتَ (1) عَلَى الدُّنْيَا بَتَأْوِيلِ الْقُرْآنِ، فَطَلَبْتَنِي بِمَا لَمْ تَجْنِ يَدِي وَلاَ لِسَانِي، وَعَصَيْتَهُ أَنْتَ وأَهْلُ الشَّامِ بِي، وَأَلَّبَ (2) عَالِمُكُمْ جَاهِلَكُمْ، وَقَائِمُكُمْ قَاعِدَكُمْ، فَاتَّقِ اللهَ فِي نَفْسِكَ، وَنَازِعِ الشَّيْطَانَ قِيَادَكَ (3) ، وَاصْرِفْ إِلَى الْآخِرَةِ وَجْهَكَ، فَهِيَ طَرِيقُنَا وَطَرِيقُكَ. وَاحْذَرْ أَنْ يُصِيبَكَ اللهُ مِنْهُ بِعَاجِلِ قَارِعَةٍ (4) تَمَسُّ الْأَصْلَ (5) ، وَتَقْطَعُ الدَّابِرَ (6) ، فَإِنِّي أُولِي لَكَ بِاللهِ أَلِيَّةً (7) غَيْرَ فَاجِرَةٍ، لَئِنْ جَمَعَتْنِي وَإِيَّاكَ جَوَامِعُ الْأَقْدَارِ لاَ أَزَالُ بِبَاحَتِكَ (8) (حَتَّى يَحْكُمَ اللهُ بَيْنَنَا وَهُوَ خَيْرُ الْحَاكِمِينَ).

In Persian

به معاويه

اندرز دادن به دشمن پس از ياد خدا و درود! همانا خداوند سبحان دنيا را براي آخرت قرار داده، و مردم را در دنيا به آزمايش گذاشت، تا روشن شود كدام يك نيكوكارتر است، ما را براي دنيا نيافريده اند، و تنها براي دنيا به تلاش فرمان داده نشديم، به دنيا آمديم تا در آن آزمايش گرديم. و همانا خداوند مرا به تو، و تو را با من آزموده، و يكي از ما را بر ديگري حجت قرار داد، تو با تفسير دروغين قرآن به دنيا روي آوردي، و چيزي از من درخواست مي كني كه دست و زبانم هرگز به آن نيالود (قتل عثمان) تو و مردم شام، آن دروغ را ساختيد و به من تهمت زديد تا آگاهان شما مردم ناآگاه را، و ايستادگان شما زمينگيرشدگان را بر ضد من تحريك مي كنند. معاويه! از خدا بترس! و با شيطاني كه مهار تو را مي كشد، درآويز، و به سوي آخرت كه راه من و تو است باز گرد، و بترس از خدا كه بزودي با بلايي كوبنده ريشه ات را بركند، و نسل تو را قطع نمايد. همانا براي تو به خدا سوگند مي خورم، سوگندي كه بر آن وفا دارم، اگر روزگار من و تو را در يكجا گرد آورد، هم چنان بر سر راه تو خواهم ماند. (تا خدا ميان ما داوري كند و او بهترين داوران است.)

p: 241


In English


When Amir al-mu'minin placed Shurayh ibn Hani (al- Madhhiji) at the head of the vanguard preceding towards Syria he issued this document of instruction to him.

Fear Allah every morning and evening and remain apprehensive about yourself of this deceitful world and do not regard it safe in any case. Know that if for fear of some evil you do not refrain yourself from things which you love then passions will fling you into a lot of harm. Therefore be for yourself a refrainer and protector and for your anger a suppressor and killer.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

وصىّ به شريح بن هانىء لما جعله على مقدمته إلى الشام

اتَّقِ اللهَ فِي كُلِّ صَبَاح وَمَسَاءٍ، وَخَفْ عَلَى نَفْسِكَ الدُّنْيَا الْغَرُورَ، وَلاَ تَأْمَنْهَا عَلَى حَالٍ، وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّكَ إِنْ لَمْ تَرْدَعْ نَفْسَكَ عَنْ كَثِيرٍ مِمَّا تُحِبُّ، مَخَافَةَ مَكْرُوهِهٍِ، سَمَتْ (1) بِكَ الْأَهْوَاءُ (2) إِلَى كَثِيرٍ مِنَ الضَّرَرِ. فَكُنْ لِنَفْسِكَ مَانِعاً رَادِعاً، وَلِنَزْوَتِكَ (3) عِنْدَ الْحَفِيظَةِ (4) وَاقِماً (5) قَامِعاً (6) .

In Persian

به شريح بن هاني

اخلاق فرماندهي در هر صبح و شام از خدا بترس، و از فريبكاري دنيا بر نفس خويش بيمناك باش، و هيچگاه از دنيا ايمن مباش، بدان اگر براي چيزهايي كه دوست مي داري، يا آنچه را كه خوشايند تو نيست، خود را باز نداري، هوسها تو را به زيانهاي فراواني خواهند كشيد، سپس نفس خود را باز دار و از آن نگهباني كن، و به هنگام خشم، بر نفس خويش شكننده و حاكم باش.


In English

p: 242

To the people of Kufah at the time of his march from Medina to Basrah

Now I have come out of my city either as an oppressor or as the oppressed either as a rebel or one against whom rebellion has been committed. In any case to whomsoever this letter of mine reaches I appeal to him in the name of Allah that he should come to me and if I am in the right he should help me; but if I am in the wrong then he should try to get me to the right according to his view.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى أهل الكوفة عند مسيره من المدينة إلى البصرة

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنِّي خَرَجْتُ مِنْ حَيِّيٍ (1) هذَا: إِمَّا ظَالِماً، وَإِمَّا مَظْلُوماً، وَإِمِّا بَاغِياً، وَإِمَّا مَبْغِيّاً عَلَيْهِ. وَأني أُذَكِّرُ اللهِ مَنْ بَلَغَهُ كِتَابِي هذَا لَمَّا (2) نَفَرَ إِلَىَّ ، فَإِنْ كُنْتُ مُحْسِناً أعَانَنِي، وَإِنْ كُنْتُ مُسْيئاً استَعْتَبَنِي (3) .

In Persian

به مردم كوفه

روش بسيج كردن مردم براي جهاد پس از ياد خدا و درود! من از جايگاه خود مدينه بيرون آمدم، يا ستمكارم يا ستم ديده، يا سركشي كردم يا از فرمانم سر باز زدند، همانا من خدا را به ياد كسي مي آورم كه اين نامه به دست او رسد، تا به سوي من كوچ كند، اگر مرا نيكوكار يافت ياري كند، و اگر گناهكار بودم مرا به حق باز گرداند.


In English

Written to the people of various localities deseribing what took place between him and the people of Siffin

p: 243

The whole thing began thus that we and the Syrians met in an encounter although we believe in one and the same Allah and the same Prophet and our message in Islam is the same. We did not want them to add anything in the belief in Allah or in acknowledging His Messenger (may Allah bless him and his descendants) nor did they want us to add any such thing. In fact there was complete unity except that we differed on the question of `Uthman's blood while we were uninvolved in it. We suggested to them to appease the situation by calming the temporary irritation and pacifying the people till matters settled down and stabilized when we would gain strength to put matters right.

They however said that they would settle it by war. Thus they refused our offer and consequently war spread its wings and came to stay. Its flames rose and became strong. When the war had bitten us as well as them and pierced its talons into us as well as them they accepted what we had proposed to them. So we agreed to what they suggested and hastened to meet their request. In this way the plea became clear to them and no excuse was left to them. Now whoever among them adheres to this will be saved by Allah from ruin and whoever shows obstinacy and insistence (on wrong) is the reverser whose heart has been blinded by Allah and evils will encircle his head.

In Arabic

p: 244

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى أهل الامصار، يقتصّ فيه ما جرى بينه وبين أهل صفين

وَكَانَ بَدْءُ أَمْرِنَا أَنَّا الْتَقَيْنَا وَالْقَوْمُ مِنْ أَهْلِ الشَّامِ، وَالظَّاهِرُ أَنَّ رَبَّنَا وَاحِدٌ (1) ، وَنَبِيَّنَا وَاحِدٌ، وَدَعْوَتَنَا فِي الْإِِسْلاَمِ وَاحِدَةٌ، لاَ نَسْتَزِيدُهُمْ (2) فِي الْإِيمَانِ باللهِ وَالتَّصْدِيقِ بِرَسُولِهِ، وَلاَ يَسْتَزِيدُونَنَا: الْأَمْرُ وَاحِدٌ، إِلاَّ مَا اخْتَلَفْنَا فِيهِ مِنْ دَمِ عُثْمانَ، وَنَحْنُ مِنْهُ بَرَاءٌ! فَقُلْنَا: تَعَالَوْا نُدَاوِ مَا لاَ يُدْرَكُ الْيَوْمَ بِإِطْفَاءِ النَّائِرَةِ (3) ، وَتَسْكِينِ الْعَامَّةِ، حَتَّى يَشْتَدَّ الْأَمْرُ وَيَسْتَجْمِعَ، فَنَقْوَى عَلَى وَضْعِ الْحَقِّ مَوَاضِعَهُ. فَقَالُوا: بَلْ نُدَاوِيهِ بِالْمُكَابَرَةِ (4) ! فَأَبَوْا حَتَّى جَنَحَتِ (5) الْحَرْبُ وَرَكَدَتْ (6) ، وَوَقَدَتْ (7) نِيرَانُهَا وَحَمِشَتْ (8) . فَلَمَّا ضَرَّسَتْنَا (9) وَإِيَّاهُمْ، وَوَضَعَتْ مَخَالِبَهَا فِينَا وَفِيهِمْ، أَجَابُوا عِنْدَ ذلِكَ إِلَى الَّذي دَعَوْنَاهُمْ إِلَيْهِ، فَأَجَبْنَاهُمْ إِلَى مَا دَعَوْا، وَسَارَعْنَاهُمْ (10) إِلَى مَا طَلَبُوا، حَتَّى اسْتَبَانَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الْحُجَّةُ، وَانْق َطَعَتْ مِنْهُمُ الْمَعْذِرَةُ. فَمَنْ تَمَّ عَلَى ذلِكَ مِنْهُمْ فَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنْقَذَهُ اللهُ مِنَ الْهَلَكَةِ، وَمَنْ لَجَّ وَتَمَادَى فَهُوَ الرَّاكِسُ (11) الَّذِي رَانَ (12) اللهُ عَلَى قَلْبِهِ، وَصَارَتْ دَائِرَةُ السَّوْءِ عَلَى رَأْسِهِ.

In Persian

درباره جنگ صفين

افشاي حوادث جنگ صفين آغاز كار چنين بود ما با مردم شام ديدار كرديم، كه در ظاهر پروردگار ما يكي، و پيامبر ما يكي، و دعوت ما در اسلام يكي بود، و در ايمان به خدا و تصديق كردن پيامبرش، هيچ كدام از ما بر ديگري برتري نداشتيم، و با هم وحدت داشتيم جز در خون عثمان كه ما از آن بركناريم، پس به آنان گفتيم: بياييد با خاموش ساختن آتش جنگ، و آرام كردن مردم، به چاره جويي و درمان بپردازيم، تا كار مسلمانان استوار شود، و به وحدت برسند، و ما براي اجراي عدالت نيرومند شويم، اما شاميان پاسخ دادند: (چاره اي جز جنگ نداريم.) پس سر باز زدند، و جنگ درگرفت، و تداوم يافت، و آتش آن زبانه كشيد. پس آنگاه كه دندان جنگ در ما و آنان فرو رفت، و چنگال آن سخت كارگر افتاد، به دعوت ما گردن نهادند، و بر آنچه آنان را خوانديم، پاسخ دادند. ما هم به درخواست آنان پاسخ داديم، و آنچه را خواستند زود پذيرفتيم، تا حجت را بر آنان تمام كنيم، و راه عذرخواهي را ببنديم. آنگاه آنكه بر پيمان خود استوار ماند، از هلاكت نجات يافت، و آن كس كه در لجاجت خود پا فشرد، خدا پرده ناآگاهي بر جان او كشيد، و بلاي تيره روزي گرد سرش گردانيد.

p: 245


In English

To al-Aswad ibn Qutbah the Governor of Hulwan

Now if the actions of a governor follow the passions he will be greatly hampered in justice. All the people should be equal in right before you because injustice cannot be a substitute for justice. Avoid that thing the like of which you would not like for yourself. Exert yourself in what Allah has made obligatory on you hoping for His reward and fearing His chastisement.

Know that this world is the place of trial. Whoever here wastes any hour of his time will repent it on the Day of Judgement and nothing can ever make you too satisfied as not to need right. One of the rights on you is that you should protect yourself (from sins) and look after the subjects to your best. The benefit that will come to you from this will be greater than that which will accrue (to people) through you; and that is an to the matter.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى الاسود بن قُطْبَةَ صاحب جند حُلوان (1)

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فإِنَّ الْوَالِيَ إِذَا اخْتَلَفَ هَوَاهُ (2) مَنَعَهُ ذلِكَ كَثِيراً مِنَ الْعَدْلِ، فَلْيَكُنْ أَمْرُ النَّاسِ عِنْدَكَ فِي الْحَقِّ سَوَاءً، فَإِنَّهُ لَيْسَ فِي الْجَوْرِ عِوَضٌ مِنَ الْعَدْلِ، فَاجْتَنِبْ مَا تُنْكِرُ أَمْثَالَهُ، وَابْتَذِلْ نَفْسَكَ فِيَما افْتَرَضَ اللهُ عَلَيْكَ، رَاجِياً ثوَابَهُ، وَمُتَخَوِّفاً عِقَابَهُ.

وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ الدُّنْيَا دَارُ بَلِيَّةٍ لَمْ يَفْرُغْ صَاحِبُهَا قَطُّ فِيهَا سَاعَةً إِلاَّ كَانَتْ فَرْغَتُهُ (3) عَلَيْهِ حَسْرَةً يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ، أَنَّهُ لَنْ يُغْنِيَكَ عَنِ الْحَقِّ شَيْءٌ أَبَداً، وَمِنَ الْحَقِّ عَلَيْكَ حِفْظُ نَفْسِكَ، وَالْإِحْتسَابُ (4) عَلَى الرَّعِيَّةِ بِجُهْدِكَ، فَإِنَّ الَّذِي يَصِلُ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ ذلِكَ أَفْضَلُ مِنَ الَّذِي يَصِلُ بِكَ، وَالسَّلاَمُ.

p: 246

In Persian

به اسود بن قطبه

مسووليتهاي فرماندهي پس از ياد خدا و درود. اگر راي و انديشه زمامدار دچار دگرگوني شود، او را از اجراي عدالت بسيار باز مي دارد، پس كار مردم در آنچه حق است نزد تو يكسان باشد. زيرا در ستمكاري بهايي براي عدالت يافت نمي شود، از آنچه كه همانند آن را بر ديگران نمي پسندي پرهيز كن، و نفس خود را در آنچه خداوند بر تو واجب كرده است، وادار، در حالي كه اميدوار به پاداش الهي بوده و از كيفر او هراسناك باشي. و بدان كه دنيا سراي آزمايش است، و دنياپرست ساعتي در آن نمي آسايد جز آنكه در روز قيامت از آن افسوس مي خورد، و هرگز چيزي تو را از حق بي نياز نمي گرداند. و از جمله حقي كه بر توست آن كه، نفس خويش را نگهبان باشي، و به اندازه توان در امور رعيت تلاش كني، زيرا آنچه در اين راه نصيب تو مي شود، برتر از آن است كه از نيروي بدني خود از دست مي دهي، با درود.


In English

To the officers through whose jurisdiction the army passed

From the servant of Allah `Ali Amir al-mu'minin to all the collectors of revenue and officers of the realm through whose area the army passes.

Now I have sent an army that will pass by you if Allah wills. I have instructed them about what Allah has made obligatory on them namely that they should avoid molestation and evade harm. I hold myself clear before you and those (unbelievers) who are under your protection from any annoyance committed by the army axcept when one is compelled by hunger and there is no other way of satisfying it. If anyone of them takes anything through force you should punish him. None of you should be silly enough to obstruct them or intervene in matters which we have allowed them by way of exception. I am myself within the army. So refer to me their high-handedness and any hardship which is caused by them and which you cannot avert except through Allah and through me. I shall then avert it with the help of Allah if He so wills.

p: 247

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى العمال الذين يطأ الجيش عمَلَهُمْ (1)

مِنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ عَلِيٍّ أَمِيرِالْمُؤمِنِينَ إِلَى مَنْ مَرَّ بِهِ الْجَيْشُ مِنْ جُبَاةِ الْخَرَاجِ وَعُمَّالِ الْبِلاَدِ.

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنِّي قَدْ سَيَّرْتُ جُنُوداً هِيَ مَارَّةٌ بِكُمْ إِنْ شَاءَ اللهُ، وَقَدْ أَوْصَيْتُهُمْ بِمَا يَجِبُ لِلَّهِ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ كَفِّ الْأَذَىٍ، وَصَرْفِ الشَّذَىٍ (2) ، وَأَنَا أَبْرَأُ إِلَيْكُمْ وَإِلَى ذِمَّتِكُمْ مِنْ مَعَرَّةِ (3) الْجَيْش،ِ إِلاَّ مِنْ جَوْعَةِ الْمُضْطَرِّ (4) ، لاَ يَجِدُ عَنْهَا مَذْهَباً إلَى شِبَعِهِ. فَنَكِّلُوا (5) مَنْ تَنَاوَلَ مِنْهُمْ شَيْئاً ظُلْماً عَنْ ظُلْمِهِمْ، وَكُفُّوا أَيْدِيَ سُفَهَائِكُمْ عَنْ مُضَادَّتِهِمْ، وَالتَّعَرُّضِ لَهُمْ فِيما اسْتَثْنَيْنَاهُ مِنْهُمْ، وَأَنَا بَيْنَ أَظْهُرِ الْجَيْشِ، فَارْفَعُوا إِلَيَّ مَظَالِمَكُمْ، وَمَا عَرَاكُمْ مِمَّا يَغْلِبُكُمْ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ، وَلاَ تُطِيقُونَ دَفْعَهُ إِلاَّ بِاللهِ وَبِي، فَأَنا أُغَيِّرْهُ بِمَعُونَةِ اللهِ، إِنْ شَاءَ اللهُ.

In Persian

به فرمانداراني كه ارتش ...

جبران خسارتها در مانورهاي نظامي از بنده خدا! علي امير مومنان به گردآوران ماليات و فرمانداران شهرهايي كه لشكريان از سرزمين آنان مي گذرند. پس از ياد خدا و درود! همانا من سپاهياني فرستادم كه به خواست خدا بر شما خواهند گذشت، و آنچه خدا بر آنان واجب كرده به ايشان سفارش كردم، و بر آزار نرساندن به ديگران، و پرهيز از هرگونه شرارتي تاكيد كرده ام، و من نزد شما و پيماني كه با شما دارم از آزار رساندن سپاهيان به مردم بيزارم، مگر آنكه گرسنگي سربازي را ناچار گرداند، و براي رفع گرسنگي چاره اي جز آن نداشته باشد، پس كسي را كه دست به ستمكاري زند كيفر كنيد، و دست افراد سبك مغز خود را از زيان رساندن به لشكريان، و زحمت دادن آنها جز در آنچه استثنا كردم باز داريد. من پشت سر سپاه در حركتم، شكايتهاي خود را به من رسانيد، و در اموري كه لشكريان بر شما چيره شده اند كه قدرت دفع آن را جز با كمك خدا و من نداريد، به من مراجعه كنيد، كه با كمك خداوند آن را برطرف خواهم كرد. ان شاء الله.

p: 248


In English

To Kumayl ibn Ziyad an-Nakha`i the Governor of Hit expressing displeasure on his inability to prevent the enemy forces that passed through his area from marauding.

Now the neglecting by a man of what he has been made responsible for and doing what is to be done by others is a manifest weakness and a ruinous sight. Certainly your advance on the people of Qarqisiya and your leaving the arsenals over which we had set you without anyone to protect them or to repulse the enemy force savoured of shattered thinking. In this way you served like a bridge for the enemy who came marauding on your allies while your arms were weak you had no awe around you; you could not prevent the enemy from advancing; you could not break his might; you could not defend the people of your area and you could not discharge functions on behalf of your Imam.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى كميل بن زياد النخعي، وهو عامله على هيت، يُنكر عليه تركه دفع من يجتاز به من جيش العدو طالباً الغارة.

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنَّ تَضْيِيعَ الْمَرْءِ مَا وُلِّيَ، وَتَكَلُّفَهُ مَا كُفِيَ، لَعَجْزٌ حَاضِرٌ، وَرَأْيٌ مُتَبَّرٌ (1) ، وَإِنَّ تَعَاطِيَكَ الْغَارَةَ عَلَى أَهْلِ قِرْقِيسِيَا (2) ، وَتَعْطِيلَكَ مَسَالِحَكَ (3) الَّتي وَلَّيْنَاكَ _ لَيْسَ بِهَا مَنْ يَمْنعُهَا، وَلاَ يَرُدُّ الْجَيْشَ عَنْهَا _ لَرَأْيٌ شَعَاعٌ (4) . فَقَدْ صِرْتَ جِسرْاً لِمَنْ أَرَادَ الْغَارَةَ مِنْ أَعْدَائِكَ عَلَى أَوْلِيَائِكَ، غَيْرَ شَدِيدِ الْمَنْكِبِ (5) ، وَلاَ مَهِيبِ الْجَانِبِ، وَلاَ سَادٍّ ثُغْرَةً (6) ، وَلاَ كَاسرٍ لِعَدُوٍّ شَوْكَةً، وَلاَ مُغْنٍ عَنْ (7) أَهْلِ مِصْرِهِ، وَلاَ مُجْزٍ عَنْ أَميِرِهِ.

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In Persian

به كميل بن زياد

نكوهش از فرمانده شكست خورده پس از ياد خدا و درود! سستي انسان در انجام كارهايي كه بر عهده اوست، و پافشاري در كاري كه از مسوليت او خارج است، نشانه ناتواني آشكار، و انديشه ويرانگر است. اقدام تو به تاراج مردم (قرقيسا) در مقابل رها كردن پاسداري از مرزهايي كه تو را بر آن گمارده بوديم و كسي در آنجا نيست تا آنجا را حفظ كند، و سپاه دشمن را از آن مرزها دور سازد، انديشه اي باطل است. تو در آنجا پلي شده اي كه دشمنان تو از آن بگذرند و بر دوستانت تهاجم آورند، نه قدرتي داري كه با تو نبرد كنند، و نه هيبتي داري از تو بترسند و بگريزند، نه مرزي را مي تواني حفظ كني، و نه شوكت دشمن را مي تواني درهم بشكني، نه نيازهاي مردم ديارت را كفايت مي كني، و نه امام خود را راضي نگه مي داري.


In English

To the people of Egypt sent through Malik al-Ashtar when he was made the Governor of that place

Now Allah the Glorified deputed Muhammad (may Allah bless him and his descendants) as a warner for all the worlds and a witness for all the prophets. When the Prophet expired the Muslims quarrelled about power after him. By Allah it never occurred to me and I never imagined that after the Prophet the Arabs would snatch away the caliphate from his Ahlu'l-bayt (the members of his house) nor that they would take it away from me after him but I suddenly noticed people surrounding the man to swear him allegiance.(1)

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I therefore withheld my hand till I saw that many people were reverting from Islam and trying to destroy the religion of Muhammad (may Allah bless him and his descendants). I then feared that if I did not protect Islam and its people and there occurred in it a breach or destruction it would mean a greater blow to me than the loss of power over you which was in any case to last for a few days of which everything would pass away as the mirage passes away or as the cloud scuds away. Therefore in these happenings I rose till wrong was destroyed and disappeared and religion attained peace and safety. A part of the same letter

By Allah if I had encountered them alone and they had been so numerous as to fill the earth to the brim I would not have worried or become perplexed. I am clear in myself and possess conviction from Allah about their misguidance and my guidance. I am hopeful and expectant that I will meet Allah and get His good reward. But I am worried that silly and wicked people will control the affairs of the entire community with the result that they will grab the funds of Allah as their own property and make His people slaves (2) fight with the virtuous and ally with the sinful. Indeed there is among them he who drank (wine) unlawfully (3) and was whipped by way of punishment fixed by Islam and there is he who did not accept Islam until he had secured financial gain through it. (4) If this had not been so I would not have insisted on gathering you reprehending you mobilizing you and urging you (for jihad) but if you refuse and show weakness I will leave you.

p: 251

Do you not see that the boundaries of your cities have diminished your populated areas have been conquered your possessions have been snatched away and your cities and lands have been attacked. May Allah have mercy on you get up to fight your enemy and do not remain confined to the earth otherwise you will face oppression and suffer ignominy and your fate will be the worst. The warrior should be wakeful because if he sleeps the enemy does not sleep; and that is an end to the matter.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى أهل مصر، مع مالك الأشتر لما ولاّه إمارَتَها.

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنَّ اللهَ سُبْحَانَهُ بَعَثَ مُحَمَّداً _صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَ سَلَّمَ _ نَذِيراً لِلْعَالَمِينَ، وَمُهَيْمِناً (1) عَلَى الْمُرْسَلِينَ. فلمَّا مَضى _عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ_ تنَازَعَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ الْأَمْرَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ. فَوَاللهِ مَا كَانَ يُلْقَى فِي رُوعِي (2) ، وَلاَ يَخْطُرُ بِبَالِي، أَنَّ الْعَرَبَ تُزْعِجُ هذَا الْأَمْرَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ _صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَ سَلَّمَ _ عَنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ، وَلاَ أَنَّهُمْ مُنَحُّوهُ عَنِّي مِنْ بَعْدِهِ! فَمَا رَاعَنِي (3) إِلاَّ انْثِيَالُ (4) النَّاسِ عَلَى فُلاَنٍ يُبَايِعُونَهُ، فَأَمْسَكْتُ يَدِي (5) حَتَّى رَأيْتُ رَاجِعَةَ (6) النَّاسِ قَدْ رَجَعَتْ عَنِ الْإِسْلاَمِ، يَدْعُونَ إِلَى مَحْقِ دِينِ مُحَمَّدٍ _صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَ سَلَّمَ _ فَخَشِيتُ إِنْ لَمْ أَنْصُرِ الْإِسْلاَمَ أَهْلَهُ أَنْ أَرَى فِيهِ ثَلْماً (7) أَوْ هَدْماً، تَكُونُ الْمُصِيبَةُ بِهِ عَلَيَّ أَعْظَمَ مِنْ فَوْتِ وِلاَيَتِكُمُ الَّتِي إِنَّمَا هِيَ مَتَاعُ أَيَّامٍ قَلاَئِلَ، يَزُولُ مِنْهَا مَا كَانَ، كَمَا يَزُولُ السَّرَابُ، أَوْ كَمَا يَتَقَشَّعُ السَّحَابُ، فَنَهَضْتُ فِي تِلْكَ الْأَحْدَاثِ حَتَّى زَاحَ (8) الْبَاطِلُ وَزَهَقَ (9) ، وَاطْمَأَنَّ الدِّينُ وَتَنَهْنَهَ (10) .

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ومنه: إِنِّي وَاللهِ لَوْ لَقِيتُهُمْ وَاحِداً وَهُمْ طِلاَعُ (11) الْأَرْضِ كُلِّهَا مَا بَالَيْتُ وَلاَ اسْتَوْحَشْتُ، وَإِنِّي مِنْ ضَلاَلِهِمُ الَّذِي هُمْ فِيهِ وَالْهُدَى الَّذِي أَنَا عَلَيْهِ لَعَلى بَصِيرَةٍ مِنْ نَفْسِي وَيَقِينٍ مِنْ رَبِّي. وَإِنِّي إِلَى لِقَاءِ اللهِ لَمُشْتَاقٌ، وَحُسْنِ ثَوَابِهِ لَمُنْتَظِرٌ رَاجٍ، وَلكِنَّنِي آسَى (12) أَنْ يَلِيَ (13) أَمْرَهذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ سُفَهَاؤُهَا وَفُجَّارُهَا، فَيَتَّخِذُوا مَالَ اللهِ دُوَلاً (14) ، وَعِبَادَهُ خَوَلاً (15) ، وَالصَّالِحِينَ حَرْباً (16) ، وَالْفَاسِقِينَ حِزْباً، فَإِنَّ مِنْهُمُ الَّذِي قَدْ شَرِبَ فِيكُمُ الْحَرَامَ (17) ، وَجُلِدَ حَدّاً فِي الْإِسْلاَمِ، وَإِنَّ مِنْهُمْ مَنْ لَمْ يُسْلِمْ حَتَّى رُضِخَتْ لَهُ عَلَى الْإِسْلاَمِ الرَّضَائِخُ (18) ، فَلَوْلاَ ذلِكَ مَا أَكْثَرْتُ تَأْلِيبَكُمْ (19) وَتَأنِيبَكُمْ، وَجَمْعَكُمْ وَتَحْرِيضَك ُمْ، وَلَتَرَكْتُكُمْ إِذْ أََبَيْتُمْ وَوَنَيْتُمْ (20) .

أَلاَ تَرَوْنَ إِلَى أَطْرَافِكُمْ (21) قَدِ انْتَقَصَتْ (22) ، وَإِلَى أَمْصَارِكُمْ قَدِ افْتُتِحَتْ، وَإِلَى مَمَالِكِكُمْ تُزْوَى (23) ، وَإِلَى بِلاَدِكُمْ تُغْزَى! انْفِرُوا _ رَحِمَكُمُ اللهُ _ إِلَى قِتَالِ عَدُوِّكُمْ، وَلاَ تَثَّاقلُوا إِلَى الْأَرْضِ فَتُقِرُّوا (24) بِالْخَسْفِ (25) ، وَتَبُوؤُوا (26) بِالذُّلِّ، وَيَكُونَ نَصِيبُكُمُ الْأََخَسَّ، وَإِنَّ أَخَا الْحَرْبِ الْأََرِقُ (27) ، وَمَنْ نَامَ لَمْ يُنَمْ عنْهُ، وَالسَّلاَمُ.

In Persian

به مردم مصر

مظلوميت امام در خلافت پس از ياد خدا و درود! خداوند سبحان محمد (ص) را فرستاد تا بيم دهنده جهانيان، و گواه پيامبران پيش از خود باشد، آنگاه كه پيامبر (ص) به سوي خدا رفت، مسلمانان پس از وي در كار حكومت با يكديگر درگير شدند، سوگند بخدا نه در فكرم مي گذشت، و نه در خاطرم مي آمد كه عرب خلافت را پس از رسول خدا (ص) از اهل بيت او بگرداند، يا مرا پس از وي از عهده دار شدن حكومت باز دارند، تنها چيزي كه نگرانم كرد شتافتن مردم به سوي فلان شخص بود كه با او بيعت كردند. من دست باز كشيدم، تا آنجا كه ديدم گروهي از اسلام باز گشته، مي خواهند دين محمد (ص) را نابود سازند، پس ترسيدم كه اگر اسلام و طرفدارانش را ياري نكنم، رخنه اي در آن بينم يا شاهد نابودي آن باشم، كه مصيبت آن بر من سخت تر از رها كردن حكومت بر شماست، كه كالاي چند روزه دنياست، به زودي ايام آن مي گذرد چنانكه سراب ناپديد شود، يا چونان پاره هاي ابر كه زود پراكنده مي گردد. پس در ميان آن آشوب و غوغا بپا خواستم تا آنكه باطل از ميان رفت، و دين استقرار يافته، آرام شد.

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(بخشي از همين نامه است) شجاعت و دشمن شناسي امام (ع) به خدا سوگند! اگر تنها با دشمنان روبرو شوم، در حالي كه آنان تمام روي زمين را پر كرده باشند، نه باكي داشته، و نه مي هراسم، من گمراهي آنان و هدايت خود را كه بر آن استوارم، آگاهم، و از طرف پروردگارم به يقين رسيده ام، و همانا من براي ملاقات پروردگار مشتاق، و به پاداش او اميدوارم. لكن از اين اندوهناكم كه بيخردان، و تبهكاران اين امت حكومت را به دست آورند، آنگاه مال خدا را دست به دست بگردانند، و بندگان او را به بردگي كشند، با نيكوكاران در جنگ، و با فاسقان همراه باشند، زيرا از آنان كسي در ميان شماست كه شراب نوشيد و حد بر او جاري شد، و كسي كه اسلام را نپذيرفت اما به ناحق بخششهايي به او عطا گرديد. اگر اينگونه حوادث نبود شما را برنمي انگيختم، و سرزنشتان نمي كردم، و شما را به گردآوري تشويق نمي نمودم، و آنگاه كه سر باز مي زديد رهاتان مي كردم. آيا نمي بينيد كه مرزهاي شما را تصرف كردند؟ و شهرها را گشودند؟ و دستاوردهاي شما را غارت كردند؟ و در ميان شهرهاي شما آتش جنگ را برافروختند؟ براي جهاد با دشمنان كوچ كنيد. خدا شما را رحمت كند، در خانه هاي خود نمانيد، كه به ستم گرفتار، و به خواري دچار خواهيد شد، و بهره زندگي شما از همه پست تر خواهد بود، و همانا برادر جنگ، بيداري و هوشياري است هر آن كس كه به خواب رود، دشمن او نخواهد خوابيد. با درود.

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(1). The Prophet's declarations about Amir al-mu'minin that "This is my brother my vicegerent and my caliph among you" and while returning from his farewell hajj at Ghadir Khum that "For whosoever I am the master `Ali is his master" had settled the issue of his own replacement and succession after which there was no need at all for any new election nor could it be imagined that the people of Medina would feel the need

for an election. But some power-thirsty individuals so

ignored these clear injunctions as if their ears had

never been acquainted with them and considered the election ( 492 )

so necessary that leaving the burial rites of the Prophet they assembled in the Saqifah of Banu Sa`idah and elected Abu Bakr as Caliph with a show of democracy. This was a very critical moment for Amir al-mu'minin. On one side some interested persons declared that he should take up arms and on the other hand he noticed that those Arabs who had accepted Islam by dint of its military strength were leaving it and Musaylimah ibn Thumamah al-Hanafi the liar (al-Kadhdhab) and Tulayhah ibn Khuwaylid al-Asadi (the liar) were throwing tribe after tribe into misguidance. In these circumstances if there had been a civil war and the Muslims had fought against the Muslims the forces of heresy and hypocrisy would have joined together and swept Islam off the surface of the globe. Therefore Amir al-mu'minin preferred to keep quiet rather than to fight and with the purpose of maintaining the solidarity of Islam confined himself to protesting peacefully rather than taking up arms. This was because formal power was not so dear to him as the good and prosperity of the community. For stopping the machinations of the hypocrites and defeating the aims of the mischief-mongers there was no other course but that he should not fan the flames of war by giving up his own claim. This was such a big act for the preservation of Islamic polity that it is acknowledged by all the sects of Islam.

p: 255

(2). This refers to the saying of the Holy Prophet about the children of Umayyah and the children of Abi al-`As ibn Umayyah (the grandfather of `Uthman ibn `Affan and the dynasty of Marwan's caliphs) as related by Abu Dharr al-Ghifari that the Holy Prophet said:

When the number of Banu (children of) Umayyah reaches forty men they will make Allah's people their slaves grab Allah's funds as their own property and make the Book of Allah a cause of corruption. (al-Mustadrak vol.4 p.479; Kanz al-`ummal vol.11 p.149).

About the children of Abi al-`As it is related by Abu Dharr Abu Sa'id al-Khudri Ibn `Abbas Abu Hurayrah and others that the Holy Prophet said:

When the number of Banu (children of) Abi al-`As reaches thirty men they will grab the funds of Allah as their own property make Allah's people their slaves and make the religion of Allah a cause of corruption. (al-Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal vol.3 p.80; al-Mustadrak al-Hakim vol.4 p.480; al-Matalib al-`aliyah lbn Hajar vol.4 p.332; Majma`az-zawa'id al-Haytami vol.5 pp.241 243; Kanz al-`ummal al-Muttaqi vol.11 pp.148 149 351 354).

The history of Islam (after the death of the Holy Prophet) has enough evidence to prove this prophecy of the Holy Prophet; and the fear of Amir al-mu'minin for the Muslim community was based on this reason.

(3). The man who drank wine was al-Walid ibn `Uqbah ibn Abi Mu`ayt. He was of the same mother as Caliph `Uthman and his Governor of Kufah. al-Walid on an occasion in a state of intoxication led the morning prayers in the Central mosque of Kufah with four units (raka`ah) instead of the usual two as prescribed by the Holy Prophet. The congregation which consisted of several pious persons like Ibn Mas`ud was much incensed and still more irritated when finishing the four units al-Walid said:

p: 256

What a pleasant morning! I would like to extend the prayers further if you consent.

Repeated complaints had already been made to the Caliph against al-Walid on account of his debauchery but as often dismissed. People now reproached `Uthman for not listening to their grievances and favouring such a scoundrel. By chance they succeeded in taking off the signet ring from the hand of the Governor while he lay senseless from the effects of a debauch and carried it off to Medina. Still the caliph was slow and hesitated to enforce punishment upon his Governor (of the same mother) ; giving cause to be himself reproachfully accused of ignoring the law; though at last he was persuaded to have al-Walid scourged with forty strokes. He was consequently deposed from his office. Sa`id ibn al-`As a cousin of `Uthman was appointed to take his place and this was a matter of great reproach against `Uthman. (Ansab al-ashraf al-Baladhuri vol.5 pp.33-35; al-Aghani; Abu'l-Faraj al-Isfahani vol.4 pp.174- 187; al-Isti`ab vol.4 pp.1554-1557; Usd al-ghabah vol.5 pp.91-92; at-Tabari vol.1 pp.2843-2850; Ibn al-Athir vol.3 pp.1O5-1O7; lbn Abi'l-Hadid vol.17 pp.227-245)

(4). The man who accepted Islam after securing financial gain was Mu`awiyah who was adhering to Islam only for worldly benefits.


In English

To Ahu Musa (`Abdullah ibn Qays) al-Ash`ari the Governor of Kufah when Amir al-mu'minin learned that he was dissuading the people of Kufah from joining in the battle of Jamal when Amir al-mu'minin had called them to fight along with him.

p: 257

From the servant of Allah Amir al-mu'minin to `Abdullah ibn Qays:

Now I have come to know of words uttered by you which go in your favour as well as against you.(1) So when my messenger reaches you prepare yourself and get ready come out of your den and call those who are with you. Then if you are convinced of the truth get up but if you feel cowardice go away. By Allah you will be caught wherever you may be and you will not be spared till you are completely upset and everything about you is scattered and till you are shaken from your seat. Then you will fear from your front as you do from the rear.

What you hope is not a light matter but it is serious calamity. We have to ride its camels overcome its difficulties and level its mountains. Set your mind in order take a grip on your affairs and acquire your (lot and your) share. If you do not like it then go away to where neither you are welcome nor can you escape from it. It is better that you be left alone and lie sleeping. Then no one will enquire where is so-and-so. By Allah this is the case of right with the rightful person and we do not care what the heretics do; and that is an end to the matter.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى أبي موسى الاشعري وهو عامله على الكوفة، وقد بلغه عنه تثبيطُه (1) الناسَ عن الخروج إليه لمّا ندبهم لحرب أصحاب الجمل.

p: 258

مِنْ عَبْدِاللهِ عَلِيٍّ أَمِيرِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِلَى عَبْدِاللهِ بْنِ قَيْس.

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَقَدْ بَلَغَنِي عَنْكَ قَوْلٌ هُوَ لَكَ وَعَلَيْكَ، فإِذَا قَدِمَ عَلَيْكَ رَسُولِي عَلَيْكَ فارْفَعْ ذَيْلَكَ، واشْدُدْ مِئْزَرَكَ (2) ، واخْرُجْ مِنْ جُحْرِكَ (3) ، وَانْدُبْ (4) مَنْ مَعَكَ، فَإِنْ حَقَّقْتَ فَانْفُذْ (5) ، وَإِنْ تَفَشَّلْتَ (6) فَابْعُدْ! وَايْمُ اللهِ لَتُؤْتَيَنَّ حَيْثُ أَنْتَ، وَلاَ تُتْرَكُ حَتَّى يُخْلَطَ زُبْدُكَ بِخَاثِرِكَ (7) ، وَذَائِبُكَ بِجَامِدِكَ، وَحَتَّى تُعْجَلَ عَنْ قِعْدَتِكَ (8) ، وَتَحْذَرَ مِنْ أَمَامِكَ كَحَذَرِكَ مِنْ خَلْفِكَ، وَمَا هِيَ بِالْهُوَيْنَى (9) الَّتِي تَرْجُو، وَلكِنَّهَا الدَّاهِيةُ الْكُبْرَى، يُرْكَبُ جَمَلُهَا، وَيُذلَّلُّ صَعْبُهَا، وَيُسَهَّلُ جَبَلُهَا. فَاعْقِلْ عَقْلَكَ (10) ، وَامْلِكْ أَمْرَكَ، وَخُذْ نَصِيبَكَ وَحَظَّكَ، فَإِنْ كَرِهْتَ فَتَنَحَّ إِلَى غَيْرِ رَحْبٍ وَلاَ فِي نَجَاةٍ، فَبِالْحَرِيِّ (11) لَتُكْفَيَنَّ (12) وَأَنْتَ نَائِمُ، حَتَّى لاَ يُقَالَ: أَيْنَ فُلاَنٌ؟ وَاللهِ إِنَّهُ لَحَقٌّ مَعَ مُحِقٍّ، وَمَا أُبَالِي مَا صَنَعَ الْمُلْحِدُونَ، وَالسَّلاَمُ.

In Persian

به ابوموسي اشعري

بازداشتن ابوموسي از فتنه انگيزي از بنده خدا علي امير مومنان به عبدالله بن قيس (ابوموسي اشعري) پس از ستايش پروردگار و درود! سخني از تو به من رسيد كه هم به سود، و هم به زيان تو است، چون فرستاده من پيش تو آيد، دامن همت كمر زن، كمرت را براي جنگ محكم ببند، و از سوراخ بيرون آي، و مردم را براي جنگ بسيج كن، اگر حق را در من ديدي بپذير، و اگر دودل ماندي كناره گير، به خدا سوگند هر جا كه باشي تو را بياورند و بحال خويش رها نكنند، تا گوشت و استخوان و تر و خشكت درهم ريزد، و در كنار زدنت از حكومت شتاب كنند، چنانكه از پيش روي خود همانگونه بترسي كه از پشت سرت هراسناكي. حوادث جاري كشور آنچنان آسان نيست كه تو فكر مي كني، بلكه حادثه بسيار بزرگي است كه بايد بر مركبش سوار شد، و سختي هاي آن را هموار كرد، و پيمودن راه هاي سخت و كوهستاني آن را آسان نمود، پس فكرت را بكار گير، و مالك كار خويش باش، و سهم و بهره ات را بردار، اگر همراهي با ما را خوش نداري كناره گير، بي آنكه مورد ستايش قرارگيري يا رستگار شوي، كه سزاوار است تو در خواب باشي و ديگران مسووليتهاي تو را برآورند، و از تو نپرسند كه كجا هستي؟ و به كجا رفته اي؟ به خدا سوگند! اين راه حق است و به دست مرد حق انجام مي گيرد، و باكي ندارم كه خداشناسان چه مي كنند؟ با درود.

p: 259


(1). When Amir al-mu'minin had the idea of suppressing the

revolt of the people of Basrah he sent this letter through

Imam al-Hasan to Abu Musa(`Abdullah ibn Qays) al-Ash`ari

who had been appointed Governor of Kufah by`Uthman wherein

he has ascolded him for his duplicit and contradictory behaviour and attempted to persuade him to jihad because on one side he used to say that Amir al-mu'minin was the true Imam and allegiance to him was right and on the other he said that to support him in fighting against the Muslims was not right; but it was a mischief and it was necessary to keep off this mischief. Thus Amir al-mu'minin has referred to this contradictory view by the words "huwa laka wa `alayka" (which go in your favour as well as against you). The intention is that when Amir al-mu'minin is the rightful Imam how can fighting his enemy with him be wrong? And if fighting on his side is wrong then what is the meaning of his being the rightful Imam.

In any case in spite of his dissuading from fighting the people of Kufah came out in large numbers to join Amir al-mu'minin's army and took full part in the battle giving such a defeat to the people of Basrah that they never again dared to revolt.


In English

In reply to Mu`awiyah

Now then certainly we and you were on amiable terms as you say but difference arose between us and you the other day when we accepted belief (iman) and you rejected it. Today the position is that we are steadfast (in the belief) but you are creating mischief. Those of you who accepted Islam did so reluctantly and that too when all the chief men had accepted Islam and joined the Messenger of Allah- (may Allah- bless him and his descendants).

p: 260

You have stated that I killed Talhah and az-Zubayr forced `A'ishah out of her house and adopted residence between the two cities (Kufah and Basrah). (1) These are matters with which you have no concern nor do they involve anything against you. Therefore no explanation about them is due to you.

You also state that you are coming to me with a party of muhajirun and ansar but hijrah came. to an end on the day your brother was taken prisoner. If you are in a hurry then wait a bit as I may come to meet you and that would be more befitting as that would mean that Allah has appointed me to punish you. But if you come to me it would be as the poet of Banu Asad said:

They are advancing against summer winds which are hurling stones on them in the highlands and lowlands.

(Remember) I have still the sword with which I dispatched your grandfather your mother's brother and your brother to one and the same place. By Allah I know what you are. Your heart is sheathed and your intelligence is weak. It is better to say that you have ascended to where you view a bad scene which is against you not in your favour because you are searching a thing lost by someone else you are tending someone else's cattle and you are hankering after a thing which is not yours nor have you any attachment with it. How remote are your words from your actions and how closely you resemble your paternal and maternal uncles who were led by their wickedness and love for wrong to oppose Muhammad (may Allah bless him and his descendants) and in consequence they were killed as you know. They could not put up a defence against the calamity and could not protect their place of safety from the striking of swords which abound in the battle and which do not show weakness.

p: 261

You have said a lot about killing of `Uthman. You first join what the people have joined (i.e. allegiance) then seek a verdict about (the accused people) from me and I shall settle the matter between you and them according to the Book of Allah the Sublime. But what you are aiming at is just the fake nipple given to a child in the first days of stopping of nursing. Peace be on those who deserve it.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

كتبه إلى معاوية، جواباً

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنَّا كُنَّا نَحْنُ وَأَنْتُمْ عَلَى مَا ذَكَرْتَ مِنَ الْأُلْفَةِ وَالْجَمَاعَةِ، فَفَرَّقَ بيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَمْسِ أَنَّا آمَنَّا وَكَفَرْتُمْ، وَالْيَوْمَ أَنَّا اسْتَقَمْنَا وَفُتِنْتُمْ، وَمَا أَسْلَمَ مُسْلِمُكُمْ إِلاَّ كَرْهاً (1) ، وَبَعْدَ أَنْ كَانَ أَنْفُ الْإِسْلاَمِ (2) كُلُّهُ لِرَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيَهِ وَآلِهِ، حِزْباً.

وَذَكَرْتَ أَنِّي قَتَلْتُ طَلْحَةَ وَالزُّبَيْرَ، وَشَرَّدْتُ بِعَائِشَةَ (3) ، وَنَزَلْتُ بَيْنَ الْمِصْرَيْنِ (4) ! وَذلِكَ أَمْرٌ غِبْتَ عَنْهُ، فَلاَ عَلَيْكَ، وَلاَ الْعُذْرُ فِيهِ إِلَيْكَ. وَذَكَرْتَ أَنَّكَ زَائِرِي فِي الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالْأَنْصَارِ، وَقَدِ انْقَطَعَتِ الْهِجْرَةُ يَوْمَ أُسِرَ أَخُوكَ، فَإِنْ كَانَ فِيكَ عَجَلٌ فَاسْتَرْفِهْ (5) ، فَإِنِّي إِنْ أَزُرْكَ فَذلِكَ جَدِيرٌ أَنْ يَكُونَ اللهُ إِنَّمَا بَعَثَنِي لِلنِّقْمَةِ مِنْكَ! وَإِنْ تَزُرْنِي فَكَمَا قَالَ أَخُو بَنِي أَسَد:

مُسْتَقْبِلِينَ رِيَاحَ الصَّيْفِ تَضْرِبُهُم بِحَاصِبٍ (6) بَيْنَ أَغْوَارٍ (7) وَجُلْمُودْ (8)وَعِنْدِيَ السَّيْفُ الَّذِي أَعْضَضْتُهُ (9) بِجَدِّكَ وَخَالِكَ وَأَخِيكَ فِي مَقَام وَاحِدٍ، وَإِنَّكَ وَاللهِ مَا عَلِمْتُ الْأَغْلَفُ الْقَلْبِ (10) ، الْمُقارِبُ الْعَقْلِ (11) ، وَالْأَوْلَى أَنْ يُقَالَ لَكَ: إِنَّكَ رَقِيتَ سُلَّماً أَطْلَعَكَ مَطْلَعَ سُوءٍ عَلَيْكَ لاَ لَكَ، لِأَنَّكَ نَشَدْتَ غَيْرَ ضَالَّتِكَ (12) ، وَرَعَيْتَ غَيْرَ سَائِمَتِكَ (13) ، وَطَلَبْتَ أَمْراً لَسْتَ مِنْ أَهْلِهِ وَلاَ فِي مَعْدِنِهِ، فَمَا أَبْعَدَ قَوْلَكَ مِنْ فِعْلِكَ!! وَقَرِيبٌ مَا أَشْبَهْتَ مِنْ أَعْمَامٍِ وَأَخْوَالٍ! حَمَلَتْهُمُ الشَّقَاوَةُ، وَتَمَنِّي الْبَاطِلِ، عَلَى الْجُحُودِ بِمُحَمَّدٍ_صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وسَلَّمَ_َ فَصُرِعُوا مَصَارِعَهُمْ (14) حَيْثُ عَلِمْتَ، لَمْ يَدْفَعُوا عَظِيماً، وَلَمْ يَمْنَعُوا حَرِيماً، بِوَقْعِ سُيُوفٍِ مَا خَلاَ مِنْهَا الْوَغَى (15) ، وَلَمْ تُمَاشِهَا الْهُوَيْنَى (16)

p: 262

. وَقَدْ أَكْثَرْتَ فِي قَتَلَةِ عُثْمانَ، فَادْخُلْ فِيَما دَخَلَ فِيهِ النَّاسُ، ثُمَّ حَاكِمِ الْقُوْمَ إِلَيَّ، أَحْمِلْكَ وَإِيَّاهُمْ عَلَى كِتَابِ اللهِ تَعَالَ ي، وَأَمَّا تِلْكَ الَّتِي تُرِيدُ فَإِنَّهَا خُدْعَةُ (17) الصَّبِيِّ عَنِ اللَّبَنِ فِي أَوَّلِ الْفِصَالِ (18) ، وَالسَّلاَمُ لِأَهْلِهِ.

In Persian

به معاويه

پاسخ تهديدات نظامي معاويه پس از ياد خدا و درود! چنانكه يادآور شدي، ما و شما دوست بوديم و هم خويشاوند، اما ديروز ميان ما و شما بدان جهت جدايي افتاد كه ما ايمان آورديم و شما كافر شديد، و امروز ما در اسلام استوار مانديم و شما آزمايش گرديديد، اسلام آوردگان شما با ناخشنودي، آن هم زماني به اسلام روي آوردند كه بزرگان عرب تسليم رسول خدا (ص) شدند، و در گروه او قرار گرفتند. در نامه ات نوشتي كه طلحه و زبير را كشته، و عايشه را تبعيد كرده ام، و در كوفه و بصره منزل گزيدم، اين امور ربطي به تو ندارد، و لازم نيست از تو عذر بخواهم. و نوشتي كه با گروهي از مهاجران و انصار به نبرد من مي آيي، هجرت از روزي كه برادرت (يزيد) در فتح مكه اسير شد پايان يافت، پس اگر در ملاقات با من شتاب داري، دست نگهدار، زيرا اگر من به ديدار تو بيايم سزاوارتر است، كه خدا مرا به سوي تو فرستاده تا از تو انتقام گيرم، و اگر تو با من ديدار كني چنان است كه شاعر اسدي گفت: (تندباد تابستاني سخت مي وزد و آنها را با سنگ ريزه ها، و در ميان غبار و تخته سنگها، درهم مي كوبد.) يادآوري سوابق نظامي در پيروزيها و در نزد من همان شمشيري است كه در جنگ بدر بر پيكر جد و دايي و برادرت زدم. به خدا سوگند! مي دانم تو مردي بي خرد و دل تاريك هستي، بهتر است درباره تو گفته شود از نردباني بالا رفته اي كه تو را به پرتگاه خطرناكي كشانده، و سودي براي تو نداشته، زيانبار است، زيرا تو غير گمشده خود را مي جويي، و غير گله خود را مي چراني. منصبي را مي خواهي كه سزاوار آن نبوده، و در شان تو نيست، چقدر گفتار تو با كردارت فاصله دارد؟ چقدر به عموها و دايي هايت شباهت داري، شقاوت و آرزوي باطل آنها را به انكار نبوت محمد (ص) واداشت، و چنانكه مي داني در گورهاي خود غلطيدند، نه برابر مرگ توانستند دفاع كنند، و نه آنگونه كه سزاوار بود از حريمي حمايت، و نه در برابر زخم شمشيرها خود را حفظ كردند، كه شمشيرها در ميدان جنگ فراوان، و سستي در برابر آن شايسته نيست. تو درباره كشندگان عثمان فراوان حرف زدي، ابتدا چون ديگر مسلمانان با من بيعت كن، سپس درباره آنان از من داوري بطلب، كه شما و مسلمانان را به پذيرفتن دستورات قرآن وا دارم، اما آنچه را كه تو مي خواهي، چنان است كه به هنگام گرفتن كودك از شير، او را بفريبند، سلام بر آنان كه سزاوار سلامند.

p: 263


(1). Mu`awiyah had written a letter to Amir al-mu'minin in which after recalling mutual unity and amicability he laid on him the blame of killing Talhah and az-Zubayr and ousting `A'ishah from her house and objected to his adopting Kufah as his seat of government in place of Medina. In the end he gave a threat of war and said that he was about to come out with a force of muhajirun and ansar to fight. Amir al-mu'minin wrote this letter in reply to him wherein commenting on Mu`awiyah's claim for unity he says that: "There might have been unity between you and us but with the advent of Islam such a gulf has developed between the two that it is not possible to bridge it and such a separation has occurred which cannot be removed. This was because we responded to the call of the Prophet and hastened towards Islam but your position was that you were still in the state of unbelief and ignorance whereby we and you came to adopt separate ways. But when Islam secured stability and the chiefs of Arabs entered its fold you too were obliged to and secured protection of your lives by putting the covering of Islam on your faces but continued secretly to fan the mischief intended to shatter its foundations. Since we had accepted Islam of our own free will and pleasure we adhered to the right path and at no stage did any faltering occur in our steadfastness. Therefore your acceptance of Islam too could not make us agree with your views."

p: 264

As regards Nlu`awiyah's accusation that Amir al-mu'minin engineered the killing of Talhah and az-Zubayr; then even if this blame is admitted as true is it not a fact that they had openly revolted against Amir al-mu'minin and had risen for war after breaking the allegiance. Therefore if they were killed in connection with the revolt their blood would be wasted and no blame would lie on the killer because the penalty for him who revolts against the rightful Imam is death and fighting against him is permissible without doubt. The fact however is that this accusation has no reality because Talhah was killed by a man of his own party. Thus the historians write:

Marwan ibn al-Hakam shot Talhah with an arrow and turning to Aban ibn `Uthman said: "We have killed a killer of your father and relieved you of revenge." (Ibn Sa`d vol.3 part 1 p.159; Ibn al-Athir vol.3 p.244; al-Isti`ab vol.2 pp.766-769; Usd aI-ghabah vol.3 pp.60 61; al-Isabah vol.2 p.230; Tahdhib at-tahdhib vol.5 p.21).

As for az-Zubayr he was killed by `Amr ibn Jurmuz on his way back from Basrah and there was no prompting by Amir al-mu'minin in it. Similarly `A'ishah herself came out of her house as the head of this rebellious group while Amir al-mu'minin counselled her several times to realize her position and not to step out of her bounds but these things had no effect on her.

Of the same type was his criticism that Amir al-mu'minin left Medina and adopted Kufah as the seat of his government because Medina turns out bad people from itself and throws away dirt. The reply to it is only this that Mu`awiyah himself too always retained Syria as his capital keeping away from Medina.

p: 265

In this way what right can he have to object to Amir al-mu'minin changing his seat. Amir al-mu'minin left Medina because of those rebellions which had cropped up from all sides. To suppress them only the selection of such a place as capital from where military assistance could be mobilized at any time could be useful. Thus Amir al-mu'minin had seen on the occasion of the battle of Jamal that a great majority of the people of Kufah had supported him and that therefore by making it a base for the army defence against the enemy could be easily managed while Medina was not appropriate for military mobilization or for supplies.

Lastly as for Mu'awiyah's threat that he would march with muhajirun and ansar Amir al-mu'minin gave a reply to this point in a very subtle way namely that How would you bring muhajirun now since the door for hijrah was closed the day when your brother Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan was taken prisoner. This man was taken prisoner on the day of the fall of Mecca and there is no question of hijrah after the fall of Mecca so as to enable any one to be called a muhajirun because of the Prophet's saying: "There is no hijrah after the victory over Mecca."


In English

To Mu`awiyah

Now this is the time (1) that you should derive benefit by observing a clear view of the main matters because you have been treading in the path of your forefathers in making wrong claims spreading false and untrue notions claiming for yourself what is far above you and demanding what is not meant for you because you want to run away from right and to revolt against what is more fastened to your flesh and blood namely what has been heard by the depth of your ears and has filled your chest. And after forsaking right there remains nothing except clear misguidance and after disregarding a (clear) statement there is nothing except confusion. You should therefore guard (yourself) against doubts and its ill-effects of confusion because for a long time mischief has spread its veils and its gloom has blinded your eyes.

p: 266

I have received your letter which is full of uncouth utterances which weaken the cause of peace and nonsensical expressions which have not been prepared with knowledge and forbearance. By reason of these things you have become like one who is sinking in a marsh or groping in a dark place. You have raised yourself to a position which is difficult to approach and devoid of any signs (to guide). Even the royal kite cannot reach it. It is parallel to the `Ayyuq (the star Capella) in height. May Allah forbid that you be in charge of people's affairs after my assuming authority as Caliph or that I issue an edict or decument granting you authority over any one of them. Therefore from now onwards you guard yourself and be watchful because if you recalcitrate till the people of Allah (are forced to) rush upon you then matters will be closed for you and whatever can be accepted from you today will not be accepted then; and that is an end to the matter.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إليه أيضاً

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَقَدْ آنَ لَكَ أَنْ تَنْتَفِعَ بِالَّلمْحِ الْبَاصِرِ (1) مِنْ عِيَانِ الْأُمُورِ (2) ، فَقَدْ سَلَكْتَ مَدَارِجَ أَسْلاَفِكَ بِادِّعَائِكَ الْأَباطِيلَ، وَإقْحَامِكَ (3) غُرُورَ الْمَيْنِ (4) وَالْأَكَاذِيبِ، وَبِانْتِحَالِكَ (5) مَا قَدْ عَلاَ عَنْكَ (6) ، وَابْتِزَازِكَ (7) لِمَا قَدِ اخْتُزِنَ (8) دُونَكَ، فِرَاراً مِنَ الْحَقِّ، وَجُحُوداً لِمَا هُوَ أَلْزَمُ لَكَ مِنْ لَحْمِكَ وَدَمِكَ (9) ، مِمَّا قَدْ وَعَاهُ سَمْعُكَ، وَمُلِىءَ بِهِ صَدْرُكَ، فَمَاذَا بَعْدَ الْحَقِّ إِلاَّ الضَّلاَلُ الْمُبِينُ وَبَعْدَ الْبَيَانِ إِلاَّ الَّلبْسُ (10) ؟ فَاحْذَرِ الشُّبْهَةَ وَاشْتَِمالَهَا عَلَى لَبْسَتِهَا (11) ، فَإِنَّ الْفِتْنَةَ طَالَمَا أَغْدَفَتْ جَلاَبِيبَهَا (12) ، وَأَغْشَتِ (13) الْاَبْصَارَ ظُلْمَتُهَا.

p: 267

وَقدْ أَتَانِي كِتَابٌ مِنْكَ ذُو أَفانِينَ (14) مِنَ الْقَوْلِ ضَعُفَتْ قُوَاهَا عَنِ السِّلْمِ (15) ، وَأَسَاطِيرَ (16) لَمْ يَحُكْهَا (17) مِنْكَ عِلْمٌ وَلاَ حِلْمٌ (18) ، أَصْبَحْتَ مِنْهَا كَالْخَائِضِ فِي الدَّهَاسِ (19) ، وَالخَابِطِ (20) فِي الدِّيمَاسِ (21) ، وَتَرَقَّيْتَ إِلَى مَرْقَبَةٍ (22) بَعِيدَةِ الْمَرَامِ، نَازِحَةِ الْأَعْلاَمِ (23) ، تَقْصُرُ دوُنَهَا الْأَنُوقُ (24) ، وَيُحَاذَى بَهَا الْعَيُّوقُ (25) .وَحَاشَ لِلَّهِ أَنْ تَلِيَ لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ بَعْدِي صَدْراً أَوْ وِرْداً (26) ، أَوْ أُجْرِيَ لَكَ عَلَى أَحَدٍ مِنْهُمْ عَقْداً أَوْ عَهْداً!! فَمِنَ الْآنَ فَتَدَارَكْ نَفْسَكَ، وَانْظُرْ لَهَا، فَإِنَّكَ إِنْ فَرَّطْتَ حَتَّى يَنْهَدَ (27) إِلَيْكَ عِبَادُ اللهِ أُرْتِجَتْ (28) عَلَيْكَ الْأُمُورُ، مُنِعْتَ أَمْراً هُوَ مِنْكَ الْيَوْمَ مَقْبُولٌ وَالسَّلَامُ .

In Persian

به معاويه

افشاي علل گمراهي معاويه پس از ياد خدا و درود! معاويه! وقت آن رسيده است كه از حقائق آشكار پند گيري، تو با ادعاهاي باطل همان راه پدرانت را مي پيمايي، خود را در دروغ و فريب افكندي، و خود را به آنچه برتر از شان تواست نسبت مي دهي، و به چيزي دست دراز مي كني كه از تو باز داشته اند، و به تو نخواهد رسيد، اين همه را براي فرار كردن از حق، و انكار آنچه را كه از گوشت و خون تو لازم تر است، انجام مي دهي، حقائقي كه گوش تو آنها را شنيده و از آنها آگاهي داري، آيا پس از روشن شدن راه حق، جز گمراهي آشكار چيز ديگري يافت خواهد شد؟ و آيا پس از بيان حق، جز اشتباه كاري وجود خواهد داشت؟ از شبهه و حق پوشي بپرهيز، فتنه ها دير زماني است كه پرده هاي سياه خود را گسترانده، و ديده هايي را كور كرده است. پاسخ به ادعاهاي دروغين معاويه نامه اي از تو به دستم رسيد كه در سخن پردازي از هر جهت آراسته، اما از صلح و دوستي نشانه اي نداشت، و آكنده از افسانه هايي بود كه هيچ نشاني از دانش و بردباري در آن بچشم نمي خورد، در نوشتن اين نامه كسي را ماني كه پاي در گل فرو رفته، و در بيغوله ها سرگردان است، مقامي را مي طلبي كه از قدر و ارزش تو والاتر

p: 268

است، و هيچ عقابي را توان پرواز بر فراز آن نيست و چون ستاره دوردست (عيوق) از تو دور است. پناه بر خدا كه پس از من ولايت مسلمانان را بر عهده گيري، و سود و زيان آن را بپذيري، يا براي تو با يكي از مسلمانان پيماني يا قراردادي را امضا كنم. از هم اكنون خود را درياب، و چاره اي بينديش، كه اگر كوتاهي كني، و براي درهم كوبيدنت بندگان خدا برخيزند، درهاي نجات بروي تو بسته خواهد شد، و آنچه را كه امروز از تو مي پذيرند فردا نخواهند پذيرفت، با درود.


(1). At the end of the battle of the Kharijites Mu`awiyah wrote a letter to Amir al-mu'minin wherein as usual he indulged in mud-throwing. In reply Amir al-mu'minin wrote this letter in which he has tried to draw Mu`awiyah's attention to the clear facts about this very battle of the Kharijites because this battle took place in accordance with the prophecy of the Prophet while Amir al-mu'minin himself too had said before the battle that besides the people of Jamal and Siffin he had to fight against one more group and they were the "deviators" from the religion namely the Kharijites. The occurrence of this battle and the killing of the man with breasts (Dhu'th- thudayyah) was a clear proof of Amir al-mu'minin being in the right. If Mu'awiyah had not been obsessed with self-advertisement and lust for conquests and had not shut his eyes against the right like his forefathers Abu Sufyan and his brother `Utbah he would have seen right and come on its path. But compelled by his natural inclination he always evaded right and truth and kept himself blind to those sayings of the Prophet which threw light on Amir al-mu'minin's Imamate and vicegerency. Because of being with the Prophet in the farewell pilgrimage the Prophet's saying: "Of whomsoever I am the master `Ali is his master" was not hidden from him and neither was the Prophet's saying that: "O' `Ali you are to me as Harun was to Musa" because of his presence on the occasion of the battle of Tabuk. In spite of all this he passed his life in concealing right and encouraging wrong. This was not due to any misunderstanding but it was his lust for power that kept prompting him to suppress and trample truth and justice.

p: 269


In English

To `Abdullah ibn al-`Abbas

(This letter has already been included with a different version)

And then sometimes a person feels joyful about a thing which he was not to miss in any case and feels grieved for a thing which was not to come to him at all. Therefore you should not regard the attainment of pleasure and the satisfaction of the desire for revenge as the best favour of this world but it should be the putting off of the (flame of) wrong and the revival of right. Your pleasure should be for what (good acts) you have sent forward; your grief should be for what you are leaving behind; and your worry should be about what is to befall after death.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى عبدالله بن العباس وقد تقدّم ذكره بخلاف هذه الرواية

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فإِنَّ الْمَرْءَ لَيَفْرَحُ بِالشَّيْءِ الَّذِي لَمْ يَكُنْ لِيَفُوتَهُ، وَيَحْزَنُ عَلَى الشَّيْءِ الَّذِي لَمْ يَكُنْ لِيُصِيبَهُ، فَلاَ يَكُنْ أَفْضَلَ مَا نِلْتَ في نَفْسِكَ مِنْ دُنْيَاكَ بُلُوغُ لَذَّةٍ أَوْ شِفَاءُ غَيْظٍ، وَلكِنْ إطْفَاءُ بِاطِلٍ أَوْ إِحْيَاءُ حَقٍّ. وَلْيَكُنْ سُرورُكَ بِمَا قَدَّمْتَ، وَأَسَفُكَ عَلَى مَا خَلَّفْتَ (1) ، وَهَمُّكَ فِيَما بَعْدَ الْموْتِ.

In Persian

به عبدالله بن عباس

ضرورت واقع بيني پس از ياد خدا و درود! همانا انسان از به دست آوردن چيزي خشنود مي شود كه هرگز آن را از دست نخواهد داد، و براي چيزي اندوهناك است كه هرگز به دست نخواهد آورد، پس بهترين چيز در نزد تو در دنيا، رسيدن به لذتها، يا انتقام گرفتن نباشد، بلكه بايد خاموش كردن باطل، يا زنده كردن حق باشد، تنها به توشه اي كه از پيش فرستادي خشنود باش، و بر آنچه بيهوده مي گذاري حسرت خور، و همت و تلاش خود را براي پس از مرگ قرار ده.

p: 270


In English

To Qutham ibn al-`Abbas his Governor of Mecca

Now make arrangements for hajj by the people remind them of the days (to be devoted to) Allah. Sit for giving them audience morning and evening. Explain the law to the seeker teach the ignorant and discuss with the learned. There should be no intermediary between you and the people except your tongue and no guard save your own face. Do not prevent any needy person from meeting you because if the needy is returned unsatisfied from your door in the first instance then even doing it thereafter will not bring you praise.

See what has been collected with you of the funds of Allah (in the public treasury) and spend it over the persons with families the distressed the starving and the naked at your end. Then send the remaining to us for distribution to those who are on this side.

Ask the people of Mecca not to charge rent from lodgers because Allah the Glorified says that: "alike; for the dweller therein as well as the stranger" (Qur'an 22:25). "al-`akif" (the dweller) here means he who is living there while "al-badi" (the stranger) means he who is not among the people of Mecca comes for hajj from outside. May Allah grant us and you promptitude for seeking His love (by doing good acts); and that is an end to the matter.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب كتبه عليه السلام

إلى قُثَمِ بن العباس وهو عامله على مكة

p: 271

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَأَقِمْ لِلنَّاسِ الْحَجَّ، وَذَكِّرْهُمْ بِأَيَّامِ اللهِ (1) ، وَاجْلِسْ لَهُمُ الْعَصْرَيْنِ (2) ، فَأَفْتِ الْمُسْتَفْتِيَ، وَعَلِّمِ الْجَاهِلَ، وَذَاكِرِ الْعَالِمَ. وَلاَ يَكُنْ لَكَ إِلَى النَّاسِ سَفِيرٌ إِلاَّ لِسَانُكَ، وَلاَ حَاجِبٌ إِلاَّ وَجْهُكَ، وَلاَ تَحْجُبَنَّ ذَا حَاجَةٍ عَنْ لِقَائِكَ بِهَا، فَإِنَّهَا إِنْ ذِيدَتْ (3) عَنْ أَبْوَابِكَ في أَوَّلِ وِرْدِهَا (4) لَمْ تُحْمَدْ فيَِما بَعْدُ عَلَى قَضَائِهَا.

وَانْظُرْ إِلَى مَا اجْتَمَعَ عِنْدَكَ مِنْ مَالِ اللهِ فَاصْرِفْهُ إِلَى مَنْ قِبَلَكَ (5) مِنْ ذَوِي الْعِيَالِ وَالْمَجَاعَةِ، مُصِيباً بِهِ مَوَاضِعَ الْفَاقَةِ (6) وَالْخَلاَّتِ (7) ، وَمَا فَضَلَ عَنْ ذلِكَ فَاحْمِلْهُ إِلَيْنَا لِنَقْسِمَهُ فِيمَنْ قِبَلَنَا.

وَمُرْ أَهْلَ مَكَّةَ أَلاَّ يَأْخُذُوا مِنْ سَاكِنٍ أَجْراً، فَإِنَّ اللهَ سُبْحَانَهُ يَقُولُ: (سَوَاءً الْعَاكِفُ فِيهِ وَالْبَادِ) فَالْعَاكِفُ: الْمُقيِمُ بِهِ، وَالْبَادِي: الَّذِي يَحُجُّ إِلَيْهِ مِنْ غَيْرِ أَهْلِهِ. وَفَّقَنَا اللهُ وَإِيَّاكُمْ لَِمحَابِّهِ (8) ، وَالسَّلاَمُ .

In Persian

به قثم بن عباس

رسيدگي به امور حاجيان در مراسم حج پس از ياد خدا و درود! براي مردم حج را به پاي دار، و روزهاي خدا را به يادشان آور، در بامداد و شامگاه در يك مجلس عمومي با مردم بنشين، آنان كه پرسشهاي ديني دارند با فتواها آشنايشان بگردان، و ناآگاه را آموزش ده، و با دانشمندان به گفتگو بپرداز، جز زبانت چيز ديگري پيام رسانت با مردم، و جز چهره ات درباني وجود نداشته باشد، و هيچ نيازمندي را از ديدار خود محروم مگردان، زيرا اگر در آغاز از درگاه تو رانده شود، ديگر تو را نستايد گرچه در پايان حاجت او برآورده شود. در مصرف بيت المالي كه در دست تو جمع شده است انديشه كن، و آن را به عيالمندان و گرسنگان پيرامونت ببخش، و به مستمندان و نيازمنداني كه سخت به كمك مالي تو احتياج دارند برسان، و مازاد را نزد ما بفرست، تا در ميان مردم نيازمندي كه در اين سامان هستند تقسيم گردد. سفارش به رفع نيازهاي حجاج به مردم مكه فرمان ده تا از هيچ زائري در ايام حج در مكه اجرت مسكن نگيرند، كه خداي سبحان فرمود: (عاكف و بادي در مكه يكسانند.) عاكف، يعني اهل مكه، و بادي، يعني زائراني كه از ديگر شهرها به حج مي آيند، خدا ما و شما را به آنچه دوست دارد توفيق عنايت فرمايد، با درود.

p: 272


In English

To Salman al-Farisi before Amir al-mu'minin's caliphate

Now the example of the world is like that of a snake which is soft in touch but whose poison is fatal. Therefore keep yourself aloof from whatever appears good to you because of its short stay with you. Do not worry for it because of your conviction that it will leave you and that its circumstances are vicissitudes. When you feel most attracted towards it shun it most because whenever someone is assured of happiness in it it throws him into danger; or when he feels secure in it the world alters his security into fear; and that is an end to the matter.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى سلمان الفارسي رحمه الله قبل أيام خلافته

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فإِنَّمَا مَثَلُ الدُّنْيَا مَثَلُ الْحَيَّةِ: لَيِّنٌ مَسُّهَا، قَاتِلٌ سُمُّهَا، فَأَعْرِضْ عَمَّا يُعْجِبُكَ فِيهَا، لِقِلَّةِ مَا يَصْحَبُكَ مِنْهَا، وَضَعْ عَنْكَ هُمُومَهَا، لِمَا أَيْقَنْتَ بِهِ مِنْ فِرَاقِهَا، وَ تَصَرَّفِ حَالَاتِها، وَكُنْ آنَسَ مَا تَكُونُ بِهَا (1) أَحْذَرَ مَا تَكُونَ مِنْهَا، فَإِنَّ صَاحِبَهَا كُلَّمَا اطْمَأَنَّ فِيهَا إِلَى سُرُورٍ أَشْخْصَتْهُ (2) عَنْهُ إِلىَ مَحْذُورٍ، أوْ إِلَى إِينَاسٍ أَزالَتْهُ عَنْهُ إِلَي إِيحَاش وَالسَّلَامُ.

In Persian

به سلمان فارسي

روش برخورد با دنيا پس از ياد خدا و درود! دنياي حرام چونان مار است، كه پوستي نرم، و زهري كشنده دارد، پس از جاذبه هاي فريبنده آن روي گردان، زيرا زمان كوتاهي در آن خواهي ماند، و اندوه آن را از سر بيرون كن، زيرا كه يقين به جدايي آن، و دگرگوني حالات آن داري، و آنگاه كه به دنيا خو گرفته اي بيشتر بترس، زيرا كه دنياپرست تا به خوشگذراني در دنيا اطمينان كرد او را به تلخ كامي كشاند، و هرگاه كه به دنيا انس گرفت و آسوده شد، ناگاه به وحشت دچار مي گردد.

p: 273


In English

To al-Harith (ibn `Abdillah al.A`war) al-Hamdani

Adhere to the rope of the Qur'an and seek instructions from it. Regard its lawful as lawful and its unlawful as unlawful. Testify the right that has been in the past. Take lesson for the present condition of this world from the past (condition) because its one phase resembles the other and its end is to meet its beginning and the whole of it is to change and depart. Regard the name of Allah as too great to mention Him save in the matter of right. Remember more often death and (what is to come) after death. Do not long for death except on a reliable condition.

Avoid every action which the doer likes for his own self but dislikes for the Muslims in general. Avoid every such action which is performed in secret and from which shame is felt in the open. Also avoid that action about which if the doer is questioned he himself regards it bad or offers excuses for it. Do not expose your honour to be treated as the subject of people's discussions. Do not relate to the people all that you hear for that would amount to falsehood. Do not contest all that the people relate to you for that would mean ignorance. Kill your anger and forgive when you have power (to punish). Show forbearance in the moment of rage and pardon in spite of authority; the eventual end will then be in your favour. Seek good out of every favour that Allah has bestowed on you and do not waste any favour of Allah over you. The effect of Allah's favours over you should be visible on you.

p: 274

Know that the most distinguished among the believers is he who is the most forward of them in spending from himself his family and his property because whatever good you send forward Will remain in store for you and the benefit of whatever you keep behind will be derived by others. Avoid the company of the person whose opinion is unsound and whose action is detestable because a man is judged after his companion.

Live in big cities because they are collective centres of the Muslims. Avoid places of neglectfulness and wickedness and places where there are paucity of supporters for the obedience of Allah. Confine your thinking to matters which are helpful to you. Do not sit in the marketing centres because they are the meeting-places of Satan and targets of mischiefs. Frequently look at those over whom you enjoy superiority because this is a way of giving thanks.

Do not undertake a journey on Friday until you have attended the prayers except when you are going in the way of Allah or in an excusable matter. Obey Allah in all your affairs because Allah's obedience has precedence over all other things. Deceive your heart into worshipping persuade it and do not force it. Engage it (in worshipping) when it is free and merry except as regards the obligations enjoined upon you for they should not be neglected and must be performed at the five times. Be on guard lest death comes down upon you while you have fled away from your Lord in search of worldly pleasure. Avoid the company of the wicked because vice adjoins vice. Regard Allah as great and love His lovers. Keep off anger because it is one large army from Satan's armies; and that is an end to the matter.

p: 275

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى الحارث الهَمْدَاني

وَتَمَسَّكْ بِحَبْلِ الْقُرآنِ، وَاسْتَنْصِحْهُ، وَأَحِلَّ حَلاَلَهُ، وَحَرِّمْ حَرَامَهُ، وَصَدِّقْ بِمَا سَلَفَ مِنَ الْحَقِّ، وَاعْتَبِرْ (1) بِمَا مَضَى مِنَ الدُّنْيَا لِمَا بَقِي مِنْهَا، فَإِنَّ بَعْضَهَا يُشْبِهُ بَعْضاً، وَآخِرَهَا لاَحِقٌ بِأَوَّلِهَا! وَكُلُّهَا حَائِلٌ (2) مُفَارِقٌ. وَعَظِّمِ اسْمَ اللهِ أَنْ تَذْكُرَهُ إِلاَّ عَلَى حَقّ. وَأَكْثِرْ ذِكْرَ الْمَوْتِ وَمَا بَعْدَ الْمَوتِ، وَلاَ تَتَمَنَّ الْمَوْتَ إِلاَّ بِشَرْط وَثِيق (3) . وَاحْذَرْ كُلَّ عَمَلٍ يَرْضَاهُ صَاحِبُهُ لِنَفْسِهِ، وَيُكْرَهُ لِعَامَّةِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ، وَاحْذَرْ كُلَّ عَمَلٍِ يُعْمَلُ بِهِ فِي السِّرِّ، وَيُسْتَحَى مِنْهُ فِي الْعَلاَنِيَةِ، واحْذَرْ كُلَّ عَمَلٍ إِذَا سُئِلَ عَنْهُ صَاحِبُهُ أَنْكَرَهُ أَوِ اعتَذَرَ مِنْهُ. وَلاَ تَجْعَلْ عِرْضَكَ غَرَضاً لِنِبَالِ الْقَوْلِ، وَلاَ تُحَدِّثِ النَّاسَ بِكُلِّ مَا سَمِعْتَ بِهِ، فَكَفَى بِذلِكَ كَذِباً، وَلاَ تَرُدَّ عَلَى النَّاسِ كُلَّ مَا حَدَّثُوكَ بِهِ، فَكَفَى بِذلِكَ جَهْلاً. وَاكْظِمِ الْغَيْظَ، وَتَجاوَزْ عِنْدَ المَقْدِرَةِ، وَاحْلُمْ عِنْدَ الْغَضَبِ، وَاصْفَحْ مَعَ الدَّوْلَةِ (4) ، تَكُنْ لَكَ الْعَاقِبَةُ. وَاسْتَصْلِحْ كُلَّ نِعْمَة أَنْعَمَهَا اللهُ عَلَيْكَ، وَلاَ تُضَيِّعَنَّ نِعْمَةً مِنْ نِعَمِ اللهِ عِنْدَكَ، وَلْيُرَ عَلَيْكَ أَثَرُ مَا أَنْعَمَ اللهُ بِهِ عَلَيْكَ.

وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ أَفْضَلَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَفْضَلُهُمْ تَقْدِمَةً (5) مِنْ نَفْسِهِ وَأَهْلِهِ وَمَالِهِ، فَإِنَّكَ مَا تُقَدِّمْ مِنْ خَيْرٍ يَبْقَ لَكَ ذُخْرُهُ، وَمَا تُؤخِّرْهُ يَكُنْ لِغَيْرِكَ خَيْرُهُ. وَاحْذَرْ صَحَابَةَ مَنْ يَفِيلُ (6) رَأْيهُ، وَيُنْكَرُ عَمَلُهُ، فَإِنَّ الصَّاحِبَ مَعْتَبَرٌ بِصَاحِبِهِ. وَاسْكُنِ الْأَمْصَارَ الْعِظَامَ فَإِنَّهَا جِمَاعُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ، وَاحْذَرْ مَنَازِلَ الْغَفْلَةِ وَالْجَفَاءِ وَقِلَّةَ الْأَعْوَانِ عَلَى طَاعَةِ اللهِ، وَاقْصُرْ رَأْيَكَ عَلَى مَا يَعْنِيكَ، وَإِيَّاكَ وَمَقَاعِدَ الْأَسْوَاقِ، فَإِنَّهَا مَحَاضِرُ الشَّيْطَانِ وَمَعَارِيضُ (7) الْفِتَنِ. وَأَكْثِرْ أَنْ تَنْظُرَ إِلَى مَنْ فُضِّلْتَ عَلَيْهِ (8) ، فإِنَّ ذلِكَ مِنْ أَبْوَابِ الشُّكْرِ. وَلاَ تُسَافِرْ فِي يَوْمِ جُمُعَة حَتّى تَشْهَدَ الصَّلاَةَ إِلاَّ فَاصِلاً (9) فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ، أَوْ فِي أَمْرٍ تُعْذَرُ بِهِ. وَأَطِعِ اللهَ فِي جُمَلِ أُمُورِكَ، فَإِنَّ طَاعَةَ اللهِ فَاضِلَةٌ عَلَى مَا سِوَاهَا. وَخَادِعْ نَفْسَكَ فِي الْعِبَادَةِ، وَارْفُقْ بِهَا وَلاَ تَقْهَرْهَا، وَخُذْ عَفْوَهَا (10) وَنَشَاطَهَا، إِلاَّ مَا كَانَ مَكْتُوباً عَلَيْكَ مِنَ الْفَرِيضَةِ، فَإِنَّهُ لاَ بُدَّ مِنْ قَضَائِهَا وتَعَاهُدِهَا عِنْدَ مَحَلِّها. وَإِيَّاكَ أَنْ يَنْزِلَ بِكَ الْمَوْتُ وَأَنْتَ آبِقٌ (11) مِنْ رَبِّكَ فِي طَلَبِ الدُّنْيَا، وَإِيَّاكَ وَمُصَاحَبَةَ الْفُسَّاقِ، فَإِنَّ الشَّرَّ بِالشَّرِّ مُلْحَقٌ. وَوَقِّرِ اللهَ، وَأَحْبِبْ أَحِبَّاءَهُ، وَاحْذَرِ الْغَضَبَ، فَإِنَّهُ جُنْدٌ عَظِيمٌ مِنْ جُنُودِ إِبْلِيسَ، وَالسَّلاَمُ.

p: 276

In Persian

به حارث همداني

اخلاق كارگزاران حكومتي به ريسمان قرآن چنگ زن، و از آن نصيحت پذير، حلالش را حلال، و حرامش را حرام بشمار، و حقي را كه در زندگي گذشتگان بود تصديق كن، و از حوادث گذشته تاريخ براي آينده عبرت گير، كه حوادث روزگار با يكديگر همانند بوده، و پايان دنيا به آغازش مي پيوندد، و همه آن رفتني است. نام خدا را بزرگ دار، و جز به حق بر زبان نياور، مرگ و جهان پس از مرگ را فراوان به ياد آور، هرگز آرزوي مرگ مكن جز آنكه بداني از نجات يافتگاني، از كاري كه تو را خشنود، و عموم مسلمانان را ناخوشايند است بپرهيز، از هر كار پنهاني كه در آشكار شدنش شرم داري پرهيز كن، از هر كاري كه از كننده آن پرسش كنند، نپذيرد يا عذرخواهي كند، دوري كن، آبروي خود را آماج تير گفتار ديگران قرار نده، و هر چه شنيدي بازگو مكن، كه نشانه دروغگويي است و هر خبري را دروغ مپندار، كه نشانه ناداني است. خشم را فرونشان، و به هنگام قدرت ببخش، و به هنگام خشم فروتن باش، و در حكومت مدارا كن تا آينده خوبي داشته باشي، نعمتهايي كه خدا به تو بخشيده نيكو دار، و نعمتهايي كه در اختيار داري تباه مكن، و چنان باش كه خدا آثار نعمتهاي خود را در تو آشكارا بنگرد.

اوصاف مومنان و بدان! بهترين مومنان، آنكه جان و خاندان و مال خود را در راه خدا پيشاپيش تقديم كند، چه آن را كه پيش فرستي براي تو اندوخته گردد، و آنچه را كه باقي گذاري سودش به ديگران مي رسد. از دوستي با بيخردان، و خلافكاران بپرهيز، زيرا هر كس را از آنكه دوست اوست مي شناسند، و در شهرهاي بزرگ سكونت كن زيرا مركز اجتماع مسلمانان است، و از جاهايي كه مردم آن از ياد خدا غافلند، و به يكديگر ستم روا مي دارند، و بر اطاعت از خدا به يكديگر كمك نمي كنند، بپرهيز. در چيزي انديشه كن كه ياريت دهد، از نشستن در گذرگاههاي عمومي، و بازار پرهيز كن كه جاي حاضر شدن شيطان، و برانگيخته شدن فتنه هاست، و به افراد پايين تر از خود توجه داشته باش، كه راه شكرگزاري تو در برتري است. در روز جمعه پيش از نماز مسافرت مكن، جز براي جهاد در راه خدا، و يا كاري كه از انجام آن ناچاري، در همه كارهايت خدا را اطاعت كن، كه اطاعت خدا از همه چيز برتر است. روش بكارگيري نفس در خوبيها نفس خود را در واداشتن به عبادت فريب ده، و با آن مدارا كن، و به زور و اكراه بر چيزي مجبورش نساز، و در وقت فراغت و نشاط بكارش گير، جز در آنچه كه بر تو واجب است، و بايد

p: 277

آن را در وقت خاص خودش بجا آوري، بپرهيز از آنكه مرگ تو فرا رسد در حالي كه از پروردگارت گريزان باشي، و در دنياپرستي غرق باشي، از همنشيني با فاسقان بپرهيز كه شر به شر مي پيوندد، خدا را گرامي دار، و دوستان خدا را دوست شمار، و از خشم بپرهيز كه لشكر بزرگ شيطان است. با درود.


In English

To Sahl ibn Hunayf al-Ansari his Governor of Medina about certain persons in Medina who had gone over to Mu`awiyah.

Now I have come to know that certain persons from your side are stealthily going over to Mu`awiyah. Do not feel sorry for their numbers so lost to you or for their help of which you are deprived. It is enough that they have gone into misguidance and you have been relieved of them. They are running away from guidance and truth and advancing towards blindness and ignorance. They are seekers of this world and are proceeding to it and are leaping towards it. They have known justice seen it heard it and appreciated it. They have realized that here to us all men are equal in the matter of right. Therefore they ran away to selfishness and partiality. let them remain remote and far away.

By Allah surely they have not gone away from oppression and joined justice. In this matter we only desire Allah to resolve for us its hardships and to level for us its uneveness if Allah wills; and that is an end to the matter.

p: 278

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى سهل بن حُنَيف الانصاري، وهو عامله على المدينه، في معنى قوم من أهلها لحقوا بمعاوية

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَقَدْ بَلَغَنِي أَنَّ رِجَالاً مِمَّنْ قِبَلَكَ (1) يَتَسَلَّلُونَ (2) إِلَى مُعَاوِيَةَ، فَلاَ تَأْسَفْ عَلَى مَا يَفُوتُكَ مِنْ عَدَدِهِمْ، وَيَذْهَبُ عَنْكَ مِنْ مَدَدِهِمْ، فَكَفى لَهُمْ غَيّاً (3) ، وَلَكَ مِنْهُمْ شَافِياً، فِرَارُهُمْ مِنَ الْهُدَى والْحَقِّ، وَإِيضَاعُهُمْ (4) إِلَى الْعَمَى وَالْجَهْلِ، وَإِنَّمَا هُمْ أَهْلُ دُنْيَا مُقْبِلُونَ عَلَيْهَا، وَمُهْطِعُونَ إِلَيْهَا (5) قَدْ عَرَفُوا الْعَدْلَ وَرَأَوْهُ، وَسَمِعُوه ُووََعَوْهُ، وَعَلِمُوا أَنَّ النَّاسَ عِنْدَنَا فِي الْحَقِّ أُسْوَةٌ، فَهَرَبُوا إِلَى الْأَثَرَةِ، فَبُعْداً لَهُمْ وَسُحْقاً (6) !!

إِنَّهُمْ _ وَاللهِ _ لَمْ يَنْفِرُوا مِنْ جَوْرٍ، وَلَمْ يَلْحَقُوا بِعَدْلٍ، وَإِنَّا لَنَطْمَعُ فِي هَذَا الْأَمْرِ أَنْ يُذَلِّلَ اللهُ لَنَا صَعْبَهُ، يُسَهِّلَ لَنَا حَزْنَهُ (7) ، إِنْ شَاءَ اللهُ، وَالسَّلاَمُ.

In Persian

به سهل بن حنيف

روش برخورد با پديده فرار پس از ياد خدا و درود! به من خبر رسيده كه گروهي از مردم مدينه به سوي معاويه گريختند، مبادا براي از دست دادن آنان، و قطع شدن كمك و ياريشان افسوس بخوري! كه اين فرار براي گمراهيشان، و نجات تو از رنج آنان كافي است، آنان از حق و هدايت گريختند، و به سوي كوردلي و جهالت شتافتند. آنان دنياپرستاني هستند كه به آن روي آوردند، و شتابان در پي آن گرفتند، عدالت را شناختند و ديدند و شنيدند و به خاطر سپردند، و دانستند كه همه مردم در نزد ما، در حق يكسانند، پس به سوي انحصارطلبي گريختند دور باشند از رحمت حق، و لعنت بر آنان باد. سوگند به خدا! آنان از ستم نگريختند، و به عدالت نپيوستند، همانا آرزومنديم تا در اين جريان، خدا سختي ها را بر ما آسان، و مشكلات را هموار فرمايد. ان شاء الله، با درود.

p: 279


In English

To al-Mundhir ibn Jarud al-`Abdi who had misappropriated certain things given into his administrative charge.

Now the good behaviour of your father deceived me about you and I thought that you would follow his way and tread in his path. But according to what has reached me about you you are not giving up following your passions and are not retaining any provision for the next world. You are making this world by ruining your next life and doing good to your kinsmen by cutting yourself off from religion.

If what has reached me about you is correct then the camel of your family and the strap of your shoe is better than yourself. A man with qualities like yours is not fit to close a hole in the ground nor for performing any deed nor for increasing his position nor for taking him as a partner in any trust nor for trusting him against misappropriation. Therefore proceed to me as soon as this letter of mine reaches you if Allah so wills.

as-Sayyid ar-Radi says: al-Mundhir ibn Jarud al-`Abdi is he about whom Amir al-mu'minin (peace be upon him) said that:

He looks very often at his shoulders feels proud in his garments (appearance) and usually blows away (dust) from his shoes.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى المنذر بن الجارود العَبْدي وقد خان في بعض ما ولاّه من أعماله

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنَّ صَلاَحَ أَبِيكَ غَرَّنِي مِنْكَ، وَظَنَنْتُ أَنَّكَ تَتَّبِعُ هَدْيَهُ (1) ، وَتَسْلُكُ سَبِيلَهُ، فَإِذَا أَنْتَ فِيَما رُقِّي َ (2) إِلَيَّ عَنْكَ لاَتَدَعُ لِهَوَاكَ انْقِيَاداً، وَلَاتُبْقِي لِآخِرَتِكَ عَتَاداً (3) ، تَعْمُرُ دُنْيَاكَ بَخَرَابِ آخِرَتِكَ، وَتَصِلُ عَشِيرَتَكَ بِقَطِيعَةِ دِينِكَ. وَلَئِنْ كَانَ مَا بَلَغَنِي عَنْكَ حَقّاً، لَجَمَلُ أَهْلِكَ وَشِسْعُ (4) نَعْلِكَ خَيْرٌ مِنْكَ، وَمَنْ كَانَ بِصِفَتِكَ فَلَيْسَ بِأَهْلٍ أَنْ يُسَدَّ بِهِ ثَغْرٌ، أَوْ يُنْفَذَ بِهِ أَمْرٌ، أَوْ يُعْلَى لَهُ قَدْرٌ، أَوْ يُشْرَكَ فِي أَمَانَة، أَوْ يُؤْمَنَ عَلَى خِيَانَة (5) . فَأقْبِلْ إِلَيَّ حِينَ يَصِلُ إِلَيْكَ كِتَابِي هذَا إِنْ شَاءَ اللهُ. قال الرضي: وَالمنذر بن الجارود هذا هو الذي قال فيه أميرالمؤمنين عليه السلام: إنه لنظّارٌ في عِطْفَيْهِ (6) ، مُختالٌ في بُرْدَيْه (7) ، تَفّالٌ في شِرَاكَيْهِ (8) .

p: 280

In Persian

به منذر بن الجارود

سرزنش از خيانت اقتصادي پس از ياد خدا و درود! همانا، شايستگي پدرت مرا نسبت به تو خوشبين، و گمان كردم همانند پدرت مي باشي، و راه او را مي روي، ناگهان به من خبر دادند، كه در هواپرستي چيزي فرو گذار نكرده، و توشه اي براي آخرت خود باقي نگذاشته اي، دنياي خود را با تباه كردن آخرت آبادان مي كني، و براي پيوستن با خويشاوندانت از دين خدا بريدي، اگر آنچه به من گزارش رسيده، درست باشد، شتر خانه ات، و بند كفش تو از تو باارزش تر است، و كسي كه همانند تو باشد، نه لياقت پاسداري از مرزهاي كشور را دارد، و نه مي تواند كاري را به انجام رساند، يا ارزش او بالا رود، يا شريك در امانت باشد. يا از خيانتي دور ماند پس چون اين نامه به دست تو رسد، نزد من بيا. ان شاء الله.


In English

To `Abdullah ibn al-`Abbas

Now you cannot go farther than the limit of your life nor can you be given a livelihood which is not for you. Remember that this life consists of two days - a day for you and a day against you and that the world is a house (changing) authorities. Whatever in it is for you will come to you despite your weakness; and whatever in it turns against you cannot be brought back despite your strength.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى عبدالله بن العباس

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنَّكَ لَسْتَ بِسَابِقٍ أَجَلَكَ، وَلاَ مَرْزوُقٍ مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ؛ وَاعْلَمْ بِأنَّ الدَّهْرَ يَوْمَانِ: يَوْمٌ لَكَ وَيَوْمٌ عَلَيْكَ، وَأَنَّ الدُّنْيَا دَارُ دُوَلٍ (1) ، فَمَا كَانَ مِنْهَا لَكَ أَتَاكَ عَلَى ضَعْفِكَ، وَمَا كَانَ مِنْهَا عَلَيْكَ لَمْ تَدْفَعْهُ بقُوَّتِكَ.

p: 281

In Persian

به عبدالله بن عباس

انسان و مقدرات الهي پس از ياد خدا و درود! تو از اجل خود پيشي نخواهي گرفت، و آنچه كه روزي تو نيست به تو نخواهد رسيد، و بدان كه روزگار دو روز است، روزي به سود، و روزي به زيان تو مي باشد، و همانا دنيا خانه دگرگونيهاست، و آنچه كه به سود تو است هر چند ناتوان باشي خود را به تو خواهد رساند، و آنچه كه به زيان تو است هر چند توانا باشي دفع آن نخواهي كرد.


In English

To Mu'awiyah

Now (in) exchanging replies and listening to your letters my view has been weak and my intelligence has been erring. When you refer your demands to me and expect me to send you written replies you are like one who is in deep slumber while his dreams contradict him or one who stands perplexed and overwhelmed not knowing whether whatever comes to him is for him or against him. You are not such a man but he is (to some extent) like you (as you are worse than him). I swear by Allah that had it not been for (my) giving you time you would have faced from me catastrophe that would have crushed the bones and removed the flesh. Know that Satan has prevented you from turning to good actions and listening to the words of counsels. Peace be upon those who deserve it.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى معاوية

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنِّي عَلَى التَّرَدُّدِ فِي جَوَابِكَ، وَالْإِسْتَِماعِ إِلَى كِتَابِكَ، لَمُوَهِّنٌ (1) رَأْيِي، وَمُخَطِّىءٌ فِرَاسَتي (2) . وَإِنَّكَ إِذْ تُحَاوِلُنِي الْأُمُورَ (3) وَتُرَاجِعُنِي السُّطُورَ (4) ، كَالْمُسْتَثْقِلِ النَّائِمِ تَكْذِبُهُ أَحَلاَمُهُ (5) ، وَالْمُتَحَيِّرِ الْقَائِمِ يَبْهَظُهُ (6) مَقَامُهُ، لاَ يَدْرِي أَلَهُ مَا يَأَتِي أَمْ عَلَيْهِ، وَلَسْتَ بِهِ، غَيْرَ أَنَّهُ بِكَ شَبِيهٌ. وَأُقْسِمُ بِاللهِ لَوْلاَ بَعْضُ الْإِسْتِبْقَاءِ (7) لَوَصَلَتْ إِلَيْكَ مِنِّي قَوَارِعُ (8) ، تَقْرَعُ (9) الْعَظْم ، وَتَهْلِسُ (10) اللَّحْمَ! وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ قَدْ ثَبَّطَكَ (11) عَنْ أَنْ تُرَاجِعَ أَحْسَنَ أُمُورِكَ، وَتَأْذَنَ (12) لِمَقَالِ نَصِيحَتِكَ، وَالسَّلاَمُ لِأَهْلِهِ.

p: 282

In Persian

به معاويه

افشاي سيماي دروغين معاويه پس از ياد خدا و درود! من با پاسخ هاي پياپي به نامه هايت، و شنيدن مطالب نوشته هايت، راي خود را سست، و زيركي خود را به خطا نسبت مي دهم، و همانا تو كه مدام خواسته هايي از من داري و نامه هاي فراوان مي نويسي، به كسي ماني كه خواب سنگيني فرو رفته، و خوابهاي دروغينش او را تكذيب مي كند، يا چون سرگرداني كه ايستادن طولاني بر او دشوار مي باشد، و نمي داند، آيا آينده به سود او يا به زيانش خواهد بود؟ گرچه تو آن كس نيستي اما به تو شباهت دارد. بخدا سوگند! اگر پرهيز از خونريزي در مهلت تعيين شده نبود، ضربه كوبنده اي دريافت مي كردي كه استخوان را خرد، و گوشت را بريزاند، معاويه! بدان، كه شيطان تو را نمي گذارد تا به نيكوترين كارت بپردازي، و اندرزي كه به سود تو است بشنوي. درود بر آنان كه سزاوار درودند.


In English

Written by Amir al-mu'minin as a protocol between the tribes of Rabi`ah and the people of Yemen. Taken from the writing of Hisham ibn (Muhammad) al-Kalbi.

This indenture contains what the people of Yemen including the townsmen and nomads and the tribes of Rabi`ah including the townsmen and nomads have agreed upon: that they will adhere to the Book of Allah will call to it and order according to it and will respond to whoever calls to it and orders according to it.They will not sell it for any price nor accept any alternative for it. They will join hands against anyone who opposes it and abandons it. They will help one another. Their voice will be one. They will not break their pledge on account of the rebuke of a rebuker the wrath of an angry person the humiliating treatment of one group to the other or the use of abusive terms by one party against the other.

p: 283

This pledge is binding on those of them who are present and those of them who are absent; those of them who are forbearing and those of them who are foolish; those of them who are learned and those of them who are ignorant. Along with this the pledge of Allah is also binding on them and the pledge of Allah is to be accounted for.

Written by: `Ali ibn Abi Talib.

In Arabic

وَمن حلْف له عليه السلام

بين ربيعة و اليمن، نُقل من خط هشام بن الكلبي

هَذَا مَا اجْتَمَعَ عَلَيْهِ أَهْل الْيَمَنِ حَاضِرُهَا وَبَادِيهَا، وَرَبِيعَةُ حَاضِرُهَا (1) وَبَادِيهَا (2) أَنَّهُمْ عَلَى كِتَابِ اللهِ يَدْعُونَ إِلَيْهِ، وَيَأْمُرُونَ بِهِ، وَيُجِيبُونَ مَنْ دَعَا إِلَيْهِ وَأَمَرَ بِهِ، لاَ يَشْتَرُونَ بِهِ ثَمَناً، وَلاَ يَرْضَوْنَ بِهِ بَدَلاً، وَأَنَّهُمْ يَدٌ وَاحِدَةٌ عَلَى مَنْ خَالَفَ ذَلِكَ وَتَرَكَهُ، أَنْصَارٌ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ: دَعْوَتُهُمْ وَاحِدَةٌ، لاَيَنْقُضُونَ عَهْدَهُمْ لِمَعْتَبَةِ (3) عَاتِبٍ، وَلاَ لِغَضَبِ غَاضِبٍ، وَلاَ لِإِسْتِذْلاَلِ قَوْمٍ قَوْماً، وَلاَ لِمَسَبَّة ِ قَوْمٍ قَوْماً! عَلَى ذلِكَ شَاهِدُهُمْ وَغَائِبُهُمْ، وَسَفِيهُهُمْ وَعَالِمُهُمْ، وَحَلِيمُهُمْ وَجَاهِلُهُمْ. ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْهِمْ بِذلِكَ عَهْدَ اللهِ وَمِيثَاقَهُ، ( إنَّ عَهْدَ اللهِ كَانَ مسْؤولاً). و كتب: علي بن أبي طالب.

In Persian

پيمان ميان ربيعه و يمن

مباني صلح و سازش مسلمين اين پيمان نامه اي است كه مردم (يمن) و (ربيعه) آن را پذيرفته اند، چه آنان كه در شهر حضور دارند يا آنان كه در بيابان زندگي مي كنند، آنان پيرو قرآنند، و به كتاب خدا دعوت مي كنند، و به انجام دستورات آن فرمان مي دهند، و هر كس كه آنان را به كتاب خدا بخواند پاسخ مي دهند، نه برابر آن مزدي خواهند، و نه به جاي آن چيز ديگري بپذيرند، و در برابر كسي كه خلاف اين پيمان خواهد، يا آن را واگذارد، ايستادگي خواهند كرد، بعضي بعض ديگر را ياري مي دهند، همه متحد بوده و به خاطر سرزنش سرزنش كننده اي، يا خشم خشم گيرنده اي، يا خوار كردن بعضي، يا دشنام دادن قومي، اين پيمان را نمي شكنند. بر اين پيمان، حاضران و آنها كه غايبند، دانايان و ناآگاهان، بردباران و جاهلان، همه استوارند، و عهد و پيمان الهي نيز بر آنان واجب گرديده است كه (همانا از پيمان خدا پرسش خواهد شد) و علي بن ابيطالب آن را نوشت.

p: 284


In English

To Mu`awiyah soon after Amir al-mu'minin was sworn in. (Muhammad ibn `Umar) al-Waqidi has mentioned this in his "Kitab al-Jamal"

From the servant of Allah `Ali Amir al-mu'minin to Mu`awiyah son of Abu Sufyan:

Now you are aware of my excuses before you people and my shunning you till that happened which was inevitable and which could not be prevented. The stroy is long and much is to be said. What was to pass has passed and what was to come has come. Therefore secure (my) allegiance from those who are with you and come in a deputation of your people to me; and that is an end to the matter.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى معاوية في أول ما بويع له بالخلافه ذكره الواقدي في كتاب الجمل

مِنْ عَبْدِاللهِ عَلِيٍّ أَمِيرِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِلَى مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ: أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَقَدْ عَلِمْتَ إِعْذَارِي (1) فِيكُمْ، وَإِعْرَاضِي عَنْكُمْ، حَتَّى كَانَ مَا لاَبُدَّ مِنْهُ وَلاَ دَفْعَ لَهُ، وَالْحَدِيثُ طَوِيلٌ، وَالْكَلاَمُ كَثِيرٌ، وَقَدْ أَدْبَرَ مَا أَدْبَرَ، وَأَقْبَلَ مَا أَقْبَلَ، فَبَايِعْ مَنْ قِبَلَكَ (2) ، وَأَقْبِلْ إِلَيَّ فِي وَفْدٍ (3) مِنْ أَصْحَابِكَ، وَالسَّلاَمُ.

In Persian

به معاويه

فرمان اطاعت به معاويه از بنده خدا علي امير مومنان، به معاويه بن ابي سفيان. پس از ياد خداو درود! مي داني كه من درباره شما معذور، و از آنچه در مدينه گذشت رويگردانم، تا شد آنچه كه بايد مي شد، و بازداشتن آن ممكن نبود، داستان طولاني و سخن فراوان است. و گذشته ها گذشت، و آينده روي كرده است، تو و همراهانت بيعت كنيد، و با گروهي از يارانت نزد من بيا، با درود.

p: 285


In English

Given to `Abdullah ibn al-`Abbas at the time of his appoint- ment as his Governor of Basrah.

Meet people with a broad face allow them free audience and pass generous orders. Avoid anger because it is a augury of Satan. Remember that whatever takes you near Allah takes you away from the Fire (of Hell) and whatever takes you away from Allah takes you near the Fire.

In Arabic

ومن وصية له عليه السلام

لعبد الله بن العباس ،عند استخلافه إياه على البصرة

سَعِ النَّاسَ بِوَجْهِكَ وَمَجْلِسِكَ وَحُكْمِكَ، وإِيَّاكَ وَالْغَضَبَ فَإِنَّهُ طَيْرَةٌ (1) مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ. وَ اعْلَمْ أَنَّ مَا قَرَّبَكَ مِنَ اللهِ يُبَاعِدُكَ مِنْ النَّارِ، وَمَا بَاعَدَكَ مِنَ اللهِ يُقَرِّبُكَ مِنَ النَّارِ.

In Persian

به عبدالله بن عباس

اخلاق فرماندهي با مردم، به هنگام ديدار، و در مجالس رسمي، و در مقام داوري، گشاده رو باش، و از خشم بپرهيز، كه سبك مغزي، به تحريك شيطان است، و بدان! آن چه تو را به خدا نزديك مي سازد، از آتش جهنم دور مي كند، و آنچه تو را از خدا دور مي سازد، به آتش جهنم نزديك مي كند.


In English

Given to `Abdullah ibn al-`Abbas at the time of his being deputed to confront the Kharijites.

Do not argue with them by the Qur'an because the Qur'an has many faces. You would say your own and they would say their own; but argue with them by the sunnah because they cannot find escape from it.

In Arabic

ومن وصيته له عليه السلام

p: 286

لعبد الله بن عباس، لما بعثه للإحتجاج على الخوارج

لاَتُخَاصِمْهُمْ بِالْقُرْآنِ، فَإِنَّ الْقُرْآنَ حَمَّالٌ (1) ذُو وُجُوهٍ، تَقُولُ وَيَقُولُونَ، وَلكِنْ حاجِجْهُمْ بالسُّنَّةِ، فَإِنَّهُمْ لَنْ يَجِدُوا عَنْهَا مَحِيصاً (2) .

In Persian

به عبدالله بن عباس

روش مناظره با دشمن مسلمان به قرآن با خوارج به جدل مپرداز، زيرا قرآن داراي ديدگاه كلي بوده، و تفسيرهاي گوناگوني دارد، تو چيزي مي گويي، و آنها چيز ديگر، لكن با سنت پيامبر (ص) با آنان به بحث و گفتگو بپرداز، كه در برابر آن راهي جز پذيرش ندارند.


In English

To Abu Musa al-Ash`ari in reply to his letter regarding the two arbitrators. Sa`id ibn Yahya al-Umawi has mentioned this in his "Kitab al-maghazi".

Certainly many people have turned away from many a (lasting) benefit (of the next life) for they bent towards the world and spoke with passions. I have been struck with wonder in this matter upon which people who are self-conceited have agreed. I am providing a cure for their wound but I fear lest it develops into a clot of blood (and becomes incurable). Remember that no person is more covetous than I for the unity of the ummah of Muhammad (may Allah bless him and his descendants) and their solidarity. I seek through it good reward and an honourable place to return to.

I shall fulfil what I have pledged upon myself even though you may go back from the sound position that existed when you left me last because wretched is he who is denied the benefit of wisdom and experience. I feel enraged if anyone speaks wrong or if I should worsen a matter which Allah has kept sound. Therefore leave out what you do not understand because wicked people will be conveying to you vicious things; and that is an end to the matter.

p: 287

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

إلى أبي موسى الاشعري، جواباً في أمر الحكمين

ذكره سعيد بن يحيى الاموي في كتاب المغازي

فَإِنَّ النَّاسَ قَدْ تَغَيَّرَ كَثِيرٌ مِنْهُمْ عَنْ كَثِيرٍ مِنْ حَظِّهِمْ، فَمَالُوا مَعَ الدُّنْيَا، وَنَطَقُوا بِالْهَوى، وَإِنِّي نَزَلْتُ مِنْ هَذَا الْأَمْرِ مَنْزِلاً مُعْجِباً (1) ، اجْتَمَعَ بِهِ أَقْوَامٌ أَعْجَبَتْهُمْ أَنْفُسُهُمْ،و َأَنَا أُدَاوِي مِنْهُمْ قَرْحاً (2) أَخَافُ أَنْ يَكُونَ عَلَقاً (3) . وَلَيْسَ رَجُلٌ _ فَاعْلَمْ _ أَحْرَصَ عَلَى جَمَاعَةِ أُمَّةِ مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ و َأُلْفَتِهَا مِنِّي، أَبْتَغِي بِذلِكَ حُسْنَ الثَّوَابِ، وَكَرَمَ الْمَآبِ (4) ، وَسَأَفِي بِالَّذِي وَأيْتُ (5) عَلَى نَفْسِي، وَإِنْ تَغَيَّرْتَ عَنْ صَالِحِ مَا فَارَقْتَنِي عَلَيْهِ، فَإِنَّ الشَّقِيَّ مَنْ حُرِمَ نَفْعَ مَا أُوتِيَ مِنَ الْعَقْلِ وَالتَّجْرِبَةِ، وَإِنِّي لَأَعْبَدُ (6) أَنْ يَقُولَ قَائِلٌ بِبَاطِلٍ،أَنْ أُفْسِدَ أَمْراً قَدْ أَصْلَحَهُ اللهُ، فَدَعْ مَا لاَ تَعْرِفُ، فَإِنَّ شِرَارَ النَّاسِ طَائِرُونَ إِلَيْكَ بِأَقَاويِلِ السُّوءِ، وَالسَّلاَمُ.

In Persian

به ابوموسي اشعري

علل سقوط جامعه همانا بسياري از مردم دگرگون شدند، و از سعادت و رستگاري بي بهره ماندند، به دنياپرستي روي آورده، و از روي هواي نفس سخن گفتند، كردار اهل عراق مرا به شگفتي واداشته است، كه مردمي خودپسند در چيزي گرد آمدند، مي خواستم زخم درون آنها را مدارا كنم، پيش از آنكه غير قابل علاج گردد. تلاش امام در تحقق وحدت پس بدان در امت اسلام، هيچ كس همانند من وجود ندارد كه به وحدت امت محمد (ص) از من حريص تر، و انس او از من بيشتر باشد، من در اين كار پاداش نيك و سرانجام شايسته را از خدا مي طلبم، و به آنچه پيمان بستم وفا دارم، هر چند تو دگرگون شده، و همانند روزي كه از من جدا شدي نباشي. همانا بدبخت كسي است كه از عقل و تجربه اي كه نصيب او شده است محروم ماند، و من از آن كس كه به باطل سخن گويد يا كاري را كه خدا اصلاح كرده برهم زند، بيزارم. آنچه را نمي داني واگذار، زيرا مردان بدكردار، با سخناني نادرست به سوي تو خواهند شتافت، با درود.

p: 288


In English

To the army officers when Amir al-mu'minin became Caliph.

Now what ruined those before you was that they denied people their rights and then they had to purchase them (by bribes) and they led the people to wrong and they followed it.

In Arabic

ومن كتاب له عليه السلام

لما استُخْلِف، إلى أمراء الأجناد

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فإِنَّمَا أَهْلَكَ مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكُمْ أَنَّهُمْ مَنَعُوا النَّاسَ الْحَقَّ فَاشْتَرَوْهُ، وَأَخَذُوهُمْ بِالْبَاطِلِ فَاقْتَدَوْهُ (1) .

In Persian

به سرداران سپاه

علل نابودي ملتها پس از ياد خدا و درود! همانا ملتهاي پيش از شما به هلاكت رسيدند، بدان جهت كه حق مردم را نپرداختند، پس دنيا را با رشوه دادن به دست آوردند، و به راه باطلشان بردند و آنان اطاعت كردند.

About center

In the name of Allah

Are those who know equal to those who do not know?
al-Zumar: 9
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Introduction of the Center – Ghaemiyeh Digital Library