Nahj Albalaghe Sermons 3

ID Book

Sermons of Nahj Al Balagha

Sermons of Imam Ali b.Abitalib

Authour: Syed Razi

English translator: Moulana Mufti Jafar Husain

Persian Translator: Muhammad Dashti

Published by: Ansariyan Publications / Qum

Selection from sermons


In English

Praise of Allah and His wonderful creatures

Praise be to Allah. He is such that senses cannot perceive Him place cannot contain Him eyes cannot see Him and veils cannot cover Him. He proves His eternity by the coming into existence of His creation and (also) by originating His creation (He proves) His existence and by their (mutual) similarity He proves that there is nothing similar to Him. He is true in His promise. He is too high to be unjust to His creatures. He stands by equity among His creation and practices justice over them in His commands. He provides evidence through the creation of things of His being from ever through their marks of incapability of His power and through their powerlessness against death of His eternity. its small body and delicate form. It can hardly be seen in the corner of the eye nor by the perception of the imagination - how it moves on the earth and leaps at its livelihood. It carries the grain to its hole and deposits it in its place of stay. It collects during the summer for its winter and during strength for the period of its weakness. Its livelihood is guaranteed and it is fed according to fitness. Allah the Kind does not forget it and (Allah the Giver) does not deprive it even though it may be in dry stone or fixed rocks.

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If you have thought about its digestive tracts in its high and low parts the carapace of its belly and its eyes and its ears in its head you would be amazed at its creation and you would feel difficulty in describing it. Exalted is He who made it stand on its legs and erected it on its pillars (of limbs). No other originator took part with Him in its origination and no one having power assisted Him in its creation. If you tread on the paths of your imagination and reach its extremity it will not lead you anywhere except that the Originator of the ant is the same as He who is the Originator of the date-palm because everything has (the same) delicacy and detail and every living being has little difference.

The Creation of the Universe

In His creation the big the delicate the heavy the light the strong the weak are all equal.(1) So is the sky the air the winds and the water. Therefore you look at the sun moon vegetation, plants water stone the difference of this night and day the springing of the streams the large number of the mountains the height of their peaks the diversity of languages and the variety of tongues. Then woe be to him who disbelieves in the Ordainer and denies the Ruler. They believe that they are like grass for which there is no cultivator nor any maker for their diverse shapes. They have not relied on any argument for what they assert nor on any research for what they have heard. Can there be any construction without a Constructor or any offence without an offender.

p: 2

The wonderful creation of the locust

If you wish you can tell about the locust (as well). Allah gave it two red eves lighted for them two moon -- like pupils made for it small ears opened for it a suitable mouth and gave it keen sense gave it two teeth to cut with and two sickle-like feet to grip with. The farmers are afraid of it in the matter of crops since they cannot drive it away even though they may join together. The locust attacks the fields and satisfies its desires (of hunger) from them although its body is not equal to a thin finger.

About the Glory of Allah

Glorified is Allah before Whom every one in the skies or the earth bows in prostration willingly or unwillingly submits to Him by placing his cheeks and face (in the dust) drops before Him (in obedience) peacefully and humbly and hands over to Him full control in fear and apprehension.

The birds are bound by His commands. He knows the number of their feathers and their breaths. He has made their feet to stand on water and on land. He has ordained their livelihoods. He knows their species: this is the crow this is the eagle this is the pigeon and this is the ostrich. He called out every bird with its name (while creating it) and provided it with its livelihood. He created heavy clouds and produced from them heavy rain and spread it on various lands. He drenched the earth after its dryness and grew vegetation from it after its barrenness.

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In Arabic

[ 185 ] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام

يحمدالله فيها ويثني على رسوله ويصف خلقاً من الحيوان

حمد الله تعالى

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي لاَ تُدْرِكُهُ الشَّوَاهِدُ، وَلاَ تَحْوِيهِ الْمَشَاهِدُ، وَلاَ تَرَاهُ النَّوَاظِرُ، وَلاَ تَحْجُبُهُ السَّوَاتِرُ، الدَّالِّ عَلَى قِدَمِهِ بِحُدُوثِ خَلْقِهِ، وَبِحُدُوثِ خَلْقِهِ عَلَى وجُودِهِ، وَبِاشْتِبَاهِهِمْ عَلَى أَنْ لاَ شَبَهَ لَهُ، الَّذِي صَدَقَ فِي مِيعَادِهِ، وَارْتَفَعَ عَنْ ظُلْمِ عِبَادِه، وَقَامَ بِالْقِسطِ فِي خَلْقِهِ، وَعَدَلَ عَلَيْهِمْ فِي حُكْمِهِ، مُسْتَشْهِدٌ بِحُدُوثِ الْأَشْيَاءِ عَلَى أَزَلِيَّتِهِ، وَبِمَا وَسَمَهَا بِهِ مِنَ الْعَجْزِ عَلَى قُدْرَتِهِ، وَبِمَا اضْطَرَّهَا إِلَيْهِ مِنَ الْفَنَاءِ عَلَى دَوَامِهِ. ( 15 )

وَاحِدٌ لاَ بِعَدَدٍ (1) ، وَدَائِمٌ لاَ بِأَمَدٍ (2) ، وَقَائِمٌ لاَ بَعَمَدٍ، تَتَلَقَّاهُ الْأَذْهَانُ لاَ بِمُشَاعَرَةٍ (3) ، وَتَشْهَدُ لَهُ الْمَرَائِي (4) لاَ بِمُحَاضَرَةٍ، لَمْ تُحِطْ بِهِ الْأَوْهَامُ، بَلْ تَجَلَّى لَهَا بِهَا، وَبِهَا امْتَنَعَ مِنهَا، وَإِلَيْهَا حَاكَمَهَا، لَيْسَ بِذِي كِبَرٍ امْتَدَّتْ بِهِ النِّهَايَاتُ فَكَبَّرَتْهُ تَجْسِيماً، وَلاَ بِذِي عِظَمٍ تَنَاهَتْ بِهِ الْغَايَاتُ فَعَظَّمَتْهُ تَجْسِيداً بَلْ كَبُرَ شَأْناً، وَعَظُمَ سُلْطَاناً.

الرسول الاعظم

وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ الصَّفِيُّ، وَأَمِينُهُ الرَّضِيُّ -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ- أَرْسَلَهُ بِوُجُوبِ الْحُجَجِ، وَظُهُورِ الْفَلَجِ (5) ، وَإِيضَاحِ الْمَنْهَجِ، فَبَلَّغُ الرِّسَالَةَ صَادِعاً (6) بِهَا، وَحَمَلَ عَلَى الْمَحَجَّةِ دالاًّ عَلَيْهَا، وَأَقَامَ أَعْلاَمَ الْإِهْتِدَاءِ وَمَنَارَ الضِّيَاءِ، وَجَعَلَ أَمْرَاسَ (7) الْإِسْلاَمِ مَتِينَةً، وَعُرَا الْإِيمَانِ وَثِيقَةً.

منها في صفة عجيب خلق أصناف من الحيوان

وَلَوْ فَكَّروا فِي عَظِيمِ الْقُدْرَةِ، وَجَسِيمِ النِّعْمَةِ، لَرَجَعُوا إِلَى الطَّرِيقِ، وَخَافُوا عَذَابَ الْحَرِيقِ، وَلكِنَّ الْقُلُوبَ عَلِيلَةٌ، وَالْأَبْصَارَ مَدْخُولَةٌ! ألاَ تَنْظُرُونَ إِلَى صَغِيرِ مَا خَلَقَ اللهُ، كَيْفَ أَحْكَمَ خَلْقَهُ، وَأَتْقَنَ تَرْكِيبَهُ، وَفَلَقَ لَهُ السَّمْعَ وَالْبَصَرَ، وَسَوَّى لَهُ الْعَظْمَ وَالْبَشَرَ (8) ! انْظُرُوا إِلَى ( 17 )

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الَّنمْلَةِ فِي صِغَرِ جُثَّتِهَا، وَلَطَافَةِ هَيْئَتِهَا، لاَ تَكَادُ تُنَالُ بِلَحْظِ الْبَصَرِ، وَلاَ بِمُسْتَدْرَكِ الْفِكَرِ، كَيْفَ دَبَّتْ عَلَى أَرْضِهَا، وَصَبَتْ عَلَى رِزْقِهَا، تَنْقُلُ الْحَبَّةَ إِلَى جُحْرِهَا، وَتُعِدُّهَا فِي مُسْتَقَرِّهَا. تَجْمَعُ فِي حَرِّهَا لِبَرْدِهَا، وَفِي وِرْدِهَا لِصَدَرِهَا (9) ، مَكْفُولٌ بِرِزْقِهَا، مَرْزُوقَةٌ بِوِفْقِهَا (10) ، لاَ يُغْفِلُهَا الْمَنَّانُ، وَلاَ يَحْرِمُهَا الدَّيَّانُ، وَلَوْ فِي الصَّفَا (11) الْيَابِسِ، وَالْحَجَرِ الْجَامِسِ! وَلَوْ فَكَّرْتَ فِي مَجَارِي أُكْلِهَا، وَفِي عُلْوهَا وَسُفْلِهَا، وَمَا فِي الجَوْفِ مِنْ شَرَاسِيفِ (12) بَطْنِهَا، وَمَا فِي الرَّأسِ مِنْ عَيْنِهَا وَأُذُنِهَا، لَقَضَيْتَ مِنْ خَلْقِهَا عَجَباً، وَلَقِيتَ مِنْ وَصْفِهَا تَعَباً! فَتَعَالَى الَّذِي أَقَامَهَا عَلَى قَوَائِمِهَا، وَبَنَاهَا عَلَى دَعَائِمِهَا! لَمْ يَشْرَكْهُ فِي فِطْرَتِهَا فَاطِرٌ. وَلَمْ يُعِنْهُ عَلَى خَلْقِهَا قَادِرٌ. وَلَوْ ضَرَبْتَ فِي مَذَاهِبِ فِكْرِكَ لِتَبْلُغَ غَايَاتِهِ، مَا دَلَّتْكَ الدَّلاَلَةُ إِلاَّ عَلَى أَنَّ فَاطِرَ الَّنمْلَةِ هُوَ فَاطِرُ النَّخْلَةِ، لِدَقِيقِ تَفْصِيلِ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ، وَغَامِضِ اخْتِلاَفِ كُلِّ حَيٍّ. وَمَا الْجَلِيلُ وَاللَّطِيفُ، وَالثَّقِيلُ والخَفِيفُ، وَالْقَوِيُّ وَالضَّعِيفُ، فِي خَلْقِهِ إِلاَّ سَوَاءٌ.

خلقة السماء والكون

وَكَذلِكَ السَّماءُ وَالْهَوَاءُ، وَالرِّيَاحُ وَالْمَاءُ. فَانْظُرْ إِلَى الشَّمْسِ وَالْقَمَرِ،

وَالنَّبَاتِ وَالشَّجَرِ، وَالْمَاءِ وَالْحَجَرِ، وَاخْتِلاَفِ هذَا اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ، وَتَفَجُّرِ هذِهِ الْبِحَارِ، وَكَثْرَةِ هذِهِ الْجِبَالِ، وَطُولِ هذِهِ الْقِلاَلِ (13) ، وَتَفَرُّقِ هذِهِ اللُّغَاتِ، وَالْأَلْسُنِ الْمُخْتَلِفَاتِ. فَالوَيْلُ لِمَنْ جَحَدَ الْمُقَدِّرَ، وَأَنْكَرَ الْمُدَبِّرَ! زَعَمُوا أَنَّهُمْ كَالنَّبَاتِ مَا لَهُمْ زَارعٌ، وَلاَ لاِخْتِلاَفِ صُوَرِهِمْ صَانِعٌ، وَلَمْ يَلْجَؤُوا (14) إِلَى حُجَّةٍ فِيَما ادَّعَوا، وَلاَ تَحْقِيقٍ لِمَا أَوْعَوْا (15) ، وَهَلْ يَكُونُ بِنَاءٌ مِنْ غَيْرِ بَانٍ، أَوْ جِنَايَةٌ مِن غَيْرِ جَانٍ!

خلقة الجرادة

وَإِنْ شِئْتَ قُلْتَ فِي الْجَرَادَةِ، إِذْ خَلَقَ لَهَا عَيْنَيْنِ حَمْرَاوَيْنِ، وَأَسْرَجَ لَهَا حَدَقَتَيْنِ قَمْرَاوَيْنِ (16) ، وَجَعَلَ لَهَا السَّمْعَ الْخَفِيَّ، وَفَتَحَ لَهَا الْفَمَ السَّوِيَّ، وَجَعَلَ لَهَا الْحِسَّ الْقَوِيَّ، وَنَابَيْنِ بِهِمَا تَقْرِضُ، وَمِنْجَلَيْنِ (17) بِهِمَا تَقْبِضُ، يَرْهَبُهَا الزُّرَّاعُ فِي زَرْعِهمْ، وَلاَ يَسْتَطِيعُونَ ذَبَّهَا (18) ، وَلَوْ أَجْلَبُوا بِجَمْعِهِم، حَتَّى تَرِدَ الْحَرْثَ فِي نَزَوَاتِهَا (19) ، وَتَقْضِي مِنْهُ شَهَوَاتِهَا، وَخَلْقُهَا كُلُّهُ لاَ يُكَوِّنُ إِصْبَعاً مُسْتَدِقَّةً. فَتَبَارَكَ اللهُ الَّذِي (يَسْجُدُ لَهُ مَنْ فِي السَّماوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ طَوْعاً وَكَرْهاً)، وَيُعَفِّرُ لَهُ خَدّاً وَوَجْهاً، وَيُلْقِي بِالْطَّاعَةِ إلَيْهِ سِلْماً وَضَعْفاً، وَيُعْطِي الْقِيَادَ رَهْبَةً وَخَوْفاً! فَالطَّيْرُ مُسَخَّرَةٌ لِأَمْرِهِ، أَحْصَى عَدَدَ الرِّيشِ مِنْهَا وَالنَّفَسَ، وَأَرْسَى قَوَائِمَهَا عَلَى النَّدَى (20) وَالْيَبَسِ، قَدَّرَ أَقْوَاتَهَا،وَأَحْصَى أَجْنَاسَهَا، فَهذَا غُرابٌ وَهذَا عُقَابٌ، وَهذَا حَمَامٌ وَهذَا نَعَامٌ، دَعَا كُلَّ طَائِرٍ بَاسْمِهِ، وَكَفَلَ لَهُ بِرِزْقِهِ. وَأَنْشَأَ (السَّحَابَ الثِّقَالَ)، فَأَهْطَلَ (21) دِيَمَهَا (22) ، وَعَدَّدَ قِسَمَهَا (23) ، فَبَلَّ الْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ جُفُوفِهَا، وَأَخْرَجَ نَبْتَهَا بَعْدَ جُدُوبِهَا (24) .

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In Persian

1 خدا شناسى

ستايش خداوندى را سزاست كه حواس پنجگانه او را درك نكنند، و مكان ها او را در برنگيرند، ديدگان او را ننگرند، و پوشش ها او را پنهان نسازند با حدوث آفرينش ازلى بودن خود را ثابت كرد، و با پيدايش انواع پديده ها، وجود خود را اثبات فرمود و با همانند داشتن مخلوقات ثابت شد كه خدا همانندى ندارد. خدا در وعده هاى خود راستگو، و برتر از آن است كه بر بندگان ستم روا دارد، ميان مخلوقات به عدل و داد رفتار كرد، و در اجراى احكام عادلانه فرمان داد ، حادث بودن اشياء، گواه بر ازليّت او، و ناتوانى پديده ها، دليل قدرت بى مانند او، و نابودى پديده ها، گواه دائمى بودن اوست. خدا يكى است نه با شمارش، و همبستگى است نه با محاسبه زمان، بر پاست نه با نگهدارنده اى انديشه ها او را مى شناسند نه با درك حواس، نشانه هاى خلقت به او گواهى مى دهند نه به حضور مادّى فكرها و انديشه ها بر ذات او احاطه ندارند، كه با آثار عظمت خود بر آنها تجلّى كرده است، و نشان داد كه او را نمى توانند تصوّر كنند، و داورى اين ناتوانى را بر عهده فكرها و انديشه ها نهاد. بزرگى نيست داراى درازا و پهنا و ژرفها، كه از جسم بزرگى برخوردار باشد، و با عظمتى نيست كه كالبدش بى نهايت بزرگ و ستبر باشد، بلكه بزرگى خدا در مقام و رتبت، و عظمت او در قدرت و حكومت اوست.

2 ويژگى هاى پيامبر اسلام صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم

گواهى مى دهم كه محمّد صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم بنده و فرستاده خدا، و پيامبر برگزيده، و امانت دار پسنديده اوست «درود خدا بر او و عترت او باد» خدا او را با حجّت هاى الزام كننده و پيروزى آشكار، و راه روشن فرستاد، پس رسالت خود را آشكارا رساند، و مردم را به راه راست وا داشت، و آن را به همگان نشان داد، و نشانه هاى هدايت را بر افراشت، و چراغ هاى روشن را بر سر راه آدميان گرفت، رشته هاى اسلام را استوار كرد، و دستگيره هاى ايمان را محكم و پايدار كرد.

p: 6

3 راه هاى خداشناسى

اگر مردم در عظمت قدرت خدا، و بزرگى نعمت هاى او مى انديشيدند، به راه راست باز مى گشتند، و از آتش سوزان مى ترسيدند ، امّا دل ها بيمار، و چشم ها معيوب است. آيا به مخلوقات كوچك خدا نمى نگرند؟ كه چگونه آفرينش آن را استحكام بخشيد؟ و تركيب اندام آن را برقرار، و گوش و چشم براى آن پديد آورد، و استخوان و پوست متناسب خلق كرد؟ به مورچه و كوچكى جثّه آن بنگريد، كه چگونه لطافت خلقت او با چشم و انديشه انسان درك نمى شود، نگاه كنيد چگونه روى زمين راه مى رود، و براى به دست آوردن روزى خود تلاش مى كند؟

دانه ها را به لانه خود منتقل مى سازد، و در جايگاه مخصوص نگه مى دارد ، در فصل گرما براى زمستان تلاش كرده، و به هنگام درون رفتن، بيرون آمدن را فراموش نمى كند!. «1» روزى مورچه تضمين گرديده، و غذاهاى متناسب با طبعش آفريده شده است.

خداوند منّان از او غفلت نمى كند، و پروردگار پاداش دهنده محرومش نمى سازد، گر چه در دل سنگى سخت و صاف يا در ميان صخره اى خشك باشد. اگر در مجارى خوراك و قسمتهاى بالا و پايين دستگاه گوارش و آنچه در درون شكم او از غضروف هاى آويخته به دنده و شكم، و آنچه در سر اوست از چشم و گوش، انديشه نمايى، از آفرينش مورچه دچار شگفتى شده و از وصف او به زحمت خواهى افتاد. پس بزرگ است خدايى كه مورچه را بر روى دست و پايش بر پاداشت، و پيكره وجودش را با استحكام نگاه داشت ، و در آفرينش آن هيچ قدرتى او را يارى نداد، و هيچ آفريننده اى كمكش نكرد. اگر انديشه ات را به كار گيرى تا به راز آفرينش پى برده باشى، دلائل روشن به تو خواهند گفت كه آفريننده مورچه كوچك همان آفريدگار درخت بزرگ خرماست ، به جهت دقّتى كه جدا جدا در آفرينش هر چيزى به كار رفته،و اختلافات و تفاوت هاى پيچيده اى كه در خلقت هر پديده حياتى نهفته است. همه موجودات سنگين و سبك، بزرگ و كوچك، نيرومند و ضعيف، در اصول حيات و هستى يكسانند و خلقت آسمان و هوا و بادها و آب يكى است.پس انديشه كن در آفتاب و ماه، و درخت و گياه، و آب و سنگ «1»، و اختلاف شب و روز، و جوشش درياها، و فراوانى كوه ها، و بلنداى قلّه ها، و گوناگونى لغت ها، و تفاوت زبان ها، كه نشانه هاى روشن پروردگارند. «2» پس واى بر آن كس كه تقدير كننده را نپذيرد، و تدبير كننده را انكار كند! گمان كردند كه چون گياهانند و زارعى ندارند، و اختلاف صورت هايشان را سازنده اى نيست ، بر آنچه ادّعا مى كنند حجّت و دليلى ندارند، و بر آنچه در سر مى پرورانند تحقيقى نمى كنند، آيا ممكن است ساختمانى بدون سازنده، يا جنايتى بدون جنايتكار باشد؟!

p: 7

4 شگفتى آفرينش ملخ

و اگر خواهى در شگفتى ملخ سخن گو، كه خدا براى او دو چشم سرخ، دو حدقه چونان ماه تابان آفريد، و به او گوش پنهان، و دهانى متناسب اندامش بخشيده است، داراى حواس نيرومند، و دو دندان پيشين است كه گياهان را مى چيند، و دو پاى داس مانند كه اشياء را بر مى دارد. كشاورزان براى زراعت از آنها مى ترسند و قدرت دفع آنها را ندارند گرچه همه متّحد شوند. ملخ ها نيرومندانه وارد كشتزار مى شوند و آنچه ميل دارند مى خورند ، در حالى كه تمام اندامشان به اندازه يك انگشت باريك نيست! «3».

5 نشانه هاى خدا در طبيعت

پس بزرگ است خداوندى كه تمام موجودات آسمان و زمين، خواه و ناخواه او را سجده مى كنند، و در برابر او با خضوع چهره بر خاك مى نهند ، و رشته اطاعت او را در تندرستى و ناتوانى به گردن مى نهند، و از روى ترس و بيم، زمام اختيار خود را به او مى سپارند. پرندگان رام فرمان اويند، و از تعداد پرها و نفس هاى پرندگان آگاه است، برخى را پرنده آبى و گروهى را پرنده خشكى آفريد، و روزى آنها را مقدّر فرمود، و اقسام گوناگون آنها را مى داند اين كلاغ است و آن عقاب، اين شتر مرغ است و آن كبوتر. هر پرنده اى را با نام خاصّى فرا خواند، و روزى اش را فراهم كرد. خدايى كه ابرهاى سنگين را ايجاد، و باران هاى پى در پى را فرستاد، و سهم باران هر جايى را معيّن فرمود ، زمين هاى خشك را آبيارى كرد، و گياهان را پس از خشكسالى روياند.

p: 8


(1) اشاره به علم پترولوژى YGOLORTEP (سنگ شناسى)

(2) اشاره به علم: فيلولوژى YGOLOLIHP (زبان شناسى)

(3) اشاره به علم: انتومولژى YGOLOMOTNE (حشره شناسى)


(1). The meaning is that if the smallest thing in creation is examined it will be found to contain all that which is found in the biggest creatures and each will exhibit the same reflection of natures workmanship and performance and the ratio of each to Allah's might and power will be the same whether it be as small as an ant or as big as a date palm. Is it not that making a small thing is easy for Him while the making of a big thing is difficult for Him because the diversity of colour volume and quantity is just based on the dictates of His sagacity and expediency but as regards creation itself there is no difference among them. Therefore this uniformity of creation is a proof of the oneness and unity of the Creator.


In English

About the Oneness of Allah. This sermon contains principles of knowledge which no other sermon contains

He who assigns to Him (different) conditions does not believe in His oneness nor does he who likens Him grasp His reality. He who illustrates Him does not signify Him. He who points at Him and imagines Him does not mean Him. Everything that is known through itself has been created and everything that exists by virtue of other things is the effect (of a cause). He works but not with the help of instruments. He fixes measures but not with the activity of thinking. He is rich but not by acquisition.

p: 9

Times do not keep company with Him and implements do not help Him. His Being precedes times. His Existence precedes non-existence and His eternity precedes beginning. By His creating the senses it is known that He has no senses. By the contraries in various matters it is known that He has no contrary and by the similarity between things it is known that there is nothing similar to Him. He has made light the contrary of darkness brightness that of gloom dryness that of moisture and heat that of cold. He produces affection among inimical things.

He fuses together diverse things brings near remote things and separates things which are joined together. He is not con fined by limits nor counted by numbers. Material parts can surround things of their own kind and organs can point out things similar to themselves. The word (1) "mundhu" (i.e. since) disproves their eternity the word "qad" (that denotes nearness of time of occurrence) disproves their being from ever and the word "lawla" (if it were not) keep them remote from perfection.

Through them the Creator manifests Himself to the intelligence and through them He is guarded from the sight of the eyes. Stillness and motion do not occur in Him and how can that thing occur in Him which He has Himself made to occur and how can a thing revert to Him which He first created and how can a thing appear in Him which He first brought to appearance. If it had not been so His Self would have become subject to diversity His Being would have become divisible (into parts) and His reality would have been prevented from being deemed Eternal. If there was a front to Him there would have been a rear also for Him . He would need completing only if shortage befell Him. In that case signs of the created would appear in Him and He would become a sign (leading to other objects) instead of signs leading to Him. Through the might of His abstention (from affectedness) He is far above being affected by things which effect others. He is that which does not change or vanish. The process of setting does not behove Him. He has not begotten any one lest He be regarded as having been born. He has not been begotten otherwise He would be contained within limits. He is too High to have sons. He is too purified to contact women. Imagination cannot reach Him so as to assign Him quantity. Understanding cannot think of Him so as to give him shape. Senses do not perceive Him so as to feel Him. Hands cannot touch Him so as to rub against Him. He does not change into any condition. He does not pass from one state to another. Nights and days do not turn Him old. Light and darkness do not alter Him.

p: 10

It cannot be said that He has a limit or extremity or end or termination; nor do things control Him so as to raise Him or lower Him nor does anything carry Him so as to bend Him or keep Him erect. He is not inside things nor outside them. He conveys news but not with the tongue or voice. He listens but not with the holes of the ears or the organs of hearing. He says but does not utter words. He remembers but does not memorise. He determines but not by exercising His mind. He loves and approves without any sentimentality (of heart). He hates and feels angry without any painstaking. When He intends to create someone He says "Be" and there he is but not through a voice that strikes (the ears) is that call heard. His speech is an act of His creation. His like never existed before this. If had been eternal it would have been the second god.

It cannot be said that He came into being after He had not been in existence because in that case the attributes of the created things would be assigned to Him and there would remain no difference between them and Him and He would have no distinction over them. Thus the Creator and the created would become equal and the initiator and the initiated would be on the same level. He created (the whole of) creation without any example made by someone else and He did not secure the assistance of any one out of His creation for creating it.

p: 11

He created the earth and suspended it without being busy retained it without support made it stand without legs raised it without pillars protected it against bendings and curvings and defended it against crumbling and splitting (into parts). He fixed mountains on it like stumps solidified its rocks caused its streams to flow and opened wide its valleys. Whatever He made did not suffer from any flow and whatever He strengthened did not show any weakness.

He manifests Himself over the earth with His authority and greatness. He is aware of its inside through his knowledge and understanding. He has power over every thing in the earth by virtue of His sublimity and dignity. Nothing from the earth that he may ask for defies Him nor does it oppose Him so as to overpower Him. No swift-footed creature can run away from Him so as to surpass Him. He is not needy towards any possessing person so that he should feed Him. All things bow to Him and are humble before His greatness. They cannot flee away from His authority to someone else in order to escape His benefit or His harm. There is no parallel for Him who may match Him and no one like Him so as to equal Him.

He will destroy the earth after its existence till all that exists on it will become non-existent. But the extinction of the world after its creation is no stranger than its first formation and invention. How could it be? Even if all the animals of the earth whether birds or beasts stabled cattle or pasturing ones of different origins and species dull people and sagacious men -- all jointly try to create (even) a mosquito they are not able to bring it into being and do not understand what is the way to its creation. Their wits are bewildered and wandering. Their powers fall short and fail and return disappointed and tired knowing that they are defeated and admitting their inability to produce it also realising that they are too weak (even) to destroy it.

p: 12

Surely after the extinction of the world Allah the Glorified will remain alone with nothing else beside Him. He will be after its extinction as He was before its production: without time or place or moment or period. At this moment period and time will not exist and years and hours will disappear. There will be nothing except Allah the One the All-powerful. To Him is the return of all matters. Its initial creation was not in its power; and the prevention of its extinction was (also) not in its power. If it had the power to prevent it it would have existed for ever. When He made anything of the world the making of it did not cause Him any difficulty and the creation of anything which He created and formed did not fatigue Him. He did not create it to heighten His authority nor for fear of loss or harm nor to seek its help against an overwhelming foe nor to guard against any avenging opponent with its help nor for the extension of His domain by its help nor for boasting (over largeness of His possession) against a partner nor because He felt lonely and desired to seek its company.

Then after its creation He will destroy it but not because any worry has overcome Him in its upkeep and administration nor for any pleasure that will accrue to Him nor for the cumbrousness of anything over Him. The length of its life does not weary Him so as to induce Him to its quick destruction. But Allah the Glorified has maintained it with His kindness kept it intact with His command and perfected it with His power. Then after its destruction He will resuscitate it but not for any need of His own towards it nor to seek the assistance of any of its things against it nor to change over from the condition of loneliness to that of company nor from the condition of ignorance and blindness to that of knowledge and search nor from paucity and need towards needlessness and plenty nor from disgrace and lowliness towards honour and prestige.

p: 13

In Arabic

[ 186 ] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام

في التوحيد وتجمع هذه الخطبة من أصول العلوم ما لا تجمعه خطبة

مَا وَحَّدَهُ مَنْ كَيَّفَهُ، وَلاَ حَقِيقَتَهُ أَصَابَ مَنْ مَثَّلَهُ، وَلاَ إِيَّاهُ عَنَى مَنْ شَبَّهَهُ، وَلاَ صَمَدَهُ (1) مَنْ أَشَارَ إِلَيْهِ وَتَوَهَّمَهُ. كُلُّ مَعْرُوفٍ بِنَفْسِهِ مَُصْنُوعٌ (2) ، وَكُلُّ قَائِمٍ فِي سِوَاهُ مَعْلُولٌ. فَاعِلٌ لاَ بِاضْطِرَابِ آلَةٍ، مُقَدِّرٌ لاَ بِجَوْلِ فِكْرَةٍ، غَنِيٌّ لاَ بِاسْتِفَادَةٍ. لاَ تَصْحَبُهُ الْأُوْقَاتُ، وَلاَ تَرْفِدُهُ (3) الْأَدَوَاتُ، سَبَقَ الْأَوْقَاتَ كَوْنُهُ، وَالْعَدَمَ وُجُودُهُ، وَالْإِبْتِدَاءَ أَزَلُهُ. بِتَشْعِيرِهِ الْمَشَاعِرَ عُرِفَ أَنْ لاَ مَشْعَرَ لَهُ (4) ، وَبِمُضَادَّتِهِ بَيْنَ الْأُمُورِ عُرِفَ أَنْ لاَ ضِدَّ لَهُ، وَبِمُقَارَنَتِهِ بَيْنَ الْأَشْيَاءِ عُرِفَ أَنْ لاَ قَرِينَ لَهُ. ضَادَّ النُّورَ بِالظُّلْمَةِ، وَالْوُضُوحَ بِالْبُهْمَةِ، وَالْجُمُودَ بِالْبَلَلِ، وَالْحَرُورَ بِالصَّرَدِ (5) . مُؤَلِّفٌ بَيْنَ مُتَعَادِيَاتِهَا، مُقَارِنٌ بَيْنَ مُتَبَايِنَاتِهَا، مُقَرِّبٌ بَيْنَ مُتَبَاعِداتِهَا، مُفَرِّقٌ بَيْنَ مُتَدَانِيَاتِهَا (6) . لاَ يُشْمَلُ بِحَدٍّ، وَلاَ يُحْسَبُ بِعَدٍّ، وَإِنَّمَا تَحُدُّ الْأَدَوَاتُ أَنْفُسَهَا، وَتُشِيرُ الْآلَاتُ إِلَى نَظَائِرِهَا، مَنَعَتْهَا «مُنْذُ» الْقِدْمَةَ، وَحَمَتْهَا «قَدُ» الْأَزَلِيَّةَ، وَجَنَّبَتْهَا «لَوْلاَ» التَّكْمِلَةَ (7) ! بِهَا تَجَلَّى صَانِعُهَا لِلْعُقُولِ، وَبِهَا امْتَنَعَ عَنْ نَظَرِ الْعُيُونِ. لاَ يَجْرِي عَلَيْهِ السُّكُونُ وَالْحَرَكَةُ، وَكَيْفَ يَجْرِي عَلَيْهِ مَا هُوَ أَجْرَاهُ، وَيَعُودُ فِيهِ مَا هُوَ أَبْدَاهُ، وَيَحْدُثُ فِيهِ مَا هُوَ أَحْدَثَةُ! إِذاً لَتَفَاوَتَتْ ذَاتُهُ (8) ، وَلَتَجَزَّأَ كُنْهُهُ، وَلاَمْتَنَعَ مِنَ الْأَزَلِ مَعْنَاهُ، وَلَكَانَ لَهُ وَرَاءٌ إِذْ وُجِدَ لَهُ أَمَامٌ، وَلاَلْتَمَسَ التَّمَامَ إِذْ لَزِمَهُ النُّقْصَانُ. وَإِذاً لَقَامَتْ آيَةُ الْمَصْنُوعِ فِيهِ، وَلَتَحَوَّلَ دَلِيلاً بَعْدَ أَنْ كَانَ مَدْلُولاً عَلَيْهِ، وَخَرَجَ بِسُلْطَانِ الْإِمْتِنَاعِ (9) مِنْ أَنْ يُؤَثِّرَ فِيهِ مَا يُؤثِّرُ فِي غَيْرِهِ. الَّذِي لاَ ( 25 )

يَحُولُ وَلاَ يَزُولُ، وَلاَ يَجُوزُ عَلَيْهِ الْأُفُولُ (10) . لَمْ يَلِدْ فَيَكُونَ مَوْلُوداً (11) ، وَلَمْ يُولَدْ فَيَصِيرَ مَحْدُوداً، جَلَّ عَنِ اتِّخَاذِ الْأَبْنَاءِ، وَطَهُرَ عَنْ مُلاَمَسَةِ النِّسَاءِ. لاَ تَنَالُهُ الْأَوْهَامُ فَتُقَدِّرَهُ، وَلاَ تَتَوَهَّمُهُ الْفِطَنُ فَتُصَوِّرَهُ، وَلاَ تُدْرِكُهُ الْحَوَاسُّ فَتُحِسَّهُ، وَلاَ تَلْمِسُهُ الْأَيْدِي فَتَمَسَّهُ. وَلاَ يَتَغَيَّرُ بِحَالٍ، وَلاَ يَتَبَدَّلُ فِي الْأَحْوَالِ، وَلاَ تُبْلِيهِ اللَّيَالي وَالْأَيَّامُ، وَلاَ يُغَيِّرُهُ الضِّيَاءُ وَالظَّلاَمُ، وَلاَ يُوصَفُ بِشَيءٍ مِنَ الْأَجْزَاءِ(12) ، وَلاَ بِالجَوَارِحِ وَالْأَعْضَاءِ، وَلاَ بِعَرَض مِنَ الْأَعْرَاضِ، وَلاَ بِالْغَيْرِيَّةِ والْأَبْعَاضِ. وَلاَ يُقَالُ: لَهُ حَدٌّ وَلاَ نِهَايَةٌ، وَلاَ انْقِطَاعٌ وَلاَ غَايَةٌ، وَلاَ أَنَّ الْأَشْيَاءَ تَحْوِيهِ فَتُقِلَّهُ (13) أَوْ تُهْوِيَهُ (14) ، أَوْ أَنَّ شَيْئاً يَحْمِلُهُ، فَيُمِيلَهُ أَوْ يُعَدِّلَهُ. لَيْسَ فِي الْأَشْيَاءِ بِوَالِجٍ (15) ، وَلاَ عَنْهَا بِخَارِجٍ. يُخْبِرُ لاَ بِلِسَان وَلَهَوَاتٍ (16) ، وَيَسْمَعُ لاَ بِخُروُقٍ وَأَدَوَاتٍ، يَقُولُ وَلاَ يَلْفِظُ، وَيَحْفَظُ وَلاَ يَتَحَفَّظُ (17) ، وَيُرِيدُ وَلاَ يُضْمِرُ. يُحِبُّ وَيَرْضَى مِنْ غَيْرِ رِقَّةٍ، وَيُبْغِضُ وَيَغْضَبُ مِنْ غَيْرِ مَشَقَّةٍ. يَقُولُ لِمَا أَرَادَ كَوْنَهُ: (كُنْ فَيَكُونَُ)، لاَ بِصَوْت يَقْرَعُ، وَلاَ بِنِدَاءٍ يُسْمَعُ، وَإِنَّمَا كَلاَمُهُ سُبْحَانَهُ فِعْلٌ مِنْهُ أَنْشَأَهُ وَمَثَّلَهُ، لَمْ يَكُنْ مِنْ قَبْلِ ذلِكَ كَائِناً، وَلَوْ كَانَ قَدِيماً لَكَانَ إِلهاً ثَانِياً.

p: 14

لاَ يُقَالُ: كَانَ بَعْدَ أَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ، فَتَجْرِيَ عَلَيْهِ الصِّفَاتُ الْمُحْدَثَاتُ، وَلاَ يَكُونُ بَيْنَهَا وَبَيْنَهُ فَصْلٌ، وَلاَ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا فَضْلٌ، فَيَسْتَوِيَ الصَّانِعُ والْمَصْنُوعُ، وَيَتَكَافَأَ المُبْتَدَعُ وَالْبَدِيعُ. خَلَقَ الْخَلاَئِقَ عَلَى غَيْرِ مِثَالٍ ( 27 )

خَلاَ مِنْ غَيْرِهِ، وَلَمْ يَسْتَعِنْ عَلَى خَلْقِهَا بِأَحَدٍ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ. وَأَنْشَأَ الْأَرْضَ فَأَمْسَكَهَا مِنْ غَيْرِ اشْتِغَالٍ، وَأَرْسَاهَا عَلَى غَيْرِ قَرَارٍ، وَأَقَامَهَا بِغَيْرِ قَوَائِمَ، وَرَفَعَهَا بِغَيْرِ دَعائِمَ، وَحَصَّنَهَا مِنَ الْأَوَدَ (18) وَالْإِعْوِجَاجِ، وَمَنَعَهَا مِنَ التَّهَافُتِ (19) وَالْإِنْفِرَاجِ (20) ، أَرْسَى أَوْتَادَهَا (21) ، وَضَرَبَ أَسْدَادَهَا (22) ، وَاسْتَفَاضَ عُيُونَهَا، وَخَدَّ (23) أَوْدِيَتَهَا، فَلَمْ يَهِنْ (24) مَا بَنَاهُ، وَلاَ ضَعُفَ مَا قَوَّاهُ. هُوَ الظّاهِرُ عَلَيْهَا بِسُلْطَانِهِ وَعَظَمَتِهِ، وَهُوَ الْبَاطِنُ لَهَا بِعِلْمِهِ وَمَعْرِفَتِهِ، وَالْعَالي عَلَى كَلِّ شَيْءٍ مِنهَا بِجَلاَلِهِ وَعِزَّتِهِ. لاَ يُعْجِزُهُ شَيْءٌ مِنْهَا طَلَبَهُ، وَلاَ يَمْتَنِعُ عَلَيْهِ فَيَغْلِبَهُ، وَلاَ يَفُوتُهُ السَّرِيعُ مِنْهَا فَيَسْبِقَهُ، وَلاَ يَحْتَاجُ إِلَى ذِي مَال فَيَرْزُقَهُ. خَضَعَتِ الْأَشْيَاءُ لَهُ، وَذَلَّتْ مُسْتَكِينَةً لِعَظَمَتِهِ، لاَ تَسْتَطِيعُ الْهَرَبَ مِنْ سُلْطَانِهِ إِلَى غَيْرِهِ فَتَمْتَنِعَ مِنْ نَفْعِهِ وَضَرِّهِ، وَلاَ كُفؤَ لَهُ فَيُكَافِئَهُ، وَلاَ نَظِيرَ لَهُ فَيُسَاوِيَهُ. هُوَ الْمُفْنِي لَهَا بَعْدَ وُجُودِهَا، حَتَّى يَصِيرَ مَوْجُودُهَا كَمَفْقُودِهَا.

وَلَيْسَ فَنَاءُ الدُّنْيَا بَعْدَ ابْتِدَاعِهَا بِأَعْجَبَ مِنْ إنْشَائِهَا وَاخْتِرَاعِهَا، وَكَيفَ وَلَوْ اجْتَمَعَ جَمِيعُ حَيَوانِهَا مِنْ طَيْرِهَا وَبَهَائِمِهَا، ومَا كَانَ مِنْ مُرَاحِهَا (25) وَسَائِمِهَا (26) ، وَأَصْنَافِ أَسْنَاخِهَا (27) وَأَجْنَاسِهَا، وَمُتَبَلِّدَةِ (28) أُمَمِهَا وَأَكْيَاسِهَا (29) ، عَلَى إِحْدَاثِ بَعُوضَةٍ، مَا قَدَرَتْ عَلَى إِحْدَاثِهَا، وَلاَ عَرَفَتْ كَيْفَ السَّبِيلُ إِلَى إِيجَادِهَا، وَلَتَحَيَّرَتْ عُقُولُهَا فِي عِلْمِ ذلِكَ وَتاهَتْ، وَعَجِزَتْ قُوَاهَا وَتَنَاهَتْ، وَرَجَعَتْ ( 29 )

خَاسِئَةً (30) حَسِيرَةً (31) ، عَارِفَةً بِأَنَّهَا مَقْهُورَةٌ، مُقِرَّةً بِالْعَجْزِ عَنْ إِنْشَائِهَا، مُذْعِنَةً بِالضَّعْفِ عَنْ إفْنَائِهَا!

وَإِنَّ الَلَّه سُبْحَانَهُ، يَعُودُ بَعْدَ فَنَاءِ الدُّنْيَا وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَيْءَ مَعَهُ، كَمَا كَانَ قَبْلَ ابْتِدَائِهَا، كَذلِكَ يَكُونُ بَعْدَ فَنَائِهَا، بِلاَ وَقْتٍ وَلاَ مَكَانٍ، وَلاَ حِينٍ وَلاَ زَمَانٍ، عُدِمَتْ عِنْدَ ذلِكَ الْآجَالُ وَالْأَوْقَاتُ، وَزَالَتِ السِّنُونَ وَالسَّاعَاتُ، فَلاَ شَيْءَ إِلاَّ الْوَاحِدُ الْقَهَّارُ الَّذِي إِلَيْهِ مَصِيرُ جَمِيعِ الْأُمُورِ، بِلاَ قُدْرَة مِنْهَا كَانَ ابْتِدَاءُ خَلْقِهَا، وَبِغَيْرِ امْتِنَاع مِنْهَا كَانَ فَنَاؤُهَا، وَلَوْ قَدَرَتْ عَلَى الْإِمْتِنَاعِ لَدَامَ بَقَاؤُهَا. لَمْ يَتَكَاءَدْهُ (32) صُنْعُ شَيْءٍ مِنْهَا إِذْ صَنَعَهُ، وَلَمْ يَؤُدْهُ (33) مِنْهَا خَلْقُ مَا خَلَقَهُ وَبَرَأَهُ (34) وَلَمْ يُكَوِّنْهَا لِتَشْدِيدِ سُلْطَانٍ، وَلاَ لِخَوْفٍ مِنْ زَوَالٍ وَنُقْصَانٍ، وَلاَ لِلْإِسْتِعَانَةِ بِهَا عَلَى نِدٍّ (35) مُكَاثِرٍ (36) ، وَلاَ لِلْإِحْتِرَازِ بِهَا مِنْ ضِدٍّ مُثَاوِر (37) ، وَلاَ لِلْإِزْدِيَادِ بِهَا فِي مُلْكِهِ، وَلاَ لِمُكَاثَرَةِ شَرِيكٍ فِي شِرْكِهِ، وَلاَ لِوَحْشَةٍ كَانَتْ مِنْهُ، فَأَرَادَ أَنْ يَسْتَأْنِسَ إِلَيْهَا.

p: 15

ثُمَّ هُوَ يُفْنِيهَا بَعْدَ تَكْوِينِهَا، لاَ لِسَأَمٍ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ فِي تَصْرِيفِهَا وَتَدْبِيرِهَا، وَلاَ لِرَاحَةٍ وَاصِلَةٍ إِلَيْهِ، وَلاَ لِثِقَلِ شَيْءٍ مِنْهَا عَلَيْهِ. لاَ يُمِلُّهُ طُولُ بَقَائِهَا فَيَدْعُوَهُ إِلَى سُرْعَةِ إِفْنَائِهَا، لكِنَّهُ سُبْحَانَهُ دَبَّرَهَا بِلُطْفِهِ، وَأمسَكَهَا بِأَمْرِهِ، وَأَتْقَنَهَا بِقُدْرَتِهِ. ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهَا بَعْدَ الْفَنَاءِ مِنْ غَيْرِ حَاجَةٍ مِنْهُ إِلَيْهَا، وَلاَ اسْتِعَانَةٍ بَشَيْءٍ مِنْهَا عَلَيْهَا، وَلاَ لْإِنصِرَاف مِنْ حَالٍ وَحْشَةٍ إلَى حَالِ اسْتِئْنَاسٍ، وَلاَ مِنْ حَالِ جَهْلٍ وَعَمىً إِلَى حَالِ عِلْمٍ وَالِْتمَاسٍ، وَلاَ مِنْ فَقْرٍ وَحَاجَةٍ إِلَى غِنىً وَكَثْرَةٍ، وَلاَ مِنْ ذُلٍّ وَضَعَةٍ إِلَى عِزٍّ وَقُدْرَةٍ.

In Persian

(در اصول كافى ج 1 ص 131 آمده است كه اين سخنرانى در شهر كوفه ايراد شد در پيرامون توحيد و خداشناسى است كه اصول علمى آن در هيچ خطبه اى يافت نمى شود.)

1 شناساندن صحيح خداوند سبحان

كسى كه كيفيّتى «1» براى خدا قائل شد يگانگى او را انكار كرده، و آن كس كه همانندى براى او قرار داد به حقيقت خدا نرسيده است. كسى كه خدا را به چيزى تشبيه كرد به مقصد نرسيد. آن كس كه به او اشاره كند يا در وهم آورد، خدا را بى نياز ندانسته است. هر چه كه ذاتش شناخته شده باشد آفريده است، و آنچه در هستى به ديگرى متّكى باشد داراى آفريننده است. سازنده اى غير محتاج به ابزار، اندازه گيرنده اى بى نياز از فكر و انديشه، و بى نياز از يارى ديگران است. با زمان ها همراه نبوده، و از ابزار و وسائل كمك نگرفته است. هستى او برتر از زمان، و وجود او بر نيستى مقدّم است، و ازليّت او را آغازى نيست. با پديد آوردن حواس، روشن مى شود كه حواسّى ندارد، و با آفرينش اشياء متضاد، ثابت مى شود كه داراى ضدّى نيست، و با هماهنگ كردن اشياء دانسته مى شود كه همانندى ندارد. خدايى كه روشنى را با تاريكى، آشكار را با نهان، خشكى را با ترى، گرمى را با سردى، ضدّ هم قرار داد، و عناصر متضاد را با هم تركيب و هماهنگ كرد، و بين موجودات ضدّ هم، وحدت ايجاد كرد، آنها را كه با هم دور بودند نزديك كرد، و بين آنها كه با هم نزديك بودند فاصله انداخت. خدايى كه حدّى ندارد، و با شماره محاسبه نمى گردد، كه همانا ابزار و آلات، دليل محدود بودن خويشند و به همانند خود اشاره مى شوند. اينكه مى گوييم موجودات از فلان زمان پديد آمده اند پس قديم نمى توانند باشند و حادثند، و اين كه مى گوييم حتما پديد آمدند، ازلى بودن آنها رد مى شود، و اينكه مى گوييم اگر چنين بودند كامل مى شدند، پس در تمام جهات كامل نيستند.

p: 16

خدا با خلق پديده ها در برابر عقل ها جلوه كرد، و از مشاهده چشم ها برتر و والاتر است ، و حركت و سكون در او راه ندارد، زيرا او خود حركت و سكون را آفريد، چگونه ممكن است آنچه را كه خود آفريده در او اثر بگذارد؟ يا خود از پديده هاى خويش اثر پذيرد؟

اگر چنين شود، ذاتش چون ديگر پديده ها تغيير مى كند، و اصل وجودش تجزيه مى پذيرد، و ديگر ازلى نمى تواند باشد ، و هنگامى كه (به فرض محال) آغازى براى او تصوّر شود پس سرآمدى نيز خواهد داشت، و اين آغاز و انجام، دليل روشن نقص، و نقصان و ضعف دليل مخلوق بودن، و نياز به خالقى ديگر داشتن است. پس نمى تواند آفريدگار همه هستى باشد، و از صفات پروردگار كه «هيچ چيز در او مؤثر نيست و نابودى و تغيير و پنهان شدن در او راه ندارد» خارج مى شود.

2 والاتر از صفات پديده ها

خدا فرزندى ندارد تا فرزند ديگرى باشد، و زاده نشده تا محدود به حدودى گردد، و برتر است از آن كه پسرانى داشته باشد، و منزّه است كه با زنانى ازدواج كند. انديشه ها به او نمى رسند تا اندازه اى براى خدا تصوّر كنند، و فكرهاى تيزبين نمى توانند او را درك كند، تا صورتى از او تصوّر نمايند، حواس از احساس كردن او عاجز «2»، و دست ها از لمس كردن او ناتوان است و تغيير و دگرگونى در او راه ندارد، و گذشت زمان تأثيرى در او نمى گذارد، گذران روز و شب او را سالخورده نسازد، و روشنايى و تاريكى در او اثر ندارد. خدا با هيچ يك از اجزاء و جوارح و اعضاء و اندام، و نه با عرضى از اعراض، و نه با دگرگونى ها و تجزيه، وصف نمى گردد. براى او اندازه و نهايتى وجود ندارد، و نيستى و سرآمدى نخواهد داشت، چيزى او را در خود نمى گنجاند كه بالا و پايينش ببرد، و نه چيزى او را حمل مى كند كه كج يا راست نگه دارد، نه در درون اشياء قرار دارد و نه بيرون آن، حرف مى زند نه با زبان و كام و دهان، مى شنود نه با سوراخ هاى گوش و عضو شنوايى، سخن مى گويد نه با به كار گرفتن الفاظ در بيان، حفظ مى كند نه با رنج به خاطر سپردن، مى خواهد نه با به كار گيرى انديشه، دوست دارد و خشنود مى شود نه از راه دلسوزى، دشمن مى دارد و به خشم مى آيد نه از روى رنج و نگرانى ، به هر چه اراده كند، مى فرمايد «باش»، پديد مى آيد نه با صوتى كه در گوش ها نشيند، و نه فريادى كه شنيده مى شود، بلكه سخن خداى سبحان همان كارى است كه ايجاد مى كند.

p: 17

3 شناخت قدرت پروردگار

پيش از او چيزى وجود نداشته و گر نه خداى ديگرى مى بود. نمى شود گفت «خدا نبود و پديد آمد» كه در آن صورت صفات پديده ها را پيدا مى كند، و نمى شود گفت «بين خدا و پديده ها جدايى است» و «خدا بر پديده ها برترى دارد» تا سازنده و ساخته شده همانند تصوّر شوند، و خالق و پديد آمده با يكديگر تشبيه گردند. مخلوقات را بدون استفاده از طرح و الگوى ديگران آفريد، و در آفرينش پديده ها از هيچ كسى يارى نگرفت، زمين را آفريد و آن را بر پا نگهداشت بدون آن كه مشغولش سازد، و در حركت و بى قرارى، آن را نظم و اعتدال بخشيد، و بدون ستونى آن را به پاداشت، و بدون استوانه ها بالايش برد، و از كجى و فرو ريختن نگهداشت و از سقوط و درهم شكافتن حفظ كرد، ميخ هاى زمين را محكم، و كوه هاى آن را استوار، و چشمه هايش را جارى، و درّه ها را ايجاد كرد. آنچه بنا كرده به سستى نگراييد، و آنچه را توانا كرد ناتوان نشد. خدا با بزرگى و قدرت بر آفريده ها حاكم است، و با علم و آگاهى از باطن و درونشان با خبر است، و با جلال و عزّت خود از همه برتر و بالاتر است، چيزى از فرمان او سرپيچى نمى كند، و چيزى قدرت مخالفت با او را ندارد تا بر او پيروز گردد، و شتابنده اى از او توان گريختن ندارد كه بر او پيشى گيرد، و به سرمايه دارى نياز ندارد تا او را روزى دهد. همه در برابر او فروتنند، و در برابر عظمت او ذليل و خوارند. از قدرت و حكومت او به سوى ديگرى نمى توان گريخت، كه از سود و زيانش در امان ماند. همتايى ندارد تا با او برابرى كند، و او را همانندى نيست كه شبيه او باشد. اوست نابود كننده پديده ها پس از آفرينش،

p: 18

4- معاد و آفرينش دو باره پديده ها

نابودى جهان پس از پديد آمدن، شگفت آورتر از آفرينش آغازين آن نيست. چگونه محال است در صورتى كه اگر همه جانداران جهان، از پرندگان و چهارپايان، آنچه در آغل است و آنچه در بيابان سرگرم چراست، از تمام نژادها و جنس ها، درس نخوانده و انسان هاى زيرك، گرد هم آيند تا پشّه اى را بيافرينند، توان پديد آوردن آن را ندارند و راه پيدايش آن را نمى شناسند، كه عقلهايشان سرگردان و در شناخت آن حيران مى مانند، و نيروى آنها سست و به پايان مى رسد، و رانده و درمانده باز مى گردند، آنگاه اعتراف به شكست مى كنند، و اقرار دارند كه نمى توانند پشّه اى بيافرينند و از نابود ساختنش ناتوانند!. و همانا پس از نابودى جهان تنها خداى سبحان باقى مى ماند، تنهاى تنها كه چيزى با او نيست، آنگونه كه قبل از آفرينش جهان چيزى با او نبود، نه زمانى و نه مكان، بى وقت و بى زمان. در آن هنگام مهلت ها به سر آيد، سال ها و ساعت ها سپرى شود و چيزى جز خداى يگانه قهّار باقى نمى ماند كه بازگشت همه چيز به سوى اوست. پديده ها، چنان كه در آغاز آفريده شدن قدرتى نداشتند، به هنگام نابودى نيز قدرت مخالفتى ندارند، زيرا اگر مى توانستند پايدار مى ماندند. آفرينش چيزى براى خدا رنج آور نبوده و در آفرينش موجودات دچار فرسودگى و ناتوانى نشده است. موجودات را براى استحكام حكومتش نيافريده، و براى ترس از كمبود و نقصان پديد نياورده است.

آفرينش مخلوقات نه براى يارى خواستن در برابر همتايى بود كه ممكن است بر او غلبه يابد و نه براى پرهيز از دشمنى بود كه به او هجوم آورد، و نه براى طولانى شدن دوران حكومت، و نه براى پيروز شدن بر شريك و همتائى مخالف، و نه براى رفع تنهايى. سپس همه موجودات را نابود مى كند، نه براى خستگى از اداره آنها، و نه براى آسايش و استراحت، و نه به خاطر رنج و سنگينى كه براى او داشتند، و نه براى طولانى شدن ملال آور زندگيشان، بلكه خداوند با لطف خود موجودات را اداره مى فرمايد، و با فرمان خود همه را بر پا مى دارد، و با قدرت خود همه را استوار مى كند. سپس بدون آن كه نيازى داشته باشد بار ديگر همه را باز مى گرداند ، نه براى اينكه از آنها كمكى بگيرد، و نه براى رها شدن از تنهايى تا با آنها مأنوس شود، و نه آن كه تجربه اى به دست آورد، و نه براى آن كه از فقر و نياز به توانگرى رسد،و يا از ذلّت و خوارى به عزّت و قدرت راه يابد.

p: 19


(1) كيفيّت و چگونگى، مانند تقسيم، تركيب، نسبت، تعريف، حدود و مرز، كه همه از صفات مادّه و مخلوق مى باشد.

(2) نفى تفكّر: سنسوآليسم SNESUMSILA (حس گرايى و اصالت دادن به حواسّ) كه گويا موجودى نبود.


(1). The meaning is that the sense for which the words "mundhu" "qad" and "lawla" have been formed is opposed to the attributes of "Ever" "Eternal" and "Perfect". Therefore their application to anything would prove that they have come into existence from non-existence and are imperfect. For example "mundhu" is used to denote time as is "qad wujida mundu kadha" (this thing is found since so-and-so). Here a time limit has been stated and anything for which a limit of time can be described cannot exist from ever or for ever. The word "qad" shows (indicating the present perfect tense) the immediate past. This sense also can apply to a thing which is limited in time. The word "lawla" is used to denote the negation of something in another thing as "ma ahsanahu wa akmalahu lawla annahu kadha" (how handsome and perfect it would be if it were so-and-so). Therefore the thing for which this word is used would be in need of others in handsomeness and perfection and would remain deficient by itself.


In English

Regarding the vicissitudes of time

(The mischiefs that are to occur and the absence of lawful ways of livelihood)

May my father and my mother be sacrificed for those few whose names are well-known in the sky and not known on the earth. Beware you should expect what is to befall you such as adversity in your affairs severance of relations and the rising up of inferior people. This will happen when the blow of a sword will be easier for a believer than to secure one Dirham lawfully. This will happen (1) when the reward of the beggar is more than that of the giver. This will be when you are intoxicated not by drinking but with wealth and plenty you are swearing without compulsion and are speaking lies without compulsion. This will be when troubles hurt you as the saddle hurts the hump of the camel. How long will these tribulations be and how distant the hope (for deliverance from them)? O' people throw away the reins of the horses who carry on their backs the weight of your hands (i.e. sins) do not cut away from your chief (Imam) otherwise you will blame yourself for your own doings. Do not jump in the fire which is in flames in front of you; keep away from its courses and leave the middle way for it. Because by my life the believer will die in its flames and others will remain safe in it.

p: 20

I am among you like a lamp in the darkness. Whoever enters by it will be lit from it. So listen O' men preserve it and remain attentive with the ears of your hearts so that you may understand.

In Arabic

[ 187 ] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام

و هي في ذكر الملاحم

أَلاَ بِأَبِي وَأُمِّي، هُمْ مِنْ عِدَّة أَسْمَاؤُهُمْ فِي السَّماءِ مَعْرُوفَةٌ وَفِي الْأَرْضِ مَجْهُولَةٌ. أَلاَ فَتَوَقَّعُوا مَا يَكُونُ مِنْ إِدْبَارِ أُمُورِكُمْ، وَانْقِطَاعِ وُصَلِكُمْ، وَاسْتِعْمَالِ صِغَارِكُمْ: ذاكَ حَيْثُ تَكُونُ ضَرْبَةُ السَّيْفِ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِ أَهْوَنَ مِنَ الدِّرْهَمِ مِنْ حِلِّهِ! ذَاكَ حَيْثُ يَكُونُ المُعْطَى أَعْظَمَ أَجْراً مِنَ الْمُعْطِي! ذَاكَ حَيْثُ تَسْكَرُونَ مِنْ غَيْرِ شَرَابٍ، بَلْ مِنَ النِّعْمَةِ والنَّعِيمِ، وَتَحْلِفُونَ مِنْ غَيْرِ اضْطِرَارٍ، وَتَكْذِبُونَ مِنْ غيْرِ إِحْرَاجٍ (1) ذَاكَ إِذَا عَضَّكُمُ الْبَلاَءُ كَمَا يَعَضُّ الْقَتَبُ (2) غَارِبَ الْبَعيرِ (3) . مَا أَطْوَلَ هَذَا الْعَنَاءَ، وَأَبْعَدَ هَذَا الرَّجَاءَ! أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ، أَلْقُوا هذِهِ الْأَزِمَّةَ (4) الَّتِي تَحْمِلُ ظُهُورُهَا الْأَثْقَالَ مِنْ أيْدِيكُمْ، وَلاَ تَصَدَّعُوا (5) عَلَى سُلْطَانِكُمْ فَتَذُمُّوا غِبَّ فِعَالِكُمْ، وَلاَ تَقْتَحِمُوا مَا اسْتَقْبَلْتُمْ مِنْ فَوْرِ نَارِ (6) الْفِتْنَةِ، وأَمِيطُوا عَنْ سَنَنِهَا (7) ، وَخَلُّو قَصْدَ السَّبِيلِ (8) لَهَا: فَقدْ لَعَمْرِي يَهْلِكُ فِي لَهَبِهَا الْمُؤْمِنُ، وَيَسْلَمُ فِيهَا غَيْرُ الْمُسْلِمِ.

إِنَّمَا مَثَلي بَيْنَكُمْ كَمَثَلِ السِّرَاجِ فِي الظُّلْمَةِ، يَسْتَضِيءُ بِهِ مَنْ وَلَجَهَا. فَاسْمَعَوا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ وَعُوا، وَأَحْضِروا آذَانَ قُلُوبِكُمْ تَفْهَمُوا.

In Persian

(اين سخنرانى پس از جنگ نهروان در سال 38 هجرى در كوفه ايراد شد)

1 خبر از حوادث آينده

آگاه باشيد! آنان كه پدر و مادرم فدايشان باد، از كسانى هستند كه در آسمان ها معروف، و در زمين گمنامند. هان اى مردم! در آينده پشت كردن روزگار خوش، و قطع شدن پيوندها، و روى كار آمدن خردسالان را انتظار كشيد، و اين روزگارى است كه ضربات شمشير بر مؤمن آسان تر از يافتن مال حلال است، روزگارى كه پاداش گيرنده از دهنده بيشتر است.و آن روزگارى كه بى نوشيدن شراب مست مى شويد، با فراوانى نعمت ها، بدون اجبار سوگند مى خوريد، و نه از روى ناچارى دروغ مى گوييد. و آن روزگارى است كه بلاها شما را مى گزد، چونان گزيدن و زخم كردن دوش شتران از پالان! آه! آن رنج و اندوه چقدر طولانى، و اميد گشايش چقدر دور است!

p: 21

2 ضرورت اطاعت از رهبرى

اى مردم! مهار بار سنگين گناهان را رها كنيد، و امام خود را تنها مگذاريد، كه در آينده خود را سرزنش مى كنيد. خود را در آتش فتنه اى كه پيشاپيش افروخته ايد نيفكنيد، راه خود گيريد، و از راهى كه به سوى فتنه ها كشانده مى شود دورى كنيد. به جانم سوگند كه مؤمن در شعله آن فتنه ها نابود شود. امّا مدّعيان دروغين اسلام در امان خواهند بود. همانا من در ميان شما چونان چراغ درخشنده در تاريكى هستم، كه هر كس به آن روى مى آورد از نورش بهرمند مى گردد.

اى مردم سخنان مرا بشنويد، و به خوبى حفظ كنيد، گوش دل خود را باز كنيد تا گفته هاى مرا بفهميد.


(1). In that period the reward of the beggar who takes will be higher than that of the giver because the ways of earning livelihood of the rich will be unlawful and whatever he will donate of it its purpose will be showing himself hypocrisy and seeking fame for which he will not be entitled to any reward while the poor who take it by force of their poverty and helplessness, and to spend it in the right manner will deserve more reward and recompense.

The commentator Ibn Abi'l-Hadid has written another meaning of it also namely if the beggar does not take the wealth from the rich and it remains with him he will spend it on unlawful matters and enjoyments and since his taking it from him prevents him from using it in unlawful manner; therefore for this prevention of evil the beggar will deserve more reward and recompense. (Sharh Nahj al-balaghah vol. 13 p. 97)

p: 22


In English

Allah's favours

I advise you O' people to fear Allah and to praise Him profusely for His favours to you and His reward for you and His obligations on you. See how He chose you for favours and dealt with you with mercy. You sinned openly; He kept you covered. You behaved in a way to incur His punishment but He gave you more time.

Condition of persons facing death

I also advise you to remember death and to lessen your heedlessness towards it. Why should you be heedless of Him Who is not heedless of you? Why expect from him (i.e. the angel of death) who will not give you time? The dead whom you have been watching suffice as preachers. They were carried to their graves not riding themselves and were placed in them but not of their own accord. It seems as if they never lived in this world and as if the next world had always been their abode. They have made lonely the place where they were living and are now living where they used to feel lonely. They remained busy about what they had to leave and did not care for where they were to go. Now they cannot remove themselves from127; evil nor add to their virtues They were attached to the world and it deceived them. They trusted it and it overturned them.

Transience of this world

May Allah have pity on you. You should therefore hasten towards (the preparation of) houses which you have been commanded to populate and towards which you have been called and invited. Seek the completion of Allah's favours on you by exercising endurance in His obedience and abstention from His disobedience because tomorrow is close to today. How fast are the hours of the day how fast are the days in the month how fast are the months in the years and how fast the years in a life.

p: 23

In Arabic

[ 188 ] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام

في الوصية بأمور


أُوصِيكُمْ، أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ، بِتَقْوَى اللهِ، وَكَثْرَةِ حَمْدِهِ عَلَى آلاَئِهِ إِلَيْكُمْ، وَنَعْمَائِهِ عَلَيْكُمْ، وَبَلاَئِهِ (1) لَدَيْكُمْ. فَكَمْ خَصَّكُمْ بِنِعْمَةٍ، وَتَدَارَكَكُمْ بِرَحْمَةٍ! أَعْوَرْتُمْ (2) لَهُ فَسَتَرَكُمْ، وَتَعَرَّضْتُمْ لِأَخْذِهِ (3) فَأَمْهَلَكُمْ!


وَأُوصِيكُمْ بِذِكْرِ الْمَوْتِ، وَإِقْلاَلِ الْغَفْلَةِ عَنْهُ، وَكَيْفَ غَفْلَتُكُمْ عَمَّا لَيْسَ يُغْفِلُكُمْ (4) ، وَطَمَعُكُمْ فِيمَنْ لَيْسَ يُمْهِلُكُمْ! فَكَفَى وَاعِظاً بِمَوْتَى عَايَنْتُمُوهُمْ، حُمِلُوا إلَى قُبُورِهِمْ غَيْرَ رَاكِبِينَ، وَأُنْزِلُوا فِيهَا غَيْرَ نَازِلِينَ، كَأَنَّهُمْ لَمْ يَكُونُوا لِلدُّنْيَا عُمَّاراً، وَكَأَنَّ الْآخِرَةَ لَمْ تَزَلْ لَهُمْ دَاراً، أَوْحَشوُا مَا كَانُوا يُوطِنُونَ (5) ، وَأَوْطَنُوا مَا كَانُوا يُوحِشُونَ (6) ، وَاشْتَغَلُوا بِمَا فَارَقُوا، وَأَضَاعُوا مَا إِلَيْهِ انْتَقَلُوا. لاَ عَنْ قَبِيح يَسْتَطِيعُونَ انْتِقَالاً، وَلاَ فِي حَسَنٍ يَسْتَطِيعُونَ ازْدِيَاداً، أَنِسُوا بِالدُّنْيَا فَغرَّتْهُمْ، وَوَثِقُوا بِهَا فَصَرَعَتْهُمْ.

سرعة النفاد

فَسَابِقُوا _ رَحِمَكُمُ اللهُ _ إِلَى مَنَازِلِكُمْ الَّتِي أُمِرْتُمْ أَنْ تَعْمُرُوهَا، وَالَّتِي رُغِّبْتُمْ فِيهَا، وَدُعِيتُمْ إِلَيْهَا. وَاسْتَتِمُّوا نِعَمَ اللهِ عَلَيْكُمْ بِالصَّبْرِ عَلَى طَاعَتِهِ، وَالْمُجَانَبَةِ لِمَعْصِيَتِهِ، فَإِنَّ غَداً مِنَ الْيَوْمِ قَرِيبٌ. مَا أَسْرَعَ السَّاعَاتِ فِي الْيَوْمِ، وَأَسْرَعَ الْأَيَّامَ فِي الشَّهْرِ، وَأَسْرَعَ الشُّهُورَ فِي السَّنَةِ، وَأَسْرَعَ السِّنِينَ فِي الْعُمُرِ!

In Persian

1 سفارش به پرهيزكارى

اى مردم، شما را به پرهيزگارى، و شكر فراوان در برابر نعمت ها، و عطاهاى الهى، و احسانى كه به شما رسيده سفارش مى كنم ، چه نعمت هايى كه به شما اختصاص داده، و رحمت هايى كه براى شما فراهم فرمود. شما عيب هاى خود را آشكار كرديد و او پوشاند، خود را در معرض كيفر او قرار داديد و او به شما مهلت داد.

2 ارزش ياد مرگ

مردم! شما را به ياد آورى مرگ، سفارش مى كنم، از مرگ كمتر غفلت كنيد، چگونه مرگ را فراموش مى كنيد در حالى كه او شما را فراموش نمى كند؟

p: 24

و چگونه طمع مى ورزيد در حالى كه به شما مهلت نمى دهد؟ مرگ گذشتگان براى عبرت شما كافى است، آنها را به گورشان حمل مى كردند، بى آن كه بر مركبى سوار باشند، آنان را در قبر فرود آوردند بى آن كه خود فرود آيند. چنان از ياد رفتند گويا از آباد كنندگان دنيا نبودند و آخرت همواره خانه شان بود! آنچه را وطن «1» خود مى دانستند از آن رميدند، و در آنجا كه از آن رميدند، آرام گرفتند، و از چيزهايى كه با آنها مشغول بودند جدا شدند، و آنجا را كه سرانجامشان بود ضايع كردند.

اكنون نه قدرت دارند از اعمال زشت خود دورى كنند، و نه مى توانند عمل نيكى بر نيكى هاى خود بيفزايند. به دنيايى انس گرفتند كه مغرورشان كرد، چون به آن اطمينان داشتند سر انجام مغلوبشان كرد.

3 ضرورت شتاب در نيكوكارى ها

خدا شما را رحمت كند! پس بشتابيد به سوى آباد كردن خانه هايى كه شما را به آبادانى آن فرمان دادند، و تشويقتان كرده، به سوى آن دعوت كرده اند، و با صبر و استقامت، نعمت هاى خدا را بر خود تمام گردانيد، و از عصيان و نافرمانى كناره گيريد، كه فردا به امروز نزديك است. وه! چگونه ساعت ها در روز، و روزها در ماه، و ماه ها در سال، و سال ها در عمر آدمى شتابان مى گذرد؟!


(1) اصل علاقه به وطن مورد تأييد است، امّا نبايد مطلق شود و به تفكّر: پاتريوتيسم MSITOIRTAP (ميهن پرستى) كشيده شود.

p: 25


In English

Steadfast and transient belief

One belief is that which is firm and steadfast in hearts and one is that which remains temporarily in the heart and the breast up to a certain time. If you were to acquit (yourself) before any person you should wait till death approaches him for that is the time limit for being acquitted.

And immigration stands as its original position. Allah has no need towards him who secretly accepts belief or him who openly does so. Immigration will not apply to any one unless he recognises the proof (of Allah) on the earth. Whoever recognises him and acknowledges him would be a muhajir (immigrant). Istid'af (i.e. freedom from the obligation of immigration) does not apply to him whom the proof (of Allah) reaches and he hears it and his heart preserves it.(1)

The challenge "Ask me before you miss me" and prophecy about the Umayyads

Certainly our case is difficult and complicated. No one can bear it except a believer whose heart Allah has tried with belief. Our traditions will not be preserved except by trustworthy hearts and (men of) solid understanding.

O' people! ask me before you miss me because certainly I am acquainted with the passages of the sky more than the passages of the earth (2) and before that mischief springs upon its feet which would trample even the nosestring and destroy the wits of the people.

In Arabic

[ 189 ] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام

p: 26

في الايمان ووجوب الهجرة

أقسام الايمان

فَمِنَ الْإِيمَانِ مَا يَكُونُ ثَابِتاً مُسْتَقِرّاً فِي الْقُلُوبِ، وَمِنْهُ مَا يَكُونُ عَوَارِىَ (1) بَيْنَ الْقُلُوبِ وَالصُّدورِ، (إِلَى أَجَلٍ مَعْلُومٍ)، فَإِذَا كَانَتْ لَكُمْ بَرَاءَةٌ مِنْ أَحَدٍ فَقِفُوهُ حَتّى يَحْضُرَهُ الْمَوْتُ، فَعِنْدَ ذَلِكَ يَقَعُ حدُّ الْبَرَاءَةِ.

وجوب الهجرة

وَالْهِجْرَةُ قَائِمَةٌ عَلَى حَدِّهَا الْأَوَّلِ (2) ، مَا كَانَ لِلَّهِ فِي أَهْلِ الْأَرْضِ حَاجَةٌ مِنْ مُسْتَسِرِّ (3) الْأُمَّةِ (4) وَمُعْلِنِهَا، لاَ يَقَعُ اسْمُ الْهِجْرَةِ عَلَى أَحَدٍ إلاَّ بِمَعْرِفَةِ الْحُجَّةِ في الْأَرْضِ، فَمَنْ عَرَفَهَا وَأَقَرَّ بِهَا فَهُوَ مُهَاجِرٌ، وَلاَ يَقَعُ اسْمُ الْإِسْتِضْعَافِ عَلَى مَنْ بَلَغَتْهُ الْحُجَّةُ فَسَمِعَتْهَا أُذُنُهُ وَوَعَاهَا قَلْبُهُ.

صعوبة الايمان

إِنَّ أَمْرَنا صَعْبٌ مُسْتَصْعَبٌ، لاَ يَحْتَمِلُهُ إِلاَّ عَبْدٌ مُؤْمِنٌ امْتَحَنَ اللهُ قَلْبَهُ لِلْإِيمَانِ، وَلاَ يَعِي حَدِيثَنَا إِلاَّ صُدُورٌ أَمِينَةٌ، وَأَحْلاَمٌ (5) رَزِينَةٌ.

علم الوصي

أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ، سَلُوني قَبْلَ أَنْ تَفْقِدُوني، فَلَأَنَا بِطُرُقِ السَّماءِ أَعْلَمُ مِنِّي بِطُرُقِ الْأَرْضِ، قَبْلَ أَنْ تَشْغَرَ بِرِجْلِهَا (6) فِتْنَةٌ تَطَأُ فِي خِطَامِهَا (7) وَتَذْهَبُ بِأَحْلاَمِ قَوْمِهَا.

In Persian

(اين سخنرانى كه در مسجد كوفه در سال 38 هجرى ايراد شد با اسناد و مدارك فراوانى آمده است)

1 اقسام ايمان

ايمان بر دو قسم است: يكى ايمانى كه در دل ها ثابت و برقرار، و ديگرى در ميان دل ها و سينه ها ناپايدار است، تا سر آمدى كه تعيين شده است.

پس اگر از كسى بيزاريد، او را به حال خود گذاريد تا مرگ او فرارسد، پس در آن هنگام وقت بيزارى جستن است.

2 شناخت هجرت و مهاجر واقعى

و هجرت، بر جايگاه ارزشى نخستين خود قرار دارد. خدا را به ايمان اهل زمين نيازى نيست،

چه ايمان خود را پنهان دارند يا آشكار كنند. و نام مهاجر را بر كسى نمى توان گذاشت جز آن كس كه حجّت خدا بر روى زمين را بشناسد.

p: 27

هر كس حجّت خدا را شناخت، و به امامت او اقرار كرد مهاجر است.

و نام مستضعف در دين، بر كسى كه حجّت بر او تمام شد، و گوشش آن را شنيد، و قلبش آن را دريافت، صدق نمى كند (و معذور نيست)

3 مشكل فهم برخى از احاديث عترت عليهم السّلام

همانا كار ما «ولايت» ما اهل بيت پيامبر عليهم السّلام سخت و تحمّل آن دشوار است، كه جز مؤمن ديندار كه خدا او را آزموده، و ايمانش در دل استوار بوده، قدرت پذيرش و تحمّل آن را ندارد، و حديث ما را جز سينه هاى امانت پذير، و عقل هاى بردبار فرا نگيرد.

4 آگاهى ژرف امام عليه السّلام

اى مردم پيش از آن كه مرا نيابيد، آنچه مى خواهيد از من بپرسيد، كه من راههاى آسمان را بهتر از راههاى زمين مى شناسم «1»، بپرسيد قبل از آن كه فتنه ها چونان شترى بى صاحب حركت كند، و مهار خود را پايمال نمايد، و مردم را بكوبد و بيازارد، و عقل ها را سرگردان كند.


(1) اشاره به علم: كاسمولوژى YGOLOMSOC (كيهان شناسى)


(1). This is the interpretation of the word "muhajir" and "mustad'af" as mentioned in the Holy Qur'an:

Verily those whom the angels take away (at death) while they are unjust to their (own) selves (in sin) they (the angels) shall ask (the sinning souls): "In what state were ye?" They shall reply "Weakened (mustad'af - and oppressed)were we in the land;" They (angels) will say "Was not the land of Allah vast (enough) for you to immigrate therein?" So these (are those) whose refuge shall be Hell; and what a bad resort it is. Except the (really) weakened ones from among the men and the women and the children who have not in their power the means (to escape from the unbelievers) and nor do they find the (right) way. So these may be Allah will pardon them; and Allah is the Clement the Oft-forgiving. (4:97-99)

p: 28

The meaning of Amir al-mu'minin here is that hijrah (immigration) was not only obligatory during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet but it is a permanent obligation. This immigration is even now obligatory for attaining the proof of Allah and the true religion. Therefore if one has attained the proof of Allah and believed127; in it even if he is in midst of the unbelievers of his locality he is not duty bound to immigrate.

The "mustad'af" (weakened) is one who is living among the unbelievers and is far from being informed of the proofs of Allah and at the same time he is unable to immigrate in order to attain the proofs of Allah.

(2). Some people have explained this saying of Amir al-mu'minin to mean that by the passages of the earth he means matters of the world and by passages of the sky matters of religious law and that Amir al-mu'minin intends to say that he knows the matters of religious law and commandments more than the worldly matters. Thus Ibn Maytham al-Bahrani writes (in Sharh Nahj al-balaghah vol. 4 pp. 200-201): It is related from al-'Allamah al-Wabari that he said that Amir al-mu'minin's intention is to say that the scope of his religious knowledge is larger than his knowledge about matters of the world.

But taking the context into account this explanation cannot be held to be correct because this sentence (which is the subject of explanation) has been used as the cause of the sentence "Ask me before you miss me" and after it is the prophesy about revolt. In between these two the occurrence of the sentence that "I know religious matters more than worldly matters" makes the whole utterance quite uncounted because Amir al-mu'minin's challenge to ask whatever one likes is not confined to matters of religious law only so this sentence could be held as its cause. Then after that the prophesy of the rising up of the revolt has nothing to do with matters of religious law so that it could be put forth as a proof of more knowledge of religious matters. To ignore the clear import of the words and to interpret them in a way which does not suit the occasion does not exhibit a correct spirit when from the context also the same meaning accrues which the words openly convey. Thus it is to give a warning about the Umayyad's mischief that Amir al-mu'minin uttered the words: "'Ask me whatever you like'; because I know the paths and courses of divine destiny more than the passages of the earth. So even if you ask me about matters which are recorded in the 'preserved tablet' and concern divine destiny I can tell you and a serious mischief is to rise against me in those matters in which you should have doubt because my eyes are more acquainted with those ethereal lines which concern the occurrence of events and mischiefs than with what I know about live appearing on the earth. The occurrence of this mischief is as certain as an object seen with eyes. You should therefore ask me its details and the way to keep safe from it so that you may be able to manage your defence when the times comes." This meaning is supported by the successive sayings of Amir al-mu'minin which he uttered in connection with the unknown and to which the future testified. Thus Ibn Abi'l Hadid comments on this claim of Amir al-mu'minin as follows:

p: 29

Amir al-mu'minin's claim is also supported by his sayings about future events which he uttered not once or a hundred times but continuously and successively from which there remains no doubt that whatever he spoke was on the basis of knowledge and certainly and not in the way of chance. (Sharh Nahj al-balaghah vol. 13 p. 106)

In connection with this saying of Amir al-mu'minin it has already been shown and explained (in Sermon 92 Foot-note No. 2) that no one else dared advance such a claim and those who made such a claim had to face only disgrace and humility. About the prophecies made by Amir al-mu'minin see Ibn Abi'l-Hadid Sharh Nahj al-balaghah vol. 7 pp. 47-51; al-Qadi Nuru'l-Lah al-Mar'ashi Ihqaq al-haqq (New ed.) vol. 8 pp. 87-182.


In English

Importance of fear of Allah desolateless of the grave and about the death of the lover of Ahlu'l-bayt being like that of a martyr

I praise Him out of gratefulness for His reward and I seek His assistance in fulfilling His rights. He has a strong army. His dignity is grand.

The Prophet's Character

I stand witness that Muhammad - peace and blessing of Allah be upon him and his progeny - is His slave and His Prophet. He called (people) to His obedience and overpowered His enemies by fighting for the sake of His religion. People's joining together to falsify him and their attempt to extinguish His light did not prevent him from it.

p: 30

You should therefore exercise fear of Allah because it has a rope whose twist is strong and its pinnacle is lofty and invulnerable. Hasten toward death in its pangs (by doing good acts) and be prepared for it before its approach because the ultimate end is the Day of Judgement. This is enough preaching for one who understands and enough of a lesson for one who does not know. What idea do you have before reaching that end of the narrowness of grave the hardship of loneliness fear of the passage towards the next world the pangs of fear the shifting of ribs here and there (due to narrowing of the grave) the deafness of ears the darkness of the grave fear of the promised punishment the closing of the receptacle of the grave and the laying of stones? Therefore (fear) Allah (fear) Allah O' creatures of Allah because the world is behaving with you in the usual way and you and the Day of Judgement are in the same rope (close to each other). As though it has come with its signs has approached with its pleas and has made you stand in its way; and as though it has come forward with all its quakings and has settled down with its chest on the ground while the world has parted from its people and has turned them out of its lap. It was like a day that has passed or a month that has gone by. Its new things have become old and the fat ones have become thin.

p: 31

They are in a narrow place in very complicated affairs and in a fire whose pain is sharp cries are loud flames are rising sound is trembling burning is severe abatement is remote; its fuel is burning its threats are fearful its hollows are hidden its sides are dark its vessels are aflame and everything about it is abominable.

And shall be conveyed those who feared (the wrath of) their Lord in companies unto the garden. . . (Qur'an. 39:73)

They are safe from chastisement away from punishment and kept aloof from fire. Their abode will be peaceful and they will be pleased with their longing and their place of stay. These are the people whose acts in this world were chaste their eyes were tearful their nights in this world were like days because of fearing and seeking forgiveness and their days were like nights because of feeling of loneliness and separation. Therefore Allah made Paradise the place of their (eventual) return and a reward in recompense.... They were most eligible and suitable for it;... (Qur'an 48:26) in the eternal domain and everlasting favours.

Therefore O' creatures of Allah pay regard to all that by being regardful of which one will succeed and by ignoring which one will incur loss and hasten towards your death by means of your (good) acts because you are bound by what you have done in the past and you have to your credit only what (good acts) you have sent forward. (Behave in such a way) as though the feared event (death) has come upon you so that you cannot return (to do good acts) nor can you be cleared of evil acts. Allah may prompt us and you for His obedience and obedience of His Prophet and forgive us and you by His great mercy.

p: 32

Stick to the earth keep patient in trials do not move your hands and swords after the liking of your tongues and do not make haste in matters in which Allah has not asked for haste because any one of you who dies in his bed while he had knowledge of the rights of Allah and the rights of His Prophet and members of the Prophet's house will die as martyr. His reward is incumbent on Allah. He is also eligible to the recompense of what good acts he has intended to do since his intention takes the place of drawing his sword. Certainly for every thing there is a time and a limit.

In Arabic

[ 190 ] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام

يحمد الله ويثني على نبيّه ويعظ بالتقوى

حمد الله

أَحْمَدُهُ شُكْراً لِإِنْعَامِهِ، وَأَسْتَعِينُهُ عَلَى وَظَائِفِ حُقُوقِهِ، عَزِيزَ الْجُنْدِ، عَظِيمَ الْمَجْدِ.

الثناء على النبي

وَأَشهَدُ أنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ، دَعَا إِلَى طَاعَتِهِ، وَقَاهَرَ أَعْدَاءَهُ جِهَاداً عَنْ دِينِهِ، لاَ يَثْنِيهِ عَنْ ذلِكَ اجْتَِماعٌ على تَكْذِيبِهِ، وَالِْتمَاسٌ لِإِطْفَاءِ نُورِهِ.

العظة بالتقوى

فَاعْتَصِمُوا بِتَقْوَى اللهِ، فَإِنَّ لَهَا حَبْلاً وَثِيقاً عُرْوَتُهُ، وَمَعْقِلاً (1) مَنِيعاً ذِرْوَتُهُ (2) ، وَبَادِرُوا (3) الْمَوْتَ وَغَمَرَاتِهِ (4) ، وَامْهَدُوا (5) لَهُ قَبْلَ حُلُولِهِ، وأَعِدُّوا لَهُ قَبْلَ نُزُولِهِ، فَإِنَّ الْغَايَةَ الْقِيَامَةُ، وَكَفَى بِذلِكَ وَاعِظاً لِمَنْ عَقَلَ، وَمُعْتَبَراً لِمَنْ جَهِلَ! وَقَبْلَ بُلُوغِ الْغَايَةَ مَا تَعْلَمُونَ مِنْ ضِيقِ الْأَرْمَاسِ (6) ، وَشِدَّةِ الْإِبْلاَسِ (7) ، وَهَوْلِ الْمُطَّلَعِ (8) ، وَرَوْعَاتِ الْفَزَعِ، وَاخْتلاَفِ الْأَضْلاَعِ (9) ، وَاسْتِكَاكِ الْأَسْمَاعِ (10) ، وَظُلْمَةِ اللَّحْدِ (11) ، وَخِيفَةِ الْوَعْدِ، وغَمِّ الضَّرِيحِ، وَرَدْمِ الصَّفِيحِ (12) .

p: 33

فَاللهَ اللهَ عِبَادَ اللهِ! فَإِنَّ الْدُّنْيَا مَاضِيَةٌ بكُمْ عَلَى سَنَنٍ (13) ، وَأَنْتُمْ وَالسَّاعَةُ فِي قَرَنٍ (14) ، وَكَأَنَّهَا قَدْ جَاءَتْ بِأَشْرَاطِهَا (15) ، وَأَزِفَتْ (16) بِأَفْرَاطِهَا (17) ، وَوَقَفَتْ بِكُمْ عَلَى صِراطِهَا. وَكَأنَّهَا قَدْ أَشْرَفَتْ بِزَلَازِلِهَا، وَأَنَاخَتْ بِكَلاَكِلِهَا (18) ، وَانْصَرَمَتِ (19) الدُّنْيَا بِأَهْلِهَا، وَأَخْرَجَتْهُمْ مَنْ حِضْنِهَا، فَكَانَتْ كَيَوْمٍ مَضَى وَشَهْرٍ انْقَضَى، وَصَارَ جَدِيدُهَا رَثّاً (20) ، وَسَمِينُهَا غَثّاً (21) . فِي مَوْقِفٍ ضَنْكِ الْمَقَامِ، وَأُمُورٍ مُشْتَبِهَةٍ عِظَامٍ، ونَارٍ شَدِيدٍ كَلَبُهَا (22) ، عَالٍ لَجَبُهَا (23) ، سَاطعٍ لَهَبُهَا، مُتَغَيِّظٍ (24) زَفِيرُهَا (25) ، مُتَأَجِّجٍ سَعِيرهَا، بَعِيدٍ خُمُودُهَا، ذَاكٍ (26) وُقُودُهَا، مَخُوفٍ وعِيدُهَا، عُمٍ قَرارُهَا (27) ، مُظْلِمَةٍ أَقْطَارُهَا، حَامِيَةٍ قُدُورُهَا، فَظِيعَةٍ أُمُورُهَا. (وَسِيقَ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا رَبَّهُمْ إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ زُمَراً). قَدْ أُمِنَ الْعَذَابُ، وَانْقَطَعَ الْعِتَابُ، وَزُحْزِحُوا عَنِ النَّارِ، وَاطْمَأَنَّتْ بِهِمُ الدّارُ، وَرَضُوا المَثْوَى وَالْقَرَارَ. الَّذِينَ كَانَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا زَاكِيةً، وَأَعْيُنُهُمْ بَاكِيَةً، وَكَانَ لَيْلُهُمْ فِي دُنْيَاهُمْ نَهَاراً، تَخَشُّعاً وَاسْتِغفَاراً، وَكَانَ نَهَارُهُمْ لَيْلاً، تَوَحُشّاً (28) وَانَقِطَاعاً، فَجَعَلَ اللهُ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ مَآباً، وَالْجَزَاءَ ثَوَاباً، (وَكَانُوا أَحَقَّ بِهَا وَأَهْلَها) في مُلْكٍ دَائِمٍ، وَنَعِيمٍ قَائِمٍ.

فَارْعَوْا عِبَادَ اللهِ مَا بِرِعَايَتِهِ يَفُوزُ فَائِزُكُمْ، وَبِإِضَاعَتِهِ يَخْسَرُ مُبْطِلُكُمْ، وَبَادِرُوا آجَالَكُمْ بأَعْمَالِكُمْ، فَإِنَّكُمْ مُرْتَهَنُونَ بِمَا أَسْلَفْتُمْ، وَمَدِينُونَ ( 47 )

بِمَا قدَّمْتُمْ. وَكَأَنْ قَدْ نَزَلَ بِكُمُ الْمَخُوفُ، فَلاَ رَجْعَةً تَنَالُونَ، وَلاَ عَثْرَةً تُقَالُونَ. اسْتَعْمَلَنَا اللهُ وَإِيَّاكُمْ بِطَاعَتِهِ وَطَاعَةِ رَسُولِهِ، وعَفَا عَنَّا وَعَنْكُمْ بِفَضْلِ رَحْمَتِهِ.

الْزَمُوا الْأَرْضَ (29) ، وَاصْبِروُا عَلَى الْبَلاءِ، وَلاَ تُحرِّكُوا بأَيْدِيكُمْ وَسُيُوفِكُمْ فِي هَوَى أَلْسِنَتِكُمْ، وَلاَ تَسْتَعْجِلُوا بِمَا لَمْ يُعَجِّلْهُ اللهُ لَكُمْ. فَإِنّهُ مَنْ مَاتَ مِنْكُمْ عَلَى فِرَاشِهِ وَهُوَ عَلَى مَعْرِفَةِ حَقِّ رَبِّهِ وَحَقِّ رَسُولِهِ وَأَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ مَاتَ شَهِيداً، وَوَقَعَ أَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللهِ، واسْتَوْجَبَ ثَوَابَ مَا نَوَى مِنْ صَالِحِ عَمَلِهِ، وَقَامَتِ النِّيَّةُ مَقَامَ إِصْلاَتِهِ لِسَيْفِهِ (30) ، فإِنَّ لِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ مُدَّةً وَأَجَلاً.

p: 34

In Persian

(اين سخنرانى در شهر كوفه پيرامون خوارج ايراد شد).

1 ضرورت شكرگزارى

خدا را برابر نعمت هايش شكرگزارم، و بر انجام حقوق الهى از او يارى مى طلبم، پروردگارى كه سپاهش نيرومند، و مقام او بزرگ است. و گواهى مى دهم كه محمّد صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم بنده و پيامبر اوست، انسان ها را به اطاعت خدا دعوت فرمود، و با دشمنان خدا در راه دين او پيكار و مغلوبشان كرد.

هرگز همداستانى دشمنان كه او را دروغگو خواندند، او را از دعوت حق باز نداشت، و تلاش آنان براى خاموش كردن نور رسالت به نتيجه اى نرسيد.

2 سفارش به پرهيزكارى و ياد مرگ

پس به تقوا و ترس از خدا، روى آوريد، كه رشته آن استوار، و دستگيره آن محكم، و قلّه بلند آن پناهگاهى مطمئن مى باشد. قبل از فرارسيدن مرگ، خود را براى پيش آمدهاى آن آماده سازيد، پيش از آن كه مرگ شما را دريابد آنچه لازمه ملاقات است فراهم آوريد، زيرا مرگ پايان زندگى است و هدف نهايى، قيامت است. مرگ براى خردمندان پند و اندرز، و براى جاهلان وسيله عبرت آموزى است. پيش از فرارسيدن مرگ، از تنگى قبرها، و شدّت غم و اندوه، و ترس از قيامت، و در هم ريختن استخوان ها، و كر شدن گوش ها، و تاريكى لحد، و وحشت از آينده، و غم و اندوه فراوان در تنگناى گور، و پوشانده شدن آن با سنگ و خاك، چه مى دانيد؟! پس اى بندگان! خدا را! خدا را! پروا كنيد، كه دنيا با قانونمندى خاصّى مى گذرد، شما با قيامت به رشته اى اتّصال داريد، گويا نشانه هاى قيامت، آشكار مى شود،و شما را در راه خود متوقف كرده، با زلزله هايش سر رسيده است، سنگينى بار آن را بر دوش شما نهاده، و رشته پيوند مردم با دنيا را قطع كرده، همه را از آغوش گرم دنيا خارج ساخته است!. گويى دنيا يك روز بود و گذشت، يا ماهى بود و سپرى شد.

p: 35

تازه هاى دنيا كهنه شده، و فربه هايش لاغر گرديدند، سپس به سوى جايگاهى تنگ، در ميان مشكلاتى بزرگ، و آتشى پر شراره مى روند كه صداى زبانه هايش وحشت زا، شعله هايش بلند، غرّشش پر هيجان ، پر نور و گدازنده، خاموشى شعله هايش غير ممكن، شعله هايش در فوران، تهديدهايش هراس انگيز، ژرفايش ناپيدا، پيرامونش تاريك و سياه، ديگهايش در جوشش، و اوضاعش سخت وحشتناك است.

3 آينده پرهيزكاران

و در آن ميان (پرهيزكاران را گروه، گروه، به سوى بهشت رهنمون مى شوند) آنان از كيفر و عذاب در امانند، و از سرزنش ها آسوده، و از آتش دورند، در خانه هاى امن الهى، از جايگاه خود خشنودند، آنان در دنيا رفتارشان پاك، ديدگانشان گريان ، شب هايشان با خشوع و استغفار چونان روز، و روزشان از ترس گناه چونان شب مى ماند. پس خداوند بهشت را منزلگه نهايى آنان قرار داد، و پاداش ايشان را نيكو پرداخت، كه سزاوار آن نعمت ها بودند، و لايق ملكى جاودانه و نعمت هايى پايدار شدند. اى بندگان خدا، مراقب چيزى باشيد كه رستگاران با پاس داشتن آن سعادتمند شدند، و تبهكاران با ضايع كردن آن به خسران و زيان رسيدند.

پيش از آن كه مرگ شما فرا رسد با اعمال نيكو آماده باشيد، زيرا در گرو كارهايى هستيد كه انجام داده ايد، و پاداش داده مى شويد به كارهايى كه از پيش مرتكب شده ايد. ناگهان مرگ وحشتناك سر مى رسد، كه ديگر باز گشتى در آن نيست، و از لغزش ها نمى توان پوزش خواست. خداوند ما و شما را در راه خود و پيامبرش استوار سازد، و از گناهان ما و شما به فضل و رحمتش در گذرد.

4 آموزش نظامى

سربازان! بر جاى خود محكم بايستيد، در برابر بلاها و مشكلات استقامت كنيد، شمشيرها و دست ها را در هواى زبان هاى خويش به كار مگيريد، و آنچه كه خداوند شتاب در آن را لازم ندانسته شتاب نكنيد ، زيرا هر كس از شما كه در بستر خويش با شناخت خدا و پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم و اهل بيت پيامبر عليه السّلام بميرد، شهيد از دنيا رفته و پاداش او بر خداست، و ثواب اعمال نيكويى كه قصد انجام آن را داشته خواهد برد، و نيّت او ثواب شمشير كشيدن را دارد.

p: 36

همانا هر چيزى را وقت مشخّص و سرآمدى معيّن است.


(1) اشاره به علم: كاسمولوژى YGOLOMSOC (كيهان شناسى)


In English

Praise of Allah

Praise be to Allah Whose praise is wide-spread Whose army is over-powering and Whose dignity is grand. I praise Him for His successive favours and His great gifts. His forbearance is high so that He forgives and is just in whatever He decides. He knows what is going on and what has already passed. He crafted all creation by His knowledge and produced it by His intelligence without limitation without learning without following the example of any intelligent producer without committing any mistake and without the availability of any group (for help); I stand witness that Muhammad - the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him and his descendants - is His slave and His messenger whom He deputed (at a time) when people were collecting in the abyss and moving in bewilderment. The reins of destruction were dragging them and the locks of malice lay fixed on their hearts.

Advice about fear of Allah and an account of this world and its people

I advise you O' creature of Allah that you should have fear of Allah because it is a right of Allah over you and it creates your right over Allah and that you should seek Allah's help in it and its help in (meeting) Allah. Certainly for today fear of Allah is a protection and a shield and for tomorrow (the Day of Judgement) it is the road to Paradise. Its way is clear and he who treads it is the gainer. Whoever holds it guards it. It has presented itself to the people who have already passed and to those coming from behind because they will need it tomorrow (on the Day of Judgement) when Allah will revive His creation again take back what He has given and take account of what He has bestowed. How few will be those who accept it and practise it as it ought to be practised. They will be very few in number and they are the people who correspond to the description given by Allah the Glorified when He says:

p: 37

... And very few of My creatures are grateful! (Qur'an. 34:13)

Therefore hasten with your ears towards it and intensify your efforts for it. Make it a substitute for all your past (short-comings) to take their place as a successor and make it your supporter against every opponent. Turn your sleep into wakefulness by its help and pass your days with it. Make it the equipment of your hearts wash your sins with it treat your ailments with it and hasten towards your death with it. Take a lesson from him who neglects it so that others who follow it should not take a lesson from you (i.e. from your neglecting it). Beware therefore; you should take care of it and should take care of yourselves through it.

Keep away from this world and proceed towards the next world infatuatedly. Do not regard humble he whom fear Allah has given a high position and do not accord a high position to him whom this world has given a high position. Do not keep your eyes on the shining clouds of the world do not listen to him who speaks of it do not respond to him who calls towards it do not seek light from its glare and do not die in its precious things because its brightness is deceitful its words are false its wealth is liable to be looted and its precious thing are to be taken away.

Beware this world attracts and then turns away. It is stubborn refusing to go ahead. It speaks lies and misappropriates. It disowns and is ungrateful. It is malicious and abandons (its lovers). It attracts but causes trouble. Its condition is changing its step shaking its honour disgrace its seriousness jest and its height lowliness. It is a place of plunder and pillage and ruin and destruction. Its people are ready with their feet to drive to overtake and to depart. Its routes are bewildering its exits are baffling and its schemes end in disappointment. Consequently strongholds betray them houses throw them out and cunning fails them.

p: 38

Some of them are like hocked camel some like butchered meat some like severed limbs some like spilt blood some are biting their hands (in pain) some are rubbing their palms (in remorse) some are holding their cheeks on their hands (in anxiety) some are cursing their own views and some are retreating from their determination. But the time for action has gone away and the hour of calamity has approached while (there was no longer) the time to escape (Qur'an 38:3). Alas! Alas! what has been lost is lost! what has gone is gone! The world has passed in its usual manner. So wept not on them the heavens and the earth nor were they respited. (Qur'an 44:29)

In Arabic

[ 191 ] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام

يحمدالله ويثني على نبيه ويوصي بالزهد والتقوى

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الْفَاشِي (1) فِي الْخَلْقِ حَمْدُهُ، وَالْغَالِبِ جُنْدُهُ، وَالْمُتَعَالِي جَدُّهُ (2) . أحْمَدُهُ عَلَى نِعَمِهِ التُّؤَامِ (3) ، وَآلاَئِهِ الْعِظَامِ. الَّذِي عَظُمَ حِلْمُهُ فَعَفَا، وَعَدَلَ فِي كُلِّ مَا قَضَى، وَعَلِمَ مَا يَمْضِي وَمَا مَضَى، مُبْتَدِعِ الْخَلاَئِقِ بِعِلْمِهِ، وَمُنْشِئِهِمْ بِْحُكْمِهِ (4) ، بِلاَ اقْتِدَاءٍ وَلاَ تَعْلِيمٍ، وَلاَ احْتِذَاءٍ لِمِثَالِ صَانِعٍ حَكِيمٍ، وَلاَ إِصابَةِ خَطَأٍ، وَلاَ حَضْرَةِ مَلْأٍ.

الرسول الاعظم

وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ، ابْتَعَثَهُ وَالنَّاسُ يَضْرِبُونَ فِي غَمْرَةٍ (5) ، وَيَمُوجُونُ فِي حَيْرَةٍ، قَدْ قَادَتْهُمْ أَزِمَّةُ (6) الْحَيْنِ (7) ، وَاسْتَغْلَقَتْ عَلَى أَفْئِدَتِهِمْ أَقْفَالُ الرَّيْنِ (8) .

الوصية بالزهد والتقوى

عِبَادَ اللهِ ! أُوصِيكُمْ بِتَقْوَى اللهِ، فَإِنَّهَا حَقُّ اللهِ عَلَيْكُمْ، وَالْمُوجِبَةُ عَلَى اللهِ حَقَّكُمْ، وَأَنْ تَسْتَعِينُوا عَلَيْهَا بِاللهِ، وَتَسْتَعِينُوا بِهَا عَلَى اللهِ: فَإِنَّ الْتَّقْوَى فِي الْيَوْمِ الْحِرْزُ وَالْجُنَّةُ، وَفِي غَدٍ الطَّرِيقُ إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ، مَسْلَكُهَا وَاضِحٌ، وَسَالِكُهَا رَابحٌ، وَمُسْتَوْدَعُهَا (9) حَافِظٌ. لَمْ تَبْرَحْ عَارِضَةً نَفْسَهَا عَلَى الْأُمَمِ الْمَاضِينَ وَالْغَابِرينَ لِحَاجَتِهِمْ إِلَيْهَا غَداً، إِذَا أَعَادَ اللهُ مَا أَبْدَى، وَأَخَذَ مَا أَعْطَى، وَسَأَلَ عَمَّا أَسْدَى (10) . فَمَا أَقَلَّ مَنْ قَبِلَهَا، وَحَمَلَهَا حَقَّ حَمْلِهَا! أُولئِكَ الْأَقَلُّونَ عَدَداً، وَهُمْ أَهْلُ صِفَةِ اللهِ سُبْحَانَهُ إِذْ يَقُولُ: (وَقَلِيلٌ مِنْ عِبَادِيَ الشَّكُورُ) فَأَهْطِعُوا (11) بِأَسْمَاعِكُمْ إِلَيْهَا، وأَلِظُّوا (12) بِجِدِّكُمْ عَلَيْهَا، وَاعْتَاضُوهَا مِنْ كُلِّ سَلَفٍ خَلَفاً، وَمِنْ كُلِّ مُخَالِفٍ مُوَافِقاً. أَيْقِظُوا بِهَا نَوْمَكُمْ، واقْطَعُوا بِهَا يَوْمَكُمْ، وَأَشْعِرُوهَا قُلُوبَكُمْ، وَارْحَضُوا (13) بِهَا ذُنُوبَكُمْ، وَدَاوُوا بِهَا الْأَسْقَامَ، وَبَادِرُوا بِهَا الْحِمَامَ، وَاعْتَبِرُوا بِمَنْ أَضَاعَهَا، وَلاَ يَعْتَبِرَنَّ بِكُمْ مَنْ أَطَاعَهَا. أَلاَ وصُونُوهَا وَتَصَوَّنُوا (14) بِهَا، وَكُونُو عَنِ الدُّنْيَا نُزَّاهاً (15) ، وَإِلَى الْآخِرَةِ وُلاَّهاً (16) . وَلاَ تَضَعُوا مَنْ رَفَعَتْهُ التَّقْوَى، وَلاَ تَرْفَعُوا مَنْ رَفَعَتْهُ الدُّنْيَا، وَلاَ تَشِيمُوا (17) بَارِقَهَا (18) ، وَلاَ تَسْمَعُوا نَاطِقَهَا، وَلاَ تُجِيبُوا نَاعِقَهَا، وَلاَ تَسْتَضِيئُوا بِإِشْرَاقِهَا، وَلاَ تُفْتَنُوا بِأَعْلاَقِهَا (19) ، فَإِنَّ بَرْقهَا خَالِبٌ (20) ، وَنُطْقَهَا كَاذِبٌ، وَأَمْوَالَهَا مَحْرُوبةٌ (21) ، وَأَعْلاَقَهَا مَسْلُوبَةٌ. أَلاَ وَهِيَ الْمُتَصَدِّيَةُ (22) الْعَنُونُ (23) ، وَالْجَامِحَةُ الْحَرُونُ (24) ، وَالْمَائِنَةُ الْخَؤُون (25) ، وَالْجَحُودُ الْكَنُودُ (26) ، وَالْعَنُودُ الصَّدُودُ (27) ، وَالْحَيُودُ الْمَيُودُ (28) . حَالُهَا انْتِقَالٌ، وَوَطْأَتُهَا زِلْزَالٌ، وَعِزُّهَا ذُلٌّ، وَجِدُّهَا هَزْلٌ، وَعُلْوُهَا سُفْلٌ، دَارُ حَرَبٍ (29) وَسَلَبٍ، وَنَهْبٍ وَعَطَبٍ، أَهْلُهَا عَلَى سَاقٍ وَسِيَاقٍ (30) ، وَلَحَاقٍ وَفِرَاقٍ (31) . قَدْ تَحَيَّرَتْ مَذَاهِبُهَا (32) ، وَأَعْجَزَتْ مَهَارِبُهَا (33) ، وَخَابَتْ مَطَالِبُهَا، فَأَسْلَمَتْهُمُ الْمَعَاقِلُ، وَلَفَظَتْهُمُ الْمَنَازِلُ، وَأَعْيَتْهُمُ الْمَحَاوِلُ (34) : فَمِنْ نَاجٍ مَعْقُورٍ (35) ، وَلَحْمٍ مَجْزُورٍ (36) ، وَشِلْو (37) مَذْبُوحٍ، وَدَمٍ مَسْفُوحٍ (38) ، وَعَاضٍّ عَلَى يَدَيْهِ، وَصَافِقٍ لِكَفَّيْهِ، وَمُرْتَفِقٍ بِخَدَّيْهِ (39) ، وَزَارٍ عَلَى رَأْيِهِ (40) ، وَرَاجِعٍ عَنْ عَزْمِهِ، وَقَدْ أَدْبَرَتِ الْحِيلَةُ، وَأَقْبَلَتِ الْغِيلَةُ (41) ، (وَلاَتَ حِينَ مَنَاصٍ) (42) . هَيْهَاتَ هَيْهَاتَ! قَدْ فَاتَ مَا فَاتَ، وَذَهَبَ مَا ذَهَبَ، ومَضَتِ الدُّنْيَا لِحَالِ بَالِهَا (43) ، (فَمَا بَكَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّمَاءُ وَالْأَرْضُ وَمَا كَانُوا مُنْظَرِينَ) (44) .

p: 39

In Persian

1 شناخت پروردگار

سپاس خداوندى را سزاست كه ستايش او در خلق آشكار، و سپاهش پيروز، و بزرگى او والا و بيكرانه است. خدا را براى نعمت هاى پى در پى، و بخشش هاى بزرگش ستايش مى كنم، خدايى كه حلمش بزرگ و عفوش فراگير است، در فرمانش عادل، و از گذشته و آينده با خبر است ، با علم خود جهان هستى را پديد آورده، و با فرمان خود موجودات را آفريده است، بى آن كه از كسى پيروى كند، و يا بياموزد، و يا از طرح حكيم ديگرى استفاده نمايد، در آفرينش پديده ها، دچار اشتباهى نشده، و نه با حضور و مشورت گروهى، آفريده است. گواهى مى دهم كه محمّد صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم بنده و فرستاده اوست، هنگامى او را مبعوث فرمود كه مردم در گرداب جهالت فرو رفته بودند، و در حيرت و سرگردانى به سر مى بردند، هلاكت آنان را مهار كرده و به سوى خود مى كشيد، و گمراهى بر جان و دلشان قفل زده بود.

2 ره آورد پرهيزكارى

اى بندگان خدا! شما را به پرهيزكارى سفارش مى كنم، كه حق خداوند بر شماست، و نيز موجب حق شما بر پروردگار است.

از خدا براى پرهيزكارى يارى بخواهيد، و براى انجام دستورات خدا از تقوا يارى جوييد ، زيرا تقوا، امروز سپر بلا، و فردا راه رسيدن به بهشت است، راه تقوا روشن، و رونده آن بهرمند، و امانت دارش خدا، كه حافظ آن خواهد بود. تقوا همواره خود را بر امّت هاى گذشته (و حال) عرضه كرده و بر آينده نيز عرضه مى كند، زيرا فرداى قيامت، همه به آن نيازمندند.

p: 40

آنگاه كه در قيامت آفريده ها را گرد مى آورد و آنچه باز داده است باز پس مى گيرد و در باره همه نعمت ها مى پرسد، پس چه اندكند آنان كه تقوا را برگزيدند و بار آن را بدرستى بر دوش كشيدند آرى پرهيزكاران تعدادشان اندك است و شايسته ستايش خداوند سبحان كه فرمود «بندگان سپاسگزار من اندكند» پس گوش جان را به نداى تقوا بسپاريد، و براى بدست آوردن آن تلاش كنيد.

تقوا را به جاى آنچه از دست رفته به دست آوريد و عوض هر كار مخالفى كه مرتكب شده ايد انتخاب كنيد، با تقوا خواب خود را به بيدارى تبديل، و روزتان را با آن سپرى كنيد، دل هاى خود را با تقوا زنده كنيد، و گناهان خود را با آن شستشو دهيد.

بيمارى هاى روان و جان خود را با تقوا درمان، و خود را آماده سفر آخرت گردانيد، از تباه كنندگان تقوا عبرت گيريد و خود عبرت پرهيزكاران نشويد. آگاه باشيد! تقوا را حفظ كنيد و خويشتن را با تقوا حفظ نماييد.

3 پرهيز از دنياى حرام

برابر دنيا خويشتن دار و برابر آخرت دلباخته باشيد.

آن كس را كه تقوا بلند مرتبت كرد خوار نشماريد، و آن را كه دنيا عزيزش كرد گرامى نداريد. برق درخشنده دنيا شما را خيره نكند، و سخن ستاينده دنيا را نشنويد. به دعوت كننده دنيا پاسخ ندهيد، و از تابش دنيا روشنايى نخواهيد، و فريفته كالاهاى گران قدر دنيا نگرديد. همانا برق دنياى حرام بى فروغ است، و سخنش دروغ، و اموالش به غارت رفتنى، و كالاهاى آن تاراج شدنى است. آگاه باشيد! دنياى حرام چونان عشوه گر هرزه اى است كه تسليم نشود، و مركب سركشى است كه فرمان نبرد، دروغگويى خيانتكار، ناسپاس حق نشناس، دشمنى حيله گر، پشت كننده اى سرگردان ، حالاتش متزلزل، عزّتش خوارى، جدّش بازى و شوخى، و بلندى آن سقوط است. خانه جنگ و غارتگرى، تبهكارى و هلاكت، و سر منزل نا آرامى است، جايگاه ديدار كردن ها و جدايى هاست. راه هاى آن حيرت زا، گريزگاهايش ناپيدا، و خواسته هايش نوميد كننده و زيانبار است، پناهگاه هاى آن دنيا انسان را تسليم مرگ مى كند، و از خانه هاى خود بيرون مى راند، و چاره انديشى هاى آن ناتوان كننده است.

p: 41

4 اقسام دنيا پرستان

نجات يافته اى مجروح، يا مجروحى پاره پاره تن، دسته اى سر از تن جدا، و دسته اى ديگر در خون خود تپيده، گروهى انگشت به دندان، و جمعى از حسرت و اندوه دست بر دست مى مالاند، برخى سر بر روى دست ها نهاده به فكر فرو رفته اند، عدّه اى بر اشتباهات گذشته افسوس مى خورند و خويشتن را محكوم مى كنند، و عدّه اى ديگر از عزم و تصميم ها دست برداشته اند ، چرا كه راه فرار و هر نوع حيله گرى بسته شده، و دنيا آنها را غافلگير كرده است، و كار از كار گذشته، و عمر گرانبها هدر رفته است، هيهات! هيهات! آنچه از دست رفت گذشت، و آنچه سپرى شد رفت، و جهان چنانكه مى خواست به پايان رسيد. «نه آسمان بر آنها گريست و نه زمين، و هرگز ديگر به آنها مهلتى داده نشد.»


In English

Known as "al-Khutbah al-Qasi'ah" (Sermon of Disparagement)

(It comprises disparagement of Satan [Iblis] for his vanity and his refusing to prostrate before Adam [pbuh] and his being the first to display bigotry and to act through vanity; it comprises a warning to people treading in Satan's path)

Praise be to Allah who wears the apparel of Honour and Dignity and has chosen them for Himself instead of for His creation. He has made them inaccessible and unlawful for others. He has selected them for His own great self and has hurled a curse on him who contests with Him concerning them.

Allah's trial and the vanity of Iblis

Then He put His angels on trial concerning these attributes in order to distinguish those who are modest from those who are vain. Therefore Allah who is aware of whatever is hidden in the hearts and whatever lies behind the unseen said:

p: 42

. . . "Verily I am about to create man from clay " And when I have completed and have breathed into him of My spirit then fall ye prostrating in obeisance unto him. And did fall prostrating in obeisance the angels all together Save lblis;... (Qur'an. 38:71-74)

His vanity stood in his way. Consequently he felt proud over Adam by virtue of his creation and boasted over him on account of his origin. Thus this enemy of Allah is the leader of those who boast and the fore-runner of the vain. It is he who laid the foundation of factionalism quarreled with Allah about the robe of greatness put on the dress of haughtiness and took off the covering of humility. Do you not see how Allah made him low on account of his vanity and humiliated him for his feigning to be high? He discarded him in this world and provided for him burning fire in the next world.

If Allah had wanted to create Adam from a light whose glare would have dazzled the eyes whose handsomeness would have amazed the wits and whose smell would have caught the breath He could have done so; and if He had done so people would have bowed to him in humility and the trial of the angels through him would have become easier. But Allah the Glorified tries His creatures by means of those things whose real nature they do not know in order to distinguish (good and bad) for them through the trial and to remove vanity from them and keep them and keep them aloof from pride and self-admiration.

p: 43

You should take a lesson from what Allah did with Satan; namely He nullified his great acts and extensive efforts on account of the vanity of one moment although Satan had worshipped Allah for six thousand years - whether by the reckoning of this world or of the next world is not known. Who now can remain safe from Allah after Satan by committing a similar disobedience? None at all. Allah the Glorified cannot let a human being enter Paradise if he does the same thing for which Allah turned out from it an angel. His command for the inhabitants in the sky and of the earth is the same. There is no friendship between Allah and any individual out of His creation so as to give him license for an undesirable thing which He has held unlawful for all the worlds.

Warning against Satan

Therefore you should fear lest Satan infects you with his disease or leads you astray through his call or marches on you with his horsemen and footmen because by my life he has put the arrow in the bow for you has stretched the bow strongly and has aimed at you from a nearby position and:

He (Satan) said: "My Lord! because Thou hast left me to stray certainly will I adorn unto them the path of error and certainly will I cause them all to go astray." (Qur'an 15:39)

Although he (Satan) had said so only by guessing about the unknown future and by wrong conjecturing yet the sons of vanity the brothers of haughtiness and the horsemen of pride and intolerance proved him to be true so much so that when disobedient persons from among you bowed before him and his greed about you gained strength; and what was a hidden secret turned into a clear fact he spread his full control over you and marched with his forces towards you.

p: 44

Then they pushed you into the hollows of disgrace threw you into the whirlpools of slaughter and trampled you wounding you by striking your eyes with spears cutting your throats tearing your nostrils breaking your limbs and taking you in ropes of control towards the fire already prepared. In this way he became more harmful to your religion and a greater kindler of flames (of mischief) about your worldly matters than the enemies against whom you showed open opposition and against whom you marched your forces. You should therefore spend all your force against him and all your efforts against him because by Allah he boasted over your (i.e. Adam's) origin questioned your position and spoke lightly of your lineage. He advanced on you with his army and brought his footmen towards your path. They are chasing you from every place and they are hitting you at every finger joint. You are not able to defend by any means nor can you repulse them by any determination. You are in the thick of disgrace the ring of straitness the field of death and the way of distress.

You should therefore put out the fires of haughtiness and the flames of intolerance that are hidden in your hearts. This vanity can exist in a Muslim only by the machinations of Satan his haughtiness mischief and whisperings. Make up your mind to have humility over your heads to trample self-pride under your feet and to cast off vanity from your necks. Adopt humility as the weapon between you and your enemy Satan and his forces. He certainly has from every people fighters helpers footmen and horsemen. Do not be like him who feigned superiority over the son of his own mother without any distinction given to him by Allah except the feeling of envy which his feeling of greatness created in him and the fire of anger that vanity kindled in his heart. Satan blew into his nose his own vanity after which Allah gave him remorse and made him responsible for the sins of all killers up to the Day of Judgement.

p: 45

Caution against vanity and boasting about ignorance

Beware! you strove hard in revolting and created mischief on the earth in open opposition to Allah and in challenging the believers over fighting. (You should fear) Allah! Allah! in feeling proud of your vanity and boasting over ignorance because this is the root of enmity and the design of Satan wherewith he has been deceiving past people and bygone ages with the result that they fell into the gloom of his ignorance and the hollows of his misguidance submitting to his driving and accepting his leadership. In this matter the hearts of all the people were similar and centuries passed by one after the other in just the same way and there was vanity with which chests were tightened.

Caution against obeying haughty leaders and elders

Beware! beware of obeying your leaders and elders who felt proud of their achievements and boasted about their lineage. They hurled the (liability for) things on Allah and quarrelled with Allah in what He did with them contesting His decree and disputing His favours. Certainly they are the main foundation of obstinacy the chief pillars of mischief and the swords of pre-Islamic boasting over forefathers. Therefore fear Allah do not become antagonistic to His favours on you nor jealous of His bounty over you (1) and do not obey the claimants (of Islam) whose dirty water you drink along with your clean one whose ailments you mix with your healthiness and whose wrongs you allow to enter into your rightful matters.

p: 46

They are the foundation of vice and the linings of disobedience. Satan has made them carriers of misguidance and the soldiers with whom he attacks men. They are interpreters through whom he speaks in order to steal away your wits enter into your eyes and blow into your ears. In this way he makes you the victim of his arrows the treading ground of his footsteps and source of strength for his hands. Take instruction from how he brought Allah's wrath violence chastisement and punishment on those who were vain among the past people. Take admonition from their lying on their cheeks and falling on their sides and seek Allah's protection from the dangers of vanity as you seek His protection from calamities.

The humbleness of the Holy Prophet

Certainly. if Allah were to allow anyone to indulge in pride He would have allowed it to his selected prophets and vicegerents. But Allah the Sublime disliked vanity for them and liked humbleness for them. Therefore they laid their cheeks on the ground smeared their faces with dust bent themselves down for the believers and remained humble people. Allah tried them with hunger afflicted them with difficulty tested them with fear and upset them with troubles. Therefore do not regard wealth and progeny the criterion for Allah's pleasure and displeasure as you are not aware of the chances of mischief and trials during richness and power as Allah the Glorified the Sublime has said:

What! Think they that what We aid them with of wealth and children We are hastening unto them the good things? Nay! they (only) perceive not. (Qur'an 23:55-56)

p: 47

Certainly Allah the Glorified tries His creatures who are vain about themselves through His beloved persons who are humble in their eyes. When Musa son of 'Imran went to Pharaoh along with his brother Harun (Aaron) wearing (coarse) shirts of wool and holding sticks in their hands they guaranteed him retention of his country and continuity of his honour if he submitted; but he said: "Do you not wonder at these two men guaranteeing me the continuity of my honour and the retention of my country although you see their poverty and lowliness. Otherwise why do they not have gold bangles on their wrists?" He said so feeling proud of his gold and collected possessions and considering wool and its cloth as nothing.

When Allah the Glorified deputed His prophets if He had wished to open for them treasures and mines of gold and (surround them with) planted gardens and to collect around them birds of the skies and beasts of the earth He could have done so. If He had done so then there would have been no trial nor recompense and no tidings (about the affairs of the next world). Those who accepted (His message) could not be given the recompense falling due after trial and the believers could not deserve the reward for good acts and all these words (2) would not have retained their meanings. But Allah the Glorified makes His Prophets firm in their determination and gives them weakness of appearance as seen from the eyes along with contentment that fills the hearts and eyes resulting from care-freeness and with want that pains the eyes and ears.

p: 48

If the prophets possessed authority that could not be assaulted or honour that could not be damaged or domain towards which the necks of people would turn and the saddles of mounts could be set it would have been very easy for people to seek les sons and quite difficult to feel vanity. They would have then accepted belief out of fear felt by them or inclination attracting them and the intention of them all would have been the same although their actions would have been different. Therefore Allah the Glorified decided that people should follow His prophets acknowledge His books remain humble before His face obey His command and accept His obedience with sincerity in which there should not be an iota of anything else; and as the trial and tribulation would be stiffer the reward and recompense too should be larger.

The Holy Ka'bah

Do you not see that Allah the Glorified has tried all the people among those who came before beginning with Adam upto the last ones in this world with stones which yield neither benefit nor harm which neither see nor hear. He made those stones into His sacred house which He made a standby for the people. He placed it in the most rugged stony part of the earth and on a highland with least soil thereon among the most narrow valleys between rough mountains. soft sandy plains springs of scanty water and scattered habitants where neither camels nor horses nor cows and sheep can prosper.

p: 49

Then He commanded Adam and his sons to turn their attention towards it. In this way it became the centre of their journey in seeking pastures and the rendezvous for meeting of their carrier-beasts so that human spirits hasten towards it from distant waterless deserts deep and low lying valleys and scattered islands

( 68 )

in the seas. They shake their shoulders in humbleness recite the slogan of having reached His audience march with swift feet and have dishevelled hair and dusted faces. They throw their pieces of cloth on their backs they have marred the beauty of their faces by leaving the hair uncut as a matter of great test severe tribulation open trial and extreme refining. Allah has made it a means to His mercy and an approach to His Paradise.

If Allah the Glorified had placed His sacred House and His great signs among plantations streams soft and level plains plenty of trees an abundance of fruits a thick population close habitats golden wheat lush gardens green land watered plains thriving orchards and crowded streets the amount of recompense would have decreased because of the lightness of the trial. If the foundation on which the House is borne and the stones with which it has been raised had been of green emerald and red rubies and there had been brightness and effulgence then this would have lessened the action of doubts in the breasts would have dismissed the effect of Satan's activity from the hearts and would have stopped the surging of misgivings in people. But Allah tries His creatures by means of different troubles wants them to render worship through hardships and involves them in distresses all in order to extract out vanity from their hearts to settle down humbleness in their spirits and to make all this an open door for His favours and an easy means for His forgiveness (for their sins). Caution against rebellion and oppressiveness

p: 50

(Fear) Allah! Allah! from the immediate consequence of rebellion (to accrue in this world) and the eventual consequence of weighty oppressiveness (to accrue in the next world) and from the evil result of vanity because it is the great trap of Satan and his big deceit which enters the hearts of the people like a fatal poison. It never goes waste nor misses anyone - neither the learned because of his knowledge nor the destitute (3) in his rags.

The Benefits Of Religious Duties

This is the thing against which Allah has protected His creatures who are believers by means of prayers and alms-giving and suffering the hardship of fasting in the days in which it has been made obligatory in order to give their limbs peacefulness to cast fear in their eyes to make their spirits humble to give their hearts humility and to remove haughtiness from them. All this is achieved through the covering of their delicate cheeks with dust in humility prostrating their main limbs on the ground in humbleness and retracting of their bellies so as to reach to their backs due to fasting by way of lowliness (before Allah) besides giving all sorts of products of the earth to the needy and the destitute by way of alms.

Look what there is in these acts by way of curbing the appearance of pride and suppressing the traces of vanity. I cast my glance and noticed that no one in the world except you feels vanity for anything without a cause which may appeal to the ignorant or a reason which may cling to the minds of the foolish because you feel vanity for something for which no reason is discernible nor any ground. As for Satan he felt proud over Adam because of his origin and taunted at him about his creation since he said "I am of fire while you are of clay." In the same way the rich among the prosperous communities have been feeling vanity because of their riches as (Allah) said:

p: 51

And said they: "We are more (than you) in wealth and in children and we shall not be chastised." (Qur'an 34:35)

Enthusiasm for attractive manners respectable position and taking lessons from the past

In case you cannot avoid vanity your vanity should be for good qualities praiseworthy acts and admirable matters with which the dignified and noble chiefs of the Arab families distinguished themselves as attractive manners high thinking respectable position and good performances. You too should show vanity in praiseworthy habits like the protection of the neighbour the fulfilment of agreements obedience to the virtuous opposition to the haughty extending generosity to others abstention from rebellion keeping aloof from blood-shed doing justice to people suppressing anger and avoiding trouble on the earth. You should also fear what calamities befell peoples before you on account of their evil deeds and detestable actions. Remember during good or bad circumstances what happened to them and be cautious that you do not become like them.

After you have thought over both the conditions of these people attach yourself to everything with which their position became honourable on account of which enemies remained away from them through which safety spread over them by reason of which riches bowed before them and as a result of which distinction connected itself with their rope. These things were abstention from division sticking to unity calling each other to it and advising each other about it. You avoid everything which broke their backbone and weakened their power such as malice in the heart hatred in the chest turning away (from each other's help) and withholding the hand from one another's assistance.

p: 52

Think about the condition of people from among the believers who passed before you. What distresses and trials they were in! Were they not the most over-burdened among all the people and in the most straitened circumstances in the whole world? The Pharaohs took them as slaves. They inflicted on them the worst punishments and bitter sufferings. They continuously remained in this state of ruinous disgrace and severe subjugation. They found no method for escape and no way for protection. Till when Allah the Glorified noticed that they were enduring troubles in His love and bearing distresses out of fear for Him He provided escape from the distress of trials. So He changed their disgrace into honour and fear into safety. Consequently they became ruling kings and conspicuous leaders. and Allah's favours over them reached limits to which their own wishes had not reached.

Look how they were when their groups were united their views were unanimous their hearts were moderate their hands used to help one another their swords were intended for assisting one another their eyes were sharp and their aims were the same. Did they not become masters of the corners of the earth and rulers over the neck of all the worlds? Thereafter also see what happened to them towards the end when division overtook them unity became fractured and differences arose between their words and their hearts. They divided into various groups and were scattered fighting among themselves. Then Allah took away from them the apparel of His honour and deprived them of the prosperity produced by His favours. Only their stories have remained among you for the guidance of those who may learn the lesson from them.

p: 53

You should take a lesson from the fate of the progeny of Ismael the children of Isaac and the children of Israel. How similar are their affairs and how akin are their examples. In connection with the details of their division and disunity think of the days when Kisras of Persia and the Caesars of Rome had become their masters (4). They turned them out from the pastures of their lands the rivers of Iraq and the fertility of the world towards thorny forests the passages of (hot) winds and hardships in livelihood. In this way they turned them into just herders of camels. Their houses were the worst in the world and their places of stay were the most drought-stricken. There was not one voice towards which they could turn for protection nor any shade of affection on whose strength they could repose trust.

Their condition was full of distress. Their hands were scattered. Their majority was divided. They were in great anguish and under layers of ignorance. They buried their daughters alive worshipped idols disregarded kinship and practised robbery. Now look at the various favours of Allah upon them that He deputed towards them a prophet who got them to pledge their obedience to him and made them unite at his call. (Look) how (Allah's) bounty spread the wings of its favours over them and flowed for them streams of its blessing and the whole community became wrapped in blissful prosperity. Consequently they were submerged under its bounty and enjoyed its lush life. Their affairs were settled under the protection of a powerful ruler and circumstances offered them overpowering honour and all things became easy for them under the auspices of a strong country. They became rulers over the world and kings in the (various) parts of the earth. They became masters of those who were formerly their masters and began issuing commands over those who used to command them. They were so strong that neither did their spears need testing nor did their weapons have any flaw.

p: 54

Condemning his people

Beware! You have shaken your hands loose from the rope of obedience and broken the divine fort around you by (resorting to) pre-Islamic rules. Certainly it is a great blessing of Allah the Glorified that He has engendered among them unity through the cord of affection in whose shade they walk and take shelter. This is a blessing whose value no one in the whole world realises because it is more valuable than any price and higher than any wealth.

You should know that you have again reverted to the position of the Bedouin Arabs after immigration (to Islam) and have become different parties after having been once united. You do not possess anything of Islam except its name and know nothing of belief save its show. You say "The Fire yes. but no shameful position " as if you would throw down Islam on its face in order to defame its honour and break its pledge (for brotherhood) which Allah gave you as a sacred trust on His earth and (a source of) peace among the people. Be sure that if you incline towards anything other than Islam. the unbelievers will fight you. Then there will be neither Gabriel nor Michael neithermuhajirun nor ansar to help you but only the clashing of swords till Allah settles the matter for you.

Certainly there are examples before you of Allah's wrath punishment days of tribulations and happenings. Therefore do not disregard His promises ignoring His punishment making light His wrath and not expecting His violence because Allah the Glorified did not curse the past ages except because they had left off asking others to do good acts and refraining them from bad acts. In fact Allah cursed the foolish for committing sins and the wise because they gave up refraining others from evils. Beware! You have broken the shackles of Islam have transgressed its limits and have destroyed its commands.

p: 55

Amir al-mu'minin's high position and wonderful deeds in Islam

Beware! surely Allah has commanded me to fight those who revolt or who break the pledge or create trouble on the earth. As regards pledge-breakers I have fought them as regards deviators from truth I have waged holy war against them and as regards those who have gone out of the faith I have put them in (serious) disgrace ( 5 ). As for Satan of the pit (6) he too has been dealt with by me through the loud cry with which the scream of his heart and shaking of his chest was also heard. Only a small portion of the rebels has remained. If Allah allows me one more chance over them I will annihilate them except a few remnants that may remain scattered in the suburb of the cities.

His Courage and Merits "May Peace be Upon him"

Even in my boyhood I had lowered the chest of (the famous men) of Arabia and broken the horn points (i.e. defeated the chiefs) of the tribes of Rabi'ah and Mudar. Certainly you know my position of close kinship and special relationship with the Prophet of Allah - peace and blessing of Allah be upon him and his descendants. When I was only a child he took charge of me. He used to press me to his chest and lay me beside him in his bed bring his body close to mine and make me smell his smell. He used to chew something and then feed me with it. He found no lie in my speaking nor weakness in any act.

p: 56

From the time of his weaning Allah had put a mighty angel with him to take him along the path of high character and good behaviour through day and night while I used to follow him like a young camel following in the footprints of its mother. Every day he would show me in the form of a banner some of his high traits and commanded me to follow it. Every year he used to go in seclusion to the hill of Hira' where I saw him but no one else saw him. In those days Islam did not exist in any house except that of the Prophet of Allah - peace and blessing of Allah be upon him and his descendants - and Khadijah while I was the third after these two. I used to see and watch the effulgence of divine revelation and message and breathed the scent of Prophethood. When the revelation descended on the Prophet of Allah - peace and blessing of Allah be upon him and his descendants - I heard the moan of Satan. I said "O' Prophet of Allah what is this moan?" and he replied "This is Satan who has lost all hope of being worshipped. O' 'Ali you see all that I see and you hear all that I hear except that you are not a Prophet but you are a vicegerent and you are surely on (the path of) virtue."

I was with him when a party of the Quraysh came to him and said to him "O' Muhammad you have made a big claim which none of your fore-fathers or those of your family have made. We ask you one thing; if you give us an answer to it and show it to us we will believe that you are a prophet and a messenger but if you cannot do it we will know that you are a sorcerer and a liar."

p: 57

The Messenger of Allah said: "What do you ask for?" They said: "Ask this tree to move for us even with its roots and stop before you." The Prophet said "Verily Allah has power over everything. If Allah does it for you will you then believe and stand witness to the truth?" They said "Yes". Then he said "I shall show you whatever you want but I know that you won't bend towards virtue and there are among you those who will be thrown into the pit and those who will form parties (against me)." Then the Holy Prophet said: "O' tree if you do believe in Allah and the Day of Judgement and know that I am the Prophet of Allah come up with your roots and stand before me with the permission of Allah." By Him who deputed the Prophet with truth the tree did remove itself with its root and came with a great humming sound and a flapping like the flapping of the wings of birds till it stopped before the Messenger of Allah while some of its twigs came down onto my shoulders and I was on the right side of the Holy Prophet.

When the people saw this they said by way of pride and vanity. "Now you order half of it to come to you and the other half of it remain (in its place)." The Holy Prophet ordered the tree to do the same. Then half of the tree advanced towards him in an amazing manner and with greater humming. It was about to touch the Prophet of Allah. Then they said disbelieving and revolting "Ask this half to get back to its other half and be as it was." The Prophet ordered it and it returned. Then I said "O' Prophet of Allah I am the first to believe in you and to acknowledge that the tree did what it did just now with the command of Allah the Sublime in testimony to your Prophethood and to heighten your word. Upon this all the people shouted "Rather a sorcerer a liar; it is wonderful sorcery he is very adept in it. Only a man like this (pointing to me) can stand testimony to you in your affairs."

p: 58

Certainly I belong to the group of people who care not for the reproach of anybody in matters concerning Allah. Their countenance is the countenance of the truthful and their speech is the speech of the virtuous. They are wakeful during the nights (in devotion to Allah) and over beacons (of guidance) in the day. They hold fast to the rope of the Qur'an. revive the traditions of Allah and of His Prophet. They do not boast nor indulge in self conceit nor misappropriate nor create mischief. Their hearts are in Paradise while their bodies are busy in (good) acts.

In Arabic

[ 192 ] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام

تسمّي القاصعة (1) .

وهي تتضمن ذم إبليس لعنة اللّه، عَلى استكباره، وتركه السجود لآدم عليه السلام، وأنه أول من أظهر العصبية (2) وتبع الحمية، وتحذير الناس من سلوك طريقته.

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي لَبِسَ الْعِزَّ وَالْكِبْرِيَاءَ، وَاخْتَارَهُمَا لنَفْسِهِ دُونَ خَلْقِهِ، وَجَعَلَهُمَا حِمىً (3) وَحَرَماً عَلَى غَيْرِهِ، وَاصْطَفَاهُمَا (4) لِجَلاَلِهِ.

رأس العصيان

وَجَعَلَ اللَّعْنَةَ عَلَى مَنْ نَازَعَهُ فِيهِمَا مِنْ عِبَادِهِ، ثُمَّ اخْتَبَرَ بِذلِكَ مَلاَئِكَتَهُ الْمُقَرَّبِينَ، لَِيمِيزَ المُتَوَاضِعيِنَ مِنْهُمْ مِنَ الْمُسْتَكْبِرِينَ، فَقَالَ سُبْحَانَهُ وَهُوَ الْعَالِمُ بِمُضْمَرَاتِ القُلُوبِ، وَمَحْجُوبَاتِ الْغُيُوبِ: (إِنِّي خَالِقٌ بَشَراً مِنْ طِينٍ * فَإِذَا سَوَّيْتُهُ وَنَفَخْتُ فِيهِ مِنْ رُوحِي فَقَعُوا لَهُ سَاجِدِينَ * فَسَجَدَ الْمَلاَئِكَةُ كُلُّهُمْ أَجْمَعُونَ * إِلاَّ إِبْلِيسَ) اعْتَرَضَتْهُ الْحَمِيَّةُ، فَافْتَخَرَ عَلَى آدَمَ بَخَلْقِهِ، وَتَعَصَّبَ عَلَيْهِ لِأَصْلِهِ. فَعَدُوُّ اللهِ إِمَامُ الْمُتَعَصِّبِينَ، وَسَلَفُ الْمُسْتَكْبِرِينَ، الَّذِي وَضَعَ أَسَاسَ الْعَصَبِيَّةِ، وَنازَعَ اللهَ رِدَاءَ الْجَبْرِيَّةِ، وَادَّرَعَ لِبَاسَ التَّعَزُّزِ، وَخَلَعَ قِنَاعَ التَّذَلُّلِ. أَلاَ تَرَوْنَ كَيْفَ صَغَّرَهُ اللهُ بِتَكَبُّرِهِ، وَوَضَعَهُ بِتَرَفُّعِهِ، فَجَعَلَهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا مَدْحُوراً، وَأَعَدَّ لَهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ سَعِيراً؟!

p: 59

ابتلاء الله لخلقه

وَلَوْ أَرَادَ اللهُ أَنْ يَخْلُقَ آدَمَ مِنْ نُور يَخْطَفُ الْأَبْصَارَ ضِيَاؤُهُ، وَيَبْهَرُ الْعُقُولَ رُوَاؤُهُ (5) ، وَطِيب يَأْخُذُ الْأَنْفَاسَ عَرْفُهُ (6) ، لَفَعَلَ، وَلَوْ فَعَلَ لَظَلَّتْ لَهُ الْأَعْنَاقُ خَاضِعَةً، وَلَخَفَّتِ الْبَلْوَى فِيهِ عَلَى المَلائِكَةِ. وَلكِنَّ اللهَ سُبْحَانَهُ يَبْتَلِي خَلْقَهُ بِبَعْضِ مَا يَجْهَلُونَ أَصْلَهُ، تَمْيِيزاً بِالْإِخْتِبَارِ لَهُمْ، وَنَفْياً لِلْإِسْتِكَبَارِ عَنْهُمْ، وَإِبْعَاداً لِلْخُيَلاَءِ مِنْهُم.

طلب العبرة

فَاعْتَبِروا بِمَا كَانَ مِنْ فِعْلِ اللهِ بِإِبْلِيسَ، إِذْ أَحْبَطَ (7) عَمَلَهُ الطَّوِيلَ، وَجَهْدَهُ الْجَهِيدَ، وَكَانَ قَدْ عَبَدَ اللهَ سِتَّةَ آلاَفِ سَنَةٍ، لاَ يُدْرَى أَمِنْ سِنِي الدُّنْيَا أَمْ مِنْ سِنِي الْآخِرَةِ، عَنْ كِبْرِ سَاعَةٍ وَاحِدَةٍ. فَمَنْ بَعْدَ إِبْلِيسَ يَسْلَمُ عَلَى اللهِ بِمِثْلِ مَعْصِيَتِهِ؟ كَلاَّ، مَا كَانَ اللهُ سُبْحَانَهُ لِيُدْخِلَ الْجَنَّةَ بَشَراً بِأَمْرٍ أَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنْهَا مَلَكاً. إِنَّ حُكْمَهُ فِي أَهْلِ

السَّماءِ وأَهْلِ الْأَرْضِ لَوَاحِدٌ، وَمَا بَيْنَ اللهِ وَبَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ هَوَادَةٌ (8) فِي إِبَاحَةِ حِمىً حَرَّمَهُ عَلَى الْعَالَمينَ.

التحذير من الشيطان

فَاحْذَرُوا عَدُوَّ اللهِ أَنْ يُعْدِيَكُمْ بِدَائِهِ (9) ، وَأَنْ يَسْتَفِزَّكُمْ (10) بِنِدَائِهِ، وَأَنْ يُجْلِبَ عَلَيْكُمْ بِخَيْلِهِ وَرَجِلِهِ (11) . فَلَعَمْرِي لَقَدْ فَوَّقَ (12) لَكُمْ سَهْمَ الْوَعِيدِ، وَأَغْرَقَ (13) لَكُم بِالنَّزْعِ (14) الشَّدِيدِ، وَرَمَاكُمْ مِنْ مَكَان قَرِيب، فَقَالَ: (رَبِّ بِمَا أَغْوَيْتَنِي لَأُزَيِّنَنَّ لَهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَأُغْوِيَنَّهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ)، قَذْفاً بِغَيْبٍ بَعِيدٍ، وَرَجْماً بِظَنٍّ غَيْرِ مُصِيبٍ، صَدَّقَهُ بِهِ أَبْنَاءُ الْحَمِيَّةِ، وَإِخْوَانُ الْعَصَبِيَّةِ، وَفُرْسَانُ الْكِبْرِ وَالْجَاهِلِيَّةِ. حَتَّى إِذَا انْقَادَتْ لَهُ الْجَامِحَةُ (15) مِنْكُمْ، وَاسْتَحْكَمَتِ الطَّمَاعِيَّةُ (16) مِنْهُ فِيكُمْ، فَنَجَمَتِ (17) الْحَالُ مِنَ السِّرِّ الْخَفِىِّ إِلَى الْأَمْرِ الْجَلِيِّ، اسْتَفْحَلَ سُلْطَانُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ، وَدَلَفَ (18) بِجُنُودِهِ نَحْوَكُمْ، فَأَقْحَمُوكُمْ (19) وَلَجَاتِ (20) الذُّلِّ، وَأَحَلُّوكم وَرَطَاتِ الْقَتْلِ، وَأَوْطَأُوكُمْ (21) إِثْخَانَ (22) الْجِرَاحَةِ، طَعْناً فِي عُيُونِكُم، وَحَزّاً فِي حُلُوقِكُمْ، وَدَقّاً لِمَناخِرِكُمْ، وَقَصْداً لِمَقَاتِلِكُمْ، وَسوقاً بِخَزَائمِ (23) الْقَهْرِ إِلَى النَّارِ المُعَدَّةِ لَكُمْ، فَأَصْبَحَ أَعْظَمَ فِي دِينِكُمْ جَرْحاً، وَأَوْرَى (24) فِي دُنْيَاكُمْ قَدْحاً، مِنَ الَّذِينَ أَصْبَحْتُمْ لَهُمْ مُنَاصِبِينَ (25) ، وَعَلَيْهِمْ ( 59 )

p: 60

مُتَأَلِّبِينَ (26) . فَاجْعَلُوا عَلَيْهِ حَدَّكُمْ (27) ، وَلَهُ جَدَّكُمْ (28) ، فَلَعَمْرُ اللهِ لَقَدْ فَخَرَ عَلَى أَصْلِكُمْ، وَوَقَعَ في حَسَبِكُمْ، وَدَفَعَ فِي نَسَبِكُمْ، وَأَجْلَبَ بِخَيْلِهِ عَلَيْكُمْ، وَقَصَدَ بِرَجِلِهِ سَبِيلَكُمْ، يَقْتَنِصُونَكُمْ بِكُلِّ مَكَانٍ، وَيَضْرِبُونَ مِنْكُمْ كُلَّ بَنَانٍ (29) ، لاَ تَمْتَنِعُونَ بِحِيلَةٍ، وَلاَ تَدْفَعُونَ بِعَزِيمَةٍ، فِي حَوْمَةِ ذُلٍّ (30) ، وَحَلْقَةِ ضِيقٍ، وَعَرْصَةِ مَوْتٍ، وَجَوْلَةِ بَلاَءٍ. فَأَطْفِئُوا مَا كَمَنَ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ مِنْ نِيرَانِ الْعَصَبِيَّةِ، وَأَحْقَادِ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ، وإنَّمَا تِلْكَ الْحَمِيَّةُ تَكُونُ فِي الْمُسْلِمِ مِنْ خَطَرَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ وَنَخَواتِهِ (31) ، وَنَزَغَاتِهِ (32) وَنَفَثَاتِهِ (33) . وَاعْتَمِدُوا وَضْعَ التَّذَلُّلِ عَلَى رُؤُوسِكُمْ، وَإِلْقَاءَ التَّعَزُّزِ تَحَتْ أَقْدَامِكُمْ، وَخَلْعَ التَّكَبُّرِ مِنْ أَعْنَاقِكُمْ. وَاتَّخِذُوا التَّوَاضُعَ مَسْلَحَةً (34) بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَ عَدُوِّكُمْ إِبْلِيسَ وَجُنُودِهِ، فَإِنَّ لَهُ مِنْ كُلِّ أُمَّة جُنُوداً وأَعْوَاناً، وَرَجِلاً وَفُرْسَاناً، وَلاَ تَكُونُوا كالْمُتَكَبِّرِ عَلَى ابْنِ أُمِّهِ مِنْ غَيْرِ مَا فَضْلٍ جَعَلَهُ اللهُ فِيهِ سِوَى مَا أَلْحَقَتِ الْعَظَمَةُ بِنَفْسِهِ مِنْ عَدَاوَةِ الْحَسَدِ، وَقَدَحَتِ الْحَمِيَّةُ فِي قَلْبِهِ مِنْ نَارِ الْغَضَبِ، وَنَفَخَ الشَّيْطَانُ فِي أَنْفِهِ مِنْ رِيحِ الْكِبْرِ الَّذِي أَعْقَبَهُ اللهُ بِهِ النَّدَامَةَ، وَأَلْزَمَهُ آثَامَ الْقَاتِلِينَ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ.

التحذير من الكبر

أَلاَ وَقدْ أَمْعَنْتُمْ (35) فِي الْبَغْيِ، وَأَفْسَدْتُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ، مُصَارَحَةً (36) لِلَّهِ بِالمُنَاصَبَةِ، وَمُبَارَزَةً لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ بِالُمحَارَبَةِ. فَاللهَ اللهَ في كِبْرِ الْحَمِيَّةِ،

وَفَخْرِ الْجَاهلِيَّةِ! فَإِنَّهُ مَلاَقِحُ (37) الشَّنَآنِ (38) ، وَمَنَافِخُ الشَّيْطانِ، اَلَّتِي خَدَعَ بِهَا الْأُمَمَ الْمَاضِيَةَ، والْقُرُونَ الْخَالِيَةَ، حَتَّى أَعْنَقُوا (39) فِي حَنَادِسِ (40) جَهَالَتِهِ، وَمهَاوِي (41) ضَلاَلَتِهِ، ذُلُلاً (42) عَنْ سِيَاقِهِ، سُلُساً (43) فِي قِيَادِهِ، أَمْراً تَشَابَهَتِ الْقُلُوبُ فِيهِ، وَتَتَابَعَتِ الْقُرُونُ عَلَيْهِ، وَكِبْراً تَضَايَقَتِ الصُّدُورُ بِهِ.

التحذير من طاعة الكبراء

ألاَ فَالْحَذَرَ الْحَذَرَ مِنْ طَاعَةِ سَادَاتِكُمْ وَكُبَرَائِكُمْ! الَّذِينَ تَكَبَّرُوا عَنْ حَسَبِهِمْ، وَتَرَفَّعُوا فَوْقَ نَسَبِهِمْ، وَأَلْقَوُا الْهَجِينَةَ (44) عَلَى رَبِّهِمْ، وَجَاحَدُوا اللهَ مَا صَنَعَ بِهمْ، مُكَابَرَةً لِقَضَائِهِ، وَمُغَالَبَةً لِآلائِهِ (45) ، فَإِنَّهُمْ قَوَاعِدُ أَسَاسِ الْعَصَبِيَّةِ، وَدَعَائِمُ أَرْكَانِ الْفِتْنَةِ، وَسُيُوفُ إعْتِزَاءِ (46) الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ. فَاتَّقُوا اللهَ وَلاَ تَكُونُوا لِنِعَمِهِ عَليْكُمْ أَضْدَاداً، وَلاَ لِفَضْلِهِ عِنْدَكُمْ حُسَّاداً، وَلاَ تُطِيعُوا الْأَدْعِيَاءَ (47) الَّذِينَ شَرِبْتُمْ بِصَفْوِكُمْ كَدَرَهُمْ (48) ، وَخَلَطْتُمْ بِصِحَّتِكُمْ مَرَضَهُمْ، وَأَدْخَلْتُمْ فِي حَقِّكُمْ بَاطِلَهُمْ، وَهُمْ أَسَاسُ (49) الْفُسُوقِ، وَأَحْلاَسُ الْعُقُوقِ (50) ، اتَّخَذَهُمْ إِبْلِيسُ مَطَايَا ضَلاَلٍ، وَجُنْداً بِهمْ يَصُولُ عَلَى النَّاسِ، وَتَرَاجِمَةً يَنْطِقُ عَلَى أَلْسِنَتِهِمْ، اسْتِرَاقاً لِعُقُولِكُمْ، وَدُخُولاً فِي عُيُونِكُمْ، وَنَفْثاً فِي أَسْمَاعِكُمْ، فَجَعَلَكُمْ مَرْمَى نَبْلِهِ (51) ، وَمَوْطِىءَ قَدَمِهِ، وَمأْخَذَ يَدِهِ. ( 63 )

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العبرة بالماضين

فَاعْتَبِرُوا بَمَا أَصَابَ الْأُمَمَ المُسْتَكْبِرِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ مِنْ بَأْسِ اللهِ وَصَوْلاَتِهِ، وَوَقَائِعِهِ وَمَثُلاَتِهِ (52) ، وَاتَّعِظُوا بِمَثَاوِي خُدُودِهِمْ (53) ، وَمَصَارِعِ جُنُوبِهِمْ (54) ، وَاسْتَعِيذوا بِاللهِ مِنْ لَوَاقِحِ الْكبْرِ (55) ، كَمَا تَسْتَعِيذُونَهُ مِنْ طَوَارِقِ الدَّهْرِ، فَلَوْ رَخَّصَ اللهُ فِي الْكِبْرِ لِأَحَد مِنْ عِبَادِهِ لَرَخَّصَ فِيهِ لِخَاصَّةِ أَنبِيَائِهِ وَأَولِيائِهِ، وَلكِنَّهُ سُبْحَانَهُ كَرَّهَ إِلَيْهِمُ التَّكَابُرَ، وَرَضِيَ لَهُمُ التَّوَاضُعَ، فَأَلْصَقُوا بِالْأَرْضِ خُدُودَهُمْ، وَعَفَّرُوا فِي التُّرَابِ وُجُوهَهُمْ. وَخَفَضُوا أَجْنِحَتَهُمْ لِلْمُؤمِنِينَ، وَكَانُوا قَوْماً مُسْتَضْعَفِينَ، قَدِ اخْتَبَرَهُمُ اللهُ بالْمَخْمَصَةِ (56) ، وَابْتَلاَهُمْ بِالْمَجْهَدَةِ (57) ، وَامْتَحَنَهُمْ بِالْمَخَاوِفِ، وَمَخَضَهُمْ (58) بِالْمَكَارِهِ، فَلاَ تَعْتَبِرُوا الرِّضَى وَالسُّخْطَ بِالمَالِ وَالْوَلَدِ جَهْلاً بِمَوَاقِعِ الْفِتْنَةِ، وَالْإِخْتِبَارِ فِي مَوَاضِعِ الْغِنَى وَالْإِقْتِدَارِ، فَقَدْ قَالَ سُبْحَانَهُ تَعَالَي: (أَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّ مَا نُمِدُّهُمْ بِهِ مِنْ مَالٍ وَبَنِينَ * نُسَارِعُ لَهُمْ فِي الْخَيْرَاتِ بَلْ لاَ يَشْعُرُونَ)، فَإِنَّ اللهَ سْبْحَانَهْ يَخْتَبِرُ عِبَادَهُ الْمُسْتَكْبِرِينَ فِي أَنْفُسِهمْ بِأَوْلِيَائِهِ الْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ فِي أَعْيُنِهِمْ.

تواضع الانبياء

وَلَقَدْ دَخَلَ مُوسَى بْنُ عِمْرَانَ وَمَعَهُ أَخُوهُ هَارُونُ -عَلَيْهِمَا السَّلامُ- عَلَى فِرْعَوْنَ، وَعَلَيْهِمَا مَدَارِعُ الصُّوفِ، وَبِأَيْدِيهِمَا الْعِصِيُّ، فَشَرَطَا لَهُ _ إِنْ أَسْلَمَ _ بَقَاءَ مُلْكِهِ، وَدَوامَ عِزِّهِ، فَقَالَ: أَلاَ تَعْجبُونَ مِنْ هذَيْنِ يَشْرِطَانِ لِي دَوَامَ الْعِزِّ، وَبَقَاءَ الْمُلْكِ، وَهُمَا بِمَا تَرَوْنَ مِنْ حَالِ الْفَقْرِ وَالذُّلِّ، فَهَلاَّ أُلْقِيَ عَلَيْهِمَا أَسَاوِرَةٌ مِنْ ذَهَبٍ؟ إِعْظَاماً لِلذَّهَبِ وَجَمْعِهِ، وَاحْتِقَاراً لِلصُّوفِ وَلُبْسِهِ! وَلَوْ أَرَادَ اللهُ سُبْحَانَهُ لِأَنْبِيَائِهِ حَيْثُ بَعَثَهُمْ أَنْ يَفْتَحَ لَهُمْ كُنُوزَ الْذِّهْبَانِ (59) ، وَمَعَادِنَ الْعِقْيَانِ (60) ، وَمَغَارِسَ الْجِنَانِ، وَأَنْ يَحْشُرَ مَعَهُمْ طُيُورَ السَّماءِ وَوُحُوشَ الْأَرَضِينَ لَفَعَلَ، وَلَوْ فَعَلَ لَسَقَطَ الْبَلاَءُ (61) ، وَبَطَلَ الْجَزَاءُ، وَاضْمَحَلَّتِ الْأَنْبَاءُ، وَلَمَا وَجَبَ لِلْقَابِلِينَ أُجُورُ الْمُبْتَلِينَ، وَلاَ اسْتَحَقَّ الْمُؤمِنُونَ ثَوَابَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ، وَلاَ لَزِمَتِ الْأَسْمَاءُ مَعَانِيَهَا، وَلكِنَّ اللهَ سُبْحَانَهُ جَعَلَ رُسُلَهُ أُولِي قُوَّةٍ فِي عَزَائِمِهِمْ، وَضَعَفَةً فِيَما تَرَى الْأَعْيُنُ مِنْ حَالاَتِهِمْ، مَعَ قَنَاعَةٍ تَمْلَأُ الْقُلُوبَ وَالْعُيُونَ غِنىً، وَخَصَاصَة (62) تَمْلاَُ الْأَبْصَارَ وَالْأَسْمَاعَ أَذىً.

p: 62

وَلَوْ كَانَتِ الْأَنْبِيَاءُ أَهْلَ قُوَّةٍ لاَ تُرَامُ، وَعِزَّةًٍ لاَ تُضَامُ، وَمُلْكٍ تُمَدُّ نُحْوَهُ أَعْنَاقُ الرِّجَالِ، وَتُشَدُّ إِلَيْهِ عُقَدُ الرِّحَالِ، لَكَانَ ذَلِكَ أَهْوَنَ عَلَى ( 67 )

الْخَلْقِ فِي الْإِعَتِبَارِ، وَأَبْعَدَ لَهُمْ مِنَ الْإِسْتَكْبَارِ، وَلَآمَنُوا عَنْ رَهْبَةٍ قَاهِرَةٍ لَهْمْ، أَوْ رَغْبَةٍ مَائِلَةٍ بِهِمْ، فَكَانَتِ النِّيَّاتُ مُشْتَرَكَةً، وَالْحَسَنَاتُ مُقْتَسَمَةً. وَلكِنَّ اللهَ سُبْحَانَهُ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَكُونَ الْإِتِّبَاعُ لِرُسُلِهِ، وَالْتَّصْدِيقُ بِكُتُبِهِ، وَالْخُشُوعُ لِوَجْهِهِ، وَالْإِسْتِكَانَةُ لِأَمْرِهِ، وَالْإِسْتِسْلاَمُ لِطَاعَتِهِ، أُمُوراً لَهُ خَاصَّةً، لاَ تَشُوبُهَا مِنْ غَيْرِهَا شَائِبَةٌ، وَكُلَّمَا كَانَتِ الْبلْوَى وَالْإِخْتِبَارُ أَعْظَمَ كَانَتِ الْمَثُوبَةُ وَالْجَ زَاءُ أَجْزَلَ.

الكعبة المقدسة

ألاَ تَرَوْنَ أَنَّ اللهَ سُبْحَانَهُ، اخْتَبَرَ الْأَوَّلِينَ مِنْ لَدُنْ آدَمَ صَلَواتُ اللهِ عَلَيْهِ، إِلَى الْآخِرِينَ مِنْ هَذَا الْعَالَمِ، بَأَحْجَارٍ لاَ تَضُرُّ وَلاَ تَنْفَعُ، وَلاَ تُبْصِرُ وَلاَ تَسْمَعُ، فَعَجَلَهَا بَيْتَهُ الْحَرَامَ (الَّذِي جَعَلَهُ لِلنَّاسِ قِيَاماً). ثُمَّ وَضَعَهُ بِأَوْعَرِ بِقَاعِ الْأَرْضِ حَجَراً، وَأَقَلِّ نَتَائِقِ (63) الدُّنْيَا مَدَراً (64) ، وَأَضْيَقِ بُطُونِ الْأَوْدِيَةِ قُطْراً، بَيْنَ جِبَالٍ خَشِنَةٍ، وَرِمَالٍ دَمِثَةٍ (65) ، وَعُيُونٍ وَشِلَةٍ (66) ، وَقُرىً مُنْقَطِعَةٍ، لا يَزْكُو بِهَا خُفٌّ وَلاَ حَافِرٌ وَلاَ ظِلْفٌ (67) . ثُمَّ أَمَرَ آدَمَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ وَوَلَدَهُ أَنْ يَثْنُوا أَعْطَافَهُمْ (68) نَحْوَهُ، فَصَارَ مَثَابَةً لِمُنْتَجَعِ (69) أَسْفَارِهمْ، وَغَايَةً لِمُلْقَى (70) رِحَالِهِمْ، تَهْوِي إِلَيْهِ (71) ثِمَارُ الْأَفْئِدَةِ مِنْ مَفَاوِزِ (72) قِفَارٍ سَحِيقَةٍ (73) ، وَمَهَاوِي (74) فِجَاجٍ (75) عَمِيقَةٍ، وَجَزَائِرِ بِحَارٍ مُنْقَطِعَةٍ، حَتَّى ( 69 )

يَهُزُّوا مَنَاكِبَهُمْ (76) ذُلُلاً يُهَلِّلُونَ لِلَّهِ حَوْلَهُ، وَيَرْمُلُونَ (77) عَلَى أَقْدَامِهِمْ شُعْثاً (78) غُبْراً (79) لَهُ. قَدْ نَبَذُوا السَّرَابِيلَ (80) وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ، وَشَوَّهُوا بِإِعْفَاءِ الشُّعُورِ (81) مَحَاسِنَ خَلْقِهِمُ، ابْتِلاَءً عَظِيماً، وَامْتِحاناً شَدِيداً، وَاخْتِبَاراً مُبِيناً، وَتَمْحِيصاً بَلِيغاً، جَعَلَهُ اللهُ سَبَباً لِرَحْمَتِهِ، وَوُصْلَةً إِلَى جَنَّتِهِ. وَلَوْ أَرَادَ سُبْحَانَهُ أَنْ يَضَعَ بَيْتَهُ الْحَرَامَ، وَمَشَاعِرَهُ الْعِظَامَ، بَيْنَ جَنَّاتٍ وَأَنْهَارٍ، وَسَهْلٍ وَقَرَارٍ (82) ، جَمَّ الْأَشْجَارِ (83) ، دَانِيَ الِّثمارِ، مُلْتَفَّ الْبُنَى (84) ، مُتَّصِلَ الْقُرَى، بَيْنَ بُرَّةٍ (85) سَمْرَاءَ، وَرَوْضَةٍ خَضْرَاءٍَ، وَأَرْيَافٍ (86) مُحْدِقَةٍ، وَعِرَاصٍ (87) مُغْدِقَةٍ (88) ، وَريَاضٍ نَاضِرَةٍ، وَطُرُقٍ عَامِرَةٍ، لَكَانَ قَدْ صَغُرَ قَدْرُ الْجَزَاءِ عَلَى حَسَبِ ضَعْفِ الْبَلاَءِ. وَلَوْ كَانَ الْإِسَاسُ (89) الْمَحْمُولُ عَلَيْهَا، وَ الْأَحْجَارُ الْمَرْفُوعُ بِهَا، بَيْنَ زُمُرُّدَةٍِ خَضْرَاءَ، وَيَاقُوتَةٍ حَمْرَاءَ، وَنُورٍ وَضِيَاءٍ، لَخَفَّفَ ذَلِكَ مُصَارَعَةَ الشَّكِّ فِي الصُّدُورِ، وَلَوَضَعَ مُجَاهَدَةَ إبْلِيسَ عَنِ الْقُلُوبِ، وَلَنَفَى مُعْتَلَجَ (90) الرَّيْبِ مِنَ الْنَّاسِ. وَلكِنَّ اللهَ يَخْتَبِرُ عِبَادَهُ بِأَنْوَاعِ الشَّدَائِدِ، وَيَتَعَبَّدُهُمْ بِأَلْوَانِ الْمَجَاهِدِ، وَيَبْتَلِيهِمْ بِضُرُوبِ الْمَكَارِهِ، إِخْرَاجاً لِلتَّكَبُّرِ مِنْ قُلُوبِهِمْ، وَإِسْكَاناً لِلتَّذَلُّلِ فِي نُفُوسِهمْ، وَلِيَجْعَلْ ذَلِكَ أَبْوَاباً فُتُحاً (91) إِلَى فَضْلِهِ، وَأَسْبَاباً ذُلُلاً لِعَفْوِهِ.

p: 63

( 71 )

عود إلى التحذير

فَاللهَ اللهَ فِي عَاجِلِ الْبَغْيِ، وَآجِلِ وَخَامَةِ الظُّلْمِ، وَسُوءِ عَاقِبَةِ الْكِبْرِ، فَإنَّهَا مَصْيَدَةُ إِبْلِيسَ الْعُظْمَى، وَمَكِيدَتهُ الْكُبْرَى، الَّتِي تُسَاوِرُ (92) قُلُوبَ الرِّجَالِ مُسَاوَرَةَ السُّمُومِ الْقَاتِلَةِ، فَمَا تُكْدِي (93) أَبَداً، وَلاَ تُشْوِي (94) أَحَداً، لاَ عَالِماً لِعِلْمِهِ، وَلاَ مُقِلاًّ في طِمْرِهِ (95) . وَعَنْ ذلِكَ مَا حَرَسَ اللهُ عِبَادَهُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ بِالصَّلَوَاتِ وَالزَّكَوَاتِ، وَمُجَاهَدَةِ الصِّيَامِ فِي الْأَيَّامِ الْمَفْرُوضَاتِ، تسْكِيناً لِأَطْرَافِهِمْ (96) ، وَتَخْشِيعاً لِأَبْصَارِهمْ، وَتَذْلِيلاً لِنُفُوسِهِمْ، وَتَخْفِيضاً لِقُلُوبِهِمْ، وَإِذْهَاباً لِلْخُيَلاَءِ عَنْهُمْ، لِمَا فِي ذَلِكَ مِنْ تَعْفِيرِ عِتَاقِ الْوُجُوهِ (97) بالتُّرَابِ تَوَاضُعاً، وَالْتِصَاقِ كَرَائِمِ الْجَوَارِحِ بِالْأَرْضِ تَصَاغُراً، وَلُحُوقِ الْبُطُونِ بِالمُتونِ (98) مِنَ الصِّيَامِ تَذَلُّلاً، مَعَ مَا فِي الزَّكَاةِ مِنْ صَرْفِ ثَمَرَاتِ الْأَرْضِ وَغَيْرِ ذَلِكَ إِلَى أَهْلِ الْمَسْكَنَةِ وَالْفَقْرِ.

فضائل الفرائض

انْظُرُوا إِلَى مَا فِي هذِهِ الْأَفْعَالِ مِنْ قَمْعِ (99) نَوَاجِمِ (100) الْفَخْرِ، وَقَدْعِ (101) طَوَالِعِ الْكِبْرِ! وَلَقَدْ نَظَرْتُ فَمَا وَجَدْتُ أَحَداً مِنَ الْعَالَمِينَ يَتَعَصَّبُ لِشَيْءٍ مِنَ الْأَشْيَاءِ إِلاَّ عَنْ عِلَّةٍ تَحْتَمِلُ تَمْوِيهَ الْجُهَلاَءِ، أَوْ حُجَّة تَلِيطُ (102) بِعُقُولِ السُّفَهَاءِ غَيْرَكُمْ، فَإِنَّكُمْ تَتَعَصَّبُونَ لِأَمْر مَا يُعْرَفُ لَهُ سَبَبٌ وَلاَ عِلَّةٌ.

أَمَّا إِبْلِيسُ فَتَعَصَّبَ عَلَى آدَمَ لِأَصْلِهِ، وَطَعَنَ عَلَيْهِ فِي خِلْقَتِهِ، فَقَالَ: أَنَا نَارِيٌّ وَأَنْتَ طِينِيٌّ.

عصبية المال

وَأَمَّا الْأَغْنِيَاءُ مِنْ مُتْرَفَةِ (103) الْأُمَمِ، فَتَعَصَّبُوا لِآثَارِ مَوَاقِعِ النِّعَمِ (104) ، فَقَالُوا: (نَحْنُ أَكْثَرُ أَمْوَالاً وَأَوْلاَداً وَمَا نَحْنُ بِمُعَذَّبِينَ) فَإنْ كَانَ لاَبُدَّ مِنَ الْعَصَبِيَّةِ، فَلْيَكُنْ تَعَصُّبُهُمْ لِمَكَارِمِ الْخِصَالِ، وَمَحَامِدِ الْأَفْعَالِ، وَمَحَاسِنِ الْأُمُورِ، الَّتِي تَفَاضَلَتْ فِيهَا الْمُجَدَاءُ وَالنُّجَدَاءُ مِنْ بُيُوتَاتِ الْعَرَبِ وَيَعَاسِيبِ (105) الْقَبَائِلِ، بِالْأَخْلاَقِ الرَّغِيبَةِ (106) ، وَ الْأَحْلاَمِ (107) الْعَظِيمَةِ، وَ الْأَخْطَارِ الْجَلِيلَةِ، وَ الْآثَارِ الَمحْمُودَةِ. فَتَعَصَّبُوا لِخِلاَلِ الْحَمْدِ مِنَ الْحِفْظِ لِلْجِوَارِ (108) ، وَالْوَفَاءِ بِالذِّمَامِ (109) ، وَالطَّاعَةِ لِلْبِرِّ، وَالْمَعْصِيَةِ لِلْكِبْرِ، وَ الْأَخْذِ بِالْفَضْلِ، وَالْكَفِّ عَنِ الْبَغْيِ، وَ الْإِعْظَامِ لِلْقَتْلِ، و الْإِنْصَافِ لِلْخَلْقِ، وَالْكَظْمِ لِلْغَيْظِ، وَاجْتِنَابِ الْفَسَادِ فِي الْأَرْضِ. واحْذَرُوا مَا نَزَلَ بِالْأُمَمِ قَبْلَكُمْ مِنَ الْمَثُلاَتِ (110) بِسُوءِ الْأَفْعَالِ، وَذَمِيمِ الْأَعْمَالِ، فَتَذَكَّرُوا فِي الْخَيْرِ وَالشَّرِّ أَحْوَالَهُمْ، وَاحْذَرُوا أَنْ تَكُونُوا أَمْثَالَهُمْ.

p: 64

فَإِذَا تَفَكَّرْتُمْ فِي تَفَاوُتِ (111) حَالَيْهِمْ، فَالْزَمُوا كُلَّ أَمْرٍ لَزِمَتِ الْعِزَّةُ بِهِ حَالَهُمْ، وَزَاحَتِ الْأَعْدَاءُ لَهُ عَنْهُمْ، وَمُدَّتِ (112) الْعَافِيَةُ بِهِ عَلَيْهِمْ، ( 75 )

وَانْقَادَتِ النِّعْمَةُ لَهُ مَعَهُمْ، وَوَصَلَتِ الْكَرَامَةُ عَلَيْهِ حَبْلَهُمْ مِنَ الْإِجْتِنَابِ لِلْفُرْقَةِ، وَاللُّزُومِ لِلْأُلْفَةِ، وَالتَّحَاضِّ عَلَيْهَا، وَالتَّوَاصِي بِهَا. وَاجْتَنِبُوا كُلَّ أَمْرٍ كَسَرَ فِقْرَتَهُمْ (113) ، وَأَوْهَنَ (114) مُنَّتَهُمْ (115) مِنْ تَضَاغُنِ الْقُلُوبِ، وَتَشَاحُنِ الصُّدُورِ، وتَدَابُرِ النُّفُوسِ، وَتَخَاذُلِ الْأَيْدِي. وَتَدَبَّرُوا أَحْوَالَ الْمَاضِينَ مِنَ الْمُؤمِنِينَ قَبْلَكُمْ، كَيْفَ كَانُوا فِي حَالِ التَّمحِيصِ (116) وَالْبَلاَءِ. أَلَمْ يَكُونُوا أَثْقَلَ الْخَلاَئِقِ أَعْبَاءً، وَأَجْهَدَ الْعِبَادِ بَلاَءً، وَأَضْيَقَ أَهْلِ الدُّنْيَا حَالاً. اتَّخَذَتْهُمُ الْفَراعِنَةُ عَبِيداً فَسَامُوهُم سُوءَ الْعَذَابِ، وَجَرَّعُوهُمُ الْمُرَارَ (117) ، فَلَمْ تَبْرَحِ الْحَالُ بِهِمْ فِي ذُلِّ الْهَلَكَةِ وَقَهْرِ الْغَلَبَةِ، لاَ يَجِدُونَ حِيلَةً فِي امْتِنَاعٍ، وَلاَ سَبِيلاً إِلَى دِفَاعٍ، حَتَّى إِذَا رَأَى اللهُ جِدَّ الصَّبْرِ مِنْهُمْ عَلَى الْأَذَى فِي مَحَبَّتِهِ، وَ الْإِحْتَِمالَ لِلْمَكْرُوهِ مِنْ خَوْفِهِ، جَعَلَ لَهُمْ مِنْ مَضَايِقِ الْبَلاَءِ فَرَجاً، فَأَبْدَلَهُمُ الْعِزَّ مَكَانَ الذُّلِّ، وَ الْأَمْنَ مَكَانَ الْخَوْفِ، فَصَارُوا مُلُوكاً حُكَّاماً، وأَئِمَّةً أَعْلاَماً، وَبَلَغَتِ الْكَرَامَةُ مِنَ اللهِ لَهُمْ مَا لَمْ تَذْهَبِ الْآمَالُ إِلَيْهِ بِهِمْ.

فَانْظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانُوا حَيْثُ كَانَتِ الْأَمْلاَءُ (118) مُجْتَمِعَةً، وَ الْأَهْوَاءُ مُؤْتَلِفَةً، وَالْقُلُوبُ مُعْتَدِلَةً، وَ الْأَيْدِي مُتَرَادِفَةً، وَالسُّيُوفُ مُتَنَاصِرَةً، وَالْبَصَائِرُ نَافِذَةً، وَالْعَزَائِمُ وَاحِدَةً، أَلَمْ يَكُونُوا أَرْبَاباً (119) فِي أَقْطَارِ الْأَرَضِينَ، وَمُلُوكاً عَلَى رِقَابِ الْعَالَمِينَ! فَانْظُرُوا إِلَى مَا صَارُوا إِلَيْهِ فِي

آخِرِ أُمُورِهِمْ، حِينَ وَقَعَتِ الْفُرْقَةُ، وَتَشَتَّتَتِ الْأُلْفَةُ، وَاخْتَلَفَتِ الْكَلِمَةُ وَ الْأَفْئِدَةُ، وَتَشَعَّبُوا مُخْتَلِفِينَ، وَتَفَرَّقُوا مُتَحَارِبِينَ، قَدْ خَلَعَ اللهُ عَنْهُمْ لِبَاسَ كَرَامَتِهِ، وَسَلَبَهُمْ غَضَارَةَ نِعْمَتِهِ (120) ، وَبَقّى قَصَصَ أَخْبَارِهِمْ فِيكُمْ عِبَراً لِلْمُعْتَبِرِينَ.

الاعتبار بالامم

فَاعْتَبِرُوا بِحَالِ وَلَدِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ وَبَنِي إِسْحَاقَ وَبَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّلَامُ ، فَمَا أَشَدَّ اعْتِدَالَ (121) الْأَحْوَالِ، وَأَقْرَبَ اشْتِبَاهَ (122) الْأَمْثَالِ! تَأَمَّلُوا أَمْرَهُمْ فِي حَالِ تَشَتُّتِهِمْ، وَتَفَرُّقِهِمْ، لَيَالِيَ كَانَتِ الْأَكَاسِرَةُ وَالْقَيَاصِرَةُ أَرْبَاباً لَهُمْ، يَحْتَازُونَهُمْ (123) عَنْ رِيفِ الْآفَاقِ، وَبَحْرِ الْعِرَاقِ، وَخُضْرَةِ الدُّنْيَا، إِلَى مَنَابِتِ الشِّيحِ، وَمَهَافِي (124) الرِّيحِ، وَنَكَدِ (125) الْمَعَاشِ، فَتَرَكُوهُمْ عَالَةً مَسَاكِينَ إِخْوَانَ دَبَرٍ (126) وَوَبَرٍ (127) ، أَذَلَّ الْأُمَمِ داراً، وَأَجْدَبَهُمْ قَرَاراً، لاَ يَأْوُونَ (128) إِلَى جَنَاحِ دَعْوَةٍ يَعْتَصِمُونَ بِهَا، وَلاَ إِلَى ظِلِّ أُلْفَةِ يَعْتَمِدُونَ عَلَى عِزِّهَا، فَالْأَحْوَالُ مُضْطَرِبَةٌ، وَ الْأَيْدِي مُخْتَلِفَةٌ، وَالْكَثْرَةُ مُتَفَرِّقَةٌ، فِي بَلاَءِ أَزْلٍ (129) ، وأَطْبَاقِ جَهْلٍ! مِنْ بَنَاتٍ مَوْءُودَةٍ (130) ، وَأَصْنَامٍ مَعْبُودَةٍ، وَأَرْحَامٍ مَقْطُوعَةٍ، وَغَارَاتٍ مَشْنُونَةٍ (131) . النعمة برسول الله

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فَانْظُرُوا إِلَى مَوَاقِعِ نِعَمِ اللهِ سُبْحَانَهُ عَلَيْهِمْ حِينَ بَعَثَ إِلَيْهِمْ رَسُولاً، فَعَقَدَ بِمِلَّتِهِ طَاعَتَهُمْ، وَجَمَعَ عَلَى دَعْوَتِهِ أُلْفَتَهُمْ، كَيْفَ نَشَرَتِ النِّعْمَةُ عَلَيْهِمْ جَنَاحَ كَرَامَتِهَا، وَأَسَالَتْ لَهُمْ جَدَاوِلَ نَعِيمِهَا، وَالْتَفَّتِ الْمِلَّةُ بِهِمْ (132) فِي عَوَائِدِ (133) بَرَكَتِهَا، فَأَصْبَحُوا فِي نِعْمَتِهَا غَرِقِينَ، وَفِي خُضْرَةِ عَيْشِهَا فَكِهِينَ (134) ، قَدْ تَرَبَّعَتِ (135) الْأُمُورُ بِهِمْ، فِي ظِلِّ سُلْطَانٍ قَاهِرٍ، وَآوَتْهُمُ الْحَالُ إِلَى كَنَفِ عِزٍّ غَالِبٍ، وَتَعَطَّفَتِ الْأُمُورُ عَلَيْهِمْ فِي ذُرَى مُلْكٍ ثَابِتٍ، فَهُمْ حُكَّامٌ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ، وَمُلُوكٌ فِي أَطْرَافِ الْأَرَضِينَ، يَمْلِكُونَ الْأُمُورَ عَلَى مَنْ كَانَ يَمْلِكُهَا عَلَيْهِمْ، وَيُمْضُونَ الْأَحْكَامَ فِيمَنْ كَانَ يُمْضِيهَا فِيهِمْ! لاَ تُغْمَزُ لَهُمْ قَنَاةٌ (136) ، وَلاَ تُقْرَعُ لَهُمْ صَفَاةٌ (137) !

لوم العصاة

أَلاَ وَإنَّكُمْ قَد نَفَضْتُمْ أَيْدِيَكُمْ مِنْ حَبْلِ الطاعَةِ، وَثَلَمْتُمْ (138) حِصْنَ اللهِ الْمَضْرُوبَ عَلَيْكُمْ، بَأَحْكَامِ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ، فَإِنَّ اللهَ سُبْحَانَهُ قَدْ امْتَنَّ عَلَى جَمَاعَةِ هذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ فِيَما عَقَدَ بَيْنَهُمْ مِنْ حَبْلِ هذِهِ الْأُلْفَةِ الَّتِي يَنْتَقِلُونَ فِي ظِلِّهَا، وَيَأْوُونَ إَلَى كَنَفِهَا، بِنِعْمَةِ لاَ يَعْرِفُ أَحَدٌ مِنَ الْمَخْلُوقِينَ لَهَا قِيمَةً، لِأَنَّهَا أَرْجَحُ مِنْ كُلِّ ثَمَنٍ، وَأَجَلُّ مِنْ كُلِّ خَطَرٍ.

وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُمْ صِرْتُمْ بَعْدَ الْهِجْرَةِ أَعْرَاباً، وَبَعْدَ الْمُوَالاَةِ (139) أحْزَاباً،

مَا تَتَعَلَّقُونَ مِنَ الْإِسْلاَمِ إِلاَّ بِاسْمِهِ، وَلاَ تَعْرِفُونَ مِنَ الْإِيمَانِ إِلاَّ رَسْمَهُ.

تَقُولُونَ: النَّارَ وَلاَ الْعَارَ! كَأَنَّكُمْ تُرِيدُونَ أَنْ تُكْفِئُوا الْإِسْلاَمَ عَلَى وَجْهِهِ،انْتِهَاكاً لِحَرِيمِهِ، وَنَقْضاً لِمِيثَاقِهِ الَّذِي وَضَعَهُ اللهُ لَكُمْ حَرَماً فِي أَرْضِهِ، وأَمْناً بَيْنَ خَلْقِهِ. وإِنَّكُمْ إِنْ لَجَأْتُمْ إِلَى غَيْرِهِ حَارَبَكُمْ أَهْلُ الْكُفْرِ، ثُمَّ لاَ جَبْرَائِيلُ وَلاَ مِيكَائِيلُ وَلاَ مُهَاجِرُونَ وَلاَ أَنْصَارٌ يَنْصُرُونَكُمْ إِلاَّ الْمُقَارَعَةَ بِالسَّيْفِ حَتَّى يَحْكُمَ اللهُ بَيْنَكُمْ.

وَإِنَّ عِنْدَكُمُ الْأَمْثَالَ مِنْ بَأْسِ اللهِ تَعَالَى وَقَوَارِعِهِ، وَأَيَّامِهِ وَوَقَائِعِهِ، فَلاَ تَسْتَبْطِئُوا وَعِيدَهُ جَهْلاً بَأَخْذِهِ، وَتَهَاوُناً بِبَطْشِهِ، وَيأْساً مِنْ بَأْسِهِ، فَإِنَّ اللهَ سُبْحَانَهُ لَمْ يَلْعَنِ الْقَرْنَ الْمَاضِيَ بَيْنَ أَيْدِيكُمْ إِلاَّ لِتَرْكِهِمُ الْأَمْرَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَالنَّهْيَ عَنِ المُنكَرِ، فَلَعَنَ السُّفَهَاءَ لِرُكُوبِ الْمَعَاصِي، وَالْحُلَمَاءَ لِتَرْكِ الْتَّنَاهِيْ!

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أَلاَ وَقَدْ قَطَعْتُمْ قَيْدَ الْإِسْلاَمِ، وَعَطَّلْتُمْ حُدُودَهُ، وَأَمَتُّمْ أَحْكَامَهُ. أَلاَ وَقَدْ أَمَرَنِيَ اللهُ بِقِتَالِ أَهْلِ الْبَغْي وَالْنَّكْثِ (140) وَالْفَسَادِ فِي الْأَرْضِ، فَأَمَّا النَّاكِثُونَ فَقَدْ قَاتَلْتُ، وَأَمَّا الْقَاسِطُونَ (141) فَقَدْ جَاهَدْتُ، وَأَمَّا الْمَارِقَةُ (142) فَقَدْ دَوَّخْتُ (143) ، وَأَمَّا شَيْطَانُ الرَّدْهَةِ (144) فَقَدْ كُفِيتُهُ بِصَعْقَةٍ (145) سَمِعْتُ لَهَا وَجْبَةَ قَلْبِهِ (146) وَرَجَّةَ صَدْرِهِ (147) ، وَبَقِيَتْ ( 83 )

بَقِيَّةٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْبَغْيِ، وَلَئِنْ أَذِنَ اللهُ فِي الْكَرَّةِ عَلَيْهِمْ لَأُدِيلَنَّ مِنْهُمْ (148) إِلاَّ مَا يَتَشَذَّرُ (149) فِي أَطْرَافِ الْأَرْضِ تَشَذُّراً!

شجاعته و فضله (عليه السلام)

أَنَا وَضَعْتُ فِي الصِّغَرَ بَكَلاَكِلِ (150) الْعَرَبِ، وَكَسَرْتُ نَوَاجِمَ (151) قُرُونِ رَبِيعَةَ وَمُضَرَ. وَقَدْ عَلِمْتُمْ مَوْضِعِي مِنْ رَسُولِ اللهِ -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ- بِالْقَرَابَةِ الْقَرِيبَةِ، وَالْمَنْزِلَةِ الْخَصِيصَةِ: وَضَعَنِي فِي حِجْرِهِ وَأَنَا وَلَدٌ يَضُمُّنِي إِلَى صَدْرِهِ، وَيَكْنُفُنِي فِي فِرَاشِهِ، وَيُمِسُّنِي جَسَدَهُ، وَيُشِمُّنِي عَرْفَهُ (152) . وَكَانَ يَمْضَغُ الشَّيْءَ ثُمَّ يُلْقِمُنِيهِ، وَمَا وَجَدَ لِي كَذْبَةً فِي قَوْلٍ، وَلاَ خَطْلَةً (153) فِي فِعْلٍ. وَلَقَدْ قَرَنَ اللهُ بِهِ -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ- مِنْ لَدُنْ أَنْ كَانَ فَطِيماً أَعْظَمَ مَلَكٍ مِنْ مَلاَئِكَتِهِ يَسْلُكُ بِهِ طَرِيقَ الْمَكَارِمِ، وَمَحَاسِنَ أَخْلاَقِ الْعَالَمِ، لَيْلَهُ وَنَهَارَهُ، وَلَقَدْ كُنْتُ أَتَّبِعُهُ اتِّبَاعَ الْفَصِيلِ (154) أَثَرَ أُمِّهِ، يَرْفَعُ لي فِي كُلِّ يَوْمٍ عَلَماً (155) مِنْ أخْلاقِهِ، وَيَأْمُرُني بِالْإِقْتِدَاءِ بِهِ. وَلَقَدْ كَانَ يُجَاوِرُ فِي كُلِّ سَنَة بِحِرَاءََ (156) فَأَرَاهُ, وَلاَ يَرَاهُ غَيْرِي، وَلَمْ يَجْمَعْ بَيْتٌ وَاحِدٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ فِي الْإِسْلاَمِ غَيْرَ رَسُولِ اللهِ -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ- وَخَدِيجَةَ وَأَنَا ثَالِثُهُمَا، أَرَى نُورَ الْوَحْيِ وَالرِّسَالَةِ، وَأَشُمُّ رِيحَ النُّبُوَّةِ. وَلَقَدْ سَمِعْتُ رَنَّةَ الشَّيْطَانِ حِينَ نَزَلَ الْوَحْيُ عَلَيْه ِ-صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ- فَقُلْتُ: يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ مَا هذِهِ الرَّنَّةُ؟ فَقَالَ: «هذَا الشَّيْطَانُ قَدْ أَيِسَ مِنْ عِبَادَتِهِ، إِنَّكَ تَسْمَعُ مَا أَسْمَعُ، وَتَرَى مَا أَرَى، إِلاَّ أَنَّكَ لَسْتَ بِنَبِيّ، وَلكِنَّكَ وَزِيرٌ، وَإِنَّكَ لَعَلَى خَيْرٍ». وَلَقَدْ كُنْتُ مَعَهُ-صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ- لَمَّا أَتاهُ المَلاَُ مِنْ قُريْشٍ، فَقَالُوا لَهُ: يَا مُحُمَّدُ، إِنَّكُ قَدِ ادَّعَيْتَ عَظِيماً لَمْ يَدَّعِهِ آبَاؤُكَ وَلاَ أحَدٌ مِن بَيْتِكَ، وَنَحْنُ نَسَأَلُكَ أَمْراً إِنْ أَجَبْتَنَا إِلَيْهِ وَأَرَيْتَنَاهُ، عَلِمْنَا أَنَّكَ نِبِيٌّ وَرَسُولٌ، وَإِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلْ عَلِمْنَا أَنَّكَ سَاحِرٌ كَذَّابٌ. فَقَالَ لهم -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ-: «وَمَا تَسْأَلُونَ؟». قَالُوا: تَدْعُو لَنَا هذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ حَتَّى تَنْقَلِعَ بِعُرُوقِهَا وَتَقِفَ بَيْنَ يَدَيْكَ. فَقَالَ -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ-: «إِنَّ الله عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ، فإِنْ فَعَلَ اللهُ ذَلِكَ لَكُمْ، أَتُؤْمِنُونَ وَتَشْهَدُونَ بِالْحَقِّ؟». قَالُوا: نَعَمْ. قَالَ: «فَإِنِّي سَأُرِيكُمْ مَا تَطْلُبُونَ، وإِنِّي لَأَعْلَمُ أَنَّكُمْ لاَ تَفِيئُونَ (157) إِلَى خَيْرٍ، وَإِنَّ فِيكُمْ مَنْ يُطْرَحُ فِي الْقَلِيبِ (158) ، وَمَنْ يُحَزِّبُ الْأَحْزَابَ». ثُمَّ قَالَ -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ-: «يَا أَيَّتُهَا الشَّجَرَةُ إِنْ كُنْتِ تُؤمِنِينَ بِاللهِ وَاليَوْمِ الْآخِرِ، وَتَعْلَمِينَ أَنِّي رَسُولُ اللهِ، فَانْقَلِعِي بعُرُوقِكِ حَتَّى تَقِفِي بَيْنَ يَدَيَّ بِإِذْنِ اللهِ». فَوَالَّذِي بَعَثَهُ بِالْحَقِّ لَاَنْقَلَعَتْ بِعُرُوقِهَا، وَجَاءَتْ وَلَهَا دَوِيٌّ شَدِيدٌ، وَقَصْفٌ (159) كَقَصْفِ أَجْنِحَةِ الطَّيْرِ، حَتَّى وَقَفَتْ بَيْنَ يَدَيْ رَسُولِ اللهِ -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ- مُرَفْرِفَةً،

p: 67

وَأَلْقَتْ بِغُصْنِهَا الْأَعْلَى عَلَى رَسُولِ اللهِ -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ- ، وَبِبَعْضِ أَغْصَانِهَا عَلَى مَنْكِبِي، وَكُنْتُ عَنْ يَمِينِهِ -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ-, فَلَمَّا نَظَرَ الْقَوْمُ إِلَى ذلِكَ قَالُوا _ عُلُوّاً وَاسْتِكْبَاراً _ : فَمُرْهَا فَلْيَأْتِكَ نِصْفُهَا وَيَبْقَى نِصْفُهَا. فَأَمَرَهَا بِذلِكَ، فَأَقْبَلَ إِلَيْهِ نِصْفُهَا كَأَعْجَبِ إِقْبَالٍ وَأَشَدِّهِ دَوِيّاً، فَكَادَتْ تَلْتَفُّ بِرَسُولِ اللهِ -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ-, فَقَالُوا _ كُفْراً وَعُتُوّاً _ : فَمُرْ هذَا النِّصْفَ فَلْيَرْجِعْ إِلَى نِصْفِهِ كَمَا كَانَ. فَأَمَرَهُ فَرَجَعَ, فَقُلْتُ أَنَا: لاَ إِلهَ إِلاَّ اللهُ، إِنِّي أَوَّلُ مْؤْمِنٍ بِكَ يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ، وَأَوَّلُ مَنْ آمَنَ بَأَنَّ الشَّجَرَةَ فَعَلَتْ مَا فَعَلَتْ بِأَمْرِ اللهِ تَصْدِيقاً لِنُبُوَّتِكَ، وإِجْلاَلاً لِكَلِمَتِكَ. فَقَالَ الْقَوْمُ كُلُّهُمْ: بَلْ سَاحِرٌ كَذَّابٌ، عَجِيبُ السِّحْرِ خَفِيفٌ فِيهِ، وَهَلْ يُصَدِّقُكَ فِي أَمْرِكَ إِلاَّ مِثْلُ هذَا! (يَعْنُونَنِي). وَإِنِّي لَمِنْ قَوْم لاَ تَأخُذُهُمْ فِي اللهِ لَوْمَةُ لاَئِم، سِيَماهُمْ سِيَما الصِّدِّيقِينَ، وَكَلاَمُهُمْ كَلاَمُ الْأَبْرَارِ، عُمَّارُ (160) اللَّيْلِ، وَمَنَارُ النَّهَارِ، مُتَمَسِّكُونَ بِحَبْلِ الْقُرْآنِ، يُحْيُونَ سُنَنَ اللهِ وسُنَنَ رَسُولِهِ، لاَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ وَلاَيَعْلُونَ، وَلاَيَغُلُّونَ (161) وَلاَ يُفْسِدُونَ، قُلُوبُهُمْ فِي الْجِنَانِ، وَ أَجْسَادُهُمْ في الْعَمَلِ!

In Persian

(اين خطبه را «قاصعه» يعنى تحقير كننده ناميدند كه در آن ارزشهاى جاهلى را كوچك و خوار شمرد و از طولانى ترين سخنرانى هاى امام است كه در سال 40 هجرى در حاليكه سوار بر اسب بود ايراد فرمود)

1 والايى پروردگار

ستايش خداوندى را سزاست كه لباس عزّت و بزرگى پوشيد، و آن دو را براى خود انتخاب، و از ديگر پديده ها باز داشت.

آن دو را مرز ميان خود و ديگران قرار داد، و آن دو را براى بزرگى و عظمت خويش برگزيد، و لعنت كرد آن كس را كه در آرزوى عزّت و بزرگى با خدا به ستيزه برخيزد از اين رو فرشتگان مقرّب خود را آزمود، و فروتنان را از گردنكشان جدا فرمود. با آن كه از آنچه در دل هاست، و از اسرار نهان آگاه است، به فرشتگان فرمود.

p: 68

«من بشرى را از گل و خاك مى آفرينم، آنگاه كه آفرينش او به اتمام رسيد، و روح در او دميدم، براى او سجده كنيد، فرشتگان همه سجده كردند مگر ابليس» كه حسادت او را فرا گرفت.

2 نكوهش تكبر و خودپسندى شيطان

شيطان بر آدم عليه السّلام به جهت خلقت او از خاك، فخر فروخت، و با تكيه به اصل خود كه از آتش است دچار تعصّب و غرور شد.

پس شيطان دشمن خدا و پيشواى متعصّب ها و سر سلسله متكبّران است، كه اساس عصبيّت را بنا نهاد، و بر لباس كبريايى و عظمت با خدا در افتاد، لباس بزرگى را بر تن پوشيد و پوشش تواضع و فروتنى را از تن در آورد. آيا نمى نگريد كه خدا به خاطر خود بزرگ بينى، او را كوچك ساخت؟ و به جهت بلند پروازى او را پست و خوار گردانيد؟ پس او را در دنيا طرد شده، و آتش جهنّم را در قيامت براى او مهيّا فرمود؟

3 آزمايش ها درمان تكبّر

خداوند اگر اراده مى كرد، آدم عليه السّلام را از نورى كه چشم ها را خيره كند، و زيباييش عقلها را مبهوت سازد، و عطر و پاكيزگى اش حس بويايى را تسخير كند مى آفريد ، كه اگر چنين مى كرد، گردن ها در برابر آدم فروتنى مى كردند، و آزمايش فرشتگان براى سجده آدم عليه السّلام آسان بود، امّا خداوند مخلوقات خود را با امورى كه آگاهى ندارند آزمايش مى كند، تا بد و خوب تميز داده شود، و تكبّر و خودپسندى را از آنها بزدايد، و خود بزرگ بينى را از آنان دور كند. پس، از آنچه خداوند نسبت به ابليس انجام داد عبرت گيريد، زيرا اعمال فراوان و كوشش هاى مداوم او را با تكبّر از بين برد.

p: 69

او شش هزار سال عبادت كرد كه مشخّص مى باشد از سال هاى دنيا يا آخرت است، امّا با ساعتى تكبّر همه را نابود كرد ، چگونه ممكن است پس از ابليس، فرد ديگرى همان اشتباه را تكرار كند و سالم بماند؟ نه، هرگز! خداوند هيچ گاه انسانى را براى عملى وارد بهشت نمى كند كه براى همان عمل فرشته اى را محروم سازد. فرمان خدا در آسمان و زمين يكسان است «1»، و بين خدا و خلق، دوستى خاصّى وجود ندارد كه به خاطر آن، حرامى را كه بر جهانيان ابلاغ فرموده حلال بدارد.

4 هشدار از دشمنى هاى شيطان

اى بندگان خدا! از دشمن خدا پرهيز كنيد، مبادا شما را به بيمارى خود مبتلا سازد، و با نداى خود شما را به حركت در آورد، و با لشكرهاى پياده و سواره خود بر شما بتازد! به جانم سوگند، شيطان تير خطرناكى براى شكار شما بر چلّه كمان گذارده، و تا حد توان كشيده، و از نزديك ترين مكان شما را هدف قرار داده است، و خطاب به خدا گفته: «پروردگارا! به سبب آن كه مرا دور كردى، دنيا را در چشمهايشان جلوه مى دهم، و همه را گمراه خواهم كرد» امّا تيرى در تاريكى ها، و سنگى بدون نشانه روى رها ساخت، گرچه فرزندان خودپسندى، و برادران تعصّب و خود خواهى، و سواران مركب جهالت و خود پرستى، او را تصديق كردند.

افراد سركش شما تسليم شيطان شدند، و طمع ورزى او را در شما كارگر افتاد، و اين حقيقت بر همه آشكار گرديد، و حكومت شيطان بر شما استوار شد، و با لشكر خويش به شما يورش برد، و شما را به ذلّت سقوط كشانيد، و شما را به مرز كشتار و خونريزى كشاند ، و شما را با فروكردن نيزه در چشم ها، بريدن گلوها، كوبيدن مغزها پايمال كرد، تا شما را به سوى آتشى بكشاند كه از پيش مهيّا گرديد.پس شيطان بزرگ ترين مانع براى ديندارى، و زيانبارترين و آتش افروزترين فرد براى دنياى شماست! شيطان از كسانى كه دشمن سر سخت شما هستند و براى در هم شكستنشان كمر بسته ايد خطرناك تر است. مردم! آتش خشم خود را بر ضد شيطان به كار گيريد، و ارتباط خود را با او قطع كنيد. به خدا سوگند، شيطان بر اصل و ريشه شما فخر فروخت، و بر حسب و نسب شما طعنه زد و عيب گرفت، و با سپاهيان سواره خود به شما هجوم آورد، و با لشكر پياده راه شما را بست، كه هر كجا شما را بيابند شكار مى كنند، و دست و پاى شما را قطع مى كنند ، نه مى توانيد با حيله و نقشه آنها را بپراكنيد، و نه با سوگندها قادريد از سر راهتان دور كنيد. زيرا كمين گاه شيطان ذلّت آور، تنگ و تاريك، مرگ آور،

p: 70

و جولانگاه بلا و سختى هاست ، پس شراره هاى تعصّب و كينه هاى جاهلى را در قلب خود خاموش سازيد، كه تكبّر و خود پرستى در دل مسلمان از آفت هاى شيطان، غرورها، و كشش ها و وسوسه هاى اوست. تاج تواضع و فروتنى را بر سر نهيد، و تكبر و خود پسندى را زير پا بگذاريد، و حلقه هاى زنجير خود بزرگ بينى را از گردن باز كنيد، و تواضع و فروتنى را سنگر ميان خود و شيطان و لشكريانش قرار دهيد، زيرا شيطان از هر گروهى لشكريان و يارانى سواره و پياده دارد. و شما همانا قابيل «1» نباشيد كه بر برادرش تكبّر كرد، خدا او را برترى نداد، خويشتن را بزرگ مى پنداشت، و حسادت او را به دشمنى واداشت، تعصّب آتش كينه در دلش شعله ور كرد، و شيطان باد كبر و غرور در دماغش دميد، و سر انجام پشيمان شد، و خداوند گناه قاتلان را تا روز قيامت بر گردن او نهاد.

5 پرهيز از تكبّر و اخلاق جاهلى

آگاه باشيد! در سركشى و ستم زياده روى كرديد، و در زمين در دشمنى با خداوند فساد به راه انداختيد، و آشكارا با بندگان خدا به نبرد پرداختيد. خدا را! خدا را! از تكبّر و خودپسندى، و از تفاخر جاهلى بر حذر باشيد، كه جايگاه بغض و كينه و رشد وسوسه هاى شيطانى است، كه ملّتهاى گذشته، و امّتهاى پيشين را فريب داده است، تا آنجا كه در تاريكى هاى جهالت فرو رفتند، و در پرتگاه هلاكت سقوط كردند و به آسانى به همان جايى كه شيطان مى خواست كشانده شدند. كبر و خود پسندى چيزى است كه قلب هاى متكبّران را همانند كرده تا قرن ها به تضاد و خونريزى گذراندند، و سينه ها از كينه ها تنگى گرفت.

p: 71

6 پرهيز از سران متكبّر و خود پسند

آگاه باشيد! زنهار! زنهار! از پيروى و فرمانبردارى سران و بزرگانتان، آنان كه به اصل و حسب خود مى نازند، و خود را بالاتر از آنچه كه هستند مى پندارند، و كارهاى نادرست را به خدا نسبت مى دهند، و نعمت هاى گسترده خدا را انكار مى كنند، تا با خواسته هاى پروردگارى مبارزه كنند، و نعمت هاى او را ناديده انگارند. آنان شالوده تعصّب جاهلى، و ستون هاى فتنه، و شمشيرهاى تفاخر جاهليّت هستند. پس، از خدا پروا كنيد، و با نعمت هاى خدادادى درگير نشويد، و به فضل و بخشش او حسادت نورزيد، و از فرومايگان اطاعت نكنيد، آنان كه تيرگى شان را با صفاى خود نوشيديد، و بيمارى شان را با سلامت خود درهم آميخته ايد، و باطل آنان را با حق خويش مخلوط كرده ايد ، در حالى كه آنان ريشه همه فسق ها و انحرافات و همراه انواع گناهانند.

شيطان آنها را براى گمراه كردن مردم، مركب هاى رام قرار داد، و از آنان لشكرى براى هجوم به مردم ساخت، و براى دزديدن عقل هاى شما آنان را سخنگوى خود برگزيد ، كه شما را هدف تيرهاى خويش، و پايمال قدم هاى خود، و دستاويز وسوسه هاى خود گردانيد.

7 ضرورت عبرت از گذشتگان

مردم! از آنچه كه بر ملّت هاى متكبّر گذشته، از كيفرها و عقوبت ها و سختگيرى ها، و ذلّت و خوارى فرود آمده عبرت گيريد، و از قبرها و خاكى كه بر آنچه ره نهادند، و زمين هايى كه با پهلوها بر آن افتادند پند پذيريد، و از آثار زشتى كه كبر و غرور در دل ها مى گذارد به خدا پناه ببريد، همانگونه كه از حوادث سخت به او پناه مى بريد! اگر خدا تكبّرورزيدن را اجازه مى فرمود، حتما به بندگان مخصوص خود از پيامبران و امامان عليهم السلام اجازه مى داد، در صورتى كه خداى سبحان تكبّر و خودپسندى را نسبت به آنان ناپسند، و تواضع و فروتنى را براى آنان پسنديد ، كه چهره بر زمين مى گذارند و صورت ها بر خاك مى مالند، و در برابر مؤمنان فروتنى مى كنند، و خود از قشر مستضعف جامعه مى باشند كه خدا آنها را با گرسنگى آزمود، و به سختى و بلا گرفتارشان كرد، و با ترس و بيم امتحانشان فرمود، و با مشكلات فراوان، خالصشان گردانيد. پس مال و فرزند را دليل خشنودى يا خشم خدا ندانيد، كه نشانه ناآگاهى به موارد آزمايش، و امتحان در بى نيازى و قدرت است ، زيرا خداوند سبحان فرمود:

p: 72

«آيا گمان مى كنند مال و فرزندانى كه به آنها عطا كرديم، به سرعت نيكى ها را براى آنان فراهم مى كنيم؟ نه آنان آگاهى ندارند»

8 فلسفه آزمايش ها

پس همانا خداوند سبحان بندگان متكبّر را با دوستان خود كه در چشم آنها ناتوانند مى آزمايد، وقتى كه موسى بن عمران و برادرش هارون عليهم السّلام بر فرعون وارد شدند، و جامه هاى پشمين بتن، و چوب دستى در دست داشتند، و با فرعون شرط كردند كه اگر تسليم پروردگار شود، حكومت و ملكش جاودانه بماند و عزّتش برقرار باشد ، فرعون گفت:

«آيا از اين دو نفر تعجّب نمى كنيد؟ كه دوام عزّت و جاودانگى حكومتم را به خواسته هاى خود ربط مى دهند؟

در حالى كه در فقر و بيچارگى به سر مى برند؟ اگر چنين است چرا دستبندهاى طلا به همراه ندارند؟» اين سخن را فرعون براى بزرگ شمردن طلا و تحقير پوشش لباسى از پشم گفت، در حالى كه اگر خداى سبحان اراده مى فرمود، به هنگام بعثت پيامبران، درهاى گنج ها، و معدن هاى جواهرات، و باغات سرسبز را به روى پيامبران مى گشود، و پرندگان آسمان و حيوانات وحشى زمين را همراه آنان به حركت در مى آورد. امّا اگر اين كار را مى كرد، آزمايش از ميان مى رفت، و پاداش و عذاب بى اثر مى شد، و بشارت ها و هشدارهاى الهى بى فايده مى بود، و بر مؤمنان اجر

و پاداش امتحان شدگان واجب نمى شد، و ايمان آورندگان ثواب نيكوكاران را نمى يافتند، و واژه ها، معانى خود را از دست مى داد. در صورتى كه خداوند پيامبران را با عزم و اراده قوى، گرچه با ظاهرى ساده و فقير مبعوث كرد، با قناعتى كه دل ها و چشم ها را پر سازد، هر چند فقر و ندارى ظاهرى آنان چشم و گوش ها را خيره سازد. اگر پيامبران الهى، داراى چنان قدرتى بودند كه مخالفت با آنان امكان نمى داشت، و توانايى و عزّتى مى داشتند كه هرگز مغلوب نمى شدند، و سلطنت و حكومتى مى داشتند كه همه چشم ها به سوى آنان بود، از راه هاى دور بار سفر به سوى آنان مى بستند، اعتبار و ارزششان در ميان مردم اندك بود، و متكبّران در برابرشان سر فرود مى آوردند ، و تظاهر به ايمان مى كردند، از روى ترس يا علاقه اى كه به مادّيات داشتند.

p: 73

در آن صورت نيّت هاى خالص يافت نمى شد، و اهداف غير الهى در ايمانشان راه مى يافت، و با انگيزه هاى گوناگون به سوى نيكى ها مى شتافتند.امّا خداى سبحان اراده فرمود كه پيروى از پيامبران، و تصديق كتب آسمانى، و فروتنى در عبادت، و تسليم در برابر فرمان خدا، و اطاعت محض فرمانبردارى، با نيّت خالص تنها براى خدا صورت پذيرد، و اهداف غير خدايى در آن راه نيابد ، كه هر مقدار آزمايش و مشكلات بزرگتر باشد ثواب و پاداش نيز بزرگتر خواهد بود.

9 فلسفه حج

آيا مشاهده نمى كنيد كه همانا خداوند سبحان، انسان هاى پيشين از آدم عليه السّلام تا آيندگان اين جهان را با سنگ هايى در مكّه آزمايش كرد كه نه زيان مى رسانند، و نه نفعى دارند، نه مى بينند، و نه مى شنوند؟ اين سنگ ها را خانه محترم خود قرار داده و آن را عامل پايدارى مردم گردانيد. سپس كعبه را در سنگلاخ ترين مكان ها، بى گياه ترين زمين ها، و كم فاصله ترين درّه ها، در ميان كوه هاى خشن، سنگريزه هاى فراوان، و چشمه هاى كم آب، و آبادى هاى از هم دور قرار داد، كه نه شتر، نه اسب و گاو و گوسفند، هيچ كدام در آن سرزمين آسايش ندارند. سپس آدم عليه السلام و فرزندانش را فرمان داد كه به سوى كعبه برگردند، و آن را مركز اجتماع و سر منزل مقصود و بار اندازشان گردانند، تا مردم با عشق قلب ها ، به سرعت از ميان فلات و دشت هاى دور، و از درون شهرها، روستاها، درّه هاى عميق، و جزاير از هم پراكنده درياها به مكّه روى آورند، شانه هاى خود را بجنبانند، و گرداگرد كعبه لا اله الا اللّه بر زبان جارى سازند، و در اطراف خانه طواف كنند، و با موهاى آشفته، و بدن هاى پر گرد و غبار در حركت باشند. لباس هاى خود را كه نشانه شخصيّت هر فرد است در آورند، و با اصلاح نكردن موهاى سر، قيافه خود را تغيير دهند، كه آزمونى بزرگ، و امتحانى سخت، و آزمايشى آشكار است براى پاكسازى و خالص شدن، كه خداوند آن را سبب رحمت و رسيدن به بهشت قرار داد. اگر خداوند خانه محترمش، و مكان هاى انجام مراسم حج را، در ميان باغ ها و نهرها، و سرزمين هاى سبز و هموار، و پردرخت و ميوه، مناطقى آباد و داراى خانه ها و كاخ هاى بسيار، و آبادى هاى به هم پيوسته ، در ميان گندمزارها و باغات خرّم و پر از گل و گياه، داراى مناظرى زيبا و پر آب، در وسط باغستانى شادى آفرين، و جادّه هاى آباد قرار مى داد، به همان اندازه كه آزمايش ساده بود، پاداش نيز سبك تر مى شد. اگر پايه ها و بنيان كعبه، و سنگ هايى كه در ساختمان آن به كار رفته از زمرّد سبز، و ياقوت سرخ، و داراى نور و روشنايى بود، دل ها ديرتر به شك و ترديد مى رسيدند، و تلاش شيطان بر قلب ها كمتر اثر مى گذاشت، و وسوسه هاى پنهانى او در مردم كارگر نبود. در صورتى كه خداوند بندگان خود را با انواع سختى ها مى آزمايد، و با مشكلات زياد به عبادت مى خواند، و به اقسام گرفتارى ها مبتلا مى سازد، تا كبر و خود پسندى را از دل هايشان خارج كند، و به جاى آن فروتنى آورد، و درهاى فضل و رحمتش را به روى شان بگشايد، و وسائل عفو و بخشش را به آسانى در اختيارشان گذارد.

p: 74

10 پرهيز از ستمكارى

پس، خدا را! خدا را! از تعجيل در عقوبت، و كيفر سركشى و ستم بر حذر باشيد، و از آينده دردناك ظلم، و سر انجام زشت تكبّر و خود پسندى كه كمين گاه ابليس است، و جايگاه حيله و نيرنگ اوست، بترسيد، حيله و نيرنگى كه با دلهاى انسان ها، چون زهر كشنده مى آميزد و هرگز بى اثر نخواهد بود، و كسى از هلاكتش جان سالم نخواهد برد: نه دانشمند به خاطر دانشش، و نه فقير به جهت لباس كهنه اش، در امان مى باشد.

11 فلسفه عبادات اسلامى

خداوند بندگانش را، با نماز و زكات و تلاش در روزه دارى، حفظ كرده است، تا اعضا و جوارحشان آرام، و ديدگانشان خاشع، و جان و روانشان فروتن، و دل هايشان متواضع باشد، كبر و خودپسندى از آنان رخت بربندد ، چرا كه در سجده، بهترين جاى صورت را به خاك ماليدن، فروتنى آورد، و گذاردن اعضاء پر ارزش بدن بر زمين، اظهار كوچكى كردن است.

و روزه گرفتن، و چسبيدن شكم به پشت، عامل فروتنى است، و پرداخت زكات، براى مصرف شدن ميوه جات زمين و غير آن، در جهت نيازمنديهاى فقرا و مستمندان است. به آثار عبادات بنگريد كه چگونه شاخه هاى درخت تكبّر را در هم مى شكند؟

و از روييدن كبر و خودپرستى جلوگيرى مى كند!

12 تعصّب ورزيدن زشت و زيبا

من در اعمال و رفتار جهانيان نظر دوختم، هيچ كس را نيافتم كه بدون علّت در باره چيزى تعصّب ورزد، جز با دليلى كه با آن ناآگاهان را بفريبد، و يا برهانى آورد كه در عقل سفيهان نفوذ كند، جز شما! زيرا در باره چيزى تعصّب مى ورزيد كه نه علّتى دارد و نه سببى ، ولى شيطان به خاطر اصل خلقت خود بر آدم عليه السّلام تعصّب ورزيد، و آفرينش او را مورد سرزنش قرار داد و گفت «مرا از آتش و تو را از گل ساخته اند»، و سرمايه داران فساد زده امّت ها، براى داشتن نعمت هاى فراوان تعصّب ورزيدند و گفتند:

p: 75

«ما صاحبان فرزندان و اموال فراوانيم و هرگز عذاب نخواهيم شد» «1» پس اگر در تعصّب ورزيدن ناچاريد، براى اخلاق پسنديده، افعال نيكو و كارهاى خوب تعصّب داشته باشيد، همان افعال و كردارى كه انسان هاى با شخصيّت، و شجاعان خاندان عرب، و سران قبائل در آنها از يكديگر پيشى مى گرفتند، يعنى اخلاق پسنديده، بردبارى «2» به هنگام خشم فراوان، و كردار و رفتار زيبا و درست، و خصلت هاى نيكو!پس تعصّب ورزيد در حمايت كردن از پناهندگان، و همسايگان، وفادارى به عهد و پيمان، اطاعت كردن از نيكى ها، سرپيچى از تكبّر و خود پسندى ها، تلاش در جود و بخشش، خود دارى از ستمكارى، بزرگ شمردن خونريزى، انصاف داشتن با مردم، فروخوردن خشم، پرهيز از فساد در زمين، تا رستگار شويد.

13 علل پيروزى و شكست ملّت ها

از كيفرهايى كه بر اثر كردار بد و كارهاى ناپسند بر امّت هاى پيشين فرود آمد خود را حفظ كنيد، و حالات گذشتگان را در خوبى ها و سختى ها به ياد آوريد، و بترسيد كه همانند آنها باشيد! پس آنگاه كه در زندگى گذشتگان مطالعه و انديشه مى كنيد، عهده دار چيزى باشيد كه عامل عزّت آنان بود ، و دشمنان را از سر راهشان برداشت، و سلامت و عافيت زندگى آنان را فراهم كرد، و نعمت هاى فراوان را در اختيارشان گذاشت، و كرامت و شخصيّت به آنان بخشيد، كه از تفرقه و جدايى اجتناب كردند، و بر وحدت و همدلى همّت گماشتند، و يكديگر را به وحدت واداشته به آن سفارش كردند. و از كارهايى كه پشت آنها را شكست، و قدرت آنها را در هم كوبيد، چون كينه توزى با يكديگر، پركردن دلها از بخل و حسد، به يكديگر پشت كردن و از هم بريدن، و دست از يارى هم كشيدن، بپرهيزيد، و در احوالات مؤمنان پيشين انديشه كنيد، كه چگونه در حال آزمايش و امتحان به سر بردند، آيا بيش از همه مشكلات بر دوش آنها نبود؟ و آيا بيش از همه مردم در سختى و زحمت نبودند؟ و آيا از همه مردم جهان بيشتر در تنگنا قرار نداشتند؟ فرعون هاى زمان، آنها را به بردگى كشاندند، و همواره بدترين شكنجه ها را بر آنان وارد كردند، و انواع تلخى ها را به كامشان ريختند، كه اين دوران ذلّت و هلاكت و مغلوب بودن، تداوم يافت نه راهى وجود داشت كه سرپيچى كنند، و نه چاره اى كه از خود دفاع نمايند، تا آن كه خداوند، تلاش و استقامت و بردبارى در برابر ناملايمات آنها را، در راه دوستى خود، و قدرت تحمّل ناراحتى ها را براى ترس از خويش، مشاهده فرمود. آنان را از تنگناهاى بلا و سختى ها نجات داد، و ذلّت آنان را به عزّت و بزرگوارى، و ترس آنها را به امنيّت تبديل فرمود ، و آنها را حاكم و زمامدار و پيشواى انسانها قرار داد، و آن قدر كرامت و بزرگى از طرف خدا به آنها رسيد كه خيال آن را نيز در سر نمى پروراندند. پس انديشه كنيد كه چگونه بودند آنگاه كه: وحدت اجتماعى داشتند، خواسته هاى آنان يكى، قلب هاى آنان يكسان، و دست هاى آنان مدد كار يكديگر، شمشيرها يارى كننده، نگاه ها به يك سو دوخته، و اراده ها واحد و همسو بود! آيا در آن حال مالك و سرپرست سراسر زمين نبودند؟ و رهبر و پيشواى همه دنيا نشدند؟ پس به پايان كار آنها نيز بنگريد! در آن هنگام كه به تفرقه و پراكندگى روى آوردند، و مهربانى و دوستى آنان از بين رفت، و سخن ها و دل هايشان گوناگون شد، از هم جدا شدند، به حزب ها و گروه ها پيوستند ، خداوند لباس كرامت خود را از تنشان بيرون آورد، و نعمت هاى فراوان شيرين را از آنها گرفت، و داستان آنها در ميان شما عبرت انگيز باقى ماند. از حالات زندگى فرزندان اسماعيل پيامبر، و فرزندان اسحاق پيامبر، فرزندان اسراييل «يعقوب» (كه درود بر آنان باد) عبرت گيريد، راستى چقدر حالات ملّتها با هم يكسان، و در صفات و رفتارشان با يكديگر همانند است! در احوالات آنها روزگارى كه از هم جدا و پراكنده بودند انديشه كنيد، زمانى كه پادشاهان كسرى و قيصر «1» بر آنان حكومت مى كردند «2»، و آنها را از سرزمين هاى آباد، از كناره هاى دجله و فرات، «3» و از محيطهاى سر سبز و خرّم دور كردند، و به صحراهاى كم گياه، و بى آب و علف، محل وزش بادها، و سرزمين هايى كه زندگى در آنجاها مشكل بود تبعيد كردند، آنان را در مكان هاى نامناسب، مسكين و فقير، همنشين شتران ساختند، «4» خانه هاشان پست ترين خانه ملّت ها، و سرزمين زندگيشان خشك ترين بيابان ها بود ، نه دعوت حقّى وجود داشت كه به آن روى آورند و پناهنده شوند، و نه سايه محبّتى وجود داشت كه در عزّت آن زندگى كنند. حالات آنان دگرگون، و قدرت آنان پراكنده، و جمعيّت انبوهشان متفرّق بود. در بلايى سخت، و در جهالتى فراگير فرو رفته بودند، دختران را زنده به گور، و بت ها را پرستش مى كردند، و قطع رابطه با خويشاوندان، و غارتگرى هاى پياپى در ميانشان رواج يافته بود.

p: 76

14 ره آورد بعثت پيامبر اسلام صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم

حال به نعمت هاى بزرگ الهى كه به هنگامه بعثت پيامبر اسلام صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم بر آنان فروريخت بنگريد، كه چگونه اطاعت آنان را با دين خود پيوند داد. و با دعوتش آنها را به وحدت رساند! چگونه نعمت هاى الهى بالهاى كرامت خود را بر آنان گستراند، و جويبارهاى آسايش و رفاه بر ايشان روان ساخت! و تمام بركات آيين حق، آنها را در بر گرفت! در ميان نعمت ها غرق گشتند، و در خرّمى زندگانى شادمان شدند، امور اجتماعى آنان در سايه قدرت حكومت اسلام استوار شد، و در پرتو عزّتى پايدار آرام گرفتند، و به حكومتى پايدار رسيدند. آنگاه آنان حاكم و زمامدار جهان شدند، و سلاطين روى زمين گرديدند، و فرمانرواى كسانى شدند كه در گذشته حاكم بودند، و قوانين الهى را بر كسانى اجراء مى كردند كه مجريان احكام بودند، و در گذشته كسى قدرت در هم شكستن نيروى آنان را نداشت، و هيچ كس خيال مبارزه با آنان را در سر نمى پروراند.

15 علل نكوهش و سقوط كوفيان

آگاه باشيد كه شما هم اكنون دست از رشته اطاعت كشيديد، و با زنده كردن ارزش هاى جاهليّت، دژ محكم الهى را در هم شكستيد، در حالى كه خداوند بر اين امّت اسلامى بر «وحدت و برادرى» منّت گذارده بود، كه در سايه آن زندگى كنند، نعمتى بود كه هيچ ارزشى نمى توان همانند آن تصوّر كرد، زيرا از هر ارزشى گران قدرتر، و از هر كرامتى والاتر بود. بدانيد كه پس از هجرت، دوباره چونان اعراب باديه نشين شده ايد، و پس از وحدت و برادرى به احزاب گوناگون تبديل گشته ايد، از اسلام تنها نام آن، و از ايمان جز نشانى را نمى شناسيد! شعار مى دهيد: آتش آرى، ننگ هرگز! گويا مى خواهيد اسلام را واژگون، و پرده حرمتش را پاره كنيد؟ و پيمانى را كه خدا براى حفظ حرمت مسلمين در زمين، و عامل امنيّت و آرامش مردم قرار داد بشكنيد؟همانا اگر شما به غير اسلام پناه بريد، كافران با شما نبرد خواهند كرد.

p: 77

آنگاه نه جبرئيل و نه ميكائيل، نه مهاجر و نه انصار، وجود ندارند كه شما را يارى دهند، و چاره اى جز نبرد با شمشير نداريد تا خدا در ميان شما حكم نمايد. مردم! از مثل هاى قرآن در باره كسانى كه عذاب و كيفر شدند، و روزهاى سخت آنان، و آسيب هاى شديدى كه ديدند آگاهيد، پس وعده عذاب خدا را دور مپنداريد، و به عذر اينكه آگاهى نداريد خود را گرفتار نسازيد، و انتقام خدا را سبك، و خود را از كيفر الهى ايمن مپنداريد ، زيرا كه خداى سبحان، مردم روزگاران گذشته را از رحمت خود دور نساخت مگر براى ترك امر به معروف، و نهى از منكر. پس خدا، بى خردان را براى نافرمانى، و خردمندان را براى ترك باز داشتن ديگران از گناه، لعنت كرد.

آگاه باشيد! شما رشته پيوند با اسلام را قطع، و اجراى حدود الهى را تعطيل، و احكام اسلام را به فراموشى سپرده ايد!

16 قاطعيّت امام در نبرد با منحرفان

آگاه باشيد! خداوند مرا به جنگ با سركشان تجاوز كار، پيمان شكنان و فساد كنندگان در زمين فرمان داد: با ناكثان پيمان شكن جنگيدم، و با قاسطين تجاوز كار جهاد كردم، و مارقين خارج شده از دين را خوار و زبون ساختم ، و رهبر خوارج (شيطان ردهه) «1» بانگ صاعقه اى قلبش را به تپش آورد و سينه اش را لرزاند و كارش را ساخت. حال تنها اندكى از سركشان و ستمگران باقى ماندند، كه اگر خداوند مرا باقى گذارد با حمله ديگرى نابودشان خواهم كرد، و حكومت حق را در سراسر كشور اسلامى پايدار خواهم كرد، جز مناطق پراكنده و دور دست.

p: 78

17 سوابق درخشان شجاعت و فضائل امام عليه السّلام

من در خردسالى، بزرگان عرب را به خاك افكندم، و شجاعان دو قبيله معروف «ربيعه» و «مضر» را در هم شكستم! شما موقعيّت مرا نسبت به رسول خدا صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم در خويشاوندى نزديك، در مقام و منزلت ويژه مى دانيد، پيامبر مرا در اتاق خويش مى نشاند، در حالى كه كودك بودم مرا در آغوش خود مى گرفت، و در بستر مخصوص خود مى خوابانيد، بدنش را به بدن من مى چسباند، و بوى پاكيزه خود را به من مى بوياند، و گاهى غذايى را لقمه لقمه در دهانم مى گذارد، هرگز دروغى در گفتار من، و اشتباهى در كردارم نيافت. از همان لحظه اى كه پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم را از شير گرفتند، خداوند بزرگ ترين فرشته (جبرئيل) خود را مأمور تربيت پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم كرد تا شب و روز، او را به راه هاى بزرگوارى و راستى و اخلاق نيكو راهنمايى كند ، و من همواره با پيامبر بودم چونان فرزند كه همواره با مادر است، «2» پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم هر روز نشانه تازه اى از اخلاق نيكو را برايم آشكار مى فرمود، و به من فرمان مى داد كه به او اقتداء نمايم. پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم چند ماه از سال را در غار حراء «3» مى گذراند، تنها من او را مشاهده مى كردم، و كسى جز من او را نمى ديد، در آن روزها، در هيچ خانه اسلام راه نيافت جز خانه رسول خدا صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم كه خديجه هم در آن بود و من سوّمين آنان بودم. من نور وحى و رسالت را مى ديدم، و بوى نبوّت را مى بوييدم من هنگامى كه وحى بر پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم فرود مى آمد، ناله شيطان را شنيدم، گفتم اى رسول خدا، اين ناله كيست؟ گفت: شيطان است كه از پرستش خويش مأيوس گرديدو فرمود: «على! تو آنچه را من مى شنوم، مى شنوى، و آنچه را كه من مى بينم، مى بينى، جز اينكه تو پيامبر نيستى، بلكه وزير من بوده و به راه خير مى روى»

p: 79

18 خيره سرى و دشمنى سران قريش

من با پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم بودم آنگاه كه سران قريش نزد او آمدند و گفتند:

«اى محمد صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم تو ادّعاى بزرگى كردى، كه هيچيك از پدران و خاندانت نكردند ، ما از تو معجزه اى مى خواهيم، اگر پاسخ مثبت داده، انجام دهى، مى دانيم كه تو پيامبر و فرستاده خدايى، و اگر از انجام آن سرباز زنى، خواهيم دانست كه ساحر و دروغگويى» پس پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم فرمود «شما چه مى خواهيد؟» گفتند: «اين درخت را بخوان تا از ريشه كنده شود و در پيش تو بايستد» پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم فرمود: خداوند بر همه چيز تواناست. حال اگر خداوند اين كار را بكند آيا ايمان مى آوريد؟ و به حق شهادت مى دهيد؟

گفتند: آرى ، پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم فرمود: من بزودى نشانتان مى دهم آنچه را كه درخواست كرديد، و همانا بهتر از هر كس مى دانم كه شما به خير و نيكى باز نخواهيد گشت، زيرا در ميان شما كسى است كه كشته شده و در چاه «بدر» دفن خواهد شد، «1» و كسى است «2» كه جنگ احزاب را تدارك خواهد كرد. سپس به درخت اشاره كرد و فرمود: «اى درخت! اگر به خدا و روز قيامت ايمان دارى، و مى دانى من پيامبر خدايم، از زمين با ريشه هايت در آى، و به فرمان خدا در پيش روى من قرار گير» سوگند به پيامبرى كه خدا او را به حق مبعوث كرد، درخت با ريشه هايش از زمين كنده شده، و پيش آمد كه با صداى شديد چونان به هم خوردن بال پرندگان، يا به هم خوردن شاخه هاى درختان، جلو آمد و در پيش روى پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم ايستاد كه برخى از شاخه هاى بلند خود را بر روى پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم و بعضى ديگر را روى من انداخت و من در طرف راست پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم ايستاده بودم ، وقتى سران قريش اين منظره را مشاهده كردند، با كبر و غرور گفتند: «به درخت فرمان ده، نصفش جلوتر آيد، و نصف ديگر در جاى خود بماند» پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم فرمان داد. نيمى از درخت با وضعى شگفت آور و صدايى سخت به پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم نزديك شد گويا مى خواست دور آن حضرت بپيچد امّا سران قريش از روى كفر و سركشى گفتند: «فرمان ده اين نصف باز گردد و به نيم ديگر ملحق شود، و به صورت اول در آيد» پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم دستور داد و چنان شد. من گفتم: لا اله الا اللّه، اى رسول خدا من نخستين كسى هستم كه به تو ايمان آوردم، و نخستين فردى هستم اقرار مى كنم كه درخت با فرمان خدا براى تصديق نبوّت، و بزرگداشت دعوت رسالت، آنچه را خواستى انجام داد. امّا سران قريش همگى گفتند: «او ساحرى است دروغگو، كه سحرى شگفت آور دارد، و سخت با مهارت است».

p: 80

و خطاب به پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم گفتند: «آيا نبوّت تو را كسى جز امثال على عليه السّلام باور مى كند؟»

19 الگوهاى كامل ايمان

و همانا من از كسانى هستم كه در راه خدا از هيچ سرزنشى نمى ترسند، كسانى كه سيماى آنها سيماى صدّيقان، و سخنانشان، سخنان نيكان است، شب زنده داران و روشنى بخشان روزند، به دامن قرآن پناه برده سنّت هاى خدا و رسولش را زنده مى كنند ، نه تكبّر و خود پسندى دارند، و نه بر كسى برترى مى جويند، نه خيانتكارند و نه در زمين فساد مى كنند، قلب هايشان در بهشت، و پيكرهايشان سرگرم اعمال پسنديده است.


(1) ژ. در نسخه هاى ديگر «لا يدرى» دارد يعنى معلوم نيست (بدون استفاده از علم غيب) (در حديثى از امام رضا عليه السّلام نقل شد كه نام ابليس، حارث بود و پس از رانده شدن از رحمت الهى به ابليس يعنى «دور» ناميده شد).

كه طرفداران مونيسم MSINOM (فلسفه وحدت وجود) تلاش فراوان كردند تا كليّه عوارض جهان خلقت را در يك اصل وحدت وجود تبيين كنند.

(2) قابيل بر فرزند مادرش (هابيل) تكبّر كرد.

(3) نفى حكومت: پلوتوكراسى YCARCOTULP (حكومت سرمايه دارى) و سرمايه داران بزرگ

(4) احلام: را ابن ابى الحديد «عقل و انديشه» معنا كرد، ولى ابن ميثم در جلد چهارم از شرح خود ص 93، احلام را به «بردبارى» معنا كرد، و حق با اوست.

(5) كسرى لقب پادشاهان ايران و قيصر لقب پادشاهان روم شرقى بود.

(6) نفى حكومت: اريستوكراسى YCARCOTSIRA (حكومت هاى اشرافى) و اليگارشى YHCRAGILO (حكومت استبدادى چند نفر از أغنيا)

p: 81

(7) بحر العراق: درياى عراق، منظور آبهاى ميان دجله و فرات است كه ساسانيان بر آن حكومت داشتند.

(8) دبر و وبر، كنايه از شتر است، يعنى آنها را فقير و تهيدست با شتران رها كردند.

(9) ردهة: گودالى كه رهبر خوارج معروف به «ذو الثديه» جنازه اش در آن افتاده بود. و ناكثان يعنى «عهد شكنان» اصحاب جمل كه در بصره شورش كردند، قاسطين «ستمكاران» يعنى معاويه و پيروان ستمكار او و مارقين يعنى خارج شدگان، خوارج و طرفدارانشان كه از لشكر امام و امّت اسلامى كناره گرفتند.

(10) اتّباع الفصيل اثر امّه (شتر بچّه همواره با شتر است) وقتى مى خواستند بگويند كه آن دو نفر هميشه با هم بودند از اين ضرب المثل استفاده مى كردند.

(11) حراء: كوهى است كه در شمال مكّه به فاصله 6 كيلو متر، بر دامنه جنوبى كوه و در ارتفاع 160 متر، غارى وجود دارد كه پيامبران گذشته و حضرت ابراهيم عليه السّلام در آن عبادت مى كردند، و خلوتگاه و محل عبادت رسول خدا صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم نيز بود كه آيات آغازين قرآن در آنجا بر رسول خدا صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم نازل شد.

(12) اين پيش گوئى از آينده به جنگ بدر (چاهى بين مكّه و مدينه) اختصاص دارد كه جسد عتبه و شيبه، پسران ربيعه و اميّه و پسران عبد شمس و ابو جهل و برخى ديگر در آن ريخته شد و دسته جمعى در آن دفن شدند.

(13) اين شخص ابو سفيان است كه جنگ احزاب (خندق) را تدارك ديد و سرانجام شكست خورد، كه اين حوادث در سالهاى پس از هجرت اتّفاق افتاد.

p: 82


(1). The intention is that "you should not create conditions by which you may be deprived of Allah's favours like the jealous who aims at harming him of whom he is jealous."

(2). The intention is to say that if belief is accepted under force of awe and fear and worship is offered under the influence of power and authority then neither will it be belief in the true sense nor worship in real spirit. This is because belief is the name of inner testimony and heart-felt conviction. The conviction produced by force and compulsion can be only verbal but not heart-felt. Similarly worship is the name of open acknowledgement of one's position of servitude. Worship which is devoid of the feeling of servitude or the sense of devotion and which is performed only in view of authority or fear cannot be real worship. Therefore such belief and such worship would not present their correct connotation.

(3). The reason for specifying the learned and the poor is that the learned has the light of learning to lead him which the destitution of the poor may deny to him. In spite of this both the learned and the poor fall into his deceit.

Then how can the ignorant save himself from his clutches and how can the rich who has all the means to get into wrong ways defend himself against him.

Nay! Verily man is wont to rebel!

As the deemeth himself needless!

(4) . If a glance is cast at the rise and fall and events and happenings of the past people this fact will shine like daylight that the rise and fall of communities is not the result of luck or change but that to a great extent it is affected by their acts and deeds. And of whatever type those deeds are their results and consequences are in accord with them. Consequently the stories and events of past people openly reflect that the result of oppression and evil deeds has always been ruin and destruction while the consequence of virtuous action and peaceful living was always good luck and success. Since time and people make no difference if the same conditions appear again and the same actions are repeated the same results must accrue which had appeared in the earlier set of circumstances because the accrual of the results of good or bad actions is sure and certain like the properties and effects of everything.

p: 83

It this were not so it would not be possible to kindle hope in the minds of the oppressed and the afflicted by presenting to them past events and their effects nor could the oppressors and tyrants be warned of the ill-effects of their deeds on the ground that it was not necessary that the same would accrue now as had accrued earlier. But it is the universality of causality which makes past events the object of a lesson for posterity. Consequently it was for this purpose that Amir al-mu'minin provoked thinking and consideration and mentioned the various events of Banu Isma'il Banu Ishaq and Banu Isra'il and their affliction at the hands of the kings of Persia and Rome.

The progeny of Ismael the elder son of Ibrahim (Abraham) is called Banu Isma'il while the progeny of his younger son Issac is called Banu Ishaq which later continued to divide into various off-shoots and acquired different names. Their original abode was at Canaan in Palestine where Ibrahim had settled after the immigration from the plains of the Euphrates and the Tigris. His son Isma'il had settled in the Hijaz where Ibrahim had left him and his mother Hajar (Hagar). Isma'il married as-Sayyidah bint Mudad a woman of the tribe of Jurhum which also inhabited this very area. His progeny sprang from her and spread throughout the world. The other son of Ibrahim namely Ishaq remained in Canaan. His son was Ya'qub (Jacob/lsrael) who married Liya the daughter of his mother's brother and after her death married his other daughter.

p: 84

Both of them bore him progeny which is known as Banu Isra'il. One of his sons was Yusuf (Joseph) who reached the neighbouring country Egypt through an accident and after suffering slavery and imprisonment eventually became the ruler and occupier of the throne.

After this change he sent for all his relations and kith and kin and in this way Egypt became the abode of Banu Isra'il. For some time they lived there in peace and safety and led a life of respect and esteem but by and by the locals began to view them with disdain and hatred and made them the target of all sorts of tyrannies so much so that they used to kill their children and retained their women as slave-maids as a result of which their determination and courage was trampled and their spirit of freedom was completely subdued. At last conditions changed and the period of their troubles came to an end after four hundred years of the shackles of slavery; when Allah sent Musa to deliver them from the oppression of the Pharaoh.

Musa set off with them to leave Egypt but in order to destroy the Pharaoh Allah turned them towards the Nile where there was all flood in front and on the rear the huge forces of the Pharaoh. This bewildered them much but Allah commanded Musa to enter the river without fear. Thus when he went forward there appeared in the river not only one but several courses to pass through and Musa crossed to the other side of the river along with Banu Isra'il. Pharaoh was closely following. When he saw them passing he too advanced with his arm but when they reached the middle of the stream the still water began moving and engulfing Pharaoh and his army in its waves finished them. About them the Qur'an says:

p: 85

And (remember ye) when We delivered you from Pharaoh's people who afflicted you with grievous torment slaying your sons and by letting your women alive and in that was a great trial from your Lord. (2:49)

However when after leaving the boundaries of Egypt they entered their motherland Palestine they established their own state and began to live in freedom and Allah changed their lowliness and disgrace into the greatness and sublimity of rule and power. In this connection Allah says:

And made We inheritors the people who were deemed weak (to inherit) the eastern parts of the earth and the western parts of it which we had blessed therein (with fertility) and the good word of thy Lord was fulfilled in the children of Israel for what they did endure; and destroyed We what Pharaoh and his people had wrought and what shade they did make. (Qur'an 7:137)

On occupying the throne of rule and regaining prosperity and peacefulness Banu Isra'il forgot all the ignominies and disgraces of the period of slavery and instead of being thankful to Allah for the favours granted by Him they took to rebellion and revolt. Consequently they shamelessly indulged in vices and misconduct and partook in mischiefs and evil deeds to the maximum made lawful things unlawful and unlawful things lawful by false excuses and disobeyed the prophets who tried to preach and correct them under the command of Allah and even killed them. The natural consequence of their vicious activities was that they were caught in punishment for their deeds. Consequently Nebuchadnezzar who was ruling in Babylon (Iraq) in 600 B.C. rose to march against Syria and Palestine and killed seventy thousand Banu Isra'il with his blood-thirsty swords devastated their towns drove away the survivors with him like sheep and goats and threw them in the abyss of ignominy by turning them into slaves.

p: 86

Although after this ruination there seemed no way for them to regain position and power yet nature gave them still another chance to recover. When Nebuchadnezzar died and power came in the hands of Belshazzar he started all sorts of oppression on the people. Being disgusted with this they sent word to the ruler of Persia that they were tired of enduring the oppression of their ruler and that he should rescue them from him and free them from the oppression of Belshazzar. Cyrus the Great who was a just and upright ruler rose up in response to this request and with the co-operation of the local population overturned the government as a consequence of which the yoke of slavery on Banu Isra'il's necks was also removed and they were allowed to return to Palestine.

Thus after seventy years of subjugation they again set foot in their homeland and took over the reins of government. If they had taken their lesson from the past events they would not have committed the same evils as a consequence of which they had to suffer slavery; but the mental constitution of this community was such that whenever they achieved prosperity and freedom from care they lost themselves in the intoxication of riches and in the enjoyment of pleasure mocked the laws of religion derided the prophets and even killing them did not mean anything serious to them. Thus when their ruler Herod at the request of his sweetheart beheaded the Prophet Yahya (John) and presented his head to her none of them raised any voice against this brutality or was affected by it in any manner. This was the state of their unruliness and fierceness when 'Isa made his appearance. He stopped them from evil deeds and exhorted them to adopt good habits but they opposed him too and gave him troubles of various sorts so much so that they tried to end his life. However Allah foiled all their devices and made 'Isa safe against their approach.

p: 87

When their disobedience reached this stage and their capacity to accept guidance was completely wiped out fate decided to ruin them and made full arrangements for their annihilation and destruction. The ruler of Roma (Byzantia) Vespasianus sent his son Titus to attack Syria he laid siege round Jerusalem demolished the houses and broke down the walls of the Synagogue as a result of which thousand of Banu Isra'il left their houses and became scattered abroad while thousands died of hunger; and those who remained were put to sword. Most of them settled in Hijaz but because of their rejecting Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) their unity was so disturbed that they could never again converge on any one centre of honour and could never regain a life of prestige and dignity in place of disgrace and ignominy.

In the same way the ruler of Persia made serious attacks on Arabia and subjugated the inhabitants of those places. Thus Shapur ibn Hurmuz at the age of sixteen took with him four thousand combatants and attacked Arabs who resided within the boundaries of Persia and then advanced towards Bahrayn Qatif and Hajar and ruined Banu Tamim Banu Bakr ibn Wa'il and Banu 'Abd al-Qays and cut through the shoulders of seventy thousand Arabs after which his nickname became "Dhu'l-Aktaf" (the shoulderer). He forced the Arabs that they should live in tents built of hair should grow long hair on their heads should not wear white clothes and should ride unsaddled horses. Then he settled twelve thousand people of Isfahan and other cities of Persia in the area between Iraq and Syria.

p: 88

In this way he drove the inhabitants of those places from fertile lands to waterless forests which had neither any of the conveniences of life nor means of livelihood and for long these people remained the victims of other's oppression due to their own disunity and division. At last Allah deputed the Prophet and raised them out of disgrace to the highest pinnacle of progress and sublimity.

(5) . Amir al-mu'minin Abu Ayyub al-Ansari Jabir ibn 'Abdullah al-Ansari 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud 'Ammar ibn Yasir Abu Sa'id al-Khudri and 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas narrated that the Holy Prophet commanded 'Ali ibn Abi Talib to fight those who are pledge-breakers (nakithin) deviators from truth (qasitin) and those who have left the faith (mariqin). (al-Mustadrak vol. 3 p. 139; al-Isti'ab vol. 3 p. 1117; Usd al-ghabah vol. 3 pp. 32-33; ad-Durr al-manthur vol. 6 p. 18; al-Khasa'is al-kubra vol. 2 p. 138; Majma' az-zawa'id vol. 5 p. 186; vol. 6 p. 235; vol. 7 p. 238; Kanz al-'ummal vol. 6 pp. 72 82 88 155 215 319 391 392; Tarikh Baghdad vol. 8 p. 340; vol. 13 pp. 186-187; al-Tarikh Ibn 'Asakir vol. 5 p. 41; at-Tarikh Ibn Kathir vol. 7 pp. 304-306; ar-Riyad an-nadarah vol. 2 p. 240; Sharh al-mawahib al-ladunniyyah vol. 3 pp. 316-317; Muwaddah al-awham vol. 1 p. 386).

Ibn Abi'l-Hadid says: "It has been proved (by right ascription) from the Holy Prophet that he said to 'Ali (p.b.u.h.):

You will fight after me those who are pledge-breakers deviators from truth and those who have gone out of the faith.

p: 89

"The pledge-breakers were the people of Jamal because they broke their allegiance with him. The deviators from truth were the people of Syria (ash-Sham) at Siffin. Those who have gone out of the faith were the Kharijites at an-Nahrawan. Regarding these three groups Allah says (about the first one):

Verily those who swear their fealty unto thee do but swear fealty unto Allah; the hand of Allah is above their hands; so whosoever violateth his oath doth violate it only to the hurt of his (own) self;... (Qur'an 48:10)

(About the second group) Allah says:

And as for the deviators they shall be for the hell a fuel. (Qur'an 72:15)"

Concerning the third group Ibn Abi'l-Hadid has referred to the following tradition (hadith) that al-Bukhari (in as-Sahih vol. 4 pp. 166-167 243) Muslim (in as-Sahih vol. 3 pp. 109-117) at-Tirmidhi (in al-Jami' as-Sahih vol. 4 p. 481) Ibn Majah (in as-Sunan vol. I pp. 59-62) an-Nasa'i (in as-Sunan vol. 3 pp. 65-66) Malik ibn Anas (in al-Muwatta' pp. 204-205) ad-Dar'qutni (in as-Sunan vol. 3 pp.131-132) ad-Darimi (in as-Suman vol. 2 p. 133) Abu Dawud (in as-Sunan vol. 4 pp. 241-246) al-Hakim (in al-Mustadrak vol. 2 pp. 145-154; vol. 4 p. 531) Ahmad ibn Hanbal (in al-Musnad vol. 1 pp. 88 140 147; vol. 3 pp. 56 65) and al-Bayhaqi (in as-Sunan al-kubra' vol. 8 pp. 170-171) have narrated through a group of the companions of the Holy Prophet that he said about Dhu'l-Khuwaysirah (the surname for Dhu'th-Thudayyah Hurqus ibn Zuhayr at-Tamimi the chief of the Kharijites):

p: 90

From this very person's posterity there will arise people who will recite the Qur'an but it will not go beyond their throat they will kill their followers of Islam and will spare the idol-worshippers. They will glance through the teaching of Islam as hurriedly as the arrow passes through its prey. If I were to ever find them I would kill them like 'Ad.

Then Ibn Abi'l-Hadid continues:

This is the sign for his (Holy Prophet's) prophethood and his prophecy of the secret knowledge. (Sharh Nahj al-balaghah vol. 13 p.183)

(6). By "Satan of the pit" the reference is to Dhu'th-Thudayyah (whose full name already mentioned in footnote no. 5) who was killed in Nahrawan by the stroke of lightning from the sky and there was no need to kill him by sword. The Holy Prophet had foretold his death. Therefore after the annihilation of the Kharijites at Nahrawan Amir al-mu'minin came out in search but could not find his body anywhere. In the meantime ar-Rayyan ibn Sabirah saw forty to fifty bodies in a pit on the bank of the canal. When they were taken out the body of Dhu'th-Thudayyah was also found among them. He was called Dhu'th-Thudayyah because of a mass of flesh on his shoulder. When Amir al-mu'minin saw his body he said "Allah is Great neither I spoke lie nor was I told wrong." (Ibn Abi'l-Hadid vol. 13 pp. 183-184; at-Tabari vol 1 pp. 3383-3384; Ibn al-Athir vol. 3 p. 348).


In English

p: 91

It is related that a companion of Amir al-mu'minin called Hammam (1) who was a man devoted to worship said to him "O' Amir al-mu'minin describe to me the pious man in such a way as though I see them." Amir al-mu'minin avoided the reply and said "O' Hammam fear Allah and perform good acts because 'Verily Allah is with those who guard (themselves against evil) and those who do good (to others)'" (Qur'an 16:128). Hammam was not satisfied with this and pushed him to speak. Thereupon Amir al-mu'minin praised Allah and extolled Him and sought His blessings on the Holy Prophet and then spoke:

Now then Allah the Glorified the Sublime created (the things of) creation. He created them without any need for their obedience or being safe from their sinning because the sin of anyone who sins does not harm Him nor does the obedience of anyone who obeys Him benefit Him. He has distributed among them their livelihood and has assigned them their positions in the world.

Thus the God-fearing in it are the people of distinction. Their speech is to the point their dress is moderate and their gait is humble. They keep their eyes closed to what Allah has made unlawful for them and they put their ears to that knowledge which is beneficial to them. They remain in the time of trials as though they remain in comfort. If there had not been fixed periods (of life) ordained for each their spirits would not have remained in their bodies even for the twinkling of an eye because of (their) eagerness for the reward and fear of chastisement. The greatness of the Creator is seated in their heart and so everything else appears small in their eyes. Thus to them Paradise is as though they see it and are enjoying its favours. To them Hell is also as if they see it and are suffering punishment in it.

p: 92

Their hearts are grieved they are protected against evils their bodies are thin their needs are scanty and their souls are chaste. They endured (hardship) for a short while and in consequence they secured comfort for a long time. It is a beneficial transaction that Allah made easy for them. The world aimed at them but they did not aim at it. It captured them but they freed themselves from it by a ransom.

During a night they are upstanding on their feet reading portions of the Qur'an and reciting it in a well-measured way creating through it grief for themselves and seeking by it the cure for their ailments. If they come across a verse creating eagerness (for Paradise) they pursue it avidly and their spirits turn towards it eagerly and they feel as if it is in front of them. And when they come across a verse which contains fear (of Hell) they bend the ears of their hearts towards it and feel as though the sound of Hell and its cries are reaching their ears. They bend themselves from their backs prostrate themselves on their foreheads their palms their knees and their toes and beseech Allah the Sublime for their deliverance. During the day they are enduring learned virtuous and God-fearing. Fear (of Allah) has made them thin like arrows. If any one looks at them he believes they are sick although they are not sick and he says that they have gone mad. In fact great concern (i.e. fear) has made them mad.

p: 93

They are not satisfied with their meagre good acts and do not regard their major acts as great. They always blame themselves and are afraid of their deeds. When anyone of them is spoken of highly he says: "I know myself better than others and my Lord knows me better than I know. O' Allah do not deal with me according to what they say and make me better than they think of me and forgive me (those shortcomings) which they do not know."

The peculiarity of anyone of them is that you will see that he has strength in religion determination along with leniency faith with conviction eagerness in (seeking) knowledge in forbearance moderation in riches devotion in worship gracefulness in starvation endurance in hardship desire for the lawful pleasure in guidance and hatred from greed. He performs virtuous deeds but still feels afraid. In the evening he is anxious to offer thanks (to Allah). In the morning his anxiety is to remember (Allah). He passes the night in fear and rises in the morning in joy - fear lest night is passed in forgetfulness and joy over the favour and mercy received by him. If his self refuses to endure a thing which it does not like he does not grant its request towards what it likes. The coolness of his eye lies in what is to last for ever while from the things (of this world) that will not last he keeps aloof. He transfuses knowledge with forbearance and speech with action.

p: 94

You will see his hopes simple his shortcomings few his heart fearing his spirit contented his meal small and simple his religion safe his desires dead and his anger suppressed. Good alone is expected from him. Evil from him is not to be feared. Even if he is found among those who forget (Allah) he is counted among those who remember (Him) but if he is among the rememberers he is not counted among the forgetful. He forgives him who is unjust to him and he gives to him who deprives him. He behaves well with him who behaves ill with him.

Indecent speech is far from him his utterance is lenient his evils are non-existent his virtues are ever present his good is ahead and mischief has turned its face (from him). He is dignified during calamities patient in distresses and thankful during ease. He does not commit excess over him whom he hates and does not commit sin for the sake of him whom he loves. He admits truth before evidence is brought against him. He does not misappropriate what is placed in his custody and does not forget what he is required to remember. He does not call others bad names he does not cause harm to his neighbour he does not feel happy at others misfortunes he does not enter into wrong and does not go out of right.

If he is silent his silence does not grieve him if he laughs he does not raise his voice and if he is wronged he endures till Allah takes revenge on his behalf. His own self is in distress because of him while the people are in ease from him. He puts himself in hardship for the sake of his next life and makes people feel safe from himself. His keeping away from others is by way of asceticism and purification and his nearness to those to whom he is near is by way of leniency and mercifulness. His keeping away is not by way of vanity or feeling of greatness nor his nearness by way of deceit and cheating.

p: 95

It is related that Hammam passed into a deep swoon and then expired. Then Amir al-mu'minin said: Verily by Allah I had this fear about him. Then he added: Effective advices produce such effects on receptive minds. Someone (2) said to him: O' Amir al-mu'minin how is it you do not receive such an effect? Amir al-mu'minin replied: Woe to you. For death there is a fixed hour which cannot be exceeded and a cause which does not change. Now look never repeat such talk which Satan had put on your tongue.

In Arabic

[ 193 ] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام

يصف فيها المتقين

روي أنّ صاحباً لأميرالمؤمنين عليه السلام يقال له همّامٌ كان رجلاً عابداً، فقال له: يا أميرالمؤمنين، صف لي المتقين كأني أنظر إليهم. فتثاقل عليه السلام عن جوابه، ثم قال: يا همّامُ، اتقِ اللهَ وأحْسِنْ فَ_ (إنَّ اللهَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا والَّذِينَ هُمْ مُحْسِنُونَ) فلم يقنع همّامٌ بِذَلِكَ القول حتّى عزم عليه. فحمد الله وأثنى عليه، وصلّى على النبي صلى الله عليه وآله، ثم قال عليه السلام: أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنَّ اللهَ _ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى _ خَلَقَ الْخَلْقَ حِينَ خَلَقَهُمْ غَنِيّاً عَنْ طَاعَتِهِمْ آمِناً مِنْ مَعْصِيَتِهِمْ، لِأَنَّةُ لاَ تَضُرُّهُ مَعْصِيَةُ مَنْ عَصَاهُ،

وَلاَ تَنْفَعُهُ طَاعَةُ مَنْ أَطَاعَهُ، فَقَسَمَ بَيْنَهُمْ مَعَايِشَهُمْ، وَوَضَعَهُمْ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا مَوَاضِعَهُمْ. فَالْمُتَّقُونَ فِيهَا هُمْ أَهْلُ الْفَضَائِلِ: مَنْطِقُهُمُ الصَّوَابُ، وَمَلْبَسُهُمُ الْإِقْتِصَادُ (1) ، وَمَشْيُهُمُ التَّوَاضُعُ. غَضُّوا أَبْصَارَهُمْ (2) عَمَّا حَرَّمَ اللهُ عَلَيْهِمْ، وَوَقَفُوا أَسْمَاعَهُمْ عَلَى الْعِلْمِ النَّافِعِ لَهُمْ. نَزَلَتْ أَنْفُسُهُمْ مِنْهُمْ فِي الْبَلاَءِ كَالَّتِي نَزَلَتْ فِي الرَّخَاءِ (3) . لَوْلاَ الْأَجَلُ الَّذِي كَتَبَ اللهُ عَلَيْهِمُ لَمْ تَسْتَقِرَّ أَرْوَاحُهُمْ فِي أَجْسَادِهِمْ طَرْفَةَ عَيْنٍ، شَوْقاً إِلَى الثَّوَابِ، وَخَوْفاً مِنَ الْعِقَابِ. عَظُمَ الْخَالِقُ فِي أنْفُسِهِمْ فَصَغُرَ مَا دُونَهُ فِي أَعْيُنِهِمْ، فَهُمْ وَالْجَنَّةُ كَمَنْ قَدْ رَآهَا، فَهُمْ فِيهَا مُنَعَّمُونَ، وَهُمْ وَالنَّارُ كَمَنْ قَدْ رَآهَا، فَهُمْ فِيهَا مُعَذَّبُونَ.

p: 96

قُلُوبُهُمْ مَحْزُونَةٌ، وَشُرُورُهُمْ مَأْمُونَةٌ، وَأَجْسَادُهُمْ نَحِيفَةٌ، وَحَاجَاتُهُمْ خَفِيفَةٌ، وَأَنْفُسُهُمْ عَفِيفَةٌ. صَبَرُوا أَيَّاماً قَصِيرَةً أَعْقَبَتْهُمْ رَاحَةً طَوِيلَةً، تِجَارَةٌ مَرْبِحَةٌ (4) ، يَسَّرَهَا لَهُمْ رَبُّهُم. أَرَادَتْهُمُ الْدُّنْيَا فَلَمْ يُرِيدُوهَا، وَأَسَرَتْهُمْ فَفَدَوْا أُنْفُسَهُمْ مِنْهَا. أَمَّا اللَّيْلَ فَصَافُّونَ أَقْدَامَهُمْ، تَالِينَ لِأَجْزَاءِ الْقُرْآنِ يُرَتِّلُونَهَا تَرْتِيلاً (5) ، يُحَزِّنُونَ بِهِ أَنْفُسَهُمْ، وَيَسْتَثِيرُونَ (6) بِهِ دَوَاءَ دَائِهِمْ، فَإِذَا مَرُّوا بِآيَةٍ فِيهَا تَشْوِيقٌ رَكَنُو ا إِلَيْهَا طَمَعاً، وَتَطَلَّعَتْ نُفُوسُهُمْ إِلَيْهَا شَوْقاً، وَظَنُّوا أنَّهَا نُصْبَ أَعْيُنِهِمْ، وَإِذَا مَرُّوا بِآيَةٍ فِيهَا تَخْوِيفٌ أَصْغَوْا إِلَيْهَا مَسَامِعَ قُلُوبِهِمْ، وَظَنُّوا أَنَّ زَفِيرَ (7) جَهَنَّمَ وَشَهِيقَهَا (8) فِي أُصُولِ آذَانِهِمْ، فَهُمْ حَانُونَ (9) عَلَى أَوْسَاطِهِمْ ، مُفْتَرِشُونَ لِجَبَاهِهِمْ (10) وَأَكُفِّهِمْ وَرُكْبِهِمْ، وَأَطْرَافِ أَقْدَامِهِمْ، يَطْلُبُونَ إِلَى اللهِ تَعَالِي فِي فَكَاكِ رِقَابِهِمْ (11) . وَأَمَّا النَّهَارَ فَحُلَمَاءُ عُلَمَاءُ، أَبْرَارٌ أَتْقِيَاءُ، قَدْ بَرَاهُمْ الْخَوْفُ بَرْيَ الْقِدَاحِ (12) ، يَنْظُرُ إِلَيْهمُ الْنَّاظِرُ فَيَحْسَبُهُمْ مَرْضَى، وَمَا بِالْقَوْمِ مِنْ مَرَضٍ، وَيَقُولُ: لَقَدْ خُولِطُوا (13) !

وَلَقَدْ خَالَطَهُمْ أَمْرٌ عَظِيمٌ! لاَ يَرْضَوْنَ مِنْ أَعْمَالِهِمُ الْقَلِيلَ، وَلاَ يَسْتَكْثِرُونَ الْكَثِيرَ. فَهُمْ لِأَنْفُسِهِمْ مُتَّهِمُونَ، وَمِنْ أَعْمَالِهِمْ مُشْفِقُونَ (14) إِذَا زُكِّيَ (15) أَحَدٌ مِنْهُمْ خَافَ مِمَّا يُقَالُ لَهُ، فَيَقُولُ:

أَنَا أَعْلَمُ بِنَفْسِي مِنْ غَيْرِي، وَرَبِّي أَعْلَمُ بِي مِنِّي بِنَفْسي! اللَّهُمَّ لاَ تُؤَاخِذْنِي بِمَا يَقُولُونَ، وَاجْعَلْنِي أَفْضَلَ مِمَّا يَظُنُّونَ، وَاغْفِرْ لِي مَا لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ.

فَمِنْ عَلاَمَةِ أَحَدِهِمْ أَنَّكَ تَرَى لَهُ قُوَّةً فِي دِينٍ، وَحَزْماً فِي لِيٍن، وَإِيمَاناً فِي يَقِينٍ، وَحِرْصاً فِي عِلْمٍ، وَعِلْماً فِي حِلْمٍ، وَقَصْداً فِي غِنىً (16) ، وَخُشُوعاً فِي عِبَادَةٍ، وَتَجَمُّلاً (17) فِي فَاقَةٍ، وَصَبْراً فِي شِدَّةٍ، وَطَلَباً فِي حَلاَلٍ، وَنَشاطاً فِي هُدًى، وَتَحَرُّجاً (18) عَنْ طَمَعٍ. يَعْمَلُ الْأَعْمَالَ الصَّالِحَةَ وَهُوَ عَلَى وَجَلٍ، يُمْسِي وَهَمُّهُ الشُّكْرُ، وَيُصْبِحُ وَهَمُّهُ الذِّكْرُ. يَبِيتُ حَذِراً، وَيُصْبِحُ فَرِحاً، حَذِراً لَمَّا حُذِّرَ مِنَ الْغَفْلَةِ، وَفَرِحاً بِمَا أَصَابَ مِنَ الْفَضْلِ وَالرَّحْمَةِ. إِنِ اسْتَصْعَبَتْ (19) عَلَيْهِ نَفْسُهُ فِيَما تَكْرَهُ لَمْ يُعْطِهَا سُؤْلَهَا فِيَما تُحِبُّ. قُرَّةُ عَيْنِهِ فِيَما لاَ يَزُولُ، وَزَهَادَتُهُ فِيَما لاَ يَبْقَى، يَمْزُجُ الْحِلْمَ بِالْعِلْمَ، وَالْقَوْلَ بِالْعَمَلِ. تَرَاهُ قَرِيباً أَمَلُهُ، قَلِيلاً زَلَلُهُ، خَاشِعاً قَلْبُهُ، قَانِعَةً نَفْسُهُ، مَنْزُوراً (20) أَكْلُهُ، سَهْلاً أَمْرُهُ، حَرِيزاً دِينُهُ (21) ، مَيِّتَةً شَهْوَتُهُ، مَكْظُوماً غُيْظُهُ. الْخَيْرُ مِنْهُ مَأْمُولٌ، وَالشَّرُّ مِنْهُ مَأْمُونٌ. إِنْ كَانَ فِي الْغَافِلِينَ كُتِبَ فِي الذَّاكِرِينَ، وَإِنْ كَانَ فِي الذَّاكِرِينَ لَمْ يُكْتَبْ مِنَ الْغَافِلِينَ. يَعْفُو عَمَّنْ ظَلَمَهُ، وَيُعْطِي مَنْ حَرَمَهُ، وَيَصِلُ مَنْ قَطَعَهُ. بَعِيداً فُحشُهُ (22) ، لَيِّناً قَوْلُهُ، غَائِباً مُنْكَرُهُ، حَاضِراً مَعْرُوفُهُ،

p: 97

مُقْبِلاً خَيْرُهُ، مُدْبِراً شَرُّهُ. فِي الزَّلاَزِلِ (23) وَقُورٌ (24) ، وَفِي الْمَكَارِهِ صَبُورٌ، وَفِي الرَّخَاءِ شَكُورٌ. لاَ يَحِيفُ عَلَى مَنْ يُبْغِضُ، وَلاَ يَأْثَمُ فِيمَنْ يُحِبُّ. يَعْتَرِفُ بِالْحَقِّ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُشْهَدَ عَلَيْهِ. لاَ يُضَيِّعُ مَا اسْتُحْفِظَ، وَلاَ يَنْسَى مَا ذُكِّرَ، وَلاَ يُنَابِزُ بِالْأَلْقَابِ (25) ، وَلاَ يُضَارُّ بالْجارِ، وَلاَ يَشْمَتُ بالْمَصَائِبِ، وَلاَ يَدْخُلُ فِي الْبَاطِلِ، ولاَ يَخْرُجُ مِنَ الْحَقِّ. إِنْ صَمَتَ لَمْ يَغُمَّهُ صَمْتُهُ، وَإِنْ ضَحِكَ لَمْ يَعْلُ صَوْتُهُ، وَإِنْ بُغِيَ عَلَيْهِ صَبَرَ حَتّى يَكُونَ اللهُ هُوَ الَّذِي يَنْتَقِمُ لَهُ. نَفْسُهُ مِنْهُ فِي عَنَاءٍ، وَالنَّاسُ مِنْهُ فِي رَاحَةٍ. أَتْعَبَ نَفْسَهُ لِآخِرَتِهِ، وَأَرَاحَ النَّاسَ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ. بُعْدُهُ عَمَّنْ تَبَاعَدَ عَنْهُ زُهْدٌ وَنَزاهَةٌ، وَدُنُوُّهُ مِمَّنْ دَنَا مِنَهُ لِينٌ وَرَحْمَةٌ، لَيْسَ تَبَاعُدُهُ بِكِبْرٍ وَعَظَمَةٍ، وَلاَ دُنُوُّهُ بِمَكْرٍ وَخَدِيعَةٍ.

قال: فصعق همّام صعقةً (26) كانت نفسُه فيها.

فقال أميرالمؤمنين عليه السلام: أَمَا وَاللهِ لَقَدْ كُنْتُ أَخَافُهَا عَلَيْهِ. ثُمَّ قَالَ: أَهكَذَا تَصْنَعُ الْمَوَاعِظُ البَالِغَةُ بِأَهْلِهَا؟

فقال له قائل: فما بالك يا أميرالمؤمنين؟

فقال عليه السلام: وَيْحَكَ، إِنَّ لِكُلِّ أَجَلٍ وَقْتاً لاَ يَعْدُوهُ، وَسَبَباً لاَ يَتَجَاوَزُهُ، فَمَهْلاً، لاَ تَعُدْ لِمِثْلِهَا، فَإِنَّمَا نَفَثَ الشَّيْطَانُ عَلَى لِسَانِكَ!

In Persian

(گفته شد يكى از ياران پرهيزكار امام عليه السّلام به نام همّام «1» گفت: اى امير مؤمنان پرهيزكاران را براى من آنچنان وصف كن كه گويا آنان را با چشم مى نگرم. امام عليه السّلام در پاسخ او درنگى كرد (46305- 46270) و فرمود «اى همّام! از خدا بترس و نيكوكار باش كه خداوند با پرهيزكاران و نيكوكاران است» امّا همّام دست بردار نبود و اصرار ورزيد، تا آن كه امام عليه السّلام تصميم گرفت صفات پرهيزكاران را بيان فرمايد. پس خدا را سپاس و ثنا گفت، و بر پيامبرش درود فرستاد، و فرمود) (46343- 46306)

p: 98

1 سيماى پرهيزكاران

پس از ستايش پروردگار! همانا خداوند سبحان پديده ها را در حالى آفريد كه از اطاعتشان بى نياز، و از نافرمانى آنان در امان بود، زيرا نه معصيت گناهكاران به خدا زيانى مى رساند و نه اطاعت مؤمنان براى او سودى دارد، روزى بندگان را تقسيم، و هر كدام را در جايگاه خويش قرار داد. (46381- 46344) امّا پرهيزكاران! در دنيا داراى فضيلت هاى برترند، سخنانشان راست، پوشش آنان ميانه روى، و راه رفتنشان با تواضع و فروتنى است ، چشمان خود را بر آنچه خدا حرام كرده مى پوشانند، و گوش هاى خود را وقف دانش سودمند كرده اند، و در روزگار سختى و گشايش، حالشان يكسان است. و اگر نبود مرگى كه خدا بر آنان مقدّر فرموده، روح آنان حتى به اندازه بر هم زدن چشم، در بدن ها قرار نمى گرفت، از شوق ديدار بهشت، و از ترس عذاب جهنّم. خدا در جانشان بزرگ و ديگران كوچك مقدارند، بهشت براى آنان چنان است كه گويى آن را ديده و در نعمت هاى آن به سر مى برند، و جهنّم را چنان باور دارند كه گويى آن را ديده و در عذابش گرفتارند. دل هاى پرهيزكاران اندوهگين، و مردم از آزارشان در أمان، تن هايشان لاغر، و درخواست هايشان اندك، و نفسشان عفيف و دامنشان پاك است.

در روزگار كوتاه دنيا صبر كرده تا آسايش جاودانه قيامت را به دست آورند: تجارتى پر سود كه پروردگارشان فراهم فرموده، دنيا مى خواست آنها را بفريبد امّا عزم دنيا نكردند، مى خواست آنها را اسير خود گرداند كه با فدا كردن جان، خود را آزاد ساختند.

2 شب پرهيزكاران

پرهيزكاران در شب بر پا ايستاده مشغول نمازند، قرآن را جزء جزء و با تفكّر و انديشه مى خوانند، با قرآن جان خود را محزون و داروى درد خود را مى يابند. وقتى به آيه اى برسند كه تشويقى در آن است، با شوق و طمع بهشت به آن روى آورند، و با جان پر شوق در آن خيره شوند، و گمان مى برند كه نعمت هاى بهشت برابر ديدگانشان قرار دارد،و هر گاه به آيه اى مى رسند كه ترس از خدا در آن باشد، گوش دل به آن مى سپارند، و گويا صداى بر هم خوردن شعله هاى آتش، در گوششان طنين افكن است ، پس قامت به شكل ركوع خم كرده، پيشانى و دست و پا بر خاك ماليده، و از خدا آزادى خود را از آتش جهنّم مى طلبند.

p: 99

3 روز پرهيزكاران

پرهيزكاران در روز، دانشمندانى بردبار، و نيكوكارانى با تقوا هستند كه ترس الهى آنان را چونان تير تراشيده لاغر كرده است، كسى كه به آنها مى نگرد مى پندارد كه بيمارند امّا آنان را بيمارى نيست، و مى گويد، مردم در اشتباهند! در صورتى كه آشفتگى ظاهرشان، نشان از امرى بزرگ است. از اعمال اندك خود خشنود نيستند، و اعمال زياد خود را بسيار نمى شمارند.

نفس خود را متّهم مى كنند، و از كردار خود ترسناكند. هرگاه يكى از آنان را بستايند، از آنچه در تعريف او گفته شد در هراس افتاده مى گويد:

«من خود را از ديگران بهتر مى شناسم و خداى من، مرا بهتر از من مى شناسد، بار خدايا، مرا بر آنچه مى گويند محاكمه نفرما، و بهتر از آن قرارم ده كه مى گويند، و گناهانى كه نمى دانند بيامرز!»

4 نشانه هاى پرهيزكاران

و از نشانه هاى يكى از پرهيزكاران اين است كه او را اينگونه مى بينى: در ديندارى نيرومند، نرمخو و دور انديش است، داراى ايمانى پر از يقين، حريص در كسب دانش، با داشتن علم بردبار ، در توانگرى ميانه رو، در عبادت فروتن، در تهيدستى آراسته، در سختى ها بردبار، در جستجوى كسب حلال، در راه هدايت شادمان و پرهيز كننده از طمع ورزى، مى باشد. اعمال نيكو انجام مى دهد و ترسان است، روز را به شب مى رساند با سپاسگزارى، و شب را به روز مى آورد با ياد خدا، شب مى خوابد اما ترسان، و بر مى خيزد شادمان، ترس براى اينكه دچار غفلت نشود، و شادمانى براى فضل و رحمتى كه به او رسيده است. اگر نفس او در آنچه دشوار است فرمان نبرد، از آنچه دوست دارد محرومش مى كند.

p: 100

روشنى چشم پرهيزكار در چيزى قرار دارد كه جاودانه است، و آن را ترك مى كند كه پايدار نيست، بردبارى را با علم، و سخن را با عمل، در مى آميزد.پرهيزكار را مى بينى كه: آرزويش نزديك، لغزش هايش اندك، قلبش فروتن، نفسش قانع، خوراكش كم، كارش آسان، دينش حفظ شده، شهوتش در حرام مرده و خشمش فرو خورده است. مردم به خيرش اميدوار، و از آزارش در امانند. اگر در جمع بى خبران باشد نامش در گروه ياد آوران خدا ثبت مى گردد، و اگر در ياد آوران باشد نامش در گروه بى خبران نوشته نمى شود. ستمكار خود را عفو مى كند، به آن كه محرومش ساخته مى بخشد، به آن كس كه با او بريده مى پيوندد، از سخن زشت دور، و گفتارش نرم، بدى هاى او پنهان، و كار نيكش آشكار است. نيكى هاى او به همه رسيده، آزار او به كسى نمى رسد.

در سختى ها آرام، و در ناگواريها بردبار و در خوشى ها سپاسگزار است. به آن كه دشمن دارد ستم نكند، و نسبت به آن كه دوست دارد به گناه آلوده نشود. پيش از آن كه بر ضد او گواهى دهند به حق اعتراف مى كند، و آنچه را به او سپرده اند ضايع نمى سازد، و آنچه را به او تذكّر دادند فراموش نمى كند.

مردم را با لقب هاى زشت نمى خواند، همسايگان را آزار نمى رساند، در مصيبت هاى ديگران شاد نمى شودو در كار ناروا دخالت نمى كند، و از محدوده حق خارج نمى شود.

اگر خاموش است سكوت او اندوهگينش نمى كند، و اگر بخندد آواز خنده او بلند نمى شود ، و اگر به او ستمى روا دارند صبر مى كند تا خدا انتقام او را بگيرد.

نفس او از دستش در زحمت، ولى مردم در آسايشند. براى قيامت خود را به زحمت مى افكند، ولى مردم را به رفاه و آسايش مى رساند. دورى او از برخى مردم، از روى زهد و پارسايى، و نزديك شدنش با بعضى ديگر از روى مهربانى و نرمى است.

p: 101

دورى او از تكبّر و خود پسندى، و نزديكى او از روى حيله و نيرنگ نيست. (سخن امام كه به اينجا رسيد، ناگهان همّام ناله اى زد و جان داد. امام عليه السّلام فرمود) سوگند به خدا من از اين پيش آمد بر همّام مى ترسيدم.

سپس گفت: آيا پندهاى رسا با آنان كه پذيرنده آنند چنين مى كند؟

شخصى رسيد و گفت: چرا با تو چنين نكرد؟ امام عليه السّلام پاسخ داد:

واى بر تو، هر أجلى وقت معيّنى دارد كه از آن پيش نيفتد و سبب مشخّصى دارد كه از آن تجاوز نكند. آرام باش و ديگر چنين سخنانى مگو، كه شيطان آن را بر زبانت رانده است. «2»


(1) همّام بن شريح از شيعيان امير المؤمنين عليه السّلام بود. (قاموس الرّجال)

(2) آن شخص با تفكّرات شيطانى مى خواست بگويد: آنچه را به همام گفتى واقعيّت ندارد و گر نه در جان تو نيز تأثير مى كرد، كه امام عليه السّلام فرمود اين سخن از شيطان است، زيرا هر كسى توان و قدرت تحمّل خاصّى دارد.


(1). According to Ibn Abi'l-Hadid this is Hammam ibn Shurayh but al-'Allamah al-Majlisi says that apparently this is Hammam ibn 'Ubadah.

(2). This man was 'Abdullah ibn al-Kawwa' who was in the fore-front of the Kharijite movement and was a great opponent of Amir al-mu'minin.


In English

In description of hypocrites

We praise Allah for the succour He has given us in carrying out His obedience and in preventing us from disobedience and we ask Him to complete His favours (to us) and to make us hold on to His rope. We stand witness that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger. He entered every hardship in search of Allah's pleasure and endured for its sake every grief. His near relations changed themselves for him and those who were remote from him (in relationship) united against him. The Arabs let loose the reins (of their horses to quicken their march) against him and struck the bellies of their carriers to (rouse them) in fighting against him so much so that enemies came to his threshold from the remotest places and most distant areas.

p: 102

I advise you O' creatures of Allah to fear Allah and I warn you of the hypocrites because they are themselves misguided and misguide others and they have slipped and make others slip too. They change into many colours and adopt various ways. They support you with all sorts of supports and lay in waiting for you at every lookout. Their hearts are diseased while their faces are clean. They walk stealthily and tread like the approach of sickness (over the body). Their words speak of cure but their acts are like incurable diseases. They are jealous of ease intensify distress and destroy hopes. Their victims are found lying down on every path while they have means to approach every heart and they have (false) tears for every grief.

They eulogise each other and expect reward from each other. When they ask something they insist on it if they reprove (any one) they disgrace (him) and if they pass verdict they commit excess. They have adopted for every truth a wrong way for every erect thing a bender for every living being a killer for every (closed) door a key and for every night a lamp. They covet but with despair in order to maintain with it their markets and to popularise their handsome merchandise. When they speak they create doubts. When they describe they exaggerate. First they offer easy paths but (afterwards) they make them narrow. In short they are the party of Satan and the stings of fire.

Satan hath gained hold on them so he maketh them forget the remembrance of Allah; they are Satan's Party; Beware! verily the party of Satan are the losers. (Qur'an 58:19)

p: 103

In Arabic

[ 194 ] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام

يصف فيها المنافقين

نَحْمَدُهُ عَلَى مَا وَفَّقَ لَهُ مِنَ الطَّاعَةِ، وَذَادَ (1) عَنْهُ مِنَ الْمَعْصِيةِ، وَنَسْأَلُهُ لِمِنَّتِهِ تَمَاماً، وَبِحَبْلِهِ اعْتِصَاماً. وَنَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ، خَاضَ إِلَى رِضْوَانِ اللهِ كُلَّ غَمْرَةٍ (2) ، وَتَجَرَّعَ فِيهِ كُلَّ غُصَّةٍ (3) ، وَقَدْ تَلَوَّنَ لَه الْأَدْنَوْنَ (4) ، وَتَأَلَّبَ عَلَيْهِ الْأَقْصَوْنَ (5) ، وَخَلَعَتْ إِلَيْهِ الْعَرَبُ أَعِنَّتَهَا (6) ، وَضَرَبَتْ إِلَى مُحَارَبَتِهِ بُطُونَ رَوَاحِلِهَا، حَتَّى أَنْزَلَتْ بِسَاحَتِهِ عَدَاوَتَهَا، مِنْ أبْعَدِ الدَّارِ، وَأَسْحَقِ (7) الْمَزَارِ. أُوصِيكُمْ عِبَادَ اللهِ، بِتَقْوَى اللهِ، وَأُحَذِّرُكُمْ أَهْلَ النِّفَاقِ، فَإِنَّهُمُ, الضَّالُّونَ الْمُضِلُّونَ، وَالزَّالُّونَ الْمُزِلُّونَ (8) , يَتَلَوَّنُونَ أَلْوَاناً، وَيَفْتَنُّونَ افْتِنَاناً (9) ، وَيَعْمِدُونَكُمْ (10) بِكُلِّ عِمَادٍ (11) ، وَيَرْصُدُونَكُمْ (12) بِكُلِّ مِرْصَادٍ (13) . قُلوبُهُمْ دَوِيَّةٌ (14) ، وَصِفَاحُهُمْ (15) نَقِيَّةٌ. يَمْشُونَ الْخَفَاءَ (16) ، وَيَدِبُّونَ (17) الضَّرَاءَ. وَصْفُهُمْ دَوَاءٌ، وَقَوْلُهُمْ شِفَاءٌ، وَفِعْلُهُمُ الدَّاءُ الْعَيَاءُ (18) . حَسَدَةُ (19) الرَّخَاءِ، وَمُؤَكِّدُوا الْبَلاَءِ، وَمُقْنِطُوا الرَّجَاءِ. لَهُمْ بِكُلِّ طَرِيقٍ صَرِيعٌ (20) ، وَإلى كُلِّ قَلْبٍ شَفِيعٌ، وَلِكُلِّ شَجْوٍ (21) دُمُوعٌ. يَتَقَارَضُونَ الثَّنَاءَ (22) ، وَيَتَرَاقَبُونَ الْجَزَاءَ. إِنْ سَأَلُوا ألْحَفُوا (23) ، وَإِنْ عَذَلُوا (24) كَشَفُوا،وَإِنْ حَكَمُوا أَسْرَفُوا. قَدْ أَعَدُّوا لِكُلِّ حَقٍّ بَاطِلاً، وَلِكُلِّ قَائِمٍُ مَائِلاً، وَلِكُلِّ حَيٍّ قَاتِلاً، وَلِكُلِّ بَابٍ مِفْتَاحاً، وَلِكُلِّ لَيْلٍ مِصْبَاحاً. يَتَوَصَّلُونَ إِلَى الطَّمَعِ بِالْيَأْسِ لِيُقيمُوا بِهِ أَسْوَاقَهُمْ، وَيُنَفِّقُوا (25) بِهِ أَعْلاَقَهُمْ (26) . يَقُولُونَ فَيُشَبِّهُونَ (27) ، وَيَصِفُونَ فَيُمَوِّهُونَ. قَدْ هَوَّنُوا الطَّرِيقَ، وَأَضْلَعُوا الْمَضِيقَ (28) . فَهُمْ لُمَةُ (29) الشَّيْطَانِ، وَحُمَةُ (30) النِّيرَانِ (أُولئِكَ حِزْبُ الشَّيْطَانِ أَلاَ إِنَّ حِزْبَ الشَّيْطَانِ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ)

In Persian

(از شرح خوئى بر مى آيد كه اين سخنرانى در شهر كوفه ايراد شده) (وصف منافقان) خدا را بر توفيقى كه بر اطاعتش داده، و ما را از نافرمانى باز داشته، ستايش مى كنيم، و از او مى خواهيم كه نعمتش را كامل، و دست ما را به ريسمان محكمش متّصل گرداند.

p: 104

1 مشكلات رسالت

و شهادت مى دهيم كه محمّد صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم بنده و فرستاده اوست، كه در راه رضايت حق در كام هر گونه سختى و ناراحتى فرو رفت، و جام مشكلات و ناگواريها را سر كشيد ، روزگارى خويشاوندان او به دو رويى و دشمنى پرداختند، و بيگانگان در كينه توزى و دشمنى با او متّحد شدند. اعراب براى نبرد با پيامبر عنان گسيخته، و با تازيانه بر مركب ها نواخته و از هر سو گرد مى آمدند، و از دورترين سرزمين، و فراموش شده ترين نقطه ها، دشمنى خود را بر پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم فرود آوردند.

2 سيماى منافقان

اى بندگان خدا! شما را به ترس از خدا سفارش مى كنم، و شما را از منافقان مى ترسانم، زيرا آنها

گمراه و گمراه كننده اند، خطاكار و به خطاكارى تشويق كننده اند، به رنگ هاى گوناگون ظاهر مى شوند، از ترفندهاى گوناگون استفاده مى كنند، براى شكستن شما از هر پناهگاهى استفاده مى كنند، و در هر كمينگاهى به شكار شما مى نشينند، قلب هايشان بيمار، و ظاهرشان آراسته است ، در پنهانى راه مى روند، و از بيراهه ها حركت مى كنند.

وصفشان دارو، و گفتارشان درمان امّا كردارشان دردى است بى درمان، بر رفاه و آسايش مردم حسد مى ورزند، و بر بلاء و گرفتارى مردم مى افزايند، و اميدواران را نا اميد مى كنند.

آنها در هر راهى كشته اى، و در هر دلى راهى، و بر هر اندوهى اشكها «1» مى ريزند، مدح و ستايش را به يكديگر قرض مى دهند، و انتظار پاداش مى كشند، اگر چيزى را بخواهند اصرار مى كنند و اگر ملامت شوند، پرده درى مى كنند، و اگر داورى كنند اسراف مى ورزند. آنها برابر هر حقّى باطلى، و برابر هر دليلى شبهه اى، و براى هر زنده اى قاتلى، و براى هر درى كليدى، و براى هر شبى چراغى تهيّه كرده اند. با اظهار يأس مى خواهند به مطامع خويش برسند، و بازار خود را گرم سازند، و كالاى خود را بفروشند، سخن مى گويند اما به اشتباه و ترديد مى اندازند، وصف مى كنند امّا فريب مى دهند، در آغاز، راه را آسان و سپس در تنگناها به بن بست مى كشانند، آنها ياوران شيطان و زبانه هاى آتش جهنّم مى باشند:

p: 105

«آنان پيروان شيطانند، و بدانيد كه پيروان شيطان زيانكارانند»


(1) اشك تمساح.


In English

Allah's praise advice about fear of Allah and details about the Day of Judgement

Praise be to Allah who has displayed such effects of His authority and the glory of His sublimity through the wonders of His might that they dazzle the pupils of the eyes and prevent the minds from appreciating the reality of His attributes. I stand witness that there is no god but Allah by virtue of belief certainty sincerity and conviction. I also stand witness that Muhammad is His slave and His Prophet whom He deputed when the signs of guidance were obliterated and the ways of religion were desolate. So he threw open the truth gave advice to the people guided them towards righteousness and ordered them to be moderate. May Allah bless him and his descendants.

Know O' creatures of Allah that He has not created you for nought and has not left you free. He knows the extent of His favours over you and the quantity of His bounty towards you. Therefore ask Him for success and for the attainment of aims. Beg before Him and seek His generosity. No curtain hides you from Him nor is any door closed before you against Him. He is at every place in every moment and every instance. He is with every man and jinn. Giving does not create any breach in Him. Gifting does not cause Him diminution. A beggar cannot exhaust Him and paying (to others) cannot take Him to the end.

p: 106

One person cannot turn His attention from another one voice does not detract Him from another voice and one grant of favour does not prevent Him from refusing another favour. Anger does not prevent Him from mercy mercy does not prevent Him from punishing; His concealment does not hide His manifestness and His manifestness does not prevent Him from concealment. He is near and at the same time distant. He is high and at the same time low. He is manifest and also concealed. He is concealed yet well-known. He lends but is not lent anything. He has not created (the things of) creation after devising nor did He take their assistance on account of fatigue.

I advise you O' creatures of Allah to have fear of Allah for it is the rein and the mainstay (of religion). Hold fast to its salient points keep hold of its realities. It will take you to abodes of easi-

ness places of comfort fortresses of safety and houses of honour on the Day (of Judgement) when eyes will be wide open (Qur'an 14:42) when there will be darkness all round when small groups of camels pregnant for ten months will be allowed free grazing and when the Horn will be blown then every living being will die every voice will become dumb the high mountains and hard rocks will crumble (to pieces) so that their hard stones will turn into moving sand and their bases will become level. (On that day) there will be no interceder to intercede and no relation to ward off (trouble) and no excuse will be of avail.

p: 107

In Arabic

[ 195 ] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام

يحمدالله ويثني على نبيّه ويعظ


الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي أَظْهَرَ مِنْ آثَارِ سُلْطَانِهِ، وَجَلاَلِ كِبْرِيَائِهِ، مَا حَيَّرَ مُقَلَ (1) الْعُقُولِ مِنْ عَجَائِبِ قُدرَتِهِ، وَرَدَعَ خَطَرَاتِ هَمَاهِمِ (2) النُّفُوسِ عَنْ عِرْفَانِ كُنْهِ صِفَتِهِ.


وَأَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلهَ إِلاَّ اللهُ، شَهَادَةَ إِيمَانٍ وَإِيقَانٍ، وَإِخْلاَصٍ وَإِذْعَانٍ. وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ، أَرْسَلَهُ وَأَعْلاَمُ الْهُدَى دَارِسَةٌ، وَمَنَاهِجُ الدِّينِ طَامِسَةٌ (3) ، فَصَدَعَ (4) بِالْحَقِّ، وَنَصَحَ لِلْخَلْقِ،وَهَدَى إِلَى الرُّشْدِ، وَأَمَرَ بِالْقَصْدِ (5) ، صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ.


وَاعْلَمُوا عِبَادَ اللهِ، أَنَّهُ لَمْ يَخْلُقْكُمْ عَبَثاً، وَلَمْ يُرْسِلْكُمْ هَمَلاً، عَلِمَ مَبْلَغَ نِعَمِهِ عَلَيْكُمْ، وَأَحَصَى إِحْسَانَهُ إِلَيْكُمْ، فَاسْتَفْتِحُوهُ (6) وَاسْتَنْجِحُوهُ (7) ، وَاطْلُبُوا إِلَيْهِ وَاسْتَمْنِحُوهُ (8) ، فَمَا قَطَعَكُمْ عَنْهُ حِجَابٌ، وَلاَ أُغْلِقَ عَنْكُمْ دُونَهُ بَابٌ، وَإِنْهُ لَبِكُلِّ مَكَانٍ، وَفِي كُلِّ حِيٍن وَأَوَانٍ، وَمَعَ كُلِّ إِنْسٍ وَجَانٍّ، لاَ يَثْلِمُهُ (9) الْعَطَاءُ، وَلاَ يَنْقُصُهُ الْحِبَاءُ (10) ، وَلاَ يَسْتَنْفِدُهُ سَائِلٌ، وَلاَ يَسْتَقْصِيهِ نَائِلٌ، وَلاَ يَلْوِيهِ (11) شَخْصٌ عَنْ شَخْصٍ، وَلاَ يُلْهِيهِ صَوْتٌ عَنْ صَوْتٍ، وَلاَ تَحْجُزُهُ هِبَهٌ عَنْ سَلْبٍ، وَلاَ يَشْغَلُهُ غَضَبٌ عَنْ رَحْمَةٍ، وَلاَ تُوَلِّهُهُ (12) رَحْمَةٌ عَنْ عِقَابٍ، وَلاَ يُجِنُّهُ (13) الْبُطُونُ عَنِ الظُّهُورِ، وَلاَ يَقْطَعُهُ الظُّهُورُ عَنِ الْبُطُونِ. قَرُبَ فَنأَى، وَعَلاَ فَدَنَا، وَظَهَرَ فَبَطَنَ، وَبَطَنَ فَعَلَنَ، وَدَانَ (14) وَلَمْ يُدَنْ، لَمْ يَذْرَإِ (15) الْخَلْقَ بِاحْتِيَالٍ (16) ، وَلاَ اسْتَعَانَ بِهِمْ لِكَلاَلٍ (17) .

أُوصِيكُمْ عِبَادَ اللهِ، بِتَقْوَى اللهِ، فَإِنَّهَا الزِّمَامُ (18) وَالْقِوَامُ (19) ، فَتَمَسَّكُوا بِوَثَائِقِهَا، وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِحَقَائِقِهَا، تَؤُلْ بِكُمْ إِلَى أَكْنَانِ (20) الدَعَةِ (21) ، وَأَوْطَانِ السَّعَةِ، وَمَعَاقِلِ (22) الْحِرْزِ (23) ، وَمَنَازِلِ الْعِزِّ فِي (يَوْمٍ تَشْخَصُ فِيهِ الْأَبْصَارُ)، وَتُظْلِمُ لَهُ الْأَقْطَارُ، وَتُعَطَّلُ فِيهِ صُرُومُ (24) الْعِشَارِ (25) ، وَيُنْفَخُ فِي الصُّورِ، فَتَزْهَقُ كُلُّ مُهْجَةٍ، وَتَبْكَمُ كُلُّ لَهْجَةٍ، وَتَذِلُّ الشُّمُّ (26) الشَّوَامِخُ (27) ، وَالصُّمُّ (28) الرَّوَاسِخُ (29) ، فَيَصِيرُ صَلْدُهَا (30) سَرَاباً (31) رَقْرَقاً (32) ، وَمَعْهَدُهَا (33) قَاعاً (34) سَمْلَقاً (35) ، فَلاَ شَفِيعٌ يَشَفَعُ، وَلاَ حَمِيمٌ يَنْفَعُ، وَلاَ مَعْذِرَةٌ تَدْفَعُ.

p: 108

In Persian

(بر أساس اظهارات موجود در اصول كافى اين سخنرانى در شهر كوفه ايراد شد)

1 نشانه هاى آشكار الهى

ستايش خداوندى را سزاست كه نشانه هاى قدرت و بزرگى و عظمت خود را چنان آشكار كرد كه ديده ها را از شگفتى قدرتش به حيرت آورده، و انديشه هاى بلند را از شناخت ماهيّت صفاتش باز داشته است، و گواهى مى دهم كه جز خداى يكتا خدايى نيست، شهادتى بر خاسته از ايمان و يقين و اخلاص و اقرار درست. و گواهى مى دهم كه محمّد صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم بنده و فرستاده اوست، خدا پيامبرش را هنگامى فرستاد كه نشانه هاى هدايت از ياد رفته، و راه هاى دين ويران شده بود. او حق را آشكار، و مردم را نصيحت فرمود، همه را به رستگارى هدايت، و به ميانه روى فرمان داد «درود خدا بر او و خاندانش باد»

2 خداشناسى

و بدانيد اى بندگان خدا! كه خداوند شما را بيهوده نيافريد، و بى سرپرست رها نكرد.

از ميزان نعمتش بر شما آگاه، و اندازه نيكى هاى خود بر شما را مى داند. از خدا درخواست پيروزى و رستگارى كنيد، از او بخواهيد و عطاى او را درخواست كنيد، كه ميان او و شما پرده و مانعى نيست، و درى بروى شما بسته نمى گردد.خدا در همه جا، و در هر لحظه، و هر زمان، با انسان و پريان است. عطاى فراوان از دارايى او نمى كاهد، و بخشيدن در گنج او كاستى نياورد، و درخواست كنندگان، سرمايه او را به پايان نرسانند، و عطا شدگان، سرمايه او را پايان نمى دهند ، و كسى مانع احسان به ديگرى نخواهد بود، و آوازى او را از آواز ديگر باز ندارد، و بخشش او مانع گرفتن نعمت ديگرى نيست، و خشم گرفتن او مانع رحمت نمى باشد، و رحمتش او را از عذاب غافل نمى سازد، پنهان بودنش مانع آشكار بودنش نيست، و آشكار شدنش او را از پنهان ماندن باز نمى دارد.

p: 109

نزديك و دور است، بلند مرتبه و نزديك است، آشكار پنهان، و پنهان آشكار است، جزا دهنده همگان است و خود جزا داده نمى شود.پديده ها را با فكر و انديشه نيافريده، و از آنان براى خستگى و زحمات كمكى نخواسته است.

3 ياد آخرت

اى بندگان خدا! شما را به پرهيزكارى سفارش مى كنم، كه عامل كنترل و مايه استوارى شماست پس به رشته هاى تقوا چنگ زنيد، و به حقيقت هاى آن پناه آوريد، تا شما را به سر منزل آرامش، و جايگاههاى وسيع، و پناهگاه هاى محكم و منزلگاه هاى پر عزّت برساند، در روزى كه چشم ها خيره مى شود، و همه جا در نظر انسان تاريك، و گلّه هاى شتر و مال و اموال فراوان فراموش مى گردد. زيرا به هنگام قيامت (به گونه اى) در صور اسرافيل مى دمند كه قلب ها از كار مى افتد، زبان ها باز مى ايستد، كوه هاى بلند و سنگ هاى محكم فرو مى ريزد، و قسمت هاى سخت آن نرم چون سرابى مى ماند، كوهستان ها با زمين هموار مى گردد چنان كه نه پستى و نه بلندى موجود است، پس در آن هنگام نه شفاعت كننده اى است كه شفاعت كند، و نه دوستى كه نفع رساند، و نه پوزش خواستن سودى دارد.


In English

The condition of the world at the time of the proclamation of prophethood the transience of this world and the state of its inhabitants.

Allah deputed the Prophet when no sign of guidance existed no beacon was giving light and no passage was clear.

I advise you O' creatures of Allah to have fear of Allah and I warn you of this world which is a house from which departure is inevitable and a place of discomfort. He who lives in it has to depart and he who stays here has to leave it. It is drifting with its people like a boat whom severe winds dash (here and there) in the deep sea. Some of them get drowned and die while some of them escape on the surface of the waves where winds push them with their currents and carry them towards their dangers. So whatever is drowned cannot be restored and whatever escapes is on the way to destruction. O' creatures of Allah you should know now that you have to perform (good) acts because (at present) your tongues are free your bodies are healthy your limbs have movement the area of your coming and going is vast and the course of your running is wide; before the loss of opportunity or the approach of death. Take death's approach as an accomplished fact and do not think it will come (hereafter).

p: 110

In Arabic

[ 196 ] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام

بعثة النبي

بَعَثَهُ حِينَ لاَ عَلَمٌ قَائِمٌ، وَلاَ مَنَارٌ سَاطِعٌ، وَلاَ مَنْهَجٌ وَاضِحٌ.

العظة بالزهد

أُوصِيكُمْ عِبَادَ اللهِ، بِتَقْوَى اللهِ، وَأُحَذِّرُكُمُ الدُّنْيَا، فإِنَّهَا دَارُ شُخُوصٍ (1) ، وَمَحَلَّةُ تَنْغِيصٍ، سَاكِنُهَا ظَاعِنٌ، وَقَاطِنُهَا بَائِنٌ (2) ، تَمِيدُ (3) بِأَهْلِهَا مَيَدَانَ السَّفِينَةِ تَقْصِفُهَا (4) الْعَوَاصِفُ فِي لُجَجِ الْبِحَارِ، فَمِنْهُمُ الْغَرِقُ الْوَبِقُ (5) ، وَمِنْهُمُ النَّاجِي عَلى بُطُونِ الْأَمْوَاجِ، تَحْفِزُهُ (6) الرِّيَاحُ بِأَذْيَالِهَا، وَتَحْمِلُهُ عَلى أَهْوَالِهَا، فَمَا غَرِقَ مِنْهَا فَلَيْسَ بِمُسْتَدْرَكٍ، وَمَا نَجَا مِنْهَا فَإِلَى مَهْلَكٍ! عِبَادَ اللهِ، الْآنَ فَاعْلَمُوا، وَ الْأَلْسُنُ مُطْلَقَةٌ، وَ الْأَبدَانُ صَحِيحَةٌ، وَ الْأَعْضَاءُ لَدْنَةٌ (7) ، وَالْمُنقَلَبُ (8) فَسِيحٌ، وَالْمَجَالُ عَرِيضٌ، قَبْلَ إِرْهَاقِ (9) الْفَوْتِ (10) ، وَحُلُولِ الْمَوْتِ، فَحَقّقُوا عَلَيْكُمْ نُزُولَهُ، وَلاَ تَنْتَظِرُوا قُدُومَهُ

In Persian

هشدار از غفلت زدگى

خداوند هنگامى پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم را مبعوث فرمود كه نشانه اى از دين الهى بر پا، و نه چراغ هدايتى روشن، و نه راه حقّى آشكار بود. اى بندگان خدا! شما را به ترس از خدا سفارش مى كنم، و از دنياپرستى شما را مى ترسانم، زيرا دنيا خانه اى ناپايدار و جايگاه سختى و مشكلات است.

ساكنان دنيا در حال كوچ كردن، و اقامت گزيدگانش به جدايى محكومند. مردم را چونان كشتى طوفان زده در دل درياها مى لرزاند، برخى از آنان در دل آب مرده، و برخى ديگر بر روى امواج جان سالم به در برده، و بادها با وزيدن آنها را به اين سو و آن سو مى كشاند، و هر جا كه خواهد مى برد. پس آن را كه در آب مى ميرد نمى توان گرفت، و آن كه رها شده نيز به سوى مرگ مى رود.اى بندگان خدا، هم اكنون عمل كنيد، كه زبانها آزاد، و بدن ها سالم، و اعضاء و جوارح آماده اند، و راه بازگشت فراهم، و فرصت زياد است، پيش از آن كه وقت از دست برود، و مرگ فرا رسد، پس فرارسيدن مرگ را حتمى بشماريد، و در انتظار آمدنش به سر نبريد.

p: 111


In English

Amir al-mu'minin's attachment to the Holy Prophet. The performance of his funeral rites.

Those companions of Muhammad - the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him and his descendants - who were the custodians (of divine messages) know that I never disobeyed Allah or His Messenger (1) - the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him and his descendants - at all and by virtue of the courage (2) with which Allah honoured me I supported him with my life on occasions when even the brave turned away and feet remained behind (instead of proceeding forward).

When the Prophet - the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him and his descendants - died his head was on my chest and his (last) breath blew over my palms and I passed it over my face. I performed his (funeral) ablution may Allah bless him and his descendants and the angels helped me. The house and the courtyard were full of them. One party of them was descending and the other was ascending. My ears continually caught their humming voice as they invoked Allah's blessing on him till we buried him in his grave. Thus who can have greater rights with him than I during his life or after his death? Therefore depend on your intelligence and make your intentions pure in fighting your enemy because I swear by Him who is such that there is no god but He that I am on the path of truth and that they (the enemy) are on the misleading path of wrong. You hear what I say; and I seek Allah's forgiveness for myself and for you.

p: 112

In Arabic

[ 197 ] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام

ينبّه فيها على فضيلته لقبول قوله وأمره ونهيه

وَلَقَدْ عَلِمَ الْمُسْتَحْفَظُونَ (1) مِنْ أَصْحَابِ مُحَمَّدٍ -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ- أَنِّي لَمْ أَرُدَّ عَلَى اللهِ وَلاَ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ سَاعَةً قَطُّ. وَلَقَدْ وَاسَيْتُهُ (2) بِنَفْسِي فِي الْمَوَاطِنِ الَّتي تَنْكُصُ (3) فِيهَا الْأَبْطَالُ وَتَتَأَخَّرُ الْأَقْدَامُ، نَجْدَةً (4) أَكْرَمَنِي اللهُ بِهَا. وَلَقَدْ قُبِضَ رَسُولُ اللهِ -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ- وَإِنَّ رَأْسَهُ لَعَلَى صَدْرِي. وَلَقَدْ سَالَتْ نَفْسُهُ فِي كَفِّي، فَأَمْرَرْتُهَا عَلَىُ وَجْهِي. وَلَقَدْ وُلِّيتُ غُسْلَه -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ- وَالْمَلاَئِكُةُ أَعْوَانِي، فَضَجَّتِ الدَّارُ والْأَفْنِيَةُ (5) : مَلاٌَ يُهْبِطُ، وَمَلاٌَ يَعْرُجُ، وَمَا فَارَقَتْ سَمْعِي هَيْنَمَةٌ (6) مِنْهُمْ، يُصَلُّونَ عَلَيْهِ حَتَّى وَارَيْنَاهُ فِي ضَرِيحِهِ. فَمَنْ ذَا أَحَقُّ بِهِ مِنِّي حَيّاً وَمَيِّتاً؟ فَانْفُذُوا عَلَى بَصَائِرِكُمْ (7) ، وَلْتَصْدُقْ نِيَّاتُكُمْ فِي جِهَادِ عَدُوِّكُمْ. فَوَالَّذِي لاََ إِلهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ إِنِّي لَعَلَى جَادَّةِ الْحَقِّ، وَإِنَّهُمْ لَعَلَى مَزَلَّةِ (8) الْبَاطِلِ. أَقُولُ مَا تَسْمَعُونَ، وَأَسْتَغْفِرُ اللهَ لِي وَلَكُمْ!

In Persian

(اين سخنرانى در شهر كوفه در دوران زمامدارى آن حضرت ايراد شد)

1 فضائل امير المؤمنين عليه السّلام

اصحاب و ياران حضرت محمّد صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم كه حافظان اسرار او مى باشند، مى دانند كه من حتى براى يك لحظه هم مخالف فرمان خدا و رسول او نبودم، بلكه با جان خود پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم را يارى كردم. در جاهايى كه شجاعان قدم هايشان مى لرزيد، و فرار مى كردند، آن دليرى و مردانگى را خدا به من عطا فرمود.

2 در سوگ پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم

رسول خدا صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم در حالى كه سرش بر روى سينه ام بود قبض روح گرديد، و جان او در كف من روان شد آن را بر چهره خويش كشيدم.

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متصدّى غسل پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم من بودم، و فرشتگان مرا يارى مى كردند، گويا در و ديوار خانه فرياد مى زد. گروهى از فرشتگان فرود مى آمدند و گروهى ديگر به آسمان پرواز مى كردند.

گوش من از صداى آهسته آنان كه بر آن حضرت نماز مى خواندند، پر بود، تا آنگاه كه او را در حجره اش دفن كرديم. چه كسى با آن حضرت در زندگى و لحظات مرگ از من سزاوارتر است؟ پس مردم! با دل بينا حركت كنيد، و نيّت خويش را در جهاد با دشمن راست بداريد.

سوگند به خدايى كه جز او خدايى نيست، من بر جادّه حق مى روم، و دشمنان من بر پرتگاه باطلند، مى گويم آنچه را مى شنويد، و براى خود و شما از خدا طلب آمرزش دارم.


(1). Ibn Abi'l-Hadid has written (in Sharh Nahj al-balaghah vol. 10 pp. 180-183) that Amir al-mu'minin's saying that he never disobeyed the commands of the Prophet is a sort of taunt to those who felt no hesitation in rejecting the Prophet's commands and sometimes even checked him. For example when at the time of the peace of al-Hudaybiyah the Prophet was agreeable to negotiate peace with the unbelievers among the Quraysh one of the companions became so enraged that he expressed doubts about the prophethood of the Prophet whereupon Abu Bakr had to say:

Woe be to you! Keep clinging to him. He is certainly Allah's Messenger and He will not ruin him.

The introduction to the oath 'inna' and the word of emphasis 'lam' which are used here to create conviction about the prophethood shows that the addressee had gone farther than mere doubt because these words of emphasis are employed only when the stage of denial has been reached. However if belief required absence of doubt the presence of doubt must imply defect in the belief as Allah says:

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The believers are only those who believe in Allah and His Messenger they doubt not thereafter ... (Qur'an 49:15)

Similarly when the Prophet intended to say the funeral prayers of Ubayy ibn Salul the same companion said to him "How do you intend to seek forgiveness for this Chief of hypocrites?" And he even drew away the Prophet by catching the skirt (of his shirt). Then the Prophet had to say "No act of mine is beside the command of Allah". In the same way the Prophet's command to accompany the force of Usamah ibn Zayd was ignored. The greatest of all these insolences was displayed in connection with the Prophet's intention to write down his advice as to when such a blame was laid against the Prophet which proves an absence of belief in the commands of the shari'ah and creates a doubt about each command as to whether it is based on divine revelation or (Allah may forbid) just the result of mental disorder.

(2). Who can deny that the ever-successful lion of Allah 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (p.b.u.h.) shielded the Prophet on every critical occasion and performed the duty of protecting him by dint of the courage and valour gifted to him by Allah. The first occasion of risking his life was when the unbelievers from the Quraysh decided finally to kill the Prophet and 'Ali slept on his bed surrounded by enemies and under the direct peril of swords whereby the enemies were not able to succeed in their aims. Then in those battles where the enemies used to attack the Prophet together and where the feet of even the reputed heroes could not stand firm Amir al-mu'minin remained steadfast with the banner (of Islam) in his hand. 'Abd al-Barr and al-Hakim writes about it:

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Ibn 'Abbas says that 'Ali had four qualities which no one else possessed. Firstly he was the first among Arabs and non-Arabs to have said prayers with the Messenger of Allah. Secondly he always had the banner of Islam in his hand in every battle. Thirdly when people ran away from the Prophet 'Ali remained with him; and fourthly it was he who gave the Prophet his funeral ablution and laid him in his grave. (al-Isti'ab vol. 3 p. 1090; al-Mustadrak 'ala as-sahihayn vol. 3 p. 111)

A study of the holy wars of Islam fought in the Prophet's days leaves no doubt that except for the battle of Tabuk in which Amir al-mu'minin did not partake all other battles bear testimony to his fine performance and all the successes are due to his valour. Thus in the battle of Badr seventy unbelievers were killed half of whom were killed by 'Ali's sword. In the battle of Uhud when victory changed into defeat as a result of the Muslims engaging themselves in the collection of booty and they fled away under the sudden attack of the enemy Amir al-mu'minin remained steadfast taking jihad to be a religious obligation and displayed such conspicuous performance in support and defence of the Prophet that the Prophet too acknowledged it and also the Angel. Again in the battle of the Trench (al-Khandaq) the Prophet was accompanied by three thousand combatants but none dared face 'Amr ibn 'Abdawadd. At last Amir al-mu'minin killed him and saved the Muslims from ignominy. In the battle of Hunayn the Muslims were proud of their number because they were ten thousand while the unbelievers were only four thousand but here too they leapt onto the booty as a consequence of which the unbelievers gained the opportunity and pounced upon them. Bewildered with this sudden attack the Muslims fled away as the Holy Qur'an says:

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Most certainly did Allah help you in many (battle) fields and on the day of Hunayn when made you vain your great number but they availed you nothing and was straitened the earth against you with all its extensiveness then ye turned back in retreat. (9:25)

On this occasion also Amir al-mu'minin was steady like a rock and eventually with Allah's support victory was achieved.


In English

Allah's attribute of Omniscience

Allah knows the cries of the beasts in the forest the sins of the people in seclusion the movements of the fishes in the deep seas and the rising of the water by tempestuous winds. I stand witness that Muhammad is the choice of Allah the conveyor of His revelation and the messenger of His mercy.

Advantages of fear of Allah

Now then I advise you to fear Allah Who created you for the first time; towards Him is your return with Him lies the success of your aims at Him terminate (all) your desires towards Him runs your path of right and He is the aim of your fears (for seeking protection). Certainly fear of Allah is the medicine for your hearts sight for the blindness of your spirits the cure for the ailments of your bodies the rectifier of the evils of your breasts the purifier of the pollution of your minds the light of the darkness of your eyes the consolation for the fear of your heart and the brightness for the gloom of your ignorance.

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Therefore make obedience to Allah the way of your life and not only your outside covering make it your inner habit instead of only outer routine subtle enough to enter through your ribs (up to the heart) the guide for all your affairs the watering place for your getting down (on the Day of Judgement) the interceder for the achievement of your aims asylum for the day of your fear the lamp of the interior of your graves company for your long loneliness and deliverance from the troubles of your abodes. Certainly obedience to Allah is a protection against encircling calamities. expected dangers and the flames of burning fires.

Therefore whoever entertains fear of Allah troubles remain away from him after having been near affairs become sweet after their bitterness waves (of troubles) recede from him after having crowded over him difficulties become easy for him after occurring generosity rains fast over him after there had been famine mercy bends over him after it had been loath the favours (of Allah) spring forth on him after they had been dried and blessing descends over him in showers after being scanty. So fear Allah Who benefits you with His good advice preaches to you through His Messenger and obliges you with His favours. Devote yourselves to His worship and acquit yourselves of the obligation of obeying Him.

About Islam

This Islam is the religion which Allah has chosen for Himself developed it before His eyes preferred it as the best among His creations established its pillars on His love. He has disgraced other religions by giving honour to it. He has humiliated all communities before its sublimity; He has humbled its enemies with His kindness and made its opponents lonely by according it His support. He has smashed the pillars of misguidance with its columns. He has quenched the thirst of the thirsty from its cisterns and filled the cisterns through those who draw its water.

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He made Islam such that its constituent parts cannot break its links cannot separate its construction cannot fall its columns cannot decay its plant cannot be uprooted its time does not end its laws do not expire its twigs cannot be cut its parts do not become narrow its ease does not change into difficulty its clarity is not affected by gloom its straightness does not acquire curvature its wood has no crookedness its vast paths have no narrowness its lamp knows no putting off and its sweetness has no bitterness.

It consists of columns whose bases Allah has fixed in truthfulness and whose foundation He has strengthened and of sources whose streams are ever full of water and of lamps whose flames are full of light and of beacons with whose help travellers get guidance and of signs through which a way is found to its highways and of watering places which provide water to those who come to them. Allah has placed in Islam the height of His pleasure the pinnacle of His pillars and the prominence of His obedience. Before Allah therefore its columns are strong its construction is lofty its proofs are bright its fires are aflame its authority is strong its beacons are high and its destruction is difficult. You should therefore honour it follow it fulfil its obligations and accord the position due to it.

About the Holy Prophet

Then Allah the Glorified deputed Muhammad - the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him and his descendants - with truth at a time when the destruction of the world was near and the next life was at hand when its brightness was turning into gloom after shining it had become troublesome for its inhabitants its surface had become rough and its decay had approached near. This was during the exhaustion of its life at the approach of signs

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(of its decay) the ruin of its inhabitants the breaking of its links the dispersal of its affairs the decay of its signs the divulging of its secret matters and the shortening of its length. Allah made him responsible for conveying His message and (a means of) honour for his people a period of bloom for the men of his days a source of dignity for the supporters and an honour for his helpers.

About the Holy Qur'an

Then Allah sent to him the Book as a light whose flames cannot be extinguished a lamp whose gleam does not die a sea whose depth cannot be sounded a way whose direction does not mislead a ray whose light does not darken a separator (of good from evil) whose arguments do not weaken a clarifier whose foundations cannot be dismantled a cure which leaves no apprehension for disease an honour whose supporters are not defeated and a truth whose helpers are not abandoned. Therefore it is the mine of belief and its centre the source of knowledge and its oceans the plantation of justice and its pools the foundation stone of Islam and its construction the valleys of truth and its plains an ocean which those who draw water cannot empty springs which those who draw water cannot dry up a watering place which those who come to take water cannot exhaust a staging place in moving towards which travellers do not get lost signs which no treader fails to see and a highland which those who approach it cannot surpass it.

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Allah has made it a quencher of the thirst of the learned a bloom for the hearts of religious jurists a highway for the ways of the righteous a cure after which there is no ailment an effulgence with which there is no darkness a rope whose grip is strong a stronghold whose top is invulnerable an honour for him who loves it a peace for him who enters it a guidance for him who follows it an excuse for him who adopts it an argument for him who argues with it a witness for him who quarrels with it a success for him who argues with it a carrier of burden for him who seeks the way a shield for him who arms himself (against misguidance) a knowledge for him who listens carefully worthy story for him who relates it and a final verdict of him who passes judgements.

In Arabic

[ 198 ] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام

ينبّه على إحاطة علم الله بالجزئيات، ثمّ يحث على التقوى، ويبيّن فضل الإسلام والقرآن

يَعْلَمُ عَجِيجَ الْوُحُوشِ فِي الْفَلَوَاتِ، وَمَعاصِيَ الْعِبَادِ فِي الْخَلَوَاتِ، وَاخْتِلاَفَ النِّينَانِ (1) فِي الْبِحَارِ الْغَامِرَاتِ، وَتَلاَطُمَ الْمَاءِ بِالرِّيَاحِ الْعَاصِفَاتِ. وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً نَجِيبُ اللهِ (2) ، وَسَفِيرُ وَحْيِهِ، وَرَسُولُ رَحْمَتِهِ.

الوصية بالتقوى

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنَّي أُوصِيكُمْ بِتَقْوَى اللهِ الَّذِي ابْتَدَأَ خَلْقَكُمْ، وَإِلَيْهِ يَكُونُ مَعَادُكُمْ، وَبِهِ نَجَاحُ طَلِبَتِكُمْ، وَإِلَيْهِ مُنْتَهْى رَغْبَتِكُمْ، وَنَحْوَهُ قَصْدُ سَبِيلِكُمْ، وَإِلَيْهِ مَرَامِي مَفْزَعِكُمْ (3) ، فَإِنَّ تَقْوَى اللهِ دَوَاءُ دَاءِ قُلُوبِكُمْ، وَبَصَرُ عَمَى أَفِئِدَتِكُمْ، وَشِفَاءُ مَرَضِ أَجْسَادِكُمْ، وَصَلاَحُ فَسَادِ صُدُورِكُمْ، وَطُهُورُ دَنَسِ أَنْفُسِكُمْ، وَجِلاَءُ عَشَا أَبْصَارِكُمْ، وَأَمْنُ فَزَعِ جَأْشِكُمْ (4) ، وَضِيَاءُ سَوَادِ ظُلْمَتِكُمْ. فَاجْعَلُوا طَاعَةَ اللهِ شِعَاراً (5) دُونَ دِثَارِكُمْ (6) ، وَدَخِيلاً دُونَ شِعَارِكُمْ، وَلَطِيفاً بَيْنَ أَضْلاَعِكُمْ، وَأَمِيراً فَوْقَ أُمُورِكُمْ، وَمَنْهَلاً (7) لِحِينِ وُرُودِكُم، وَشَفِيعاً لِدَرَكِ (8) طَلِبَتِكُمْ (9) ، وَجُنَّةً (10) لِيَوْمِ فَزَعِكُمْ، وَمَصَابِيحَ لِبُطُونِ قُبُورِكُمْ، وَسَكَناً لِطُولِ وَحْشَتِكُمْ، وَنَفَساً لِكَرْبِ مَوَاطِنِكُمْ، فَإِنَّ طَاعَةَ اللهِ حِرْزٌ مِنْ مَتَالِفَ مُكْتَنِفَةٍ، وَمَخَاوِفَ مُتَوَقَّعَةٍ، وَأُوَارِ (11) نِيرَانٍ مُوقَدَةٍ. فَمَنْ أَخَذَ بِالتَّقْوَى عَزَبَتْ (12) عَنْهُ الشَّدَائِدُ بَعْدَ دُنُوِّهَا، وَاحْلَوْلَتْ لَهُ الْأُمُورُ بَعْدَ مَرَارَتِهَا، وَانْفَرَجَتْ عَنْهُ الْأَمْوَاجُ بَعْدَ تَرَاكُمِهَا، وَأَسْهَلَتْ لَهُ الصِّعَابُ بَعْدَ إِنْصَابِهَا (13) ، وَهَطَلَتْ عَلَيْهِ الْكَرَامَةُ بَعْدَ قُحُوطِهَا، وَتَحَدَّبَتْ (14) عَلَيْهِ الرَّحْمَةُ بَعْدَ نُفُورِهَا، وَتَفَجَّرَتْ عَلَيْهِ النِّعَمُ بَعْدَ نُضُوبِهَا (15) ، وَوَبَلَتْ عَلَيْهِ الْبَرَكَةُ بَعْدَ إِرْذَاذِهَا (16) .

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فَاتَّقُوا اللهَ الَّذِي نَفَعَكُمْ بَمَوْعِظَتِهِ، وَوَعَظَكُمْ بِرِسَالَتِهِ، وَامْتَنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ بِنِعْمَتِهِ، فَعَبِّدُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ لِعِبَادَتِهِ، وَاخْرُجُوا إِلَيْهِ مِنْ حَقِّ طَاعَتِهِ.

فضل الاسلام

ثُمَّ إِنَّ هذَا الْإِسْلاَمَ دِينُ اللهِ الَّذِي اصْطَفَاهُ لِنَفْسهِ، وَاصْطَنَعَهُ عَلى عَيْنِهِ، وَأَصْفَاهُ (17) خِيْرَةَ خَلْقِهِ، وَأَقَامَ دَعَائِمَهُ عَلَى مَحَبَّتِهِ، أَذَلَّ الْأَدْيَانَ بِعِزَّتِهِ، وَوَضَعَ الْمِلَلَ بِرَفْعِهِ، وَأَهَانَ أَعْدَاءَهُ بِكَرَامَتِهِ، وَخَذَلَ مُحَادِّيهِ (18) بِنَصْرِهِ، وَهَدَمَ أَرْكَانَ الضَّلاَلَةِ بِرُكْنِهِ (19) ، وَسَقَى مَنْ عَطِشَ مِنْ حِيَاضِهِ، وَأَتْأَقَ (20) الْحِيَاضَ بِمَوَاتِحِهِ (21) . ثُمَّ جَعَلَهُ لاَ انْفِصَامَ لِعُرْوَتِهِ، وَلاَ فَكَّ لِحَلْقَتِهِ، وَلاَ انْهِدَامَ لِأَسَاسِهِ، وَلاَ زَوَالَ لِدَعَائِمِهِ،

وَلاَ انْقِلاَعَ لِشَجَرَتِهِ، وَلاَ انْقِطَاعَ لِمُدَّتِهِ، وَلاَ عَفَاءَ (22) لِشَرَائِعِهِ، وَلاَ جَذَّ (23) لِفُرُوعِهِ، وَلاَ ضَنْكَ (24) لِطُرُقِهِ، وَلاَ وُعُوثَةَ (25) لِسُهُولَتِهِ، وَلاَ سَوَادَ لِوَضَحِهِ (26) ، وَلاَ عِوَجَ لِإِنْتِصَابِهِ، وَلاَ عَصَلَ (27) فِي عُودِهِ، وَلاَ وَعَثَ (28) لِفَجِّهِ (29) ، وَلاَ انْطِفَاءَ لِمَصَابِيحِهِ، وَلاَ مَرَارَةَ لِحَلاَوَتِهِ. فَهُوَ دَعَائِمُ أَسَاخَ (30) فِي الْحَقِّ أَسْنَاخَهَا (31) ، وَثَبَّتَ لَهَا آسَاسَهَا، وَيَنَابِيعُ غَزُرَتْ عُيُونُهَا، وَمَصَابِيحُ شَبَّتْ نِيرَانُهَا (32) ، وَمَنَارٌ (33) اقْتَدَى بِهَا سُفَّارُهَا (34) ، وَأَعلاَمٌ (35) قُصِدَ بِهَا فِجَاجُهَا، وَمَنَاهِلُ رَوِيَ بِهَا وُرَّادُهَا. جَعَلَ اللهُ فِيهِ مُنْتَهَى رِضْوَانِهِ، وَذِرْوَةَ دَعَائِمِهِ، وَسَنَامَ طَاعَتِهِ، فَهُوَ عِنْدَ اللهِ وَثِيقُ الْأَرْكَانِ، رَفِيعُ الْبُنْيَانِ، مُنِيرُ الْبُرْهَانِ، مُضِيءُ النِّيرَانِ، عَزِيرُ السُّلْطَانِ، مُشْرِفُ الْمَنَارِ (36) ، مُعْوِذُ الْمَثَارِ (37) . فَشَرِّفُوهُ وَاتَّبِعُوهُ، وَأَدُّوا إِلَيْهِ حَقَّهُ، وَضَعُوهُ مَوَاضِعَهُ.

الرسول الاعظم

ثُمَّ إِنَّ اللهِ سُبْحَانَهُ بَعَثَ مُحَمَّداً -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ- بالْحَقِّ حِينَ دَنَا مِنَ الدُّنْيَا الْإِنْقِطَاعُ، وَأَقْبَلَ مِنَ الْآخِرَةِ الْإِطِّلاَعُ (38) ، وَأَظْلَمَتْ بَهْجَتُهَا بَعْدَ إِشْرَاقٍ، وَقَامَتْ بِأَهْلِهَا عَلَى سَاقٍ، وَخَشُنَ مِنْهَا مِهَادٌ (39) ، وَأَزِفَ مِنْهَا قِيَادٌ (40) ، فِي انْقِطَاعٍ مِنْ مُدَّتِهَا، وَاقْتِرَابٍ مِنْ أَشْرَاطِهَا (41) ، وَتَصَرُّمٍ (42) مِنْ أَهْلِهَا، وَانْفِصَامٍ (43) مِنْ

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حَلْقَتِهَا، وَانْتِشَار (44) مِنْ سَبَبِهَا، وَعَفَاءٍ مِنْ أَعْلاَمِهَا (45) ، وَتَكَشُّفٍ مِنْ عَوْرَاتِها، وَقِصَرٍ مِنْ طُولِهَا. جَعَلَهُ اللهُ بَلاَغاً لِرِسَالَتِهِ، وَكَرَامَةً لِأُمَّتِهِ، وَرَبِيعاً لِأَهْلِ زَمَانِهِ، وَرِفْعَةً لِأَعْوَانِهِ، وَشَرَفاً لِأَنْصَارِهِ.

القرآن الكريم

ثُمَّ أَنْزَلَ عَلَيْهِ الْكِتَابَ نُوراً لاَ تُطْفَأُ مَصَابِيحُهُ، وَسِرَاجاً لاَ يَخْبُو (46) تَوَقُّدُهُ، وَبَحْراً لاَ يُدْرَكُ قَعْرُهُ، وَمِنْهَاجاً (47) لاَ يُضِلُّ نَهْجُهُ (48) ، وَشُعَاعاً لاَ يُظْلِمُ ضَوْؤُهُ، وَفُرْقَاناً لاَ يُخْمَدُ بُرْهَانُهُ، وَتِبْيَاناً لاَ تُهْدَمُ أَرْكَانُهُ، وَشِفَاءً لاَ تُخْشَى أَسْقَامُهُ، وَعِزّاً لاَ تُهْزَمُ أَنْصَارُهُ، وَحَقّاً لاَ تُخْذَلُ أَعْوَانُهُ. فَهُوَ مَعْدِنُ الْإِيمَانِ وَبُحْبُوحَتُهُ (49) ، وَيَنَابِيعُ الْعِلْمِ وَبُحُورُهُ، وَرِيَاضُ (50) الْعَدْلِ وَغُدْرَانُهُ (51) ، وَأَثَافِيُّ (52) الْإِسْلاَمِ وَبُنْيَانُهُ، وَأَوْدِيَةُ الْحَقِّ وَغِيطَانُهُ (53) . وَبَحْرٌ لاَ يَنْزِفُهُ الْمُسْتَنْزِفُونَ (54) ، وَعُيُونٌ لاَ يُنضِبُهَا الْمَاتِحُونَ (55) ، وَمَنَاهِلُ (56) لاَ يَغِيضُهَا (57) الْوَارِدُونَ، وَمَنَازِلُ لاَ يَضِلُّ نَهْجَهَا الْمُسَافِرُونَ، وَأَعْلاَمٌ لاَ يَعْمَى عَنْهَا السَّائِرُونَ، وَآكَامٌ (58) لاَ يَجُوزُ عنْهَا (59) الْقَاصِدُونَ. جَعَلَهُ اللهُ رِيّاً لِعَطَشِ الْعُلَمَاءِ، وَرَبِيعاً لِقُلُوبِ الْفُقَهَاءِ، وَمَحَاجَّ (60) لِطُرُقِ الصُّلَحَاءِ، وَدَوَاءً لَيْسَ بَعْدَهُ دَاءٌ، وَنُوراً لَيْسَ مَعَهُ ظُلْمَةٌ،وَحَبْلاً وَثِيقاً عُرْوَتُهُ، وَمَعْقِلاً مَنِيعاً ذِرْوَتُهُ، وَعِزّاً لِمَنْ تَوَلاَّهُ، وَسِلْماً لِمَنْ دَخَلَهُ، وَهُدىً لِمَنِ ائْتَمَّ بِهِ، وَعُذْراً لِمَنِ انْتَحَلَهُ، وَبُرْهَاناً لِمَنْ تَكَلَّمَ بِهِ، وَشَاهِداً لِمَنْ خَاصَمَ بِهِ، وَفَلْجاً (61) لِمَنْ حَاجَّ بِهِ، وَحَامِلاً لِمَنْ حَمَلَهُ، وَمَطِيَّةً لِمَنْ أَعْمَلَهُ، وَآيَةً لِمَنْ تَوَسَّمَ، وَجُنَّةً (62) لِمَنِ اسْتَلْأَمَ (63) ، وَعِلْماً لِمَنْ وَعَى، وَحَدِيثاً لِمَنْ رَوَى، وَحُكْماً لِمَنْ قَضَى (64) .

In Persian

1 علم الهى

خدا از نعره حيوانات وحشى در كوه ها و بيابان ها، و گناه و معصيت بندگان در خلوتگاه ها، و آمد و رفت ماهيان در درياهاى ژرف، و به هم خوردن آبها بر اثر وزش بادهاى سخت آگاه است. و گواهى مى دهم كه حضرت محمّد صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم برگزيده خدا، سفير وحى، و رسول رحمت اوست.

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2 ارزش پرهيزكارى

پس از ستايش پروردگار، همانا من شما را به ترس از خدا سفارش مى كنم، خدايى كه آفرينش شما را آغاز كرد، و به سوى او باز مى گرديد. خدايى كه خواسته هاى شما را بر آورد، و بازگشت بسوى او نهايت آرزوى شماست. راه راست شما به او پايان مى پذيرد، و به هنگام ترس و وحشت، او پناهگاه شماست. همانا تقوا و ترس از خدا، داروى بيمارى هاى دل ها، روشنايى قلب ها، و درمان دردهاى بدن ها «1»، مرهم زخم جان ها، پاك كننده پليدى هاى ارواح، و روشنايى بخش تاريكى چشم ها، و امنيّت در نا آرامى ها، و روشن كننده تاريكى هاى شماست. پس اطاعت خدا را پوشش جان، نه پوشش ظاهرى، قرار دهيد، و با جان، نه با تن، فرمانبردار باشيد تا با اعضا و جوارح بدنتان در هم آميزد، و (آن را) بر همه امورتان حاكم گردانيد. اطاعت خدا را راه ورود به آب حيات، شفيع گرفتن خواسته ها، پناهگاه روز اضطراب، چراغ روشنگر قبرها، آرامش وحشت هاى طولانى دوران برزخ، و راه نجات لحظات سخت زندگى، قرار دهيدزيرا اطاعت خدا، وسيله نگهدارنده از حوادث هلاك كننده، و جايگاه هاى وحشتناك، كه انتظار آن را مى كشيد، و حرارت آتش هاى بر افروخته است. پس كسى كه تقوا را انتخاب كند، سختى ها از او دور گردند، تلخى ها شيرين و فشار مشكلات و ناراحتى ها برطرف خواهند شد، و مشكلات پياپى و خسته كننده، آسان گرديده و مجد و بزرگى از دست رفته چون قطرات باران بر او فرو مى بارند، رحمت باز داشته حق باز مى گردد، و نعمت هاى الهى پس از فرو نشستن به جوشش مى آيند، و بركات تقليل يافته فزونى گيرند. پس از خدايى بترسيد كه با پند دادن شما را سود فراوان بخشيده، و با رسالت پيامبرش شما را نيكو اندرز داده، و با نعمت هايش بر شما منّت گذاشته است. خود را براى پرستش خدا فروتن داريد، و با انجام وظائف الهى، حق فرمانبردارى را به جا آوريد.

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3 ويژگى هاى اسلام

همانا اين اسلام، دين خداوندى است كه آن را براى خود برگزيد، و با ديده عنايت پروراند، و بهترين آفريدگان خود را مخصوص ابلاغ آن قرار داد. پايه هاى اسلام را بر محبّت خويش استوار كرد، و اديان و مذاهب گذشته «2» را با عزّت آن، خوار كرد، و با سر بلند كردن آن، ديگر ملّت ها را بى مقدار كرد، و با محترم داشتن آن، دشمنان را خوار گردانيد، و با يارى كردن آن دشمنان سر سخت را شكست داد، و با نيرومند ساختن آن اركان گمراهى را درهم كوبيد، و تشنگان را از چشمه زلال آن سيراب كرد، و آبگيره هاى اسلام را پر آب كرد. خداوند اسلام را به گونه اى استحكام بخشيد كه پيوندهايش نگسلد، و حلقه هايش از هم جدا نشود، و ستون هايش خراب نگردد، در پايه هايش زوال راه نيابد، درخت وجودش از ريشه كنده نشود، زمانش پايان نگيرد، قوانينش كهنگى نپذيرد ، شاخه هايش قطع نگردد، راه هايش تنگ و خراب نشود، و پيمودن راهش دشوار نباشد، تيرگى در روشنايى آن داخل نشود، و راه راست آن كجى نيابد، ستونهايش خم نشود، و گذرگاهش بدون دشوارى پيمودنى باشد، در چراغ اسلام خاموشى، و در شيرينى آن تلخى راه نيابد. اسلام ستون هاى استوارى است كه خداوند (پايه هاى) آن را در دل حق برقرار، و اساس و پايه آن را ثابت كرد، اسلام چشمه سارى است كه آب آن در فوران، چراغى است كه شعله هاى آن فروزان، و نشانه هميشه استوارى است كه روندگان راه حق با آن هدايت شوند، پرچمى است كه براى راهنمايى پويندگان راه خدا نصب گرديده، و آبشخورى است كه وارد شوندگان آن سيراب مى شوند. خداوند نهايت خشنودى خود را در اسلام قرار داده، و بزرگ ترين ستون هاى دينش، و بلندترين قلّه اطاعت او در اسلام جاى گرفته است، اسلام در پيشگاه خداوند، داراى ستون هايى مطمئن، بنايى بلند، راهنمايى هميشه روشن، شعله اى روشنى بخش، برهانى نيرومند، و نشانه اى بلند پايه است، كه در افتادن با آن ممكن نيست!پس اسلام را بزرگ بشماريد، از آن پيروى كنيد، حق آن را اداء نماييد، و در جايگاه شايسته خويش قرار دهيد.

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4 بعثت پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم و سختى هاى جاهليّت

سپس خداوند سبحان حضرت محمّد صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم را هنگامى مبعوث فرمود كه دنيا به مراحل پايانى رسيده، نشانه هاى آخرت نزديك، و رونق آن به تاريكى گراييده و اهل خود را به پاداشته، جاى آن ناهموار آماده نيستى و نابودى، زمانش در شرف پايان، و نشانه هاى نابودى آن آشكار، موجودات در آستانه مرگ، حلقه زندگى آن شكسته، و اسباب حيات در هم ريخته، پرچمهاى دنيا پوسيده، و پرده هايش دريده، و عمرها به كوتاهى رسيده بود.در اين هنگام خداوند پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم را ابلاغ كننده رسالت، افتخار آفرين امّت، چونان باران بهارى براى تشنگان حقيقت آن روزگاران، مايه سربلندى مسلمانان، و عزّت و شرافت يارانش قرار داد.

5 ارزش ها و ويژگى هاى قرآن

سپس قرآن را بر او نازل فرمود:

قرآن نورى است كه خاموشى ندارد، چراغى است كه درخشندگى آن زوال نپذيرد،

دريايى است كه ژرفاى آن درك نشود، راهى است كه رونده آن گمراه نگردد، شعله اى است كه نور آن تاريك نشود جدا كننده حق و باطلى است كه درخشش برهانش خاموش نگردد، بنايى است كه ستون هاى آن خراب نشود، شفا دهنده اى است كه بيمارى هاى وحشت انگيز را بزدايد، قدرتى است كه ياورانش شكست ندارند، و حقّى است كه يارى كنندگانش مغلوب نشوند. قرآن، معدن ايمان و اصل آن است، چشمه هاى دانش و درياهاى علوم است، سرچشمه عدالت، و نهر جارى دل است، پايه هاى اسلام و ستون هاى محكم آن است، نهرهاى جارى زلال حقيقت، و سرزمين هاى آن است. دريايى است كه تشنگان آن، آبش را تمام نتوانند كشيد، و چشمه اى است كه آبش كمى ندارد، محل برداشت آبى است كه هرچه از آن برگيرند كاهش نمى يابد، منزلى است كه مسافران راه آن را فراموش نخواهند كرد، و نشانه هايى است كه روندگان از آن غفلت نمى كنند، كوهسار زيبايى است كه از آن نمى گذرند. خدا قرآن را فرو نشاننده عطش علمى دانشمندان، و باران بهارى براى قلب فقيهان، و راه گسترده و وسيع براى صالحان قرار داده است. قرآن دارويى است كه با آن بيمارى وجود ندارد، نورى است كه با آن تاريكى يافت نمى شود، ريسمانى است كه رشته هاى آن محكم، پناهگاهى است كه قلّه آن بلند و توان و قدرتى است براى آن كه قرآن را برگزيند، محل امنى است براى هر كس كه وارد آن شود، راهنمايى است تا از او پيروى كند، وسيله انجام وظيفه است براى آن كه قرآن را راه و رسم خود قرار دهد، برهانى است بر آن كس كه با آن سخن بگويد، عامل پيروزى است براى آن كس كه با آن استدلال كند، نجات دهنده است براى آن كس كه حافظ آن باشد و به آن عمل كند، و راهبر آن كه آن را به كار گيرد، و نشانه هدايت است براى آن كس كه در او بنگرد، سپر نگهدارنده است براى آن كس كه با آن خود را بپوشاند، و دانش كسى است كه آن را به خاطر بسپارد، و حديث كسى است كه از آن روايت كند، و فرمان كسى است كه با آن قضاوت كند.

p: 126


(1) اشاره به: فارماكولوژى YGOLOCAMRAHP (داروشناسى)

(2) اشاره به علم: تئولوژى YGOLOEHT (اديان شناسى) و نقد پلوراليسم دينى، كه معتقدند همه اديان بر حق مى باشند.


In English

Containing advice given by Amir al-mu'minin to his companions

About Prayer

Pledge yourself with prayer and remain steady on it; offer prayer as much as possible and seek nearness (of Allah) through it because it is (imposed) upon the believers as (a) timed ordinance (Qur'an 4:103). Have you not heard the reply of the people of Hell when they were asked: What hath brought you into the hell? They shall say: We were not of those who offered the regular prayers (to Allah)! (Qur'an 74:42-43). Certainly prayer drops out sins like the dropping of leaves (of trees) and removes them as ropes are removed from the necks of cattle. The Messenger of Allah - the peace and blessing of Allah he upon him and his descendants - likened it to a hot bath situated at the door of a person who bathes in it five times a day. Will then any dirt remain on him?

Its obligation is recognised by those believers whom neither the adornment of property nor the coolness of the eyes produced by children can turn away from it. Allah the Glorified says: Men whom neither merchandise nor any sale diverteth from the remembrance of Allah and constancy in prayer and paying the poor-rate; ... (Qur'an. 24:37)

p: 127

Even after receiving assurance of Paradise the Messenger of Allah - peace and blessing of Allah be upon him and his descendants - used to exert himself for prayers because of Allah the Glorified's command.

And enjoin prayer on thy followers and adhere thou steadily unto it ... (Qur'an 20:132).

Then the Holy Prophet used to enjoin his followers to prayer and exert himself for it.

About the Islamic Tax (zakat)

Then Islamic tax has been laid down along with prayer as a sacrifice (to be offered) by the people of Islam. Whoever pays it by way of purifying his spirit it serves as a purifier for him and a protection and shield against fire (of Hell). No one therefore (who pays it) should feel attached to it afterwards nor should feel grieved over it. Whoever pays it without the intention of purifying his heart expects through it more than its due. He is certainly ignorant of the sunnah he is allowed no reward for it his action goes to waste and his repentance is excessive.

Fulfilment of Trust

Then as regards fulfilment of trust whoever does not pay attention to it will be disappointed. It was placed before the strong skies vast earths and high mountains but none of them was found to be stronger. vaster or higher than it. If anything could be unapproachable because of height vastness power or strength they would have been unapproachable but they felt afraid of the evil consequences (of failure in fulfilling a trust) and noticed what a weaker being did not realise it and this was man.

p: 128

. . . Verily he was (proved) unjust ignorant. (Qur'an 33:72)

Surely Allah the Glorified the Sublime nothing is hidden from Him of whatever people do in their nights or days. He knows all the details and His knowledge covers them. Your limbs are a witness the organs of your body constitute an army (against yourself) your inner self serves Him as eyes (to watch your sins) and your loneliness is open to Him.

In Arabic

[ 199 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

كان يوصي به أصحابه

تَعَاهَدُوا أَمْرَ الصَّلاَةِ، وَحَافِظُوا عَلَيْهَا، وَاسْتَكْثِرُوا مِنْهَا، وَتَقَرَّبُوا بِهَا، فَإِنَّهَا (كَانَتْ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ كِتَاباً مَوْقُوتاً) أَلاَ تَسْمَعُونَ إِلَى جَوَابِ أَهْلِ النَّارِ حِينَ سُئِلُوا: (مَا سَلَكَكُمْ فِي سَقَرَ * قَالُوا لَمْ نَكُ مِنَ الْمُصَلِّينَ) وَإِنَّهَا لَتَحُتُّ الذُّنُوبَ حَتَّ (1) الْوَرَقِ، وَتُطْلِقُهَا إِطْلاَقَ الرِّبَق (2) ، وَشَبَّهَهَا رَسُولُ اللهِ -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ- بِالْحَمَّة (3) تَكُونُ عَلَى بَابِ الرَّجُلِ، فَهُوَ يَغْتَسِلُ مِنْهَا فِي الْيَوْمِ وَاللَّيْلَةِ خَمْسَ مَرّاتٍ، فَمَا عَسَى أَنْ يَبْقَى عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الدَّرَنِ (4) ؟ وَقَدْ عَرَفَ حَقَّهَا رِجَالٌ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الَّذِينَ لاَ تَشْغَلُهُمْ عنْهَا زِينَةُ مَتَاعٍ، وَلاَ قُرَّةُ عَيْنٍ مِنْ وَلَدٍ وَلاَ مَالٍ. يَقُولُ اللهُ سُبْحَانَهُ: (رِجَالٌ لاَ تُلْهِيهِمْ تِجَارَةٌ وَلاَ بَيْعٌ عَنْ ذِكْرِ اللهِ وَإِقَامِ الصَّلاَةِ وَإِيتَاءِ الزَّكَاةِ). وَكَانَ رَسُولُ اللهِ -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ- نَصِباً (5) بِالصَّلاَةِ بَعْدَ التَّبْشِيرِ لَهُ بِالْجَنَّةِ، لِقَوْلِ اللهِ سُبْحَانَهُ: (وَأْمُرْ أَهْلَكَ بِالصَّلاَةِ وَاصْطَبِرْ عَلَيْهَا)، فَكَانَ يَأُمُرُ بِهَا أَهْلَهُ وَيَصْبِرُ عَلَيْهَا نَفْسَهُ.


ثُمَّ إِنَّ الزَّكَاةَ جُعِلَتْ مَعَ الصَّلاَةِ قُرْبَاناً لِأَهْلِ الْإِسْلاَمِ، فَمَنْ أَعْطَاهَا طَيِّبَ النَّفْسِ بِهَا، فإِنَّهَا تُجْعَلُ لَهُ كَفَّارَةً، وَمِنَ النَّارِ حِجَازاً وَوِقَايَةً. فَلاَ يُتْبِعَنَّهَا أَحَدٌ نَفْسَهُ، وَلاَ يُكْثِرَنَّ عَلَيْهَا لَهَفَهُ، فإِنَّ مَنْ أَعْطَاهَا غَيْرَ طَيِّبِ النَّفْسِ بِهَا، يَرْجُو بِهَا مَا هُوَ أَفْضَلُ مِنْهَا، فَهُوَ جَاهِلٌ بِالسُّنَّةِ، مَغْبُونُ (6) الْإِجْرِ، ضَالُّ الْعَمَلِ، طَوِيلُ النَّدَمِ.

p: 129


ثُمَّ أَدَاءَ الْأَمَانَةِ، فَقَدْ خَابَ مَنْ لَيْسَ مِنْ أَهْلِهَا، إِنَّهَا عُرِضَتْ عَلَى السَّماوَاتِ الْمَبْنِيَّةِ، وَ الْأَرَضِينَ الْمَدْحُوَّةِ (7) ، وَالْجِبَالِ ذَاتِ الطُّولِ الْمَنْصُوبَةِ، فَلاَ أَطْوَلَ وَلاَ أَعْرَضَ، وَلاَ أَعْلَى وَلاَ أَعْظَمَ مِنْهَا. وَلَوِ امْتَنَعَ شَيْءٌ بِطُولٍ أَوْ عَرْضٍ أَوْ قُوَّةٍ أَوْ عِزٍّ لَأَمْتَنَعْنَ، وَلكِنْ أَشْفَقْنَ مِنَ الْعُقُوبَةِ، وَعَقَلْنَ مَا جَهِلَ مَنْ هُوَ أَضْعَفُ مِنْهُنَّ، وَهُوَ الْإِنْسَانُ، (إِنَّهُ كَانَ ظَلُوماً جَهُولاً)

علم الله تعالى

إِنَّ اللهَ سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَي لاَ يَخْفَى عَلَيْهِ مَا الْعِبَادُ مُقْتَرِفُونَ (8) فِي لَيْلِهِمْ وَنَهَارِهِمْ، لَطُفَ بِهِ خُبْراً (9) ، وَأَحَاطَ بِهِ عِلْماً، أَعْضَاؤُكُمْ شُهُودُهُ، وَجَوَارِحُكُمْ جُنُودُهُ، وَضَمائِرُكُمْ عُيُونُهُ، وَخَلَوَاتُكُمْ عِيَانُهُ (10) .

In Persian

(اين سخنرانى در آستانه يكى از جنگ ها ايراد شد) همواره يارانش را به آن سفارش مى كرد:

1 ره آورد نماز

مردم! (خواندن و اقامه) نماز را بر عهده گيريد، و آن را حفظ كنيد، زياد نماز بخوانيد، و با نماز خود را به خدا نزديك كنيد. «نماز دستورى است كه در وقت هاى خاص بر مؤمنان واجب گرديده است» آيا به پاسخ دوزخيان گوش فرا نمى دهيد، آن هنگام كه از آنها پرسيدند:

چه چيز شما را به دوزخ كشانده است؟ گفتند: «ما از نماز گزاران نبوديم» همانا نماز، گناهان را چونان برگ هاى پاييزى فرو مى ريزد، و غل و زنجير گناهان را از گردن ها مى گشايد پيامبر اسلام صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم نماز را به چشمه آب گرمى كه بر در سراى مردى جريان داشته باشد،

تشبيه كرد، اگر روزى پنج بار خود را در آن شستشو دهد، هرگز چرك و آلودگى در بدن او نماند. همانا كسانى از مؤمنان حق نماز را شناختند كه زيور دنيا از نماز بازشان ندارد، و روشنايى چشمشان يعنى اموال و فرزندان مانع نمازشان نشود.

p: 130

خداى سبحان مى فرمايد: «مردانى هستند كه تجارت و خريد و فروش، آنان را از ياد خدا، و برپا داشتن نماز، و پرداخت زكات باز نمى دارد». رسول خدا صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم پس از بشارت به بهشت، خود را در نماز خواندن به زحمت مى انداخت، زيرا خداوند به او فرمود: «خانواده خويش را به نماز فرمان ده و بر انجام آن شكيبا باش» پس پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم پى در پى خانواده خود را به نماز فرمان مى داد، و خود نيز در انجام نماز شكيبا بود.

2 ارزش و ره آورد زكات

همانا پرداخت زكات و اقامه نماز، عامل نزديك شدن مسلمانان به خداست، پس آن كس كه زكات را با رضايت خاطر بپردازد، كفّاره گناهان او مى شود، و باز دارنده و نگهدارنده انسان از آتش جهنّم است پس نبايد به آنچه پرداخته با نظر حسرت نگاه كند، و براى پرداخت زكات افسوس خورد، زيرا آن كس كه زكات را از روى رغبت نپردازد، و انتظار بهتر از آنچه را پرداخته داشته باشد، به سنّت پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم نادان است، و پاداش او اندك، و عمل او تباه و هميشه پشيمان خواهد بود.

3 مسؤوليّت اداى امانت

يكى ديگر از وظائف الهى، اداى امانت است، آن كس كه امانت ها را نپردازد زيانكار است.

امانت الهى را بر آسمان هاى بر افراشته، و زمين هاى گسترده، و كوه هاى به پا داشته، عرضه كردند، كه از آنها بلندتر، بزرگ تر، وسيع تر يافت نمى شد، امّا نپذيرفتند اگر بنا بود كه چيزى به خاطر طول و عرض و توانمندى و سربلندى از پذيرفتن امانت سرباز زند آنان بودند، امّا از كيفر الهى ترسيدند، و از عواقب تحمّل امانت آگاهى داشتند، كه ناتوان تر از آنها آگاهى نداشت، و آن انسان است، كه خدا فرمود:

p: 131

«همانا انسان ستمكار نادان است»

4 دانش الهى

همانا بر خداوند سبحان پنهان نيست آنچه را كه بندگان در شب و روز انجام مى دهند، كه دقيقا بر اعمال آنها آگاه است، و با علم خويش بر آنها احاطه دارد، اعضاء شما مردم گواه او، و اندام شما سپاهيان او، روان و جانتان جاسوسان او، و خلوت هاى شما بر او آشكار است.


In English

Treason and treachery of Mu'awiyah and the fate of those guilty of treason

By Allah (1) Mu'awiyah is not more cunning than I am but he deceives and commits evil deeds. Had I not been hateful of deceit I would have been the most cunning of all men. But (the fact is that) every deceit is a sin and every sin is disobedience (of Allah) and every deceitful person will have a banner by which he will be recognised on the Day of Judgement. By Allah I cannot be made forgetful by strategy nor can I be overpowered by hardships.

In Arabic

[ 200 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

في معاوية

وَاللهِ مَا مُعَاوِيَةُ بِأَدْهَى مِنِّي، وَلكِنَّهُ يَغْدِرُ وَيَفْجُرُ، وَلَوْلاَ كَرَاهِيَةُ الْغَدْرِ لَكُنْتُ مِنْ أَدْهَى النَّاسِ، وَلَكِنْ كُلُّ غَدْرَةٍ فَجْرَةٌ، وَكُلُّ فَجْرَةٍ كَفْرَةٌ، وَلِكُلِّ غَادِرٍ لِوَاءٌ يُعْرَفُ بِهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ.

وَاللهِ مَا أَُسْتَغْفَلُ بالْمَكِيدَةِ، وَلاَ أُسْتَغْمَزُ بالشَّدِيدَةِ (1)


(1). People who are ignorant of religion and ethics free from the shackles of religious law and unaware of the conception of punishment and reward find no paucity of excuses and means for the achievement of their objects. They can find ways of success at every stage; but when the dictates of humanity or Islam or the limitations imposed by ethics and religious law act as impediments the chances of devising and finding means become narrow and the possibility of action becomes restricted. Mu'awiyah's influence and control was the result of these devices and ways in following which he knew no impediment nor any obstacle of what is lawful or unlawful nor did fear of the Day of Judgement prevent him from acting fearlessly. As al-'Allamah ar-Raghib al-Isfahani while taking account of his characters writes:

p: 132

"His aim always was to achieve his object whether lawful or unlawful. He did not care for religion nor did he ever think of divine chastisement. Thus in order to maintain his power he resorted to mis-statements and concoctions practised all sorts of deceits and contrivances. When he saw that success was not possible without entangling Amir al-mu'minin in war he roused Talhah and az-Zubayr against him.

When success could not be achieved by this means he instigated the Syrians and brought about the civil war of Siffin. And when his rebellious position had become known by the killing of 'Ammar he at once duped the people by saying that 'Ali was responsible for killing him as he had brought him into the battlefield; and on another occasion he interpreted the words 'rebellious party' occurring in the saying of the Prophet to mean 'avenging party' intending to prove that 'Ammar would be killed by the group that would seek revenge of 'Uthman's blood although the next portion of this saying namely 'he will call them towards Paradise while they will call him to Hell ' does not leave any scope for interpretation. When there was no hope of victory even by these cunning means he contrived to raise the Qur'an on spears although in his view neither the Qur'an nor its commandments carried any weight. If he had really aimed at a decision by the Qur'an he should have put this demand before the commencement of the battle and when it became known to him that the decision had been secured by 'Amr ibn al-'As by deceiving Abu Musa al-Ash'ari and that it did not have even a remote connection with the Qur'an he should not have accepted it and should have punished 'Amr ibn al-'As for this cunning or at least should have warned and rebuked him. But on the contrary his performance was much appreciated and in reward he was made the Governor of Egypt."

p: 133

In contrast to this Amir al-mu'minin's conduct was a high specimen of religious law and ethics. He kept in view the requirements of truth and righteousness even in adverse circumstances and did not allow his chaste life to be tarnished by the views of deceit and contrivance. If he wished he could face cunning by cunning and Mu'awiyah's shameful activities could have been answered by similar activities. For example when he put a guard on the Euphrates and stopped the supply of its water (to Amir al-mu'minin's men) then the supply of water could have been cut from them also on the grounds that since they had occupied the Euphrates it was lawful to retaliate and in this way they could be overpowered by weakening their fighting power. But Amir al-mu'minin could never tarnish his hands with such an inhuman act which was not permitted by any law or code of ethics although common

people regard such acts against the enemy as lawful and call this duplicity of character for achievement of success a stroke of policy and administrative ability. But Amir al-mu'minin could never think of strengthening his power by fraud or duplicity of behaviour on any occasion. Thus when people advised him to retain the officers of the days of 'Uthman in their position and to befriend Talhah and az-Zubayr by assigning them governorship of Kufah and Basrah and make use of Mu'awiyah's ability in administration by giving him the government of Syria Amir al-mu'minin rejected the advice and preferred the commandments of religious law over worldly expediency and openly declared about Mu'awiyah as follows:

p: 134

If I allow Mu'awiyah to retain what he already has I would be one "who taketh those who lead (people) astray as helpers" (Qur'an 18:51). Those who look at apparent successes do not care to find out by what means the success has been achieved. They support anyone whom they see succeeding by means of cunning ways and deceitful means and begin to regard him an administrator intelligent a politician intellectually brilliant and so on while he who does not deploy cunning and fraudulent methods owing to his adherence to Islamic commandments and divine instructions and prefers failure to success secured through wrong methods is regarded as ignorant of politics and weak in foresight. They do not feel it necessary to think what difficulties and impediments exist in the way of a person who adheres to principles and laws which prevent him from proceeding forward even after approaching near success."

In Persian

(اين سخنرانى پس از جنگ صفّين در شهر كوفه در سال 38 هجرى ايراد شد)

سياست دروغين معاويه

سوگند به خدا، معاويه از من سياستمدارتر نيست، امّا معاويه حيله گر و جنايتكار است «1»، اگر نيرنگ ناپسند نبود من زيرك ترين افراد بودم، ولى هر نيرنگى گناه، و هر گناهى نوعى كفر و انكار است، روز رستاخيز در دست هر حيله گرى پرچمى است كه با آن شناخته مى شود. به خدا سوگند، من با فريب كارى غافلگير نمى شوم، و با سخت گيرى ناتوان نخواهم شد.


(1) اشاره به سياست دماگوژى YGOGAMED (عوام فريبى) كسى كه براى رسيدن به اهداف خود، خود را طرفدار مردم جلوه مى دهد.

p: 135


In English

One should not be afraid of the scarcity of those who tread on the right path

O' people do not wonder at the small number of those who follow the right path because people throng only round the table (of this world) whose edibles are few but whose hunger is insatiable.

O' people certainly what gathers people together (in categories) is (their) agreement (to good or bad) and (their) disagreement for only one individual killed the camel of Thamud (1) but Allah held all of them in punishment because all of them joined him by their acquiescing in their consenting to it. Thus Allah the Glorified. has said:

Then they hamstrung her and turned (themselves) regretful. (Qur'an 26:157).

Then their land declined by sinking (into the earth) as the spike of a plough pierces unploughed weak land. O' people he who treads the clear path (of guidance) reaches the spring of water and whoever abandons it strays into waterless desert.

In Arabic

[ 201 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

يعظ بسلوك الطريق الواضح

أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ، لاَ تَسْتَوْحِشُوا فِي طَرِيقِ الْهُدَىُ لِقِلَّةِ أَهْلِهِ، فَإِنَّ النَّاسَ قَدِ اجْتَمَعُوا عَلَى مَائِدَةٍ شِبَعُهَا قَصِيرٌ، وَجُوعُهَا طَوِيلٌ.

أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ، إِنَّمَا يَجْمَعُ النَّاسَ الرِّضَى وَالسُّخْطُ (1) . وَإِنَّمَا عَقَرَ نَاقَةَ ثَمُودَ رَجُلٌ وَاحِدٌ فَعَمَّهُمُ اللهُ تَعَالَى بالْعَذَابِ لَمَّا عَمُّوهُ بالرِّضَى، فَقَالَ سُبْحَانَهُ: (فَعَقَرُوهَا فَأَصْبَحُوا نَادِمِينَ)، فَمَا كَانَ إِلاَّ أَنْ خَارَتْ (2) أَرْضُهُمْ بِالْخَسْفَةِ خُوَارَالسِّكَّةِ الْمُحْمَاةِ (3) فِي الْأَرْضِ الْخَوَّارَةِ (4) . أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ، مَنْ سَلَكَ الطّرِيقَ الْوَاضِحَ وَرَدَ الْمَاءَ، وَمَنْ خَالَفَ وَقَعَ فِي التِيهِ!

p: 136

In Persian

(اين سخنرانى بر منبر مسجد كوفه ايراد شد)

راه روشن حق

اى مردم در راه راست، از كمى روندگان نهراسيد، زيرا اكثريّت مردم بر گرد سفره اى جمع شدند كه سيرى آن كوتاه، و گرسنگى آن طولانى است. اى مردم، همه افراد جامعه در خشنودى و خشم شريك مى باشند، چنانكه شتر ماده ثمود را يك نفر دست و پا بريد، امّا عذاب آن تمام قوم ثمود را گرفت، زيرا همگى آن را پسنديدند.خداوند سبحان مى فرمايد: «ماده شتر را پى كردند و سرانجام پشيمان شدند» سرزمين آنان چونان آهن گداخته اى كه در زمين نرم فرو رود، فريادى زد و فرو ريخت ، اى مردم آن كس كه از راه آشكار برود به آب مى رسد، و هر كس از راه راست منحرف شود سرگردان مى ماند.


(1). Thamud in ancient Arabia a tribe or group of tribes seems to have been prominent from about the 4th Century B.C. to the first half of the 7th Century A.D. Their place of stay and homeland was at a place lying on the way between the Hijaz and Syria called the Valley of al-Qura and bore this name because it consisted of several townships. Allah deputed for their guidance and directions the Prophet Salih who preached to them as Allah relates in his story:

And unto (the people of) Thamud (We did send) their brother Salih he said: "O' my people! worship ye Allah (alone). Ye have no god other than Him; indeed came unto you a clear proof from your Lord; this is the She-camel of Allah (which) unto you is a sign so leave it (free) to pasture in Allah's earth and touch her not with any harm or ye shall be seized with a painful chastisement. And remember when He made you successors after the (people) 'Ad and settled you in the earth ye build mansions on its plain and hew the mountains into dwellings. So remember ye the bounties of Allah and see ye not evil in the earth making mischief." Said the chiefs of those who were puffed up with pride among his people to those who were reckoned weak to those who believed from among them; "Know ye that Salih is sent by his Lord?" Said they: "Verily in what he hath been sent with we are believers." Said those who were puffed up with pride; "Verily we in that which ye believe are disbelievers." They hamstrung the She-camel and rebelled against the command of their Lord and they said: "O' Salih! bring us what thou didst threaten us with if thou art of the apostles." Then seized them (unawares) the earthquake so became they in their dwellings motionless (dead). Then he turned away from them and said: "O' my people! Indeed I did deliver unto you the message of my Lord and did admonish you but ye love not the admonishers." (Qur'an 7:73-79).

p: 137

(The people of) Thamud belied the warners and said they: "What! a single man from among us! and we to follow him? Verily then we shall be astray and in distress. It is that (the duty of) reminding hath been bestowed on him (alone) of all the (people) among us? Nay! he is a great liar an insolent one!" "Soon they shall know on the morrow (as to) who is the liar the insolent one! (O' Our Apostle Salih!) verily We are going to send the She-camel as a trial for them; so watch them and be patient. And (thou O' Salih!) make them aware (beforehand) that the water is (to be) divided between them; and every drinking share shall be witnessed (on it)." But they called their companions then he pursued (her) and hamstrung (her). How (great) was My chastisement and My warning? Verily sent We upon them a single (violent) blast and they were (all) like the dry stubble used by a fencer in a fence. (Qur'an 54:23-31).


In English

What Amir al-mu'minin said on the occasion of the burial of Sayyidatu'n-nisa' (Supreme lady) Fatimah (p.b.u.h.) while addressing the Holy Prophet at his grave.

O' Prophet of Allah peace be upon you from me and from your daughter who has come to you and who has hastened to meet you. O' Prophet of Allah my patience about your chosen (daughter) has been exhausted and my power of endurance has weakened except that I have ground for consolation in having endured the great hardship and heart-rending event of your separation. I laid you down in your grave when your last breath had passed (when your head was) between my neck and chest.

p: 138

... Verily we are Allah's and verily unto Him shall we return. (Qur'an 2:156)

Now. the trust has been returned and what had been given has been taken back. As to my grief it knows no bounds and as to my nights. they will remain sleepless till Allah chooses for me the house in which you are now residing.

Certainly your daughter would apprise you of the joining together of your (1) ummah (people) for oppressing her. You ask her in detail and get all the news about the position. This has happened when a long time had not elapsed and your remembrance had not disappeared. My salam (salutation) be on you both the salam of a grief stricken not a disgusted or hateful person; for if I go away it is not because I am weary (of you) and if I stay it is not due to lack of belief in what Allah has promised the endurers.

In Arabic

[ 202 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

روي عنه أنّه قاله عند دفن سيدة النساء فاطمة عليها السلام، كالمناجي به رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله عند قبره:

السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ عَنِّي، وَعَنِ ابْنَتِكَ النَّازِلَةِ فِي جِوَارِكَ، وَالسَّرِيعَةِ اللَّحَاقِ بِكَ! قَلَّ يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ، عَنْ صَفِيَّتِكَ صَبْرِي، وَرَقَّ عَنْهَا تَجَلُّدِي، إِلاَّ أَنَّ فِي التَّأَسِّيِ (1) لِيَ بِعَظِيمِ فُرْقَتِكَ، وَفَادِحِ (2) مُصِيبَتِكَ، مَوْضِعَ تَعَزٍّ (3) ، فَلَقَدْ وَسَّدْتُكَ فِي مَلْحُودَةِ (4) قَبْرِكَ، وَفَاضَتْ بَيْنَ نَحْرِي وَصَدْرِي نَفْسُكَ. فَ_ (إنَّا لِلَّهِ وَإِنَّا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ)، فَلَقَدِ اسْتُرْجِعَتِ الْوَدِيعَةُ، وَأُخِذَتِ الرَّهِينَةُ! أَمَّا حُزْنِي فَسَرْمَدٌ، وَأَمَّا لَيْلِي فَمُسَهَّدٌ (5) ، إِلَى أَنْ يَخْتَارَ اللهُ لِي دَارَكَ الَّتِي أَنْتَ بِهَا مُقِيمٌ. وَسَتُنَبِّئُكَ ابْنَتُكَ بِتَضَافُرِ أُمَّتِكَ عَلَى هَضْمِهَا (6) ، فَأَحْفِهَا (7) السُّؤَالَ، وَاسْتَخْبِرْهَا الْحَالَ، هذَا وَلَمْ يَطُلِ الْعَهْدُ، وَلَمْ يَخْلُ مِنْكَ الذِّكْرُ. وَالْسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكُمَا سَلاَمَ مُوَدِّعٍ، لاَ قَالٍ (8) وَلاَ سَئِمٍ (9) ، فَإنْ أَنْصَرِفْ فَلاَ عَنْ مَلاَلَةٍ، وَإِنْ أُقِمْ فَلاَ عَنْ سُوءِ ظَنٍّ بِمَا وَعَدَ اللهُ الصَّابِرِينَ.

p: 139

In Persian

(درد دل با پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم به هنگام دفن فاطمه عليها السّلام)

شكوه ها از ستمكارى امّت

سلام بر تو اى رسول خدا صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم، سلامى از طرف من و دخترت كه هم اكنون در جوارت فرود آمده و شتابان به شما رسيده است!

اى پيامبر خدا، صبر و بردبارى من با از دست دادن فاطمه عليها السّلام كم شده، و توان خويشتندارى ندارم امّا براى من كه سختى جدايى تو را ديده، و سنگينى مصيبت تو را كشيدم، شكيبايى ممكن است. اين من بودم كه با دست خود تو را در ميان قبر نهادم، و هنگام رحلت، جان گرامى تو ميان سينه و گردنم پرواز كرد «پس همه ما از خداييم و به خدا باز مى گرديم». پس امانتى كه به من سپرده بودى برگردانده شد، و به صاحبش رسيد، از اين پس اندوه من جاودانه، و شبهايم، شب زنده دارى است، تا آن روز كه خدا خانه زندگى تو را براى من برگزيند. به زودى دخترت تو را آگاه خواهد ساخت كه امّت تو چگونه در ستمكارى بر او اجتماع كردند، از فاطمه عليها السّلام بپرس، و احوال اندوهناك ما را از او خبر گير، كه هنوز روزگارى سپرى نشده، و ياد تو فراموش نگشته است. سلام من به هر دوى شما، سلام وداع كننده اى كه از روى خشنودى يا خسته دلى سلام نمى كند.

اگر از خدمت تو باز مى گردم از روى خستگى نيست، و اگر در كنار قبرت مى نشينم از بدگمانى بدانچه خدا صابران را وعده داده نمى باشد.

p: 140


(1) . The treatment meted out to the daughter of the Prophet after his death was extremely painful and sad. Although Sayyidatu'n-nisa' Fatimah (p.b.u.h.) did not live in this world more than a few months after the death of the Prophet yet even this short period has a long tale of grief and woe (about her). In this connection the first scene that strikes the eyes is that arrangements for the funeral rites of the Prophet had not yet been made when the contest for power started in the Saqifah of Banu Sa'idah. Naturally their leaving the body of the Prophet (without burial) must have injured Sayyidatu'n-nisa' Fatimah's grief-stricken heart when she saw that those who had claimed love and attachment (with the Prophet) during his life became so engrossed in their machinations for power that instead of consoling his only daughter they did not even know when the Prophet was given a funeral ablution and when he was buried and the way they condoled her was that they crowded at her house with material to set fire to it and tried to secure allegiance by force with all the display of oppression compulsion and violence. All these excesses were with a view to so obliterate the prestigious position of this house that it might not regain its lost prestige on any occasion. With this aim in view in order to crush her economic position her claim for (the estate of) Fadak was turned down by dubbing it as false the effect of which was that Sayyidatu'n-nisa' Fatimah (p.b.u.h.) made the dying will that none of them should attend her funeral.

p: 141


In English

Transience of this world and importance of collecting provisions for the next life.

O' people certainly this world is a passage while the next world is a place of permanent abode. So take from the passage (all that you can) for the permanent abode. Do not tear away your curtain before Him Who is aware of your secrets. Take away from this world your hearts before your bodies go out of it because herein you have been put on trial and you have been created for the other world. When a man dies people ask what (property) he has left while the angels ask what (good actions) he has sent forward. May Allah bless you; send forward something it will be a loan for you and do not leave everything behind for that would be a burden on you.

In Arabic

ومن كلام له عليه السلام

في التزهيد من الدنيا والترغيب في الآخرة

أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ، إِنَّمَا الدُّنْيَا دارُ مَجَازٍ (1) ، وَ الْآخِرَةُ دَارُ قَرَارٍ، فَخُذُوا مِنْ مَمَرِّكُمْ لِمَقَرِّكُمْ، وَلاَ تَهْتِكُوا أَسْتَارَكُمْ عِنْدَ مَنْ يَعْلَمُ أَسْرَارَكُم، وَأَخْرِجُوا مِنَ الدُّنْيَا قُلُوبَكُمْ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ تَخْرُجَ مِنْهَا أَبْدَانُكُمْ، فَفِيهَا اخْتُبِرْتُمْ، ولِغِيْرِهَا خُلِقْتُمْ. إِنَّ الْمَرْءَ إِذَا هَلَكَ قَالَ النَّاسُ: مَا تَرَكَ؟ وَقَالَتِ الْمَلاَئِكَةُ: مَا قَدَّمَ؟ لِلَّهِ آبَاؤُكُمْ! فَقَدِّمُوا بَعْضَاً يَكُنْ لَكُمْ قَرْضاً، وَلاَ تُخَلِّفُوا كُلاًّ فَيَكُونَ عَلَيْكُمْ.

In Persian

آخرت گرايى

اى مردم! دنيا سراى گذرا و آخرت خانه جاويدان است. پس، اگر از گذرگاه خويش براى سر منزل جاودانه توشه برگيريد، و پرده هاى خود را در نزد كسى كه بر اسرار شما آگاه است پاره نكنيد ، «1» پيش از آن كه بدن هاى شما از دنيا خارج گردد، دل هايتان را خارج كنيد، شما را در دنيا آزموده اند، و براى غير دنيا آفريده اند. كسى كه بميرد، مردم مى گويند «چه باقى گذاشت»، امّا فرشتگان مى گويند «چه بيش فرستاد؟» خدا پدرانتان را بيامرزد، مقدارى از ثروت خود را جلوتر بفرستيد تا در نزد خدا باقى ماند، و همه را براى وارثان مگذاريد كه پاسخگويى آن بر شما واجب است.

p: 142


(1) يعنى نافرمانى و گناه نكنيد.


In English

What Amir al-mu'minin said generally to his companions warning them about the dangers of the Day of Judgement.

May Allah have mercy on you! Provide yourselves for the journey because the call for departure has been announced. Regard your stay in the world as very short and return (to Allah) with the best provision that is with you because surely in front of you lies a valley difficult to climb and places of stay full of fear and dangers. You have to reach there and stay in them. And know that the eyes of death are approaching towards you. It is as though you are (already) in its talons and it has struck itself against you. Difficult affairs and distressing dangers have crushed you into it. You should therefore cut away all the attachments of this world and assist yourselves with the provision of Allah's fear.

as-Sayyid ar-Radi says: A part of this saying has been quoted before through another narration.

In Arabic

[ 204 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

كان كثيراً ما ينادي به أصحابه

تَجَهَّزُوا رَحِمَكُمُ اللهُ! فَقَدْ نُودِيَ فِيكُمْ بِالرَّحِيلِ، وَأَقِلُّوا الْعُرْجَةَ (1) عَلَى الدُّنْيَا، وَانْقَلِبُوا بِصَالِحِ مَا بِحَضْرَتِكُمْ مِنَ الزَّادِ، فإنَّ أَمَامَكُمْ عَقَبَةً كَؤُوداً (2) ، وَمَنَازِلَ مَخُوفَةً مَهُولَةً، لاَبُدَّ مِنَ الْوُرُودِ عَلَيْهَا، وَالْوُقُوفِ عِنْدَهَا. وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ مَلاَحِظَ الْمَنِيَّةِ (3) نَحْوَكُمْ دَانِيَةٌ (4) ، وَكَأَنَّكُمْ بِمَخَالِبِهَا وَقَدْ نَشِبَتْ (5) فِيكُمْ، وَقَدْ دَهَمَتْكُمْ فِيهَا مُفْظِعَاتُ الْأُمُورِ، وَمُعْضِلاَتُ الْمَحْذُورِ. فَقَطِّعُوا عَلاَئِقَ الدُّنْيَا، وَاسْتَظْهِرُوا (6) بِزَادِ التَّقْوَى.

p: 143

وقد مضى شيء من هذا الكلام فيما تقدم، بخلاف هذه الرواية.

In Persian

(همواره امام ياران خود را اينگونه پند مى داد)

آمادگى براى سفر آخرت

آماده حركت شويد، خدا شما را بيامرزد كه بانگ كوچ را سر داديد.

وابستگى به زندگى دنيا را كم كنيد، و با زاد و توشه نيكو به سوى آخرت باز گرديد، كه پيشاپيش شما گردنه اى سخت و دشوار، و منزلگاه هايى ترسناك وجود دارد، كه بايد در آنجاها فرود آييد، و توقّف كنيد. آگاه باشيد! كه فاصله نگاه هاى مرگ بر شما كوتاه، و گويا چنگال هايش را در جان شما فرو برده است. كارهاى دشوار دنيا مرگ را از يادتان برده، و بلاهاى طاقت فرسا آن را از شما پنهان داشته است پس پيوندهاى خود را با دنيا قطع كنيد، و از پرهيزكارى كمك بگيريد.

قسمتى از اين سخن در خطبه هاى پيش با كمى تفاوت نقل شد)


In English

After swearing allegiance to Amir al-mu'minin Talhah and az-Zubayr complained to him that he had not consulted them or sought their assistance in the affairs (of state).

Amir al-mu'minin replied: Both of you frown over a small matter and leave aside big ones. Can you tell me of anything wherein you have a right of which I have deprived you or a share which was due to you and which I have held away from you or any Muslim who has laid any claim before me and I have been unable to decide it or been ignorant of it or committed a mistake about it? By Allah I had no liking for the caliphate nor any interest in government but you yourselves invited me to it and prepared me for it. When the caliphate came to me I kept the Book of Allah in my view and all that Allah had put therein for us and all that according to which He has commanded us to take decisions; and I followed it and also acted on whatever the Prophet - may Allah bless him and his descendants - had laid down as his sunnah. In this matter I did not need your advice or the advice of anyone else nor has there been any order of which I was ignorant so that I ought to have consulted you or my Muslim brethren. If it were so I would not have turned away from you or from others.

p: 144

As regards your reference to the question of equality (in distribution of shares from the Muslim common fund) this is a matter in which I have not taken a decision by my own opinion nor have I done it by my caprice. But I found and you too (must have) found that whatever the Prophet - may Allah bless him and his descendants - brought had been finalised. Therefore I felt no need to turn towards you about a share which had been determined by Allah and in which His verdict has been passed. By Allah in this matter therefore you two or anyone else can have no favour from me. May Allah keep our hearts and your hearts in righteousness and may He grant us and you endurance.

Then Amir al-mu'minin added: May Allah have mercy on the person who when he sees the truth supports it when he sees the wrong rejects it and who helps the truth against him who is on the wrong.

In Arabic

[ 205 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

كلّم به طلحة والزبير بعد بيعته بالخلافة وقد عتبا من ترك مشورتهما، والاستعانة في الأمور بهما

لَقَدْ نَقَمْتُما (1) يَسِيراً، وَأَرْجَأْتُمَا (2) كَثِيراً، أَلاَ تُخْبِرَانِي، أَيُّ شَيْءٍ لَكُمَا فِيهِ حَقٌّ دَفَعْتُكُمَا عَنْهُ؟ وأَيُّ قَسْمٍ اسْتَأْثَرْتُ عَلَيْكُمَا بِهِ؟ أَمْ أَيُّ حَقٍّ رَفَعَهُ إِلَيَّ أَحَدٌ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ ضَعُفْتُ عَنْهُ، أَمْ جَهِلْتُهُ، أَمْ أَخْطَأْتُ بَابَهُ! وَاللهِ مَا كَانَتْ لِي فِي الْخِلاَفَةِ رَغْبَةٌ، وَلاَ فِي الْوِلاَيَةِ إِرْبَةٌ (3) ، وَلكِنَّكُمْ دَعَوْتُمُونِي إِلَيْهَا، وَحَمَلْتُمُونِي عَلَيْهَا، فَلَمَّا أَفْضَتْ إِلَيَّ نَظَرْتُ إِلَى كِتَابِ اللهِ وَمَا وَضَعَ لَنَا، وَأَمَرَنَا بِالْحُكْمِ بِهِ فَاتَّبَعْتُهُ، وَمَا اسْتَسَنَّ النَّبِيُّ -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ- فَاقْتَدَيْتُهُ، فَلَمْ أَحْتَجْ فِي ذلِكَ إِلَى رَأْيِكُمَا، وَلاَ رَأْيِ غَيْرِكُمَا، وَلاَ وَقَعَ حُكْمٌ جَهِلْتُهُ، فَأَسْتَشِيرَكُمَا وَإِخْوَانِي مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ; وَلَوْ كَانَ ذلِكَ لَمْ أَرْغَبْ عَنْكُمَا، وَلاَ عَنْ غَيْرِكُمَا. وَأَمَّا مَا ذَكَرْتُمَا مِنْ أَمْرِ الْأُسْوَةِ (4) ، فَإِنَّ ذلِكَ أَمْرٌ لَمْ أَحْكُمْ أَنَا فِيهِ بِرَأْيِي، وَلاَ وَلِيتُهُ هَوىً مِنِّي، بَلْ وَجَدْتُ أَنَا وَأَنْتُما مَا جَاءَ بِهِ رَسُولُ اللهِ -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ- قَدْ فُرِغَ مِنْهُ، فَلَمْ أَحْتَجْ إِلَيْكُمَا فِيَما قَدْ فَرَغَ اللهُ مِنْ قَسْمِهِ، وَأَمْضَى فِيهِ حُكْمَهُ، فَلَيْسَ لَكُمَا، وَاللهِ، عِنْدِي وَلاَ لِغَيْرِكُمَا فِي هذَا عُتْبَى (5) .أَخَذَ اللهُ بِقُلُوبِنَا وَقُلُوبِكُمْ إِلَى الْحَقِّ، وَأَلْهَمَنَا وَإِيَّاكُمْ الصَّبْرَ.

p: 145

ثم قال(عليه السلام): رَحِمَ اللهُ رَجُلاً رَأَى حَقّاً فَأَعَانَ عَلَيْهِ، أَوْ رَأَى جَوْراً فَرَدَّهُ، وَكَانَ عَوْناً بِالْحَقِّ عَلَى صَاحِبِهِ.

In Persian

(طلحه و زبير پس از بيعت با امام عليه السّلام اعتراض كردند كه چرا در امور كشور با آنان مشورت نكرده و از آنها كمك نگرفته است. فرمود)

برخورد قاطعانه با سران ناكثين (طلحه و زبير)

به اندك چيزى خشمناك شديد، و خوبى هاى فراوان را از ياد برديد! ممكن است به من خبر دهيد كه كدام حقّى را از شما باز داشته ام؟ يا كدام سهم را براى خود برداشته ام. و بر شما ستم كردم؟

و كدام شكايت حقّى پيش من آورده شده كه ضعف نشان دادم؟ و كدام فرمان الهى را آگاه نبوده و راه آن را به اشتباه پيموده ام؟ به خدا سوگند، من به خلافت رغبتى نداشته، و به ولايت بر شما علاقه اى نشان نمى دادم، و اين شما بوديد كه مرا به آن دعوت كرديد، و آن را بر من تحميل كرديد. روزى كه خلافت به من رسيد در قرآن نظر افكندم، هر دستورى كه داده، و هر فرمانى كه فرموده پيروى كردم ، به راه و رسم پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم اقتدا كردم.

پس هيچ نيازى به حكم و رأى شما و ديگران ندارم، هنوز چيزى پيش نيامده كه حكم آن را ندانم، و نياز به مشورت شما و ديگر برادران مسلمان داشته باشم، اگر چنين بود از شما و ديگران روى گردان نبودم.و امّا اعتراض شما كه چرا با همه به تساوى رفتار كردم: اين روشى نبود كه به رأى خود، و يا با خواسته دل خود انجام داده باشم، بلكه من و شما اين گونه رفتار را از دستور العمل هاى پيامبر اسلام صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم آموختيم، كه چه حكمى آورد؟ و چگونه آن را اجرا فرمود؟ پس در تقسيمى كه خدا به آن فرمان داد به شما نيازى نداشتم. سوگند به خدا، نه شما، و نه ديگران را بر من حقّى نيست كه زبان به اعتراض گشايند. خداوند قلب هاى شما و ما را به سوى حق هدايت فرمايد،

p: 146

و شكيبايى و استقامت را به ما و شما الهام كند «1»! (سپس فرمود) خدا رحمت كند آن كس را كه حقّى را بنگرد و يارى كند، يا ستمى مشاهده كرده آن را نابود سازد، و حق را يارى داده تا به صاحبش باز گردد.


(1) اشاره به علم: اينسپيرينك GNIRIPSNI (الهام شناسى)


In English

During the battle of Siffin Amir al-mu'minin heard some of his men abusing the Syrians then he said:

I dislike you starting to abuse them but if you describe their deeds and recount their situations that would be a better mode of speaking and a more convincing way of arguing. Instead of abusing them you should say "O' Allah! save our blood and their blood produce reconciliation between us and them and lead them out of their misguidance so that he who is ignorant of the truth may know it and he who inclines towards rebellion and revolt may turn away from it."

In Arabic

[ 206 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

وقد سمع قوماً من اصحابه يسبّون أهل الشام أيام حربهم بصفين

إِنِّي أَكْرَهُ لَكُمْ أَنْ تَكُونُوا سَبَّابِينَ، وَلكِنَّكُمْ لَوْ وَصَفْتُمْ أَعْمَالَهُمْ، وَذَكَرْتُمْ حَالَهُمْ، كَانَ أَصْوَبَ فِي الْقَوْلِ، وَأَبْلَغَ فِي الْعُذْرِ، وَقُلْتُمْ مَكَانَ سَبِّكُمْ إِيَّاهُمْ: اللَّهُمَّ احْقِنْ دِمَاءَنَا وَدِمَاءَهُمْ، وَأَصْلِحْ ذَاتَ بَيْنِنَا وَبَيْنِهِمْ، وَاهْدِهِمْ مِنْ ضَلاَلَتِهِمْ، حَتَّى يَعْرِفَ الْحَقَّ مَنْ جَهِلَهُ، وَيَرْعَوِيَ (1) عَنِ الْغَيِّ وَالْعُدْوَانِ مَنْ لَهِجَ بِهِ (2) .

p: 147

In Persian

(در جنگ صفّين شنيد كه ياران او شاميان را دشنام مى دهند فرمود) «1»

اخلاق در جنگ

من خوش ندارم كه شما دشنام دهنده باشيد، اما اگر كردارشان را تعريف، و حالات آنان را باز گو مى كرديد به سخن راست نزديك تر، و عذر پذيرتر بود ، خوب بود بجاى دشنام آنان مى گفتيد:

خدايا! خون ما و آنها را حفظ كن، بين ما و آنان اصلاح فرما، و آنان را از گمراهى به راه راست هدايت كن، تا آنان كه جاهلند، حق را بشناسند، و آنان كه با حق مى ستيزند پشيمان شده به حق باز گردند.

(1) دشنام دهندگان، حجر بن عدى و عمرو بن حمق بودند. (پاورقى شرح خويى، ج 13، ص 83 و 94)


In English

In the battle of Siffin Amir al-mu'minin saw Imam al-Hasan proceeding rapidly to fight then he said:

Hold back this young man on my behalf lest he causes my ruin because I am loath to send these two (meaning al-Hasan and al-Husayn) towards death lest the descending line of the Prophet - may Allah bless him and his descendants - is cut away by their death.

as-Sayyid ar-Radi says: Amir al-mu'minin's words "amliku 'anni hadha'l- ghulam" (i.e. "Hold back this young man on my behalf") represents the highest and the most eloquent form of expression.

In Arabic

[ 207 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

في بعض أيام صفين وقد رأى الحسن ابنه عليه السلام يتسرع إلى الحرب

امْلِكُوا (1) عنِّي هذَا الْغُلاَمَ لاَ يَهُدَّنِي (2) ، فَإِنَّنِي أَنْفَسُ (3) بِهذَيْنِ _ يَعْنِي الحَسَنَ وَالْحُسَيْنَ عَلَيْهِمَا السَّلامُ _ عَلَى الْمَوْتِ، لِئَلاَّ يَنْقَطِعَ بِهِمَا نَسْلُ رَسُولِ اللهِ -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ-. قوله عليه السلام: «املكوا عني هذا الغلام» من أعلى الكلام وأفصحه.

p: 148

In Persian

(در يكى از روزهاى نبرد صفّين، امام حسن عليه السّلام را ديد كه به سرعت در لشكر دشمن در حال پيشروى است فرمود:)

ضرورت حفظ امامت

اين جوان را نگه داريد، تا پشت مرا نشكند، كه دريغم آيد مرگ، حسن و حسين عليهما السّلام را دريابد.

نكند با مرگ آنها نسل رسول خدا صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم از بين برود!

(جمله «اين جوان را نگه داريد» در مرتبه والاى سخن و از فصاحت بالايى برخوردار است)


In English

When Amir al-mu'minin's companions expressed displeasure about his attitude concerning Arbitration (1) he said:

O' people matters between me and you went as I wished till war exhausted you. By Allah it has overtaken some of you and left others and has completely weakened your enemy. Till yesterday I was giving orders but today I am being given orders and till yesterday I was dissuading people (from wrong acts) but today I am being dissuaded. You have now shown liking to live in this world and it is not for me to bring you to what you dislike.

In Arabic

[ 208 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

قاله لمّا اضطرب عليه أصحابه في أمر الحكومة

أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ، إِنَّهُ لَمْ يَزَلْ أَمْرِي مَعَكُمْ عَلَى مَا أُحِبُّ، حَتَّى نَهَكَتْكُمُ (1) الْحَرْبُ، وَقَدْ، وَاللهِ أَخَذَتْ مِنْكُمْ وَتَرَكَتْ، وَهِيَ لِعَدُوِّكُمْ أَنْهَكُ.

لَقَدْ كُنْتُ أَمْسِ أَمِيراً، فَأَصْبَحْتُ الْيَوْمَ مَأْمُوراً! وَكُنْتُ أَمْسِ نَاهِياً، فَأَصْبَحْتُ الْيَوْمَ مَنْهِيّاً! وَقَدْ أَحْبَبْتُمُ الْبَقَاءَ، وَلَيْسَ لِي أَنْ أَحْمِلَكُمْ عَلَى مَا تَكْرَهُونَ!

p: 149

In Persian

(به هنگام شورش ياران پيرامون حكميّت فرمود)

نكوهش از نافرمانى كوفيان

اى مردم، همواره كار من با شما به دلخواه من بود تا آن كه جنگ شما را ناتوان كرد، به خدا اگر جنگ كسانى را از شما گرفت و جمعى را گذاشت، براى دشمنانتان نيز كوبنده تر بود من ديروز فرمانده و امير شما بودم، ولى امروز فرمانم مى دهند، ديروز باز دارنده بودم كه امروز مرا باز مى دارند، شما زنده ماندن را دوست داريد،

و من نمى توانم شما را به راهى كه دوست نداريد اجبار كنم.


(1). When the surviving forces of the Syrians lost ground and were ready to run away from the field Mu'awiyah changed the whole phase of the battle by using the Qur'an as his instrument of strategy and succeeded in creating such a division among the Iraqis that despite Amir al-mu'minin's efforts at counselling they were not prepared to take any forward step but insisted on stopping the war whereupon Amir al-mu'minin too had to agree to arbitration. Among these people some had actually been duped and believed that they were being asked to abide by the Qur'an but there were others who had become weary of the long period of war and had lost courage. Then people got a good opportunity to stop the war and so they cried hoarse for its postponement. There were others who had accompanied Amir al-mu'minin because of his temporal authority but did not support him by heart nor did they aim at victory for him. There were some people who had expectations with Mu'awiyah and had started attaching hopes to him for this while there were some who were from the very beginning in league with him. In these circumstances and with this type of the army it was really due to Amir al-mu'minin's political ability and competence of military control and administration that he carried the war up to this stage and if Mu'awiyah had not adopted this trick there could have been no doubt in Amir al-mu'minin's victory because the military power of the Syrian forces had been exhausted and defeat was hovering over its head. In this connection Ibn Abi'l-Hadid writes: Malik al-Ashtar had reached Mu'awiyah and grabbed him by the neck. The entire might of the Syrians had been smashed. Only so much movement was discernible in them as remains in the tail of a lizard which is killed but the tail continues hopping right and left. (Sharh Nahj al-balaghah vol. 11 pp.30-31)

p: 150


In English

Amir al-mu'minin went to enquire about the health of his companion al-'Ala' ibn Ziyad al-Harithi and when he noticed the vastness of his house he said:

What will you do with this vast house in this world although you need this house more in the next world. If you want to take it to the next world you could entertain in it guests and be regardful of kinship and discharge all (your) obligations according to their accrual. In this way you will be able to take it to the next world.

Then al-'Ala' said to him: O' Amir al-mu'minin I want to complain to you about my brother 'Asim ibn Ziyad.

Amir al-mu'minin enquired: What is the matter with him?

al-'Ala' said: He has put on a woollen coat and cut himself away from the world.

Amir al-mu'minin said: Present him to me.

When he came Amir al-mu'minin said: O' enemy of yourself. Certainly the evil (Satan) has misguided you. Do you feel no pity for your wife and your children? Do you believe that if you use those things which Allah has made lawful for you He will dislike you? You are too unimportant for Allah to do so.

He said: O' Amir al-mu'minin you also put on coarse dress and eat rough food. Then he replied: Woe be to you I am not like you. Certainly Allah the Sublime has made it obligatory on true leaders that they should maintain themselves at the level of low people so that the poor do not cry over their poverty. (1)

p: 151

In Arabic

[ 209 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

بالبصرة، وقد دخل على العلاء بن زياد الحارثي _ وهو من أصحابه _ يعوده، فلما رأى سعة داره قال:

مَا كُنْتَ تَصْنَعُ بِسِعَةِ هذِهِ الدارِ فِي الدُّنْيَا، أَنْتَ إِلَيْهَا فِي الْآخِرَةِ كُنْتَ أَحْوَجَ؟ وَبَلَى إِنْ شِئْتَ بَلَغْتَ بِهَا الْآخِرَةَ: تَقْرِي فِيهَا الضَّيْفَ، وَتَصِلُ فِيهَا الرَّحِمَ، وَتُطْلِعُ (1) مِنْهَا الْحُقُوقَ مَطَالِعَهَا ، فَإذَا أَنْتَ قَدْ بَلَغْتَ بِهَا الْآخِرَةَ.

فقال له العلاء: يا أميرالمؤمنين، أشكو إليك أخي عاصم بن زياد. قال: وما له؟ قال: لبس العباءة وتخلّى من الدنيا. قال: عليَّ به. فلمّا جاء قال:

يَا عُدَىَّ (2) نَفْسِهِ! لَقَدِ اسْتَهَامَ بِكَ الْخَبِيثُ! أَمَا رَحِمْتَ أَهْلَكَ وَوَلَدَكَ! أَتَرَى اللهَ أَحَلَّ لَكَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ، وَهُوَ يَكْرَهُ أَنْ تَأْخُذَهَا! أَنْتَ أَهْوَنُ عَلَى اللهِ مِنْ ذلِكَ!

قال: يا أميرالمؤمنين، هذا أنت في خشونة ملبسك وجُشوبة مأكلك!

قَالَ: وَيْحَكَ، إِنِّي لَسْتُ كَأَنْتَ، إِنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى فَرَضَ عَلى أَئِمَّةِ الْعَدْلِ أَنْ يُقَدِّرُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ (3) بِضَعَفَةِ النَّاسِ، كَيْلاَ يَتَبَيَّغَ (4) بِالْفَقِيرِ فَقْرُهُ!

In Persian

(پس از جنگ بصره بر علاء بن زياد وارد شد كه از ياران امام بود. وقتى خانه بسيار مجلّل و وسيع او را ديد، فرمود)

1 روش استفاده از دنيا

با اين خانه وسيع در دنيا چه مى كنى؟ در حالى كه در آخرت به آن نيازمندترى.

آرى اگر بخواهى مى توانى با همين خانه به آخرت برسى! در اين خانه وسيع مهمانان را پذيرايى كنى، به خويشاوندان با نيكوكارى بپيوندى، و حقوقى كه بر گردن تو است به صاحبان حق برسانى، پس آنگاه تو با همين خانه وسيع به آخرت نيز مى توانى پرداخت. (علاء گفت: از برادرم عاصم بن زياد به شما شكايت مى كنم. فرمود چه شد او را؟ گفت عبايى پوشيده و از دنيا كناره گرفته است: امام عليه السّلام فرمود او را بياوريد، وقتى آمد به او فرمود:)

p: 152

2 برخورد با تفكّر ترك دنيا

اى دشمنك جان خويش! شيطان سرگردانت كرده، آيا تو به زن و فرزندانت رحم نمى كنى؟

تو مى پندارى كه خداوند نعمت هاى پاكيزه اش را حلال كرده، امّا دوست ندارد تو از آنها استفاده كنى؟ تو در برابر خدا كوچك تر از آنى كه اينگونه با تو رفتار كند. (عاصم گفت، اى امير مؤمنان، پس چرا تو با اين لباس خشن، و آن غذاى ناگوار به سر مى برى؟ امام فرمود) واى بر تو! من همانند تو نيستم، خداوند بر پيشوايان حق واجب كرده كه خود را با مردم ناتوان همسو كنند، تا فقر و ندارى، تنگدست را به هيجان نياورد، و به طغيان نكشاند.


(1) From ancient days asceticism and the abandonment of worldly attachments has been regarded as a means of purification of the spirit and important for the character. Consequently those who wished to lead a life of abstemiousness and meditation used to go out of the cities and towns to stay in forests and caves in the mountains and stay there concentrating on Allah according to their own conception. They would eat only if a casual traveller or the inhabitant of nearby dwellings gave them anything to eat otherwise they remained contented with the fruits of wild trees and the water of the streams and thus they passed their life. This way of worship commenced in a way that was forced by the oppression and hardships of rulers. Certain people left their houses and in order to avoid their grip hid themselves in some wilderness or cave in a mountain engaging themselves in worship of and devotion to Allah. Later on this forced asceticism acquired a voluntary form and people began to retire to caves and hollows of their own volition. Thus it became an accepted way that whoever aimed at spiritual development retired to some corner after severing himself from all worldly ties. This method remained in vogue for centuries and even now some traces of this way of worship are found among the Buddhists and the Christians.

p: 153

The moderate views of Islam do not however accord with the monastic life because for attaining spiritual development it does not advocate the abandonment of worldly enjoyments and successes nor does it view with approbation that a Muslim should leave his house and fellow men and busy himself in formal worship hiding in some corner. The conception of worship in Islam is not confined to a few particular rites but it regards the earning of one's livelihood through lawful means mutual sympathy and good behaviour and co-operation and assistance also to be important constituents of worship. If an individual ignores worldly rights and obligations and does not fulfil his responsibility towards his wife and children nor occupies himself in efforts to earn a livelihood but all the time stays in meditation he ruins his life and does not fulfil the purpose of living. If this were Allah's aim what would have the need for creating and populating the world when there was already a category of creatures who were all the time engaged in worshipping and adoration.

Nature has made man to stand on the cross-roads at which the midway is the centre of guidance. If he deviates from this point of moderateness even a bit this way or that way there is shear misguidance for him. That midway is that he should neither bend towards this world to such an extent as to ignore the next life devoting himself entirely to this one nor should he abstain from this world so as not to have any connection with anything of it confining himself to some corner leaving everything else. Since Allah has created man in this world he should follow the code of life for living in this world and should partake of the comforts and pleasures bestowed by Allah within moderate limits. The eating and using of things made lawful by Allah is not against Allah's worship but rather Allah has created these things for the very purpose that they should be taken advantage of. That is why those who were the chosen of Allah lived in this world with others and ate and drank like others. They did not feel the need to turn their faces away from the people of the world and to adopt the wilderness or the caves of mountains as their abodes or to live in distant spots. On the other hand they remembered Allah remained disentangled from worldly affairs and did not forget death despite the pleasures and comforts of life.

p: 154

The life of asceticism sometimes produces such evils as ruin the next life also as well as this one and such an individual proves to be the true picture of "the looser in this life as well as the next." When natural impulses are not satisfied in the lawful and legal way the mind turns into a centre of evil-ideas and becomes incapable of performing worship with peace and concentration; and sometimes passions so overcome the ascetic that breaking all moral fetters he devotes himself completely to their satisfaction and consequently falls in an abyss of ruin for which it is impossible to extract himself. That is why religious law accords a greater position to the worship performed by a family man than that by a non-family man because the former can exercise mental peace and concentration in the worship and rituals.

Individuals who put on the cloak of Sufism and make a loud show of their spiritual greatness are cut off from the path of Islam and are ignorant of its wide teachings. They have been misled by Satan and relying on their self-formed conceptions tread wrongful paths. Eventually their misguidance becomes so serious that they begin to regard their leaders as having attained such a level that their word is as the word of Allah and their act is as the act of Allah. Sometimes they regard themselves beyond all the bounds and limitations of religious law and consider every evil act to be lawful for them. This deviation from faith and irreligiousness is named Sufism (complete devotion to Allah). Its unlawful principles are called "at-tariqah" (ways of achieving communion with Allah) and the followers of this cult are known as Sufis. First of all Abu Hashim al-Kufi and Shami adopted this nickname. He was of Umayyad descent and a fatalist (believing that man is bound to act as pre-ordained by Allah). The reason for giving him this name was that in order to make a show of his asceticism and fear for Allah he put on a woollen cloak.

p: 155

Later on this nickname became common and various grounds were put forth as the basis of this name. For example one ground is that 'Sufi' has three letters "sad" "waw" and "fa'". "sad" stands for "sabr" (endurance) "sidq" (truthfulness) and "safa" (purity of heart); "waw" stands for "wudd" (love) "wird" (repeating Allah's name) and "wafa'" (faithfulness to Allah) and "fa'" stands for "fard" (unity) "faqr" (destitution) and "fana'" (death or absorption in Allah's Self). The second view is that it has been derived from "as-Suffah" which was a platform near the Prophet's mosque which had a covering of date-palm leaves. Those who stayed there were called Ashabu'Suffah (people of the platform). The third view is that the name of the progenitor of an Arab tribe was Sufah and this tribe performed the duties of serving the pilgrims and the Ka'bah and it is with reference to their connection with this tribe that these people were called Sufis. This group is divided among various sects but the basic sects are seven only.

1) al-Wahdatiyyah (unitarian):

This sect believes in the oneness of all existence. Its belief is that everything of this world is Allah so much so that they assign to even polluted things the same godly position. They liken Allah with the river and the waves rising in it and argue that the waves which sometimes rise and sometimes fall have no separate existence other than the river but their existence is exactly the existence of the river. Therefore nothing can be separated from its own existence.

p: 156

2) al-Ittihadiyyah (the unitists):

They believe that they have united with Allah and Allah has united with them. They liken Allah with fire and themselves with iron that lies in the fire and acquires its form and property.

3) al-Hululiyyah (the formists):

Their belief is that Allah takes the form of those who claim to know Him and the perfect ones and their bodies are places of His stay. In this way they are seemingly men but really Allah.

4) al-Wasiliyyah (the combiners):

This sect considers itself to have combined with Allah. Their belief is that the laws of the shari'ah are a means of development of human personality and character and that when the human self combines with Allah it no more needs perfection or development. Consequently for the "wasilin" worship and ritual become useless because they hold that when truth and reality is achieved shari'ah remains of no avail. Therefore they can do anything and they cannot be questioned.

5) az-Zarraqiyyah (the revellers):

This sect regards vocal and instrumental music as worship and earns the pleasures of this world through a show of asceticism and begging from door to door. They are ever engaged in relating concocted stories of miraculous performances of their leaders to over-awe the common people.

6) al-'Ushshaqiyyah (the lovers):

The theory of this sect is that apparency is the means to reality meaning that carnal love is the means to achieve love of Allah. That is in order to reach the stage of Allah's love it is necessary to have love with some human beauty. But the love which they regard as love for Allah is just the product of mental disorder through which the lover inclines to one individual with all his attention and his final aim is to have access to the beloved. This love can lead to the way of evil and vice but it has no connection with the love of Allah.

p: 157

A Persian couplet says:

The truth of the fact is that carnal love is like a jinn and a jinn cannot give you guidance.

7) at-Talqiniyyah (the encounterers):

According to this sect the reading of religious sciences and books of scholarship is thoroughly unlawful. Rather the position that is achieved by an hour of spiritual effort of the Sufis cannot be achieved by seventy years of reading books.

According to Shi'ah 'Ulama' all these sects are on the wrong path and out of the fold of Islam. In this connection numerous sayings of the Imams are related. In this sermon also Amir al-mu'minin has regarded the severance of 'Asim ibn Ziyad from this world as the mischief of Satan and he forcefully dissuaded him from adopting that course. (For further study see Sharh Nahj al-balaghah al-Hajj Mirza Habibu'llah al-Khu'i vol. 13 pp. 132-417; vol. 14 pp. 2-22).


In English

Someone (1) asked Amir al-mu'minin about concocted traditions and contradictory sayings of the Prophet current among the people whereupon he said:

Certainly what is current among the people is both right and wrong true and false repealing and repealed general and particular definite and indefinite exact and surmised. Even during the Prophet's days false sayings had been attributed to him so much so that he had to say during his sermon that "Whoever attributes falsehoods to me makes his abode in Hell." Those who relate traditions are of four categories (2) no more.

p: 158

First: The lying hypocrites

The hypocrite is a person who makes a show of faith and adopts the appearance of a Muslim; he does not hesitate in sinning nor does he keep aloof from vice; he wilfully attributes false things against the Messenger of Allah - may Allah bless him and his descendants. If people knew that he was a hypocrite and a liar they would not accept anything from him and would not confirm what he says.

Rather they say that he is the companion of the Prophet has met him heard (his sayings) from him and acquired (knowledge) from him. They therefore accept what he says. Allah too had warned you well about the hypocrites and described them fully to you. They have continued after the Holy Prophet. They gained positions with the leaders of misguidance and callers towards Hell

through falsehoods and slanderings. So they put them in high posts and made them officers over the heads of the people and amassed wealth through them. People are always with the rulers and after this world except those to whom Allah affords protection. This is the first of the four categories.

Second: Those who are mistaken

Then there is the individual who heard (a saying) from the Holy Prophet but did not memorise it as it was but surmised it. He does not lie wilfully. Now he carries the saying with him and relates it acts upon it and claims that: "I heard it from the Messenger of Allah." If the Muslims come to know that he has committed a mistake in it they will not accept it from him and if he himself knows that he is on the wrong he will give it up.

p: 159

Third: Those who are ignorant

The third man is he who heard the Prophet ordering to do a thing and later the Prophet refrained the people from doing it but this man did not know it or he heard the Prophet refraining people from a thing and later he allowed it but this man did not know it. In this way he retained in his mind what had been repealed and did not retain the repealing tradition. If he knew that it had been repealed he would reject it or if the Muslims knew when they heard it from him that it had been repealed they would reject it.

Fourth: Those who memorise truthfully

The last namely the fourth man is he who does not speak a lie against Allah or against His Prophet. He hates falsehood out of fear for Allah and respect for the Messenger of Allah and does not commit mistakes but retains (in his mind) exactly what he heard (from the Prophet) and he relates it as he heard it without adding anything or omitting anything. He heard the repealing tradition he retained it and acted upon it and he heard the repealed tradition and rejected it. He also understands the particular and the general and he knows the definite and indefinite and gives everything its due position.

The sayings of the Prophet used to be of two types. One was particular and the other common. Sometimes a man would hear him but he would not know what Allah the Glorified meant by it or what the Messenger of Allah meant by it. In this way the listener carries it and memorises it without knowing its meaning and its real intention or what was its reason. Among the companions of the Messenger of Allah all were not in the habit of putting him questions and ask him the meanings indeed they always wished that some Bedouin or stranger might come and ask him (peace be upon him) so that they would also listen. Whenever any such thing came before me I asked him about its meaning and preserved it. These are the reasons and grounds of differences among the people in their traditions.

p: 160

In Arabic

[ 210 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

وقد سأله سائل عن أحاديث البدع، وعما في أيدي الناس من اختلاف الخبر. فقال عليه السلام:

إنَّ فِي أَيْدِي النَّاسِ حَقّاً وَبَاطِلاً، وَصِدْقاً وَكَذِباً، وَنَاسِخاً وَمَنْسُوخاً، وَعَامّاً وَخَاصّاً، وَ مُحْكَماً وَمُتَشَابِهاً، وَحِفْظاً وَوَهْماً، وَلَقَدْ كُذِبَ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللهِ -صَلَّى اللهٌ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلََّم- عَلَى عَهْدِهِ، حَتَّى قَامَ خَطِيباً، فَقَالَ: «مَنْ كَذَبَ عَلَيَّ مُتَعَمِّداً فَلْيَتَبَوَّأْ مَقْعَدَهُ مِنَ النَّارِ». وَإِنَّمَا أَتَاكَ بِالْحَدِيثِ أَرْبَعَةُ رِجَالٍ لَيْسَ لَهُمْ خَامِسٌ:


رَجُلٌ مُنَافِقٌ مُظْهِرٌ لِلْإِيمَانِ، مُتَصَنِّعٌ بِالْإِسْلاَمِ، لاَيَتَأَثَّمُ (1) وَلاَ يَتَحَرَّجُ (2) ، يَكْذِبُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللهِ -صَلَّى اللهٌ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلََّم- مُتَعَمِّداً، فَلَوْ عَلِمَ النَّاسُ أَنَّهُ مُنَافِقٌ كَاذِبٌ لَمْ يَقْبَلُوا مِنْهُ، وَلَمْ يُصَدِّقُوا قَوْلَهُ، وَلكِنَّهُمْ قَالُوا: صَاحِبُ رَسُولِ اللهِ -صَلَّى اللهٌ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلََّم- رَآهُ، وَسَمِعَ مِنْهُ، وَلَقِفَ عَنْهُ (3) ، فَيَأْخُذُونَ بِقَوْلِهِ، وَقَدْ أَخْبَرَكَ اللهُ عَنِ الْمُنَاقفِقِينَ بِمَا أَخْبَرَكَ، وَوَصَفَهُمْ بِمَا وَصَفَهُمْ بِهِ لَكَ، ثُمَّ بَقُوا بَعْدَهُ، فَتَقرَّبُوا إِلَى أَئِمَّةِ الضَّلاَلَةِ، وَالدُّعَاةِ إِلَى النَّارِ بِالزُّورِ وَالْبُهْتَانِ، فَوَلَّوهُمُ الْأَعْمَالَ، وَجَعَلُوهُمْ حُكَّامً عَلَى

رِقَابِ النَّاسِ، فَأَكَلُوا بِهِمُ الدُّنْيَا، وَإِنَّمَا النَّاسُ مَعَ الْمُلُوكِ وَالدُّنْيَا، إِلاَّ مَنْ عَصَمَ اللهُ، فَهذَا أَحَدُ الْأَرْبَعَةِ.


وَرَجُلٌ سَمِعَ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللهِ شَيْئاً لَمْ يَحْفَظْهُ عَلَى وَجْهِهِ، فَوَهِمَ (4) فِيهِ، وَلَمْ يَتَعَمَّدْ كَذِباً، فَهُوَ فِي يَدَيْهِ، يَرْوِيهِ وَيَعْمَلُ بِهِ، وَيَقُولُ: أَنَا سَمِعْتُهُ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللهِ -صَلَّى اللهٌ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلََّم- ، فَلَوْ عَلِمَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ أَنَّهُ وَهِمَ فِيهِ لَمْ يَقْبَلُوهُ مِنْهُ، وَلَوْ عَلِمَ هُوَ أَنَّهُ كَذلِكَ لَرَفَضَهُ!

أهل الشبهة

وَرَجُلٌ ثَالِثٌ، سَمِعَ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللهِ -صَلَّى اللهٌ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلََّم- شَيْئاً يَأْمُرُ بِهِ، ثُمَّ إِنَّهُ نَهَى عَنْهُ وَهُوَ لاَ يَعْلَمُ، أَوْ سَمِعَهُ يَنْهَىُ عَنْ شَيْءٍ، ثُمَّ أَمَرَ بِهِ وَهُوَ لايَعْلَمُ، فَحَفِظَ المَنسُوخَ، وَلَمْ يَحْفَظِ النَّاسِخَ، فَلَوْ عَلِمَ أَنَّهُ مَنْسُوخٌ لَرَفَضَهُ، وَلَوْ عَلِمَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ إذْ سَمِعُوهُ مِنْهُ أَنَّهُ مَنْسُوخٌ لَرَفَضُوهُ.

p: 161

الصادقون الحافظون

وَآخَرُ رَابِعٌ، لَمْ يَكْذِبْ عَلَى اللهِ، وَلاَ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ، مُبْغِضٌ لِلْكَذِبِ، خَوْفاً للهِ، وَتَعْظيِماً لِرَسُولِ اللهِ -صَلَّى اللهٌ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلََّم- وَلَمْ يَهِمْ (5) ، بَلْ حَفظَ مَا سَمِعَ عَلَى وَجْهِهِ، فَجَاءَ بِهِ عَلَى مَا سَمِعَهُ، لَمْ يَزِدْ فِيهِ وَلَمْ يَنْقُصْ مِنْهُ، وَحَفِظَ النَّاسِخَ فَعَمِلَ بِهِ، وَحَفِظَ الْمَنْسُوخَ فَجَنَّبَ عَنْهُ (6) ، وَعَرَفَ الْخَاصَّ وَالْعَامَّ، وَمُحْكَمَ والمُتَشَابِهَ (7) فَوَضَعَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ مَوْضِعَهُ.

وَقَدْ كَانَ يَكُونُ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهٌ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلََّم الْكَلاَمُ لَهُ وَجْهَانِ: فَكَلاَمٌ خَاصٌّ، وَكَلاَمٌ عَامٌّ، فَيَسْمَعُهُ مَنْ لاَ يَعْرِفُ مَا عَنَى اللهُ بِهِ، وَلاَ مَا عَنَى بِهِ رَسُولُ اللهِ -صَلَّى اللهٌ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلََّم- فَيَحْمِلُهُ السَّامِعُ، وَيُوَجِّهُهُ عَلَى غَيْرِ مَعْرِفَةٍ بِمَعْنَاهُ، وَمَا قُصِدَ بِهِ، وَمَا خَرَجَ مِنْ أَجْلِهِ، وَلَيْسَ كُلُّ أَصْحَابِ رَسُولِ اللهِ -صَلَّى اللهٌ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلََّم- مَنْ كَانَ يَسْأَلُهُ وَيَسْتَفْهِمُهُ، حَتَّى إِنْ كَانُوا لَيُحِبُّونَ أَنْ يَجِيءَ الْأَعْرَابِيُّ أَوْ الطَّارِىءُ، فَيَسَأَلَهُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ حَتَّى يَسْمَعُوا، وَكَانَ لاَ يَمُرُّ بِي مِنْ ذَلِكَ شَيْءٌ إِلاَّ سَأَلْتُ عَنْهُ وَحَفِظْتُهُ. فَهذِهِ وَجُوهُ مَا عَلَيْهِ النَّاسُ فِي اخْتِلاَفِهِمْ، وَعِلَلِهِمْ فِي رِوَايَاتِهِمْ.

In Persian

(شخصى از احاديث بدعت آور، و گوناگونى كه در ميان مردم رواج داشت پرسيد امام فرمود)

1 اقسام احاديث رواج يافته

احاديثى كه در دسترس مردم قرار دارد، هم حق است هم باطل، هم راست هم دروغ، هم ناسخ هم منسوخ، «1» هم عام هم خاص، «2» هم محكم هم متشابه، «3» هم احاديثى كه بدرستى ضبط گرديده و هم احاديثى كه با ظن و گمان روايت شده. در روزگار پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم آنقدر دروغ به آن حضرت نسبت داده شد كه ايستاد و خطابه ايراد كرد و فرمود:

p: 162

«هر كس از روى عمد به من دروغ نسبت دهد جايگاه او پر از آتش است»

2 اقسام راويان حديث

افرادى كه حديث نقل مى كنند چهار دسته اند، كه پنجمى ندارد.

اول- منافقان نفوذى

نخست منافقى كه تظاهر به ايمان مى كند، و نقاب اسلام بر چهره دارد، نه از گناه مى ترسد و نه از آن دورى مى جويد و از روى عمد دروغ به پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم نسبت مى دهد.اگر مردم مى دانستند كه او منافق دروغگو است، از او نمى پذيرفتند و گفتار دروغين او را تصديق نمى كردند، اما با ناآگاهى مى گويند او از اصحاب پيامبر است، رسول خدا را ديده و از او حديث شنيده، و از او گرفته است، پس حديث دروغين او را قبول مى كنند. در صورتى كه خدا تو را از منافقين آنگونه كه لازم بود آگاهاند، و وصف آنان را براى تو بيان داشت.

آنان پس از پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم باقى ماندند و به پيشوايان گمراهى و دعوت كنندگان به آتش با دروغ و تهمت نزديك شده پس به آنان ولايت و حكومت بخشيدند، و بر گردن مردم سوار گرديدند، و به وسيله آنان به دنيا رسيدند، همانا مردم هم با سلاطين و دنيا هستند، مگر آن كس كه خدا او را حفظ كند، اين يكى از آنچه ار گروه است.

دوم- اشتباه كار

دوم كسى كه از پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم چيزى را به اشتباه شنيده، امّا سخن آن حضرت را درست حفظ نكرده است، و با توهّم چيزى را گرفته، امّا از روى عمد دروغ نمى گويد، آنچه در اختيار دارد روايت كرده و به آن عمل مى كند و مى گويد من از پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم آن را شنيده ام.اگر مسلمانان بدانند كه او اشتباه كرده، و غير واقعى پنداشته، از او نمى پذيرفتند، خودش هم اگر آگاهى مى يافت كه اشتباه كرده آن را رها مى كرد.

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سوّم- ناآگاهانى كه حديث شناس نيستند

و سومى شخصى كه شنيده پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم به چيزى امر فرمود. (امّا) سپس از آن نهى كرد و او نمى داند ، يا شنيد كه چيزى را نهى كرد، سپس به آن امر فرمود و او آگاهى ندارد، پس نسخ شده را حفظ كرد ولى ناسخ را نمى داند. اگر بداند كه حديث او منسوخ است تركش مى كند، و اگر مسلمانان نيز مى دانستند روايت او نسخ شده، آن را ترك مى كردند.

چهارم- حافظان راست گفتار

دسته چهارم، آن كه نه به خدا دروغ مى بندد و نه به پيامبرش دروغ نسبت مى دهد. دروغ را از ترس خدا، و حرمت نگهداشتن از رسول خدا صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم دشمن دارد. در آنچه از پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم شنيده اشتباه نكرده، بلكه آن را با تمام جوانبش حفظ كرده است، و آن چنان كه شنيده بدون كم و كاست نقل مى كند.

پس او ناسخ را دانسته و به آن عمل كرده، و منسوخ را فهميده و از آن دورى جسته، خاص و عام، محكم و متشابه، را شناخته، هر كدام را در جاى خويش قرار داده است.

3 اقسام اصحاب رسول خدا صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم

گاهى سخنى از رسول خدا صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم داراى دو معنا بود، سخنى عام، و سخنى خاص ، كسى آن را مى شنيد كه مقصود خدا و پيامبرش را از آن كلام نمى فهميد، پس به معناى دلخواه خود تفسير مى كرد، و بدون آن كه معناى واقعى آن را بداند، كه براى چه هدفى صادر شد، و چرا چنين گفته شد، حفظ و نقل مى كرد. همه ياران پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم چنان نبودند كه از او چيزى بپرسند و معناى واقعى آن را درخواست كنند تا آنجا كه عدّه اى دوست داشتند عربى بيابانى يا سؤال كننده اى از آن حضرت چيزى بپرسد و آنها پاسخ آن را بشنوند ، امّا من هر چه از خاطرم مى گذشت مى پرسيدم، و حفظ مى كردم، پس اين است علل اختلاف رواياتى كه در ميان مردم وجود دارد، و علل اختلاف روايات در نقل حديث.

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(1) ناسخ آيه اى است كه حكم آيه ديگر را باطل كرده و آن را منسوخ (باطل شده) نامند.

(2) عام، لفظ فراگير، و خاص، لفظى كه شامل چيز خاصّ يا فرد خاصّى مى شود.

(3) محكم، آيه اى را گويند كه حكم آن استوار و بر همه روشن است، امّا متشابه، آيه اى است كه ممكن است چند معنا داشته باشد و معناى واقعى آن روشن نيست.


(1). This was Sulaym ibn Qays al-Hilali who was one of the relaters of traditions through Amir al-mu'minin.

(2). In this sermon Amir al-mu'minin has divided the traditionists into four categories.

The first category is that of a man concocts a tradition and attributes it to the Prophet. Traditions were in fact falsified and attributed to him and this process continued with the result that numerous novel traditions came into being. This is a fact which cannot be denied but if anyone does deny it his basis would be not knowledge or sagacity by oratory or argumentative necessity. Thus once 'Alamu'l-huda (Ensign of Guidance) as-Sayyid al-Murtada had a chance of meeting the Sunni 'ulama' (scholars) in confrontation and on this occasion as-Sayyid al-Murtada proved by historical facts that the traditions related about the merits of the great companions are concocted and counterfeit. On this the (Sunni) 'ulama' argued that it was impossible that someone should dare speak a lie against the Prophet and prepare a tradition himself and attribute it to him. as-Sayyid al-Murtada said there is a tradition of the Prophet that:

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A lot of false things will be attributed to me after my death and whoever speaks a lie against me would be preparing his abode in Hell. (al-Bukhari vol.1 p.38; vol.2 p.102; vol.4 p.207; vol.8 p.54; Muslim vol.8 p.229; Abu Dawud vol.3 pp.319-320; at-Tirmidhi vol.4 p.524; vol.5 pp.35-36 40 199 634; Ibn Majah vol.1 pp.13-15)

If you regard this tradition as true then you should agree that false things have been attributed to the Prophet but if you regard it false this would prove our point. However these were people whose hearts were full of hypocrisy and who used to prepare traditions of their own accord in order to create mischief and dispersion in religion and to misguide Muslims of weak convictions. They remained mixed with them as they used to do during the lifetime of the Prophet; and just as they remained busy in activities of mischief and destruction in those days in the same way even after the Prophet they were not unmindful of deforming the teachings of Islam and metamorphosing its features.

Rather in the days of the Prophet they were always afraid lest he unveiled them and put them to shame but after the Prophet their hypocritical activities increased and they attributed false things to the Prophet without demur for their own personal ends and those who heard them believed in them because of their status as companions of the Prophet thinking that whatever they said was correct and whatever they gave out was true. Afterwards also the belief that all the companions are correct put a stopper on their tongues as a result of which they were taken to be above criticism questioning discussion and censure. Besides their conspicuous performance had made them prominent in the eyes of the government and also because of this it needed courage and daring to speak against them. This is proved by Amir al-mu'minin's words:

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These people gained positions with the leaders of misguidance and callers towards Hell through falsehood and slanderings. So they put them in high posts and made them officers over the heads of the people.

Along with the destruction of Islam the hypocrites also aimed at amassing wealth and they were doing so freely by claiming to be Muslims because of which they did not want to remove the veil of Islam (from their faces) and to come out openly but they wanted to continue their Satanic activities under the garb of Islam and engaged themselves in its basic destruction and spreading of division and dispersal by concocting traditions. In this connection Ibn Abi'l-Hadid has written:

When they were left free they too left many things. When people observed silence about them they also observed silence about Islam but they continued their underground activities such as the fabrication of falsehoods to which Amir al-mu'minin has alluded because a lot of untrue matters had been mixed with the traditions by the group of people of wrong beliefs while some of them also aimed at extolling some particular party with whom they had other worldly aims as well.

On the expiry of this period when Mu'awiyah took over the leadership of religion and occupied the throne of temporal authority he opened an official department for the fabrication of false traditions and ordered his officers to fabricate and popularise traditions in disparagement of the Ahlu'l-bayt (the Household of the Holy Prophet) and in extolment of 'Uthman and the Umayyads and announced rewards and grants of land for this work. Consequently a lot of traditions about self-made distinctions gained entry in the books of traditions. Thus Abu'l-Hasan al-Mada'ini has written in his book Kitab al-ahdath and Ibn Abi'l-Hadid has quoted it namely:

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Mu'awiyah wrote to his officers that they should take special care of those who were adherents of 'Uthman his well-wishers and lovers and to award high positions precedence and honour to those who related traditions about his merits and distinctions and to convey to him whatever is so related by any person along with his name the name of his father and the name of his tribe. They did accordingly and heaped up traditions about the merits and distinctions of 'Uthman because Mu'awiyah used to award them rewards clothes grants and lands.

When the fabricated traditions about the merits of 'Uthman had been spread throughout the realm with the idea that the position of the earlier Caliphs should not remain low Mu'awiyah wrote to his officers:

As soon as you receive this order of mine you should call upon the people to prepare traditions about the distinctions of the companions and other caliphs also and take care that if any Muslim relates any tradition about Abu Turab ('Ali) you should prepare a similar tradition about the companions to contradict it because this gives me great pleasure and cools my eyes and it weakens the position of Abu Turab and his partymen. and is more severe to them than the merits and distinctions of 'Uthman.

When his letters were read to the people a large number of such traditions were related extolling the companions that are all fabricated with no truth at all. (Sharh Nahj al-balaghah vol. 11 pp. 43-47)

In this connection Abu 'Abdillah Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn 'Arafah known as Niftawayh (244/858-323/935) who was one of the prominent scholars and traditionists has written and Ibn Abi'l-Hadid has quoted him that:

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Most of the false traditions about the merits of the companions were fabricated during the days of Mu'awiyah in order to gain position in his audience because his view was that in this way he could disgrace Banu Hashim and render them low. (ibid.)

After that fabrication of traditions became a habit the world seekers made it a means of securing position with kings and nobles and to amass wealth. For example Ghiyath ibn Ibrahim an-Nakha'i (2nd cent. A.H.) fabricated a tradition about the flight of pigeons in order to please al-Mahdi ibn al-Mansur (the 'Abbasid Caliph) and to secure position near him. (Tarikh Baghdad vol.12 pp.323-327; Mizan al-i'tidal vol.3) pp.337-338; Lisan al-mizan vol.4 p.422). Abu Sa'id al-Mada'ini and others made it a means of livelihood. The limit was reached when the al-Karramiyyah and some of the al-Mutasawwifah gave the ruling that the fabrication of traditions for the prevention of sin or for persuasion towards obedience was lawful.

Consequently in connection with persuading and dissuading traditions were fabricated quite freely and this was not regarded against the religious law or morality. Rather this work was generally done by those who bore the appearance of asceticism or fear of Allah and who passed their nights in praying and days in filling their registers with false traditions. An idea about the number of these fabricated traditions can be had from the fact that out of six hundred thousand traditions al-Bukhari selected only two thousand seven hundred and sixty-one traditions (Tarikh Baghdad vol.2 p.8; al-Irshad as-sari vol.1 p.28; Sifatu's-safwah vol.4 p.143).

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Muslim thought fit for selection only four thousand out of three hundred thousand (Tarikh Baghdad vol.13 p.101; al-Muntazam vol.5 p.32; Tabaqat al-huffaz vol.2 pp.151 157; Wafayat al-a'yan vol.5 p.194). Abu Dawud took four thousand and eight hundred out of five hundred thousand (Tarikh Baghdad vol.9 p.57; Tabaqat al-huffaz vol.2 p.154; al-Muntazam vol.5 p.97; Wafayat al-a'yan vol.2 p.404) and Ahmad ibn Hanbal took thirty thousand out of nearly on million traditions (Tarikh Baghdad vol.4 p.419-420; Tabaqat al-huffaz vol.2 p.17; Wafayat al-a'yan vol.1 p.64; Tahdhib at-tahdhib vol.1 p. 74). But when this selection is studied some traditions which come across can in no circumstances be attributed to the Prophet. The result is that a group of considerable number has cropped up among Muslims who in view of these (so-called) authoritative collections and true traditions completely reject the evidentiary value of the traditions (For further reference see al-Ghadir vol.5 pp. 208-378).

The second category of relaters of traditions are those who without appreciating the occasion or context related whatever they could recollect right or wrong. Thus in al-Bukhari (vol.2 pp.100-102; vol.5 p.98); Muslim (vol.3 pp. 41-45); at-Tirmidhi (vol.3 pp. 327-329); an-Nasa'i (vol.4 p.18); Ibn Majah (vol.1 pp.508-509); Malik ibn Anas (al-Muwatta' vol.1 p.234); ash-Shafi'i (Ikhtilaf'l-hadith on the side lines of "al-Umm" vol.7 p.266); Abu Dawud (vol.3 p.194); Ahmad ibn Hanbal (vol.1 pp.41 42) and al-Bayhaqi (vol.4 pp.72-74) in the chapter entitled 'weeping over the dead' it is stated that when Caliph 'Umar was wounded Suhayb came weeping to him then 'Umar said:

O' Suhayb you weep over me while the Prophet had said that the dead person is punished if his people weep over him.

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When after the death of Caliph 'Umar this was mentioned to 'A'ishah she said: "May Allah have mercy on 'Umar. The Messenger of Allah did not say that weeping of relations causes punishment on the dead. but he said that the punishment of an unbeliever increases if his people weep over him." After this 'A'ishah said that according to the Holy Qur'an no person has to bear the burden of another so how could the burden of those who weep be put on the dead. After this the following verse was quoted by 'A'ishah:

. . . And no bearer of burden shall bear the burden of another; (Qur'an 6:164; 17:15; 35:18; 39:7; 53:38).

The wife of the Holy Prophet 'A'ishah relates that once the Prophet passed by a Jewish woman over whom her people were weeping. The Prophet then remarked "Her people are weeping over her but she is undergoing punishment in the grave."

The third category of the relaters of traditions is of those who heard some repealed traditions from the Prophet but could not get any chance to hear the repealing traditions which he could relate to others. An example of a repealing tradition is the saying of the Prophet which also contains a reference to the repealed tradition namely: "I had disallowed you to visit graves but now you can visit them." (Muslim vol.3 p.65; at-Tirmidhi vol.3 p.370; Abu Dawud vol.3 pp. 218 332; an-Nasa'i vol.4 p. 89; Ibn Majah vol.1 pp. 500-501; Malik ibn Anas vol.2 p. 485; Ahmad ibn Hanbal vol.1 pp.145 452; vol.3 pp.38 63 66 237 350; vol.5 pp. 350 355 356 357 359 361; al-Hakim al-Mustadrak vol.1 pp. 374-376; and al-Bayhaqi vol.4 pp. 76-77). Herein the permission to visit graves has repealed the previous restriction on it. Now those who heard only the repealed tradition continued acting according to it.

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The fourth category of relaters of traditions is of those who were fully aware of the principles of justice possessed intelligence and sagacity knew the occasion when a tradition was first uttered (by the Prophet) and were also acquainted with the repealing and the repealed traditions the particular and the general and the timely and the absolute. They avoided falsehood and fabrication. Whatever they heard remained preserved in their memory and they conveyed it with exactness to others. It is they whose traditions are the precious possession of Islam free from fraud and counterfeit and worthy of being trusted and acted upon. That collection of traditions which has been conveyed through trustworthy bosoms like that of Amir al-mu'minin and has remained free from cutting curtailing alteration or change particularly present Islam in its true form. The position of Amir al-mu'minin in Islamic knowledge has been most certainly proved through the following traditions narrated from the Holy Prophet such as:

Amir al-mu'minin Jabir ibn 'Abdullah Ibn 'Abbas and 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar have narrated from the Holy Prophet that he said:

I am the city of knowledge and 'Ali is its door. He who wants to acquire (my) knowledge should come through its door. (al-Mustadrak vol.3 pp. 126-127; al-Isti'ab vol.3 p.1102; Usd al-ghabah vol.4 p.22; Tarikh Baghdad vol.2 p.377; vol.4 p.348; vol.7 p.172; vol.11 pp. 48-50; Tadhkirah al-huffaz; vol.4 p.28; Majma' az-zawa'id vol.9 p.114; Tahdhib at-tahdhib vol.6 p.320; vol.7 p.337; Lisan al-mizan vol.2 pp.122-123; Tarikh al-khulafa' p.170; Kanz al-'ummal vol.6 pp.152 156 401; 'Umdah al-qari vol.7 p.631; Sharh al-mawahib al-ladunniyyah vol.3 p.143).

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Amir al-mu'minin and Ibn 'Abbas have also narrated from the Holy Prophet that:

I am the store-house of wisdom and 'Ali is its door. He who wants to acquire wisdom should come through its door. (Hilyah al-awliya' vol.1 p.64; Masabih as-sunnah vol.2 p.275; Tarikh Baghdad vol.11 p.204; Kanz al-'ummal vol.6 p.401; ar-Riyad an-nadirah vol.2 p.193).

If only people could take the Prophet's blessings through these sources of knowledge. But it is a tragic chapter of history that although traditions are accepted through the Kharijites and enemies of the Prophet's family whenever the series of relaters includes the name of any individual from among the Prophet's family there is hesitation in accepting the tradition.


In English

The greatness of Allah and the creation of the Universe

It is through the strength of Allah's greatness and His subtle power of innovation that He made solid dry earth out of the water of the fathomless compact and dashing ocean. Then He made from it layers and separated them into seven skies after they had been joined together. So they became stationary at His command and stopped at the limit fixed by Him. He so made the earth that it is born by deep blue surrounded and suspended water which is obedient to His command and has submitted to His awe while its flow has stopped due to fear of Him.

He also created high hills rocks of stones and lofty mountains. He put them in their positions and made them remain stationary. Their peaks rose into the air while their roots remained in the water. In this way He raised the mountains above the plains and fixed their foundations in the vast expanse wherever they stood. He made their peaks high and made their bodies lofty. He made them like pillars for the earth and fixed them in it like pegs. Consequently the earth became stationary; otherwise it might bend with its inhabitants or sink inwards with its burden or shift from its positions.

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Therefore glorified is He who stopped it after the flowing of its waters and solidified it after the watery state of its sides. In this way He made it a cradle for His creatures and spread it for them in the form of a floor over the deep ocean which is stationary and does not move and is fixed and does not flow. Severe winds move it here and there and clouds draw up water from it.

Verily in this there is a lesson unto him who feareth (Allah) (Qur'an 79:26)

In Arabic

[ 211 ] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام

في عجيب صنعة الكون

وَكَانَ مِنِ اقْتِدَارِ جَبَروتِهِ، وَبَدِيعِ لَطَائِفِ صَنْعَتِهِ، أَنْ جَعَلَ مِنْ مَاءِ الْبَحْرِ الزَّاخِرِ (1) الْمُتَرَاكِمِ الْمُتَقَاصِفِ (2) ، يَبَساً جَامِداً (3) ، ثُمَّ فَطَرَ (4) مِنْهُ أَطْبَاقاً (5) ، فَفَتَقَهَا سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ بَعْدَ ارْتِتَاقِهَا (6) ، فَاسْتَمْسَكَتْ بِأَمْرِهِ (7) ، وَقَامَتْ عَلَى حَدِّهِ (8) . وَ أَرْسَى أَرْضاً يَحْمِلُهَا الْأَخْضَرُ (9) المُثْعَنْجِرُ (10) ، وَالْقَمْقَامُ (11) الْمُسَخَّرُ، قَدْ ذَلَّ لِأَمْرِهِ، وَأَذْعَنَ لِهَيْبَتِهِ، وَوَقَفَ الْجَارِي مِنْهُ لِخَشْيَتِهِ، وَجَبَلَ (12) جَلاَمِيدَهَا (13) ، وَنُشُوزَ (14) مُتُونِهَا (15) وَأَطْوَادِهَا (16) ، فَأَرْسَاهَا في مَرَاسِيهَا (17) ، وَأَلْزَمَهَا قَرَارَاتِهَا (18) ، فَمَضَتْ رُؤُسُهَا فِي الْهَوَاءِ، وَرَسَتْ أُصُولُهَا فِي الْمَاءِ، فَأَنْهَدَ جِبَالَهَا (19) عَنْ سُهُولِهَا، وَأَسَاخَ (20) قَوَاعِدَهَا فِي متُونِ أَقْطَارِهَا، وَمَوَاضِعِ أَنْصَابِهَا (21) ، فَأشْهَقَ قِلاَلَهَا (22) ، وَأَطَالَ أَنْشَازَهَا (23) ، وَجَعَلَهَا لِلْأَرْضِ عِمَاداً، وَأَرَّزَهَا (24) فِيهَا أَوْتَاداً، فَسَكَنَتْ عَلَى حَرَكَتِهَا مِنْ أَنْ تَمِيدَ (25) بِأَهْلِهَا، أَوْ تَسِيخَ (26) بِحِمْلِهَا، أَوْ تَزُولَ عَنْ مَواضِعِهَا. فَسُبْحَانَ مَنْ أَمْسَكَهَا بعَْدَ مَوَجَانِ مِيَاهِهَا، وَأَجْمَدَهَا بَعْدَ رُطُوبَةِ أَكْنَافِهَا، فَجَعَلَهَا لِخَلْقِهِ مِهَاداً، وَبَسَطَهَا لَهُمْ فِرَاشاً! فَوْقَ بَحْرٍ لُجِّيٍّ رَاكِدٍ لاَ يَجْرِي (27) ، وَقَائِمٍ لاَ يَسْرِي، تُكَرْكِرُهُ (28) الرِّيَاحُ الْعَوَاصِفُ، وَتَمْخُصُهُ الْغَمَامُ الذَّوَارِفُ؟ (29) ، (إِنَّ فِي ذلِكَ لَعِبْرَةً لِمَنْ يَخْشَى)

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In Persian

شگفتى آفرينش پديده ها

از نشانه هاى توانايى و عظمت خدا، و شگفتى ظرافت هاى صنعت او آن است كه از آب درياى موج زننده، و امواج فراوان شكننده، خشكى آفريد ، و به طبقاتى تقسيم كرد، سپس طبقه ها را از هم گشود، و هفت آسمان را آفريد، كه به فرمان او برقرار ماندند، و در اندازه هاى معيّن استوار شدند. و زمين را آفريد كه دريايى سبز رنگ و روان آن را بر دوش مى كشد، زمين در برابر فرمان خدا فروتن، و در برابر شكوه پروردگارى تسليم است، و آب روان از ترس او ايستاد، سپس صخره ها، تپه ها، و كوه هاى بزرگ را آفريد، آنها را در جايگاه خود ثابت نگاه داشت، و در قرارگاهشان استقرار بخشيد.

پس كوه ها در هوا و ريشه هاى آن در آب رسوخ كرد ، كوه ها از جاهاى پست و هموار سر بيرون كشيده و كم كم ارتفاع يافتند، و ريشه آن در دل زمين ريشه دوانيد، قلّه ها سر به سوى آسمان بر افراشت، و نوك آنها را طولانى ساخت تا تكيه گاه زمين، و ميخ هاى نگهدارنده آن باشد، سپس زمين با حركات شديدى كه داشت آرام گرفت، تا ساكنان خود را نلرزاند، و آنچه بر پشت زمين است سقوط نكند، يا از جاى خويش منتقل نگردد. «1»


(1) در اين سخنرانى و خطبه هاى ديگر، امام عليه السّلام به حركت زمين، صدها سال قبل از كشف اين حقيقت توسّط دانشمندان رشته ژئوفيزيك SCISYHPOEG (علم اوضاع بيرونى و طبيعى) و ژئولوژى YGOLOEg (زمين شناسى) آشكارا اشاره فرمود.

p: 175

پس پاك و منزّه است خدايى كه زمين را در ميان آن همه از امواج نا آرام، نگه داشت، و پس از رطوبت آن را خشك ساخت، و آن را جايگاه زندگى مخلوقات خود گردانيد، و چون بسترى بر ايشان بگستراند، بر روى دريايى عظيم و ايستاده اى كه روان نيست و تنها بادهاى تند آن را بر هم مى زند، و ابرهاى پرباران آن را مى جنباند «و توجه به اين شگفتى ها درس عبرتى است براى كسى كه بترسد»


In English

About those who give up supporting right

O' my Allah! whoever listens to our utterance which is just and which seeks the prosperity of religion and the worldly life and does not seek mischief but rejects it after listening then he certainly turns away from Thy support and desists from strengthening Thy religion. We make Thee a witness over him and Thou art the greatest of all witnesses and we make all those who inhabit Thy earth and Thy skies witness over him. Thereafter Thou alone can make us needless of his support and question him for his sin.

In Arabic

[ 212 ] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام

كان يستنهض بها أصحابه إلى جهاد أهل الشام في زمانه

اللَّهُمَّ أَيُّمَا عَبْدٍ مِنْ عِبَادِكَ سَمِعَ مَقَالَتَنَا الْعَادِلَةَ غَيْرَ الْجَائِرَةِ، وَالْمُصْلِحَةَ غَيْرِ الْمَفْسِدَةِ, فِي الدِّينِ وَالدُّنْيَا، فَأَبَى بَعْدَ سَمْعِهِ لَهَا إِلاَّ النُّكُوصَ عَنْ نُصْرَتِكَ، وَالْإِبْطَاءَ عَنْ إِعْزَازِ دِينِكَ، فَإِنَّا نَسْتَشْهِدُكَ عَلَيْهِ يَا أَكْبَرَ الشَّاهِدِينَ شَهَادَةً، وَنَسْتَشْهِدُ عَلَيْهِ جَمِيعَ مَا اَسْكَنْتَهُ أَرْضَكَ وَسَمَاوَاتِكَ، ثُمَّ أَنْتَ بَعْدُ الْمُغْنِي عَنْ نَصْرِهِ، وَالْآخِذُ لَهُ بِذَنْبِهِ.

p: 176

In Persian

بسيج مردم براى جنگ با شاميان

خدايا! هر كدام از بندگان تو، كه سخن عادلانه دور از ستمكارى، و اصلاح كننده دور از فساد انگيزى ما را نسبت به دين و دنيا شنيد، و پس از شنيدن سرباز زد، و از يارى كردنت باز ايستاد، و در گرامى داشتن دين تو درنگ و سستى كرد، ما تو را بر ضد او به گواهى مى طلبيم.

اى خدايى كه از بزرگ ترين گواهانى و تمام موجوداتى كه در آسمان ها و زمين سكونت دادى همه را بر ضد او به گواهى دعوت مى كنيم با اينكه تو از يارى او بى نيازى، و او را به كيفر گناهانش گرفتار خواهى كرد.


In English

The Sublimity of Allah and a eulogy of the Prophet

Praise be to Allah who is above all similarity to the creatures is above the words of describers who displays the wonders of His management for the on-lookers is hidden from the imagination of thinkers by virtue of the greatness of His glory has knowledge without acquiring it adding to it or drawing it (from someone) and Who is the ordainer of all matters without reflecting or thinking. He is such that gloom does not concern Him nor does He seek light from brightness night does not overtake Him nor does the day pass over Him (so as to affect Him in any manner). His comprehension (of things) is not through eyes and His knowledge is not dependent on being informed.

A part of the same sermon about the Prophet

p: 177

Allah deputised the Prophet with light and accorded him the highest precedence in selection. Through him Allah united those who were divided overpowered the powerful overcame difficulties and levelled rugged ground and thus removed misguidance from right and left.

In Arabic

[ 213 ] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام

في تمجيدالله وتعظيمه

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الْعَلِيِّ عَنْ شَبَهِ (1) الْمَخْلُوقِينَ، الْغَالِبِ لِمَقَالِ الْوَاصِفِينَ، الظَّاهِرِ بَعَجَائِبِ تَدْبِيرِهِ لِلنَّاظِرينَ، الْبَاطِنِ بِجَلاَلِ عِزَّتِهِ عَنْ فِكْرِ الْمُتَوَهِّمِينَ، الْعَالِمِ بَلاَ اكْتِسَاب وَلاَ ازْدِيَاد، وَلاَ عِلْمٍ مُسْتَفَادٍ، الْمُقَدِّرِ لِجَميِعِ الْأُمُورِ بِلاَ رَوِيَّةٍ وَلاَ ضَمِيرٍ، الَّذِي لاَ تَغْشَاهُ الظُّلَمُ، وَلاَ يَسْتَضِيءُ بِالْأَنْوَارِ، وَلاَ يَرْهَقُهُ (2) لَيْلٌ، وَلاَ يَجْرِي عَلَيْهِ نَهَارٌ، لَيْسَ إِدْرَاكُهُ بِالْإِبْصَارِ، وَلاَ عِلْمُهُ بِالْإِخْبَارِ.

منها في ذكر النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم:

أَرْسَلَهُ بِالضِّيَاءِ، وَقَدَّمَهُ فِي الْإِصْطِفَاءِ، فَرَتَقَ (3) بِهِ الْمَفَاتِقَ (4) ، وَسَاوَرَ (5) بِهِ الْمُغَالِبَ، وَذَلَّلَ بِهِ الصُّعُوبَةَ، وَسَهَّلَ بِهِ الْحُزُونَةَ (6) ، حَتَّى سَرَّحَ الضَّلاَلَ، عَنْ يَمِيٍن وَشِمَالٍ.

In Persian

1 خدا شناسى

سپاس خداوندى را سزاست كه از شباهت داشتن به پديده ها برتر و از تعريف وصف كنندگان والاتر است. با تدبير شگفتى آورش بر همه بينندگان آشكار، و با بزرگى عزّتش، بر همه فكرهاى انديشمندان پنهان است. داناست، نه آن كه آگاهى او از جايى گرفته شده يا در حال فزونى باشد و يا از كسى فراگيرد، اداره كننده سراسر نظام آفرينش است بى آنكه نيازى به فكر كردن يا انديشه درونى داشته باشد ، خدايى كه تاريكى ها او را پنهان نسازد، و از نورها روشنى نگيرد، شب او را نپوشاند، و روز بر او نمى گذرد، نه بينايى او از راه ديدگان، و نه علم او از راه اطلاعات و اخبار است. (قسمتى از اين سخنرانى پيرامون پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم است)

p: 178

2 ويژگى هاى پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم

خدا پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم را با روشنايى اسلام فرستاد، و در گزينش، او را بر همه مقدّم داشت، با بعثت او شكاف ها را پر، و سلطه گران پيروز را در هم شكست، و سختى ها را آسان، و ناهموارى ها را هموار فرمود تا آن كه گمراهى را از چپ و راست تار و مار كرد.


In English

The Prophet's nobility of descent

I stand witness that He is just and does justice He is the arbiter Who decides (between right and wrong). I also stand witness that Muhammad is His slave. His Messenger and the Chief of His creatures. Whenever Allah divided the line of descent He put him in the better one and therefore no evil-doer ever shared with him nor was any vicious person his partner.

Beware! surely Allah the Glorified has provided for virtue those who are suited to it for truth pillars (that support it) and for obedience protection (against deviation). In every matter of obedience you will find Allah the Glorified's succour that will speak through tongues and accord firmness to hearts. It has sufficiency for those who seek sufficiency and a cure for those who seek cure. The characteristics of the virtuous whose guidance must be followed

Know that certainly those creatures of Allah who preserve His knowledge offer protection to those things which He desires to be protected and make His springs flow (for the benefit of others). They contact each other with friendliness and meet each other with affection. They drink water from cups that quench the thirst and return from the watering places fully satiated. Misgiving does not affect them and backbiting does not gain ground with them. In this way Allah has tied their nature with good manners. Because of this they love each other and meet each other. They have become superior like seeds which are selected by taking some and throwing away others. This selection has distinguished them and the process of choosing has purified them.

p: 179

Therefore man should secure honour by adopting these qualities. He should fear the day of Doom before it arrives and he should appreciate the shortness of his life and the shortness of his sojourn in the place of stay which has only to last for his change over to the next place. He should therefore do something for his change over and for the known stages of his departure. Blessed be he who possesses a virtuous heart who obeys one who guides him desists from him who takes to ruin catches the path of safety with the help of him who provides him light (of guidance) and by obeying the leader who commands him hastens towards guidance before its doors are closed gets open the door of repentance and removes the (stain of) sins. He has certainly been put on the right path and guided towards the straight road.

In Arabic

[ 214 ] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام

يصف جوهر الرسول، ويصف العلماء، ويعظ بالتقوى

وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّهُ عَدْلٌ عَدَلَ، وَحَكَمٌ فَصَلَ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ، وَسَيِّدُ عِبَادِهِ، كُلَّمَا نَسَخَ اللهُ الْخَلْقَ (1) فِرْقَتَيْنِ جَعَلَهُ فِي خَيْرِهِمَا، لَمْ يُسْهِمْ فِيهِ عَاهِرٌ (2) ، وَلاَ ضَرَبَ فِيهِ (3) فَاجِرٌ. أَلاَ وإِنَّ اللهَ جَعَلَ لِلْخَيْرِ أَهْلاً، وَلِلْحَقِّ دَعَائِمَ، وَلِلطَّاعَةِ عِصَماً (4) . وَإِنَّ لَكُمْ عِنْدَ كُلِّ طَاعَةٍ عَوْناً مِنَ اللهِ يَقُولُ عَلَى الْأَلْسِنَةِ، وَيُثَبِّتُ الْأَفْئِدَةَ، فِيهِ كِفَاءٌ (5) لِمُكْتَفٍ، وَشِفَاءٌ لِمُشْتَفٍ. صفة العلماء

وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ عِبَادَ اللهِ الْمُسْتَحْفَظِينَ (6) عِلْمَهُ، يَصُونُونَ مَصُونَهُ، وَيُفَجِّرُونَ عُيُونَهُ، يَتَوَاصَلُونَ بِالْوِلاَيَةِ (7) ، وَيَتَلاَقَوْنَ بالْمَحَبَّةِ، وَيَتَسَاقَوْنَ بِكَأْسٍ رَوِيَّةٍ (8) ، وَيَصْدُرُونَ بِرِيَّةٍ (9) ، لاَ تَشُوبُهُمُ الرِّيبَةُ (10) ، وَلاَ تُسْرِعُ فِيهِمْ الْغِيبَةُ. عَلَى ذلِكَ عَقَدَ خَلْقَهُمْ وَأَخْلاَقَهُمْ (11) ، فَعَلَيْهِ يَتَحَابُّونَ، وَبِهِ يَتَوَاصَلُونَ، فَكَانُوا كَتَفَاضُلِ الْبَذْرِ يُنْتَقَى (12) ، فَيُوْخَذُ مِنْهُ وَيُلْقَى، قَد مَيَّزَهُ التَّخْلِِيصُ، وَهذَّبَهُ (13) التَّمْحِيصُ (14) .

p: 180

العظة بالتقوى

فَلْيَقْبَلِ امْرُؤٌ كَرَامَةً (15) بِقَبُولِهَا، وَلْيَحْذَرْ قَارِعَةً (16) قَبْلَ حُلُولِهَا، وَلْيَنْظُرِ امْرُؤٌ فِي قَصِيرِ أَيَّامِهِ، وَقَلِيلِ مُقَامِهِ، فِي مَنْزِلٍ حَتَّى يَسْتَبْدِلَ بِهِ مَنْزِلاً، فَلْيَصْنَعْ لِمُتَحَوَّلِهِ (17) ، وَمَعَارِفِ مُنْتَقَلِهِ (18) . فَطُوبَى لِذِي قَلْبٍ سَلِيمٍ، أَطَاعَ مَنْ يَهْدِيهِ، وَتَجَنَّبَ مَنْ يُرْدِيهِ، وَأَصَابَ سَبِيلَ السَّلاَمَةِ بِبَصَرِ مَنْ بَصَّرَهُ، وَطَاعَةِ هَادٍ أَمَرَهُ، وَبَادَرَ الْهُدى قَبْلَ أَنْ تُغْلَقَ أَبْوَابُهُ، وَتُقْطَعَ أَسْبَابُهُ، وَاسْتَفْتَحَ التَّوْبَةَ، وَأَمَاطَ الْحَوْبَةَ (19) ، فَقَدْ أُقِيمَ عَلَى الطَّرِيقِ، وَهُدِيَ نَهْجَ السَّبِيلِ.

In Persian

1 پيامبر شناسى

گواهى مى دهم كه خدا عدل است و دادگر، و دادرسى جدا كننده حق و باطل ، و گواهى مى دهم كه محمّد صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم بنده و فرستاده او سرور مخلوقات است. هر گاه آفريدگان را به دو دسته كرد او را در بهترين آنها قرار داد ، در خاندان او نه زناكار و نه مردم بدكار است. آگاه باشيد! خداوند براى خوبى ها مردمى، و براى حق ستون هاى استوارى، و براى اطاعت نگهدارنده اى قرار داد. هر گامى كه در اطاعت بر مى داريد، ياورى از طرف خداى سبحان وجود دارد كه زبان ها به نيروى آنها سخن مى گويند، و دل ها با كمك آنها استوارند، براى يارى طلبان ياور، و براى شفا خواهان شفا دهنده اند.

2 ارزش دانشمندان الهى

بدانيد! بندگانى كه نگاه دار علم خداوندند، و آن را حفظ مى كنند، و چشمه هاى علم الهى را جوشان مى سازند، با دوستى خدا با يكديگر پيوند داشته و يكديگر را ديدار مى كنند.

جام محبّت او را به همديگر مى نوشانند، و از آبشخور علم او سيراب مى گردند. شك و ترديد در آنها راه نمى يابد، و از يكديگر بدگويى نمى كنند.

p: 181

سرشت و اخلاقشان با اين ويژگى ها شكل گرفته است، و بر اين اساس تمام دوستيها و پيوندهايشان استوار است.

آنان، چونان بذرهاى پاكيزه اى هستند كه در ميان مردم گزينش شده، آنها را براى كاشتن انتخاب و ديگران را رها مى كنند. با آزمايش هاى مكرّر امتياز يافتند، و با پاك كردن هاى پى در پى خالص گرديدند.

3 پندهاى جاودانه

پس آدمى بايد اندرزها را بپذيرد، و پيش از رسيدن رستاخيز پرهيزكار باشد، و در كوتاهى روزگارش انديشه كند، و به ماندن كوتاه در دنيا نظر دوزد تا آن را به منزلگاهى بهتر مبدّل سازد. پس براى جايى كه او را مى برند، و براى شناسايى سراى ديگر تلاش كند.خوشا به حال كسى كه قلبى سالم دارد، خداى هدايتگر را اطاعت مى كند، از شيطان گمراه كننده دورى مى گزيند، با راهنمايى مردان الهى با آگاهى به راه سلامت رسيده ، و به اطاعت هدايتگرش بپردازد، و به راه رستگارى پيش از آن كه درها بسته شود، و وسائلش قطع گردد بشتابد، در توبه را بگشايد،

و گناهان را از بين ببرد. پس (چنين فردى) به راه راست ايستاده، و به راه حق هدايت شده است.


In English

A prayer which Amir al-mu'minin often recited

Praise be to Allah! Who made me such that I have not died nor am I sick nor have my veins been infected with disease nor have I been hauled up for my evil acts nor am I without progeny nor have I forsaken my religion nor do I disbelieve in my Lord nor do I feel strangeness with my faith nor is my intelligence affected nor have I been punished with the punishment of peoples before me. I am a slave in Thy possession I have been guilty of excesses over myself. Thou hast exhausted Thy pleas over me and I have no plea (before Thee). I have no power to take except what Thou givest me and I cannot evade except what Thou savest me from.

p: 182

O' my Allah! I seek Thy protection from becoming destitute despite Thy riches from being misguided despite Thy guidance from being molested in Thy realm and from being humiliated while authority rests with Thee.

O' my Allah! let my spirit be the first of those good objects that Thou takest from me and the first trust out of Thy favours held in trust with me.

O' my Allah! we seek Thy protection from turning away from Thy command or revolting against Thy religion or being led away by our desires instead of by guidance that comes from Thee.

In Arabic

[ 215 ] ومن دعائه عليه السلام

كان يدعو به كثيراً

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي لَمْ يُصبِحْ بِي مَيِّتاً وَلاَ سَقِيماً، وَلاَ مَضْرُوباً عَلَى عُرُوقِي بِسُوءٍ، وَلاَ مَأْخُوذاً بِأَسْوَإِ عَمَلِي، وَلاَ مَقْطُوعاً دَابِرِي (1) ، وَلاَ مُرْتَدّاً عَنْ دِينِي، وَلاَ مُنْكِراً لِرَبِّي، وَلاَ مُسْتَوْحِشاً مِنْ إِيمَانِي، وَلاَ مُلْتَبِساً (2) عَقْلِي، وَلاَ مُعَذَّباً بَعَذابِ الْأُمَمِ مِنْ قَبْلِي. أَصْبَحْتُ عَبْداً مَمْلُوكاً ظَالِماً لِنَفْسِي، لَكَ الْحُجَّةُ عَلَيَّ وَلاَ حُجَّةَ لِي، وَلاَ أَسْتَطِيعُ أَنْ آخُذَ إِلاَّ مَا أَعْطَيْتَنِي، وَلاَ أَتَّقِيَ إِلاَّ مَا وَقَيْتَنِي. اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ أَنْ أَفْتَقِرَ فِي غِنَاكَ، أَوْ أَضِلَّ فِي هُدَاكَ، أَوْ أُضَامَ فِي سُلْطَانِكَ، أَوْ أُضْطَهَدَ وَالْأَمْرُ لَكَ! اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْ نَفْسِي أَوَّلَ كَرِيمَةٍ تَنْتَزِعُهَا مِنْ كَرَائِمِي، وَأَوَّلَ وَدِيعَةٍ تَرْتَجِعُهَا مِنْ وَدَائِعِ نِعَمِكَ عِنْدِي! اللَّهُمْ إِنَّا نَعُوذُ بِكَ أَنْ نَذْهَبَ عَنْ قَوْلِكَ، أَوْ نُفْتَتَنَ عَنْ دِينِكَ، أَوْ تَتَابَعَ بِنَا أَهْوَاؤُنَا (3) دُونَ الْهُدَى الَّذِي جَاءَ مِنْ عِنْدِكَ!

In Persian

(همواره با اين كلمات خدا را مى خواند)

ستايش و نيايش

ستايش خداوندى را سزاست كه شبم را به صبح آورد بى آن كه مرده يا بيمار باشم، نه دردى بر رگ هاى تنم باقى گذارد، و نه به كيفر بدترين كردارم گرفتار كرد، نه بى فرزند و خاندان مانده ، و نه از دين خدا روى گردانم، نه منكر پروردگار، نه ايمانم دگرگون، و نه عقلم آشفته، و نه به عذاب امّت هاى گذشته گرفتارم. در حالى كه صبح كردم كه بنده اى بى اختيار و بر نفس خود ستمكارم.

p: 183

خدايا بر تو است كه مرا محكوم فرمايى در حالى كه عذرى ندارم، و توان فراهم آوردن چيزى جز آنچه كه تو مى بخشايى ندارم، و قدرت حفظ خويش ندارم جز آن كه تو مرا حفظ كنى. خدايا به تو پناه مى برم از آن كه در سايه بى نيازى تو، تهيدست باشم، يا در پرتو روشنايى هدايت تو گمراه گردم، يا در پناه قدرت تو بر من ستم روا دارند، يا خوار و ذليل باشم در حالى كه كار در دست تو باشد! خدايا جانم را نخستين نعمت گرانبهايى قرار ده كه مى ستانى، و نخستين سپرده اى. قرار ده كه از من باز پس مى گيرى! خدايا ما به تو پناه مى بريم از آن كه از فرموده تو بيرون شويم، يا از دين تو خارج گرديم، يا هواهاى نفسانى پياپى بر ما فرود آيد، كه از هدايت ارزانى شده از جانب تو سرباز زنيم.


In English

Delivered at the battle of Siffin

Mutual rights of the ruler and the ruled

So now Allah the Glorified has by placing me over your affairs created my right over you and you too have a right over me like mineover you. A right is very vast in description but very narrow in equitability of action. It does not accrue to any person unless it accrues against him also and right does not accrue against a person unless it also accrues in his favour. If there is any right which is only in favour of a person with no (corresponding) right accruing against him it is solely for Allah the Glorified and not for His creatures by virtue of His might over His creatures and by virtue of the justice permeating all His decrees. Of course He the Glorified has created His right over creatures that they should worship Him and has laid upon Himself (the obligation of) their reward equal to several times the recompense as a mark of His bounty and the generosity that He is capable of.

p: 184

Then from His rights He the Glorified created certain rights for certain people against others. He made them so as to equate with one another. Some of these rights produce other rights. Some rights are such that they do not accrue except with others. The greatest of these rights that Allah the Glorified has made obligatory is the right of the ruler over the ruled and the right of the ruled over the ruler. This is an obligation which Allah the Glorified has placed on each other. He has made it the basis of their (mutual) affection and an honour for their religion. Consequently the ruled cannot prosper unless the rulers are sound while the rulers cannot be sound unless the ruled are steadfast.

If the ruled fulfil the rights of the ruler and the ruler fulfils their rights then right attains the position of honour among them the ways of religion become established signs of justice become fixed and the sunnah gains currency.

In this way time will improve the continuance of government will be expected and the aims of the enemies will be frustrated. But if the ruled gain sway over the ruler or the ruler oppresses the ruled then difference crops up in every word signs of oppression appear mischief enters religion and the ways of the sunnah are forsaken. Then desires are acted upon the commands (of religion) are discarded diseases of the spirit become numerous and there is no hesitation in disregarding even great rights nor in committing big wrongs. In such circumstances the virtuous are humiliated while the vicious are honoured and there are serious chastisements from Allah the Glorified onto the people.

p: 185

You should therefore counsel each other (for the fulfilment of your obligations) and co-operate with each other. However extremely eager a person may be to secure the pleasure of Allah and however fully he strives for it he cannot discharge (his obligation for) obedience to Allah the Glorified as is really due to Him and it is an obligatory right of Allah over the people that they should advise each other to the best of their ability and co-operate with each other for the establishment of truth among them. No person however great his position in the matter of truth and however advanced his distinction in religion may be is above co-operation in connection with the obligations placed on him by Allah. Again no man however small he may be regarded by others and however humble he may appear before eyes is too low to co-operate or to be afforded co-operation in this matter.

One of Amir al-mu'minin's companions replied to him by a long speech wherein he praised him much and mentioned his own listening to him and obeying him whereupon Amir al-mu'minin said: If a man in his mind regards Allah's glory as being high and believes in his heart that Allah's position is sublime then it is his right that on account of the greatness of these things he should regard all other things small. Among such persons he on whom Allah's bounty is great and Allah's favours are kind has a greater obligation because Allah's bounty over any person does not increase without an increase in Allah's right over him.

p: 186

In the view of virtuous people the worst position of rulers is that it may be thought about them that they love glory and their affairs may be taken to be based on pride. I would really hate that it may occur to your mind that I love high praises or to hear eulogies. By the grace of Allah I am not like this. Even If I had loved to be mentioned like this I would have given it up in submissiveness before Allah the Glorified rather than accept greatness and sublimity to which He is more entitled. Generally people feel pleased at praise after good performances; but do not mention for me handsome praise for the obligations I have discharged towards Allah and towards you because of (my) fear about those obligations which I have not discharged and for issuing injunctions which could not be avoided and do not address me in the manner despots are addressed.

Do not evade me as the people of passion are (to be) evaded do not meet me with flattery and do not think that I shall take it ill if a true thing is said to me because the person who feels disgusted when truth is said to him or a just matter is placed before him would find it more difficult to act upon them. Therefore do not abstain from saying a truth or pointing out a matter of justice because I do not regard myself above erring (1). I do not escape erring in my actions but that Allah helps me (in avoiding errors) in matters in which He is more powerful than I. Certainly, I and you are slaves owned by Allah other than Whom there is no Lord except Him. He owns our selves which we do not own. He took us from where we were towards what means prosperity to us. He altered our straying into guidance and gave us intelligence after blindness.

p: 187

In Arabic

ومن خطبة له عليه السلام

خطبها بصفين

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَقَدْ جَعَلَ اللهُ سُبْحَانَهُ لِي عَلَيْكُمْ حَقّاً بِوِلاَيَةِ أَمْرِكُمْ، وَلَكُمْ عَلَيَّ مِنَ الْحَقِّ مثْلُ الَّذِي لِي عَلَيْكُمْ، فَالْحَقُّ أَوْسَعُ الْأَشْيَاءِ فِي التَّوَاصُفِ، وَأَضْيَقُهَا فِي التَّنَاصُفِ، لاَيَجْرِي لِأَحَد إِلاَّ جَرَى عَلَيْهِ، وَلاَ يَجْرِي عَلَيْهِ إِلاَّ جَرَى لَهُ. وَلَوْ كَانَ لِأَحَد أَنْ يَجْرِيَ لَهُ وَلاَ يَجْرِيَ عَلَيْهِ، لَكَانَ ذلِكَ خَالِصاً لِلَّهِ سُبْحَانَهُ دُونَ خَلْقِهِ، لِقُدْرَتِهِ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ، وَلِعَدْلِهِ فِي كُلِّ مَا جَرَتْ عَلَيْهِ صُرُوفُ قَضَائِهِ، وَلكِنَّهُ جَعَلَ حَقَّهُ عَلَى الْعِبَادِ أَنْ يُطِيعُوهُ، وَجَعَلَ جَزَاءَهُمْ عَلَيْهِ مُضَاعَفَةَ الثَّوَابِ تَفَضُّلاً مِنْهُ، وَتَوَسُّعاً بِمَا هُوَ مِنَ الْمَزِيدِ أَهْلُهُ.

حق الوالي وحق الرعية

ثُمَّ جَعَلَ _ سُبْحَانَهُ _ مِنْ حُقُوقِهِ حُقُوقاً افْتَرَضَهَا لِبَعْضِ النَّاسِ عَلَى بَعْضٍ، فَجَعَلَهَا تَتَكَافَأُ (1) فِي وُجُوهِهَا، وَيُوجِبُ بَعْضُهَا بَعْضاً، وَلاَ يُسْتَوْجَبُ بعْضُهَا إِلاَّ بِبَعْضٍ. وَأَعْظَمُ مَا افْتَرَضَ _ سُبْحَانَهُ _ مِنْ تِلْكَ الْحُقُوقِ حَقُّ الْوَالِي عَلَى الرَّعِيَّةِ، وَحَقُّ الرَّعِيَّةِ، عَلَى الْوَالِي، فَرِيضَةٌ فَرَضَهَا اللهُ _ سُبْحَانَهُ _ لِكُلٍّ عَلَى كُلٍّ، فَجَعَلَهَا نِظَاماً لِأُلْفَتِهِمْ، وَعِزّاً لِدِينِهِمْ، فَلَيْسَتْ تَصْلُحُ الرَّعِيَّةُ إِلاَّ بِصَلاَحِ الْوُلاَةِ، وَلاَ تَصْلُحُ الْوُلاَةُ إِلاَّ بِاسْتِقَامَةِ الرَّعِيَّةِ. فَإِذا أَدَّتِ الرَّعِيَّةُ إِلَى الْوَالِي حَقَّهُ، وَأَدَّى

الْوَالِي إِلَيْهَا حَقَّهَا، عَزَّ الْحَقُّ بَيْنَهُمْ، وَقَامَتْ مَنَاهِجُ الدِّينِ، وَاعْتَدَلَتْ مَعَالِمُ الْعَدْلِ، وَجَرَتْ عَلَى أَذْلاَلِهَا (2) السُّنَنُ (3) ، فَصَلَحَ بِذلِكَ الزَّمَانُ، وَطُمِعَ فِي بَقَاءِ الدَّوْلَةِ، وَيَئِسَتْ مَطَامِعُ الْأَعْدَاءِ. وَإِذَا غَلَبَتِ الرَّعِيَّةُ وَالِيَهَا، أَوْ أَجْحَفَ (4) الْوَالِي بِرَعِيَّتِهِ، اخْتَلَفَتْ هُنَالِكَ الْكَلِمَةُ، وَظَهَرَتْ مَعَالِمُ الْجَوْرِ، وَكَثُرَ الْإِدْغَالُ (5) فِي الدِّينِ، وَتُرِكَتْ مَحَاجُّ السُّنَنِ (6) ، فَعُمِلَ بِالْهَوَى، وَعُطِّلَتِ الْأَحْكَامُ، وَكَثُرَتْ عِلَلُ النُّفُوسِ، فَلاَ يُسْتَوْحَشُ لِعَظِيمِ (7) حَقٍّ عُطِّلَ، وَلاَ لِعَظِيمِ بَاطِلٍ فُعِلَ! فَهُنَالِكَ تَذِلُّ الْأَبْرَارُ، وَتَعِزُّ الْأَشْرَارُ، وَتَعْظُمُ تَبِعَاتُ اللهِ سُبْحَانَهُ عِنْدَ الْعِبَادِ. فَعَلَيْكُمْ بِالتَّنَاصُحِ فِي ذَلِكَ، وَحُسْنِ التَّعَاوُنِ عَلَيْهِ، فَلَيْسَ أَحَدٌ _ وَإنِ اشْتَدَّ عَلَى رِضَى اللهِ حِرْصُهُ، وَطَالَ فِي الْعَمَلِ اجْتِهَادُهُ _ بِبَالِغٍ حَقِيقَةَ مَا اللهُ سُبْحَانَهُ أَهْلُهُ مِنَ الطَّاعَةِ لَهُ. وَلكِنْ مِنْ وَاجِبِ حُقُوقِ اللهِ عَلى عِبَادهِِ النَّصِيحَةُ بِمَبْلَغِ جُهْدِهِمْ، وَالتَّعَاوُنُ عَلَى إقَامَةِ الْحَقِّ بَيْنَهُمْ. وَلَيْسَ امْرُؤٌ _ وَإنْ عَظُمَتْ فِي الْحَقِّ مَنْزِلَتُهُ، وَتَقَدَّمَتْ فِي الدِّينِ فَضِيلَتُهُ _ بِفَوْقِ أَنْ يُعَانَ (8) عَلَى مَا حَمَّلَهُ اللهُ مِنْ حَقِّهِ.وَلاَ امْرُؤٌ _ وَإِنْ صَغَّرَتْهُ النُّفُوسُ، وَاقْتَحَمَتْهُ (9) الْعُيُونُ _ بِدُونِ أَنْ يُعِينَ عَلى ذلِكَ أَوْ يُعَانَ عَلَيْهِ.

p: 188

فأجابه عليه السلام رجل من أصحابه بكلام طويل، يكثر فيه الثناء عليه، ويذكر سمعه وطاعته له.

فقال عليه السلام: إِنَّ مِنْ حَقِّ مَنْ عَظُمَ جَلاَلُ اللهِ سُبْحَانَهُ فِي نَفْسِهِ، وَجَلَّ مَوْضِعُهُ مِنْ قَلْبِهِ، أَنْ يَصْغُرَ عِنْدَهُ _ لِعِظَمِ ذلِكَ _ كُلُّ مَا سِوَاهُ، وَإِنَّ أَحَقَّ مَنْ كَانَ كَذلِكَ لَمَنْ عَظُمَتْ نِعْمَةُ اللهِ عَلَيْهِ، وَلَطُفَ إِحْسَانُهُ إِلَيْهِ، فَإِنَّهُ لَمْ تَعْظُمْ نِعْمَةُ اللهِ عَلَى أَحَدٍ إِلاَّ ازْدَادَ حَقُّ اللهِ عَلَيْهِ عِظَماً. وَإِنَّ مِنْ أَسْخَفِ (10) حَالاَتِ الْوُلاَةِ عِنْدَ صَالِحِ النَّاسِ، أَنْ يُظَنَّ بِهِمْ حُبُّ الْفَخْرِ، وَيُوضَعَ أَمْرُهُمْ عَلَى الْكِبْرِ, وَقَدْ كَرِهْتُ أَنْ يَكُونَ جَالَ فِي ظَنِّكُمْ أَنِّي أُحِبُّ الْإِطْرَاءَ، وَاسْتَِماعَ الثَّنَاءِ، وَلَسْتُ _ بِحَمْدِ اللهِ _ كَذلِكَ، وَلَوْ كُنْتُ أُحِبُّ أَنْ يُقَالَ ذلِكَ لَتَرَكْتُهُ انْحِطَاطاً لِلَّهِ سُبْحَانَهُ عَنْ تَنَاوُلِ مَا هُوَ أَحَقُّ بِهِ مِنَ الْعَظَمَةِ وَالْكِبْرِيَاءِ. وَرُبَّمَا اسْتَحْلَى النَّاسُ الثَّنَاءَ بَعْدَ الْبَلاَء (11) ، فَلاَ تُثْنُوا عَلَيَّ بِجَمِيلِ ثَنَاءٍ، لِإِخْرَاجِي نَفْسِي إِلَى اللهِ وَ إِلَيْكُمْ مِنَ التَّقِيَّةِ (12) فِي حُقُوقٍ لَمْ أَفْرُغْ مِنْ أَدَائِهَا، وَفَرَائِضَ لاَ بُدَّ مِنْ إِمْضائِهَا، فَلاَ تُكَلِّمُونِي بَمَا تُكَلَّمُ بِهِ الْجَبَابِرَةُ، وَلاَ تَتَحَفَّظُوا مِنِّي بِمَا يُتَحَفَّظُ بِهِ عِنْدَ أَهْلِ الْبَادِرَةِ (13) ، وَلاَ تُخَالِطُونِي بالْمُصَانَعَةِ (14) ، وَلاَ تَظُنّوا بِيَ اسْتِثْقَالاً فِي حَقٍّ قِيلَ لِي، وَلاَ الِْتمَاسَ إِعْظَام لِنَفْسِي، فَإِنَّهُ مَنِ اسْتَثْقَلَ الْحَقَّ أَنْ يُقَالَ لَهُ أَوْ الْعَدْلَ أَنْ يُعْرَضَ عَلَيْهِ، كَانَ الْعَمَلُ بِهِمَا أَثْقَلَ عَلَيْهِ. فَلاَ تَكُفُّوا عَنْ مَقَالَةٍ بِحَقٍّ، أَوْ مَشُورَةٍ بِعَدْلٍ، فَإِنِّي لَسْتُ فِي نَفْسِي بِفَوْقِ أَنْ أُخْطِىءَ، وَلاَ آمَنُ ذلِكَ مِنْ فِعْلِي، إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكْفِيَ اللهُ مِنْ نَفْسِي مَا هُوَ أَمْلَكُ بِهِ مِنِّي (15) ،فَإنَّمَا أَنَا وَأَنْتُمْ عَبِيدٌ مَمْلُوكُونَ لِرَبٍّ لاَ رَبَّ غَيْرُهُ، يَمْلِكُ مِنَّا مَا لاَ نَمْلِكُ مِنْ أَنْفُسِنَا، وَأَخْرَجَنَا مِمَّا كُنَّا فِيهِ إِلَى مَا صَلَحْنَا عَلَيْهِ، فَأَبْدَلَنَا بَعْدَ الضَّلاَلَةِ بِالْهُدَى، وَأَعْطَانَا الْبصِيرَةَ بَعْدَ الْعَمَى.

p: 189

In Persian

(از سخنرانيهاى امام عليه السّلام در صحراى صفّين است)

1 حقوق اجتماعى

پس از ستايش پروردگار، خداوند سبحان، براى من، بر شما به جهت سرپرستى حكومت، حقّى قرار داده، و براى شما همانند حق من، حقّى تعيين فرموده است ، پس حق گسترده تر از آن است كه وصفش كنند، ولى به هنگام عمل تنگنايى بى مانند دارد! حق اگر به سود كسى اجرا شود، ناگزير به زيان او نيز روزى به كار رود، و چون به زيان كسى اجراء شود روزى به سود او نيز جريان خواهد داشت. اگر بنا باشد حق به سود كسى اجراء شود و زيانى نداشته باشد، اين مخصوص خداى سبحان است نه ديگر آفريده ها، به خاطر قدرت الهى بر بندگان، و عدالت او بر تمام موجوداتى كه فرمانش بر آنها جارى است

لكن خداوند حق خود را بر بندگان، اطاعت خويش قرار داده، و پاداش آن را دو چندان كرده است، از روى بخشندگى، و گشايشى كه خواسته به بندگان عطا فرمايد.

2 حقوق متقابل رهبرى و مردم

پس، خداى سبحان برخى از حقوق خود را براى بعضى از مردم واجب كرد، و آن حقوق را در برابر هم گذاشت، كه برخى از حقوق برخى ديگر را واجب گرداند، و حقّى بر كسى واجب نمى شود مگر همانند آن را انجام دهد. و در ميان حقوق الهى، بزرگ ترين حق، حق رهبر بر مردم و حق مردم بر رهبر است، حق واجبى كه خداى سبحان، بر هر دو گروه لازم شمرد، و آن را عامل پايدارى پيوند ملّت و رهبر، و عزّت دين قرار داد. پس رعيّت اصلاح نمى شود جز آن كه زمامداران اصلاح گردند، و زمامداران اصلاح نمى شوند جز با درستكارى رعيّت. و آنگاه كه مردم حق رهبرى را اداء كنند، و زمامدار حق مردم را بپردازد، حق در آن جامعه عزّت يابد، و راه هاى دين پديدار و نشانه هاى عدالت بر قرار، و سنّت پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم پايدار گردد، پس روزگار اصلاح شود و مردم در تداوم حكومت اميدوار و دشمن در آرزوهايش مأيوس مى گردد. امّا اگر مردم بر حكومت چيره شوند، يا زمامدار بر رعيّت ستم كند، وحدت كلمه از بين مى رود، نشانه هاى ستم آشكار، و نيرنگ بازى در دين فراوان مى گردد، و راه گسترده سنّت پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم متروك، هوا پرستى فراوان، احكام دين تعطيل، و بيمارى هاى دل فراوان شود.مردم از اينكه حقّ بزرگى فراموش مى شود، يا باطل خطرناكى در جامعه رواج مى يابد، احساس نگرانى نمى كنند! پس در آن زمان نيكان خوار، و بدان قدرتمند مى شوند، و كيفر الهى بر بندگان بزرگ و دردناك خواهد بود. پس بر شماست كه يكديگر را نصيحت كنيد، و نيكو همكارى نماييد.

p: 190

درست است كه هيچ كس نمى تواند حق اطاعت خداوندى را چنانكه بايد بگزارد، هر چند در به دست آوردن رضاى خدا حريص باشد، و در كار بندگى تلاش فراوان نمايد ، لكن بايد به مقدار توان، حقوق الهى را رعايت كند كه يكى از واجبات الهى، يكديگر را به اندازه توان نصيحت كردن، و بر پا داشتن حق، و يارى دادن به يكديگر است. هيچ كس هر چند قدر او در حق بزرگ، و ارزش او در دين بيشتر باشد، بى نياز نيست كه او را در انجام حق يارى رسانند، و هيچ كس گرچه مردم او را خوار شمارند، و در ديده ها بى ارزش باشد، كوچك تر از آن نيست كه كسى را در انجام حق يارى كند، يا ديگرى به يارى او برخيزد. (پس يكى از ياران به پاخاست و با سخنى طولانى امام را ستود، حرف شنوايى و اطاعت از امام را اعلام داشت. آنگاه امام فرمود:) كسى كه عظمت خدا در جانش بزرگ، و منزلت او در قلبش والاست، سزاوار است كه هر چه جز خدا را كوچك شمارد.

و از او سزاوارتر كسى كه نعمت هاى خدا را فراوان در اختيار دارد، و بر خوان احسان خدا نشسته است، زيرا نعمت خدا بر كسى بسيار نگردد جز آن كه حقوق الهى بر او فراوان باشد.

3 روابط سالم و متقابل رهبر و مردم

مردم! از پست ترين حالات زمامداران در نزد صالحان اين است كه گمان برند آنها دوستدار ستايش اند، و كشور دارى آنان بر كبر و خود پسندى استوار باشد«1»، و خوش ندارم، در خاطر شما بگذرد كه من ستايش را دوست دارم، و خواهان شنيدن آن مى باشم.

p: 191

سپاس خدا را كه چنين نبودم و اگر ستايش را دوست مى داشتم، آن را رها مى كردم به خاطر فروتنى در پيشگاه خداى سبحان، و بزرگى و بزرگوارى كه تنها خدا سزاوار آن است. گاهى مردم، ستودن افرادى را براى كار و تلاش روا مى دانند.

اما من از شما مى خواهم كه مرا با سخنان زيباى خود مستاييد «2»، تا از عهده وظايفى كه نسبت به خدا و شما دارم بر آيم، و حقوقى كه مانده است بپردازم، و واجباتى كه بر عهده من است و بايد انجام گيرد اداء كنم ، پس با من چنانكه با پادشاهان سركش سخن مى گويند، حرف نزنيد، و چنانكه از آدم هاى خشمگين كناره مى گيرند دورى نجوييد، و با ظاهر سازى با من رفتار نكنيد ، و گمان مبريد اگر حقّى به من پيشنهاد دهيد بر من گران آيد، يا در پى بزرگ نشان دادن خويشم، زيرا كسى كه شنيدن حق، يا عرضه شدن عدالت بر او مشكل باشد، عمل كردن به آن، براى او دشوارتر خواهد بود «3».

پس، از گفتن حق، يا مشورت در عدالت خوددارى نكنيد، زيرا خود را برتر از آن كه اشتباه كنم «4» و از آن ايمن باشم نمى دانم، مگر آن كه خداوند مرا حفظ فرمايد. پس همانا من و شما بندگان و مملوك پروردگاريم كه جز او پروردگارى نيست.

او مالك ما، و ما را بر نفس خود اختيارى نيست. ما را از آنچه بوديم خارج و بدانچه صلاح ما بود در آورد. به جاى گمراهى هدايت، و به جاى كورى بينايى به ما عطا فرمود.


(1) نفى تفكّر: اگوئيسم MSIOGE (خود پسندى، خود كامگى)

p: 192

(2) نفى تفكّر: اسنوبيسم، اسنوبرى EMSIBBONS- YREBBONS (گرايش به ستودن هاى غلوّ آميز)

(3) نفى تفكّر: دگماتيسم MSITAMGOD (پذيرش چيزى بدون دليل و برهان)

(4) مى پرسند اگر امام معصوم است چرا مى فرمايد، خود را برتر از آن كه اشتباه كنم نمى دانم؟ دو پاسخ مطرح است. اوّل آنكه امام عليه السلام فرمود بدون كمك خدا از اشتباه مصون نمى باشم كه خود اثبات عصمت است. دوم- امام عليه السّلام در تمام كارهاى حكومتى با مشاوران خود مشورت مى كرد، و به رأى و نظر آنها عمل مى كرد.

فرماندارى را نصب مى كرد و بعدها مشخّص مى شد كه آن شخص لايق نبوده، اينگونه نبود كه مشورت نكند يا در همه جا از علم غيب كمك بگيرد.


(1). That the innocence of angels is different from the innocence of manneeds no detailed discussion. The innocence of angels means that they do not possess the impulse to sin but the innocence of man means that although he has human frailties and passions yet he possesses a peculiar power to resist them and he is not over-powered by them so as to commit sins. This very ability is called innocence and it prevents the rising up of personal passions and impulses. Amir al-mu'minin's saying that "I do not regard myself above erring" refers to those human dictates and passions and his saying that "Allah helps me in avoiding 'errors'" refers to innocence. The same tone is found in the Qur'an in the words of Prophet Yusuf that:

p: 193

I exculpate not myself verily (one's) self is wont to bid (him to) evil except such as my Lord hath had mercy on; verily my Lord is Oft- forgiving All-merciful. (12:53)

Just as in this verse because of the existence of exception its firstpart cannot be used to argue against his innocence similarly due to the existence of the exception "but that Allah helps me in avoiding errors" in Amir al-mu'minin's saying its first part cannot be used to argue against his innocence otherwise the Prophet's innocence too will have to be rejected. In the same way the last sentence of this sermon should not be taken to mean that before the proclamation of prophethood he had been under the influence of pre-Islamic beliefs and that just as others had been unbelievers he too might have been in darkness and misguidance because from his very birth Amir al-mu'minin was brought-up by the Prophet and the effect of his training and up-bringing permeated him. It cannot therefore be imagined that he who had from infancy trod in the foot-prints of the Prophet would deviate from guidance even for a moment. Thus al-Mas'udi has written:

Amir al-mu'minin never believed in any other god than Allah so that there could be the question of his accepting Islam. He rather followed the Prophet in all his actions and (virtually) initiated him and in this very state he attained majority. (Muruj adh-dhahab vol. 2 p. 3).


In English

About the excesses of the Quraysh

p: 194

O' my Allah! I beseech Thee to take revenge on the Quraysh and those who are assisting them for they have cut asunder my kinship and over-turned my cup and have joined together to contest a right to which I was entitled more than anyone else. They said to me: "If you get your right that will be just but if you are denied the right that too will be just. Endure it with sadness or kill yourself in grief." I looked around but found no one to shield me protect me or help me except the members of my family. I refrained from flinging them into death and therefore closed my eyes despite the dust kept swallowing saliva despite (the suffocation of) grief and endured pangs of anger although it was more bitter than colocynth and more grievous than the bite of knives.

as-Sayyid ar-Radi says: This utterance of Amir al-mu'minin hasalready appeared in an earlier Sermon (171) but I have repeated it here because of the difference of versions.

In Arabic

[ 217 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

في التظلم والتشكي من قريش

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْتَعْدِيكَ (1) عَلَى قُرَيْشٍ، فَإِنَّهُمْ قَدْ قَطَعُوا رَحِمِي، وَأَكْفَأُوا إِنَائِي (2) ، وَأَجْمَعُوا عَلَى مُنَازَعَتِي حَقّاً كُنْتُ أَوْلَى بِهِ مِنْ غَيْرِي، وَقَالُوا: أَلاَ إِنَّ فِي الْحَقِّ أَنْ تَأْخُذَهُ، وَفِي الْحَقِّ أَنْ تُمْنَعَهُ، فَاصْبِرْ مَغْمُوماً، أَوْ مُتْ مُتَأَسِّفاً. فَنَظَرْتُ فَإِذَا لَيْسَ لِي رَافِدٌ (3) ، وَلاَ ذَابٌّ (4) وَلاَ مُسَاعِدٌ، إِلاَّ أَهْلَ بَيْتِي، فَضَنِنْتُ (5) بِهِمْ عَنِ الْمَنِيَّةِ، فَأَغْضَيْتُ عَلَى الْقَذى (6) ، وَجَرِعْتُ رِيقِي عَلَى الشَّجَا (7) ، وَصَبَرْتُ مِنْ كَظْمِ الغَيْظِ عَلى أَمَرَّ مِنَ العَلْقَمِ، وَآلَمَ لِلْقَلْبِ مِنْ خَزِّ الشِّفَارِ (8).

p: 195

قال الشريف رضي اللّه عنه: وقد مضى هذا الكلام في أثناء خطبة متقدمة، إلاّ أنّي كرّرتُهُ هاهنا لاختلاف الروايتين.

In Persian

شكوه از قريش

خدايا براى پيروزى بر قريش و يارانشان از تو كمك مى خواهم، كه پيوند خويشاوندى مرا بريدند، و كار مرا دگرگون كردند، و همگى براى مبارزه با من در حقّى كه از همه آنان سزاوارترم، متّحد گرديدندو گفتند:

«حق را اگر توانى بگير، و يا اگر تو را از حق محروم دارند، يا با غم و اندوه صبر كن، و يا با حسرت بمير!» به اطرافم نگريستم ديدم كه نه ياورى دارم، و نه كسى از من دفاع و حمايت مى كند، جز خانواده ام كه مايل نبودم جانشان به خطر افتد. پس خار در چشم فرو رفته، ديده بر هم نهادم، و با گلوى استخوان در آن گير كرده، جام تلخ را جرعه جرعه نوشيدم، و در فرو خوردن خشم در امرى كه تلخ تر از گياه حنظل، و دردناك تر از فرو رفتن تيزى شمشير در دل بود شكيبايى كردم!

(اين گفتار در ضمن خطبه هاى گذشته آمد لكن به خاطر اختلاف روايت آن را دوباره آورديم)


Here by those whom Allah led from darkness into guidance the reference is to the persons whom Amir al-muيminin was addressing. Ibn Abiيl-Hadid writes in this connection:

The reference here is not to his own self because he had never been an unbeliever so as to have accepted Islam after that but in these words he is referring to those group of people whom he was addressing. (Sharh Nahj al-balaghah vol. 11 p. 108)

p: 196


In English

A part of the mine amnon ahout those who went to Basrah to fight Amir al-mu'minin

They marched on my officers and the custodians of the public treasury which is still under my control and on the people of a metropolis all of whom were obedient to me and were in allegiance to me. They created division among them instigated their parry against me and attacked my followers. They killed a group of the! by treachery while another group took up swords against them and fought with the swords till they met Allah as adherents to truth.

In Arabic

ومن كلام له عليه السلام

في ذكر السائرين إلى البصرة لحربه عليه السلام

فَقَدِمُوا عَلَى عُمَّالِي، وَخُزَّانِ بَيْتِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ الَّذِي في يَدَيَّ، وَعَلى أَهْلِ مِصْرٍ، كُلُّهُمْ فِي طَاعَتِي وَعَلَى بَيْعَتِي، فَشَتَّتُوا كَلِمَتَهُمْ، وَأَفْسَدُوا عَلَيَّ جَمَاعَتَهُمْ، وَوَثَبُوا عَلى شِيعَتِي، فَقَتَلُوا طَائِفَةً مِنْهُمْ غَدْراً، وَطَائِفَةٌ عَضُّوا عَلى أَسْيَافِهِمْ (1) ، فَضَارَبُوا بِهَا حَتَّى لَقُوا اللهَ صَادِقِينَ.

In Persian

(در باره كسانى كه براى جنگ با او به بصره رفتند)

افشاى خيانت ناكثان

بر كارگزاران و خزانه داران بيت المال مسلمانان كه در فرمان من بودند، و بر مردم شهرى كه تمامى آنها بر اطاعت من، و وفادارى در بيعت با من وحدت داشتند، هجوم آوردند آنان را از هم پراكندند، و به زيان من، در ميانشان اختلاف افكندند، و بر شيعيان من تاختند، گروهى را با نيرنگ كشتند، و گروهى دست بر شمشير فشرده با دشمن جنگيدند تا صادقانه خدا را ملاقات كردند.


In English

p: 197

When Amir al-mu'minin passed by the corpses of Talhah ibn 'Ubaydullah and 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn 'Attab ibn Asid who were both killed in the battle of Jamal he said:

Abu Muhammad (Talhah) lies here away from his own place. By Allah I did not like that the Quraysh should lie killed under the stars. I have avenged myself with the descendants of 'Abd Manaf but the chief persons of Banu Jumah (1) have escaped me. They had stretched their necks towards a matter for which they were not suited and therefore their necks were broken before they reached the goal.

In Arabic

[ 219 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

لمّا مر بطلحة بن عبد الله وعبدالرحمن بن عتاب بن أسيد وهما قتيلان يوم الجمل:

لَقَدْ أَصْبَحَ أَبُو مُحَمَّدٍ بِهذَا الْمَكَانِ غَرِيباً! أَمَا وَاللهِ لَقَدْ كَنْتُ أَكْرَهُ أَنْ تَكُونَ قُرَيْشٌ قَتْلَى تَحْتَ بُطُونِ الْكَوَاكِبِ! أَدْرَكْتُ وَتْرِي (1) مِنْ بَنِي عَبْدِ مَنَافٍ، وَأَفْلَتَتْنِي أَعْيَانُ بَنِي جُمَحَ، لَقَدْ أَتْلَعُوا (2) أَعْنَاقَهُمْ إِلَى أَمْرٍ لَمْ يَكُونُوا أَهْلَهُ فَوُقِصُوا (3) دوُنَهُ.

In Persian

(در ميدان نبرد جمل در سال 36 هجرى وقتى به جنازه طلحه «1» و عبد الرحمن بن عتاب «2» رسيد فرمود)

تأسّف بر كشتگان جمل

ابو محمد (طلحه) در اين مكان، غريب مانده است! به خدا سوگند خوش نداشتم قريش را زير تابش ستارگان كشته و افتاده بينم! به خونخواهى، بر فرزندان «عبد مناف» دست يافتم، ولى سر كردگانى «بنى جمح» از دستم گريختند ، آنان براى كارى كه در شأن آنها نبود سر بر افراشتند، و پيش از رسيدن به آن سركوب شدند.

p: 198


(1) طلحه، پسر عبد اللّه، پدرش از قبيله بنى تميم و مادرش دختر عبد اللّه بن عماد بود كه در جنگ جمل مروان بن حكم با تيرى او را كشت.

(2) عتّاب نوه اميّة بن عبد الشّمس بود.


(1). In the battle of Jamal a group of Banu Jumah was with 'A'ishah butthe chief men of this group fled away from the battle-field. Some of them were: 'Abdullah at-Tawil ibn Safwan Yahya ibn Hakim 'Amir ibn Mas'ud and Ayyub ibn Habib. From this group (Banu Jumah) only two persons were killed.


In English

Qualities of the God-fearing and the pious

He (the believer) kept his mind alive and killed (the desires of) hisheart till his body became thin his bulk turned light and an effulgenceof extreme brightness shone for him. It lighted the way for him andtook him on the (right) path. Different doors led him to the door ofsafety and the place of (his permanent) stay. His feet balancing hisbody became fixed in the position of safety and comfort because hekept his heart (in good acts) and pleased his Allah.

In Arabic

[ 220 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

في وصف السالك الطريق إلى الله سبحانه

قَدْ أَحْيَا عَقْلَهُ (1) ، وَأَمَاتَ نَفْسَهُ (2) ، حَتَّى دَقَّ جَلِيلُهُ (3) ، وَلَطُفَ غَلِيظُهُ (4) ، وَبَرَقَ لَهُ لاَمِعٌ كَثِيرُ الْبَرْقِ، فَأَبَانَ لَهُ الطَّرِيقَ، وَسَلَكَ بِهِ السَّبِيلَ، وَتَدَافَعَتْهُ (5) الْأَبْوَابُ إِلَى بَابِ السَّلاَمَةِ، وَدَارِ الْإِقَامَةِ، وَثَبَتَتْ رِجْلاَهُ بِطُمَأْنِينَةِ بَدَنِهِ فِي قَرَارِ الْأَمْنِ وَالرَّاحَةِ، بِمَا اسْتَعْمَلَ قَلْبَهُ، وَأَرْضَى رَبَّهُ.

p: 199

In Persian

پوينده راه خدا

عقلش را زنده كرد و نفس خويش را كشت، تا آنجا كه جسمش لاغر، و خشونت اخلاقش به نرمى گراييد، برقى پر نور براى او درخشيد و راه را براى او روشن كرد و در راه راست او را كشاند و از درى به در ديگر برد تا به در سلامت و سراى جاودانه رساند، كه دو پاى او در قرارگاه امن با آرامش تن، استوار شد. اين، پاداش آن بود كه دل را درست به كار گرفت، و پروردگار خويش را راضى كرد.


In English

Amir al-mu'minin recited the verse

Engage (your) vying in exuberance until ye come to the graves. (1) (Qur'an 102:1-2)

Then he said:

How distant (from achievement) is their aim how neglectful are these visitors and how difficult is the affair. They have not taken lessons from things which are full of lessons but they took them from far off places. Do they boast on the dead bodies of their fore-fathers or do they regard the number of dead persons as a ground for feeling boastful of their number? They want to revive the bodies that have become spiritless and the movements that have ceased. They are more entitled to be a source of lesson than a source of pride. They are more suitable for being a source of humility than of honour. They looked at them with weak-sighted eyes and descended into the hollow of ignorance. If they had asked about them from the dilapidated houses and empty courtyards they would have said that they went into the earth in the state of misguidance and you too are heading ignorantly towards them. You trample their skulls want to raise constructions on their corpses you graze what they have left and live in houses which they have vacated. The days (that lie) between them and you are also bemoaning you and reciting elegies over you.

p: 200

They are your fore-runners in reaching the goal and have arrived at the watering places before you. They had positions of honour and plenty of pride. They were rulers and holders of positions. Now they have gone into the interstice where earth covers them from above and is eating their flesh and drinking their blood. They lie in the hollows of their graves lifeless no more growing and hidden not to be found. The approach of dangers does not frighten them and the adversity of circumstances does not grieve them. They do not mind earthquakes nor do they pay heed to thunders. They are gone and not expected back. They are existent but unseen. They were united but are now dispersed. They were friendly and are now separated.

Their accounts are unknown and their houses are silent not because of length of time or distance of place but because they have been made to drink the cup (of death) which has changed their speech into dumbness their hearing into deafness and their movements into stillness. It seems as though they are fallen in slumber. They are neighbours not feeling affection for each other or friends who do not meet each other.

The bonds of their knowing each other have been worn out and the connections of their friendship have been cut asunder. Everyone of them is therefore alone although they are a group and they are strangers even though friends. They are unaware of morning after a night and of evening after a day. The night or the day when they departed has become ever existent for them. (2) They found the dangers of their placed of stay more serious than they had apprehended and they witnessed that its signs were greater than they had guessed. The two objectives (namely paradise and hell) have been stretched for them upto a point beyond the reach of fear or hope. Had they been able to speak they would have become dumb to describe what they witnessed or saw.

p: 201

Even though their traces have been wiped out and their news has stopped (circulating) eyes are capable of drawing a lesson as they looked at them ears of intelligence heard them and they spoke without uttering words. So they said that handsome faces have been destroyed and delicate bodies have been smeared with earth. We have put on a worn-out shroud. The narrowness of the grave has overwhelmed us and strangeness has spread among us. Our silent abodes have been ruined. The beauty of our bodies has disappeared. Our known features have become hateful. Our stay in the places of strangeness has become long. We do not get relief from pain nor widening from narrowness.

Now. if you portray them in your mind or if the curtains concealing them are removed from them for you in this state when their ears have lost their power and turned deaf their eyes have been filled with dust and sunk down their tongues which were very active have been cut into pieces their hearts which were ever wakeful have become motionless in their chests in every limb of theirs a peculiar decay has occurred which has deformed it and has paved the way for calamity towards it all these lie powerless with no hand to help them and no heart to grieve over them (then) you would certainly notice the grief of (their) hearts and the dirt of (their) eyes.

Every trouble of theirs is such that its position does not change and the distress does not clear away. How many a prestigious body and amazing beauty the earth has swallowed although when in the world he enjoyed abundant pleasures and was nurtured in honour. He clung to enjoyments (even) in the hour of grief. If distress befell him he sought refuge in consolation (derived) through the pleasures of life and playing and games. He was laughing at the world while the world was laughing at him because of his life full of forgetfulness. Then time trampled him like thorns the days weakened his energy and death began to look at him from near. Then he was overtaken by a grief which he had never felt and ailments appeared in place of the health he had previously possessed.

p: 202

He then turned to that with which the physician had made him familiar namely suppressing the hot (diseases) with cold (medicines) and curing the cold with hot doses but the cold things did nothing save aggravate the hot ailments while the hot ones did nothing except increasing the coldness nor did he acquire temperateness in his constitution but rather every ailment of his increased till his physicians became helpless his attendants grew loathsome and his own people felt disgusted from describing his disease avoided answering those who enquired about him and quarrelled in front of him about the serious news which they were concealing from him. Thus someone would say "his condition is what it is" and would console them with hopes of his recovery while another one would advocate patience on missing him recalling to them the calamities that had befallen the earlier generations.

In this state when he was getting ready to depart from the world and leave his beloved ones such a serious choking overtook him that his senses became bewildered and the dampness of his tongue dried up. Now there was many an important question whose reply he knew about he could not utter it and many a voice that was painful for his heart that he heard but remained (unmoved) as though he was deaf the voice of either and elder whom he used to respect or of a younger whom he used to caress. The pangs of death are too hideous to be covered by description or to be appreciated by the hearts of the people in this world.

p: 203

In Arabic

[ 221 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

قاله بعد تلاوته: (أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ (1) * حَتَّى زُرْتُمُ الْمَقَابِرَ)

يَا لَهُ مَرَاماً (2) مَا أَبْعَدَهُ! وَزَوْراً (3) مَا أَغْفَلَهُ (4) ! وَخطراً مَا أَفْظَعَهُ! لَقَدِ اسْتَخْلَوْا (5) مِنْهُمْ أَيَّ مُدَّكرٍ (6) ، وَتَنَاوَشُوهُمْ (7) مِنْ مَكَانٍ بَعِيدٍ! أَفَبِمَصَارِعِ آبَائِهِمْ يَفْخَرُونَ! أَمْ بِعَدِيدِ الْهَلْكَى يَتَكَاثَرُونَ! يَرْتَجِعُونَ مِنْهُمْ أَجْسَاداً خَوَتْ (8) ، وَحَرَكَاتٍ سَكَنَتْ، وَلْأَنْ يَكُونُوا عِبَراً، أَحَقُّ مِنْ أَنْ يَكُونُوا مُفْتَخَراً، وَلِأَن يَهْبِطُوا بِهِمْ جَنَابَ ذِلَّةٍ، أَحْجَى (9) مِنْ أَنْ يَقُوموُا بِهِمْ مَقَامَ عِزَّةٍ! لَقَدْ نَظَرُوا إِلَيْهِمْ بِأَبْصَارِ الْعَشْوَةِ (10) ، وَضَرَبُوا مِنْهُمْ فِي غَمْرَةِ جَهَالَةٍ، وَلَوِ اسْتَنْطَقُوا عَنْهُمْ عَرَصَاتِ تِلْكَ الدِّيَارِ الْخَاوِيَةِ (11) ، وَالْرُّبُوعِ (12) الْخَالِيَةِ، لَقَالَتْ: ذَهَبُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ ضُلاَّلاً (13) ، وَذَهَبْتُمْ فِي أَعْقَابِهِمْ جُهَّالاً، تَطَأُونَ فِي هَامِهِمْ (14) ، وَتَسْتَنْبِتُونَ (15) فِي أَجْسَادِهِمْ، وَتَرْتَعُونَ (16) فِيَما لَفَظُوا، وَتَسْكُنُونَ فِيَما خَرَّبُوا، وَإِنَّمَا الْأَيَّامُ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُمْ بَوَاكٍ (17) وَنَوَائِحُ (18) عَلَيْكُمْ.

أُولئِكُمْ سَلَفُ غَايَتِكُمْ (19) ، وَفُرَّاطُ (20) مَنَاهِلِكُمْ (21) ، الَّذِينَ كَانتْ لَهُمْ مَقَاوِمُ (22) الْعِزِّ، وَحَلَبَاتُ (23) الْفَخْرِ، مُلُوكاً وَسُوَقاً (24) ، سَلَكُوا فِي بُطُونِ الْبَرْزَخِ (25) سَبِيلاً سُلِّطَتِ الْأَرْضُ عَلَيْهِمْ فِيهِ، فَأَكَلَتْ مِنْ لُحُومِهِمْ، وَشَرِبَتْ مِنْ دِمَائِهِمْ، فَأَصْبَحُوا فِي فَجَوَاتِ (26) قُبُورِهِمْ جَمَاداً لاَ يَنْمُونَ (27) ، وَضِماراً (28) لاَ يُوجَدُونَ، لاَ يُفْزِعُهُمْ وُروُدُ الْأَهْوَالِ، وَلاَ يَحْزُنُهُمْ تَنَكُّرُ الْأَحْوَالِ، وَلاَ يَحْفِلُونَ (29) بِالرَّوَاجِفِ (30) ، وَلاَ يَأْذَنُونَ (31) لِلْقَوَاصِفِ (32) ، غُيَّباً لاَ يُنْتَظَرُونَ، وَشُهُوداً لاَ يَحْضُرونَ، وَإِنَّمَا كَانُوا جَمِيعاً فَتَشَتَّتُوا، وَآلاَفاً (33) فافْتَرَقُوا، وَمَا عَنْ طُولِ عَهْدِهِمْ، وَلاَ بُعْدِ مَحَلِّهِمْ، عَمِيَتْ أخْبَارُهُمْ، وَصَمَّتْ (34) دِيَارُهُمْ، وَلكِنَّهُمْ سُقُوا كَأْساً بَدَّلَتْهُمْ بِالنُّطْقِ خَرَساً، وَبِالسَّمْعِ صَمَماً، وَبِالْحَرَكَاتِ سُكُوناً، فَكَأَنَّهُمْ فِي ارْتِجَالِ الصِّفَةِ (35) صَرْعَى (36) سُبَاتٍ (37) ، جِيرَانٌ لاَ يَتَأَنَّسُونَ، وَأَحِبَّاءُ لاَ يَتَزَاوَرُونَ، بَلِيَتْ (38) بَيْنَهُمْ عُرَا (39) التَّعَارُفِ، وَانْقَطَعَتْ مِنْهُمْ أَسْبَابُ الْإِخَاءِ، فَكُلُّهُمْ وَحِيدٌ وَهُمْ جَمِيعٌ، وَبِجَانِبِ الْهَجْرِ وَهُمْ أَخِلاَّءُ، لاَ يَتَعَارَفُونَ لِلَيْلٍ صَبَاحاً، وَلاَ لِنَهَارٍ مَسَاءً.

p: 204

أَيُّ الْجَدِيدَيْنِ (40) ظَعَنُوا فِيهِ كَانَ عَلَيْهِمْ سَرْمَداً، شَاهَدُوا مِنْ أَخْطَارِ دَارِهِمْ أَفْظَعَ مِمَّا خَافُوا، وَرَأَوْا مِنْ آيَاتِهَا أَعْظَمَ مِمَّا قَدَّرُوا، فَكِلا الْغَايَتَيْنِ (41) مُدَّتْ لَهُمْ إِلَى مَبَاءَةٍ (42) ، فَاتَتْ مَبَالِغَ الْخَوْفِ وَالرَّجَاءِ. فَلَوْ كَانُوا يَنْطِقُونَ بِهَا لَعَيُّوا (43) بِصِفَةِ مَا شَاهَدُوا وَمَا عَايَنُوا.

وَلَئِنْ عَمِيَتْ آثَارُهُمْ، وَانْقَطَعَتْ أَخْبَارُهُمْ، لَقَدْ رَجَعَتْ فِيهِمْ أَبْصَارُ الْعِبَرِ (44) ، وَسَمِعَتْ عَنْهُمْ آذَانُ الْعُقُولِ، وَتَكَلَّمُوا مِنْ غَيْرِ جِهَاتِ النُّطْقِ، فَقَالُوا: كَلَحَتِ (45) الْوُجُوهُ النَّوَاضِرُ (46) ، وَخَوَتِ (47) الْأَجْسَادُ النَّوَاعِمُ، وَلَبِسْنَا أَهْدَامَ (48) الْبِلَى، وَتَكَاءَدَنَا (49) ضِيقُ الْمَضْجَعِ، وَتَوَارَثْنَا الْوَحْشَةَ، وَتَهَكَّمَتْ (50) عَلَيْنَا الرُّبُوعُ (51) الصُّمُوتُ (52) ، فَانْمَحَتْ مَحَاسِنُ أَجْسَادِنَا، وَتَنَكَّرَتْ مَعَارِفُ صُوَرِنَا، وَطَالَتْ فِي مَسَاكِنِ الْوَحْشَةِ إِقَامَتُنَا، وَلَمْ نَجِدْ مِنْ كَرْبٍ فَرَجاً، وَلاَ مِنْ ضِيقٍ مُتَّسعاً! ( 197 )

فَلَوْ مَثَّلْتَهُمْ بِعَقْلِكَ، أَوْ كُشِفَ عَنْهُمْ مَحْجُوبُ الْغِطَاءِ لَكَ، وَقَدِ ارْتَسَخَتْ (53) أَسْمَاعُهُمْ بِالْهَوَامِّ (54) فَاسْتَكَّتْ (55) ، وَاكْتَحَلَتْ أَبْصَارُهُمْ بِالتُّرَابِ فَخَسَفَتْ (56) ، وَتَقَطَّعَتِ الْأَلْسِنَةُ فِي أَفْوَاهِهِمْ بَعْدَ ذَلاَقَتِهَا (57) ، وَهَمَدَتِ الْقُلُوبُ فِي صُدُورِهِمْ بَعْدَ يَقَظَتِهَا، وَعَاثَ (58) فِي كُلِّ جَارِحَةٍ مِنْهُمْ جَدِيدُ بِلًى (59) سَمَّجَهَا (60) ، وَسَهَّلَ طُرُقَ الْآفَةِ إِلَيْهَا، مُسْتَسْلِمَاتٍ فَلاَ أَيْدٍ تَدْفَعُ، وَلاَ قُلُوبٌ تَجْزَعُ، لَرَأَيْتَ أَشْجَانَ قُلُوبٍ (61) ، وَأَقْذَاءَ عُيُونٍ (62) ، لَهُمْ فِي كَلِّ فَظَاعَةٍ صِفَةُ حَالٍ لاَ تَنْتَقِلُ، وَغَمْرَةٌ (63) لاَ تَنْجَلِي. فَكَمْ أَكَلَتِ الْأَرْضُ مِنْ عَزِيزِ جَسَدٍ، وَأَنِيقِ (64) لَوْنٍ، كَانَ فِي الدُّنْيَا غَذِيَّ (65) تَرَفٍ، وَرَبِيبَ (66) شَرَفٍ! يَتَعَلَّلُ (67) بالسُّرُورِ فِي سَاعَةِ حُزْنِهِ، وَيَفْزَعُ إِلَى السَّلْوَةِ (68) إِنْ مُصِيبَةٌ نَزَلَتْ بِهِ، ضَنّاً (69) بِغَضَارَةِ (70) عَيْشِهِ، وَشَحَاحَةً (71) بِلَهْوِهِ وَلَعِبِهِ! فَبَيْنَا هُوَ يَضْحَكُ إِلَى الدُّنْيَا وَتَضْحَكُ إِلَيْهِ فِي ظِلِّ عَيْشٍ غَفُولٍ (72) ، إِذْ وَطِىءَ الدَّهْرُ بِهِ حَسَكَهُ (73) ، وَنَقَضَتِ الْأَيَّامُ قُوَاهُ، وَنَظَرَتْ إِلَيْهِ الْحُتُوفُ (74) مِنْ كَثَبٍ (75) ، فَخَالَطَهُ (76) بَثٌّ (77) لاَ يَعْرِفُهُ، وَنَجِيُّ (78) هَمٍّ مَا كَانَ يَجِدُهُ، وَتَوَلَّدَتْ فِيهِ فَتَرَاتُ (79) عِلَلٍ، آنَسَ مَا كَانَ بِصِحَّتِهِ، فَفَزِعَ إِلَى مَا كَانَ عَوَّدَهُ الْأَطِبَّاءُ مِنْ تَسْكِينِ الْحَارِّ بِالْقَارِّ (80) ، وَتَحْرِيكِ الْبَارِدِ بالْحَارِّ، فَلَمْ يُطْفِىءْ بِبَارِد إِلاَّ ثَوَّرَ حَرَارَةً، وَلاَ حَرَّكَ بِحَارٍّ إِلاَّ هَيَّجَ بُرُودَةً، وَلاَ اعْتَدَلَ بِمُمَازِجٍ (81) لِتِلْكَ الطَّبَائِعِ إِلاَّ أَمَدَّ مِنْهَا كُلَّ ذَاتِ دَاءٍ، حَتَّى فَتَرَ مُعَلِّلُهُ (82) ، وَذَهَلَ مُمَرِّضُهُ، وَتَعَايَا (83) أَهْلُهُ بِصِفَةِ دَائِهِ. وَخَرِسُوا عَنْ جَوَابِ السَّائِلِينَ عَنْهُ، وَتَنَازَعُوا دُونَهُ شَجِيَّ خَبَرٍ يَكْتُمُونَهُ، فَقَائِلٌ يَقُولُ: هُو لِمَا بِهِ (84) ، وَمُمَنٍّ (85) لَهُمْ إِيَابَ (86) عَافِيَتِهِ، وَمُصَبِّرٌ لَهُمْ عَلَى فَقْدِهِ، يُذَكِّرُهُمْ أَسَى (87) الْمَاضِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِ. فَبَيْنَا هُوَ كَذلِكَ عَلَى جَنَاحٍ مِنْ فِرَاقِ الدُّنْيَا، وَتَرْكِ الْأَحِبَّةِ، إِذْ عَرَضَ لَهُ عَارِضٌ مِنْ غُصَصِهِ، فَتَحَيَّرَتْ نَوَافِذُ فِطْنَتِهِ (88) ، وَيَبِسَتْ رُطُوبَةُ لِسَانِهِ، فَكَمْ مِنْ مُهِمٍّ مِنْ جَوَابِهِ عَرَفَهُ فَعَيَّ (89) عَنْ رَدِّهِ، وَدُعَاءٍ مُؤْلِمٍ لِقَلْبِهِ سَمِعَهُ فَتَصَامَّ عنْهُ، مِنْ كَبِيرٍ كَانَ يُعَظِّمُهُ، أَوْ صَغِيرٍ كَانَ يَرْحَمُهُ! وَإِنَّ لِلْمَوْتِ لَغَمَرَاتٍ (90) هِيَ أَفْظَعُ مِنْ أَنْ تُسْتَغْرَقَ بِصِفَةٍ، أَوْ تَعْتَدِلَ عَلَى عُقُولِ (91) أَهْلِ الدُّنْيَا.

p: 205

In Persian

(پس از خواندن آيه 1 سوره تكاثر «افزون طلبى شما را به خود مشغول داشته تا آنجا كه به ديدار قبرها رفتيد؟» «1» فرمود)

1 هشدار از غفلت زدگى ها

شگفتا چه مقصد بسيار دورى و چه زيارت كنندگان بيخبرى و چه كار دشوار و مرگبارى! پنداشتند كه جاى مردگان خالى است، آنها كه سخت مايه عبرتند، و از دور با ياد گذشتگان، فخر مى فروشند. آيا به گورهاى پدران خويش مى نازند؟ و يا به تعداد فراوانى كه در كام مرگ فرو رفته اند؟ آيا خواهان بازگشت اجسادى هستند كه پوسيده شده؟ و حركاتشان به سكون تبديل گشت؟ آنها مايه عبرت باشند سزاوارتر است تا تفاخر! اگر با مشاهده وضع آنان به فروتنى روى آورند عاقلانه تر است تا آنان را وسيله فخر فروشى قرار دهند! اما بدانها با ديده هاى كم سو نگريستند، و با كوته بينى در امواج نادانى فرو رفتند، اگر حال آنان را از خانه هاى ويران، و سرزمين هاى خالى از زندگان، مى پرسيدند، پاسخ مى دادند:

آنان با گمراهى در زمين فرو خفتند، و شما ناآگاهانه دنباله روى آنان شديد. بر روى كاسه هاى سر آنها راه مى رويد، و بر روى جسدهايشان زراعت مى كنيد، و آنچه به جا گذاشته اند مى خورشيد، و بر خانه هاى ويران آنها مسكن گرفته ايد، و روزگارى كه ميان آنها و شماست بر شما گريه و زارى مى كند، آنها پيش از شما به كام مرگ فرو رفتند، و براى رسيدن به آبشخور، از شما پيشى گرفتند.

2 شرح حالات رفتگان

در حالى كه آنها داراى عزّت پايدار، و درجات والاى افتخار بودند. پادشاهان حاكم، يا رعيّت سر فراز بودند كه سرانجام به درون برزخ راه يافتند، و زمين آنها را در خود گرفت، و از گوشت بدن هاى آنان خورد، و از خون آنان نوشيد ، پس در شكاف گورها بى جان و بدون حركت پنهان مانده اند. نه از دگرگونى ها نگرانند و نه از زلزله ها ترسناك، و نه از فريادهاى سخت هراسى دارند.

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غائب شدگانى كه كسى انتظار آنان را نمى كشد، و حاضرانى كه حضور نمى يابند، اجتماعى داشتند و پراكنده شدند، با يكديگر مهربان بودند و جدا گرديدند اگر يادشان فراموش گشت، يا ديارشان ساكت شد، براى طولانى شدن زمان يا دورى مكان نيست، بلكه جام مرگ نوشيدند.

گويا بودند و لال شدند، شنوا بودند و كر گشتند، و حركاتشان به سكون تبديل شد، چنان آرميدند كه گويا بيهوش بر خاك افتاده و در خواب فرو رفته اند. همسايگانى هستند كه با يكديگر انس نمى گيرند و دوستانى اند كه به ديدار يكديگر نمى روند.

پيوندهاى شناسايى در ميانشان پوسيده، و اسباب برادرى قطع گرديده است. با اينكه در يك جا گرد آمده اند تنهايند، رفيقان يكديگرند و از هم دورند، نه براى شب صبحگاهى مى شناسند، و نه براى روز شامگاهى. شب، يا روزى كه به سفر مرگ رفته اند براى آنها جاويدان است.خطرات آن جهان را وحشتناك تر از آنچه مى ترسيدند يافتند، و نشانه هاى آن را بزرگ تر از آنچه مى پنداشتند مشاهده كردند.

براى رسيدن به بهشت يا جهنّم، تا قرارگاه اصلى شان مهلت داده شدند، و جهانى از بيم و اميد برايشان فراهم آمد. اگر مى خواستند آنچه را كه ديدند توصيف كنند، زبانشان عاجز مى شد.

3 پيام مردگان!

حال اگر چه آثارشان نابود، و اخبارشان فراموش شده، امّا چشم هاى عبرت بين، آنها را مى نگرد، و گوش جان اخبارشان را مى شنود، كه با زبان ديگرى با ما حرف مى زنند و مى گويند: چهره هاى زيبا پژمرده و بدن هاى ناز پرورده پوسيده شد ، و بر اندام خود لباس كهنگى پوشانده ايم، و تنگى قبر ما را در فشار گرفته، وحشت و ترس را از يكديگر به ارث برده ايم، خانه هاى خاموش قبر بر ما فرو ريخته، و زيبايى هاى اندام ما را نابود، و نشانه هاى چهره هاى ما را دگرگون كرده است.

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اقامت ما در اين خانه هاى وحشت زا طولانى است، نه از مشكلات رهايى يافته، و نه از تنگى قبر گشايشى فراهم شد. مردم! اگر آنها را در انديشه خود بياوريد، يا پرده ها كنار رود، مردگان را در حالتى مى نگريد كه حشرات گوش هايشان را خورده، چشم هايشان به جاى سرمه پر از خاك گرديده، و زبان هايى كه با سرعت و فصاحت سخن مى گفتند پاره پاره شده، قلب ها در سينه ها پس از بيدارى به خاموشى گراييده، و در تمام اعضاى بدن پوسيدگى تازه اى آشكار شده، و آنها را زشت گردانيده، و راه آفت زدگى بر اجسادشان گشوده شده، همه تسليم شده، نه دستى براى دفاع، و نه قلبى براى زارى دارند. و آنان را مى بينى كه دل هاى خسته از اندوه، و چشم هاى پر شده از خاشاك دارند، و حالات اندوهناك آنها دگرگونى ايجاد نمى شود و سختى هاى آنان بر طرف نمى گردد.

4 عبرت از گذشتگان

آه! زمين چه اجساد عزيز و خوش سيمايى را كه با غذاهاى لذيذ و رنگين زندگى كردند، و در آغوش نعمت ها پرورانده شدند به كام خويش فرو برد.

آنان كه مى خواستند با شادى غم هاى را از دل بيرون كنند، و به هنگام مصيبت با سرگرمى ها، صفاى عيش خود را برهم نزنند، دنيا به آنها و آنها به دنيا مى خنديدند، و در سايه خوشگذرانى غفلت زا، بى خبر بودند كه روزگار با خارهاى مصيبت زا آنها را در هم كوبيد و گذشت روزگار توانايى شان را گرفت ، مرگ از نزديك به آنها نظر دوخت، و غم و اندوهى كه انتظارش را نداشتند آنان را فرا گرفت، و غصّه هاى پنهانى كه خيال آن را نمى كردند، در جانشان راه يافت، در حالى كه با سلامتى انس داشتند انواع بيمارى ها در پيكرشان پديد آمد ، و هراسناك به اطبّا، كه دستور دادند گرمى را با سردى، و سردى را با گرمى درمان كنند روى آورند كه بى نتيجه بود، زيرا داروى سردى، گرمى را علاج نكرد، و آنچه براى گرمى به كار بردند، سردى را بيشتر ساخت، و تركيبات و اخلاط، مزاج را به اعتدال نياورد، جز آن كه آن بيمارى را فزونى داد ، تا آنجا كه درمان كننده خسته، و پرستار سرگردان، و خانواده از ادامه بيمارى ها سست و ناتوان شدند، و از پاسخ پرسش كنندگان درماندند، و در باره همان خبر حزن آورى كه از او پنهان مى داشتند در حضورش به گفتگو پرداختند.

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5 سختى هاى لحظه مرگ

يكى مى گفت تا لحظه مرگ بيمار است، ديگرى در آروزى شفا يافتن بود، و سوّمى خاندانش را به شكيبايى در مرگش دعوت مى كرد، و گذشتگان را به ياد مى آورد.در آن حال كه در آستانه مرگ، و ترك دنيا، و جدايى با دوستان بود، ناگهان اندوهى سخت به او روى آورد، فهم و دركش را گرفت، زبانش به خشكى گراييد. چه مطالب مهمّى را مى بايست بگويد كه زبانش از گفتن آنها باز ماند، و چه سخنان دردناكى را از شخص بزرگى كه احترامش را نگه مى داشت، يا فرد خردسالى كه به او ترحّم مى كرد، مى شنيد و خود را به كرى مى زد. همانا مرگ سختى هايى دارد كه هراس انگيز و وصف ناشدنى است، و برتر از آن است كه عقل هاى اهل دنيا آن را درك كند.


(1) ابن ابى الحديد مى گويد از روزى كه اين خطبه را يافتم تاكنون كه پنجاه سال است حدود 1000 بار آن را خواندم و در هر بار در دلم، ترس، لرزش، و پند پذيرى تازه اى بوجود آمد. «شرح ابن ابى الحديد معتزلى، ج 11، ص 153».


(1). The genesis of the descending of this verse is that the tribes of Banu 'Abd Manaf and Banu Sahm began to boast against each other over the abundance of their wealth and the number of their tribesmen and in order to prove they had a greater number each one began to include their dead as well whereupon this verse was revealed to the effect that abundance of riches and majority in numbers has made you so forgetful that you count the dead also with the living. This verse is also taken to mean that abundance of riches and progeny has made you forgetful till you reached the graves but the utterance of Amir al-mu'minin supports the first meaning.

p: 209

(2). This means that for him he who dies in the day it is always day whereas for him who dies in the night the darkness of night never dispels because they are at a place where there is no turning of the moon and the sun and no rotation of the nights and the days. The same meaning has been expressed by a poet like this:

There is sure to be a day without a night

Or a night that would come without a day.


In English

Delivered after reciting the verse:

. . . therein declare glory unto Him in the mornings and the evenings; Men whom neither merchandise nor any sale diverteth from the remembrance of Allah and constancy in prayer and paying the poor-rate; they fear the day when the hearts and eyes shall writhe of the anguish. (Qur'an 24:36-37)

Certainly Allah the Glorified the Sublime has made His remembrance the light for hearts which hear with its help despite deafness see with its help despite blindness and become submissive with its help despite unruliness. In all the periods and times when there were no prophets there have been persons with whom Allah precious are His bounties whispered through their wits and spoke through their minds. With the help of the bright awakening of their ears eyes and hearts they keep reminding others of the remembrance of the days of Allah and making others feel fear for Him like guide-points in wildernesses. Whoever adopts the middle way they praise his ways and give him the tidings of deliverance but whoever goes right and left they vilify his ways and frighten him with ruin. In this way they served as lamps in these darknesses and guides through these doubts.

p: 210

There are some people devoted to the remembrance (of Allah) who have adopted it in place of worldly matters so that commerce or trade does not turn them away from it. They pass their life in it. They speak into the ears of neglectful persons warning against matters held unlawful by Allah they order them to practise justice and themselves keep practising it and they refrain them from the unlawful and themselves refrain from it. It is as though they have finished the journey of this world towards the next world and have beheld what lies beyond it. Consequently they have become acquainted with all that befell them in the interstice during their long stay therein and the Day of Judgement fulfils its promises for them. Therefore they removed the curtain from these things for the people of the world till it was as though they were seeing what people did not see and were hearing what people did not hear.

If you picture them in your mind in their admirable positions and well-known sittings when they have opened the records of their actions and are prepared to render an account of themselves in respect of the small as well as the big things they were ordered to do but they failed to do or were ordered to refrain from but they indulged therein and they realised the weight of their burden (of bad acts) on their backs and they felt too weak to bear them then they wept bitterly and spoke to each other wile still crying and bewailing to Allah in repentance and acknowledgement (of their shortcomings) you would find them to be emblems of guidance and lamps in darkness angels would be surrounding them peace would be descending upon them the doors of the sky would be opened for them and positions of honour would be assigned to them in the place of which Allah had informed them. Therefore He has appreciated their actions and praised their position.They call Him and breathe in the air of forgiveness they are ever needy of His bounty and remain humble before His greatness the length of their grief has pained their hearts and the length of weeping their eves. They knock at every door of inclination towards Allah. They ask Him Whom generosity does not make destitute and from Whom those who approach Him do not get disappointed.

p: 211

Therefore take account of yourself for your own sake because the account of others will be taken by one other than you.

In Arabic

[ 222 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

قاله عند تلاوته: (يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ فِيهَا بِالغُدُوِّ وَ الْآصَالِ رِجَالٌ لاَ تُلْهِيهِمْ تِجَارَةٌ وَلاَ بَيْعٌ عَنْ ذِكْرِ اللهِ)

إِنَّ اللهَ سُبْحَانَهُ جَعَلَ الذِّكْرَ (1) جِلاَءً (2) لِلْقُلُوبِ، تَسْمَعُ بِهِ بَعْدَ الْوَقْرَةِ (3) ، وَتُبْصِرُ بِهِ بَعْدَ الْعَشْوَةِ (4) ، وَتَنْقَادُ بِهِ بَعْدَ الْمُعَانَدَةِ، وَمَا بَرِحَ لِلَّه _ عَزَّتْ آلاَؤهُ فِي الْبُرْهَةِ بَعْدَ الْبُرْهَةِ، وَفِي أَزْمَانِ الْفَتَرَاتِ (5) ، عِبَادٌ نَاجَاهُمْ (6) فِى فِكْرِهِمْ، وَكَلَّمَهُمْ فِي ذَاتِ عُقُولِهِمْ، فَاسْتَصْبَحُوا (7) بِنُورِ يَقَظَة فِي الْأَبْصَارِ وَالْأَسْمَاعِ وَالْأَفْئِدَةِ، يُذَكِّرُونَ بِأَيَّامِ اللهِ، وَيُخَوِّفُونَ مَقَامَهُ، بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْأَدِلَّةِ (8) فِي الْفَلَوَاتِ (9) ، مَنْ أَخَذَ الْقَصْدَ (10) حَمِدُوا إِلَيْهِ طَرِيقَهُ، وَبَشَّرُوهُ بِالنَّجَاةِ، وَمَنْ أَخَذَ يَمِيناً وَشِمَالاً ذَمُّوا إِلَيْهِ الطَّرِيقَ، وَحَذَّرُوهُ مِنَ الْهَلَكَةِ، وَكَانَوا كَذلِكَ مَصَابِيحَ تِلْكَ الظُّلُمَاتِ، وَأَدِلَّةَ تِلْكَ الشُّبُهَاتِ. وَإِنَّ لِلذِّكْرِ لِأَهْلاً أَخَذُوهُ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا بَدَلاً، فَلَمْ تَشْغَلْهُمْ تِجَارَةٌ وَلاَ بَيْعٌ عَنْهُ، يَقْطَعُونَ بِهِ أَيَّامَ الْحَيَاةِ، وَيَهْتِفُونَ (11) بِالزَّوَاجِرِ عَنْ مَحَارِمِ اللهِ، في أَسْمَاعِ الْغَافِلِينَ، وَيَأْمُرُونَ بِالقِسْطِ (12) وَيَأْتَمِرُونَ بِهِ (13) ، وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ المُنكَرِ وَيَتَنَاهَوْنَ عَنْهُ، فَكَأَنَّمَا قَطَعُوا الدُّنْيَا إِلَى الْآخِرَةِ وَهُمْ فِيهَا، فَشَاهَدُوا مَاوَرَاءَ ذَلِكَ، فَكَأَنَّمَا اطَّلَعُوا غُيُوبَ أَهْلِ الْبَرْزَخِ فِي طولِ الْإِقَامَةِ فِيهِ، وَحَقَّقَتِ الْقِيَامَةُ عَلَيْهِمْ عِدَاتِهَا (14) ، فَكَشَفُوا غِطَاءَ ذلِكَ لِأَهْلِ الدُّنْيَا، حَتَّى كَأَنَّهُمْ يَرَوْنَ مَا لاَ يَرَى النَّاسُ، وَيَسمَعُونَ مَا لاَ يَسْمَعُونَ. فَلَوْ مَثَّلْتَهُمْ لِعَقْلِكَ فِي مَقَاوِمِهِمُ (15) الْمَحْمُودَةِ، وَمَجَالِسِهِمُ الْمَشْهُودَةِ، وَقَدْ نَشَرُوا دَوَاوِينَ (16) أَعْمَالِهِمْ، وَفَرَغُوا لِمُحَاسَبَةِ أَنْفُسِهِمْ، وَعَلَى كُلِّ صَغِيرَةٍ وَكَبِيرَةٍ أُمِرُوا بِهَا فَقَصَّرُوا عَنْهَا، أَوْ نُهوُا عَنْهَا فَفَرَّطُوا فِيهَا، وَحَمَّلُوا ثِقَلَ أَوْزَارِهِمْ (17) ظُهُورَهُمْ، فَضَعُفُوا عَنِ الْإِسْتِقلاَلِ بِهَا، فَنَشَجُوا (18) نَشِيجاً، وَتَجَاوَبُوا نَحِيباً (19) ، يَعِجُّونَ (20).

p: 212

إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ مِنْ مَقَامِ نَدَم وَاعْتِرَافٍ، لَرَأَيْتَ أَعْلاَمَ هُدىً، وَمَصَابِيحَ دُجىً، قَدْ حَفَّتْ بِهِمُ الْمَلاَئِكَةُ، وَتَنَزَّلَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّكِينَةُ، وَفُتِحَتْ لَهُمْ أَبْوَابُ السَّماءِ، وَأَعِدَّتْ لَهُمْ مَقَاعِدُ الْكَرَامَاتِ، فِي مَقْعَدٍ اطَّلَعَ اللهُ عَلَيْهِمْ فِيهِ، فَرَضِيَ سَعْيَهُمْ، وَحَمِدَ مَقَامَهُمْ، يَتَنَسَّمُونَ (21) بدُعَائِهِ رَوْحَ التَّجَاوُزِ، رَهَائِنُ فَاقَة إِلَى فَضْلِهِ، وَأُسَارَى ذِلَّةٍ لِعَظَمَتِهِ، جَرَحَ طُولُ الْأَسَى (22) قُلُوبَهُمْ، وَطُولُ الْبُكَاءٍِ عُيُونَهُمْ. لِكُلِّ بَابِ رَغْبَةٍ إِلَى اللهِ مِنْهُمْ يَدٌ قَارِعةٌ، يَسْأَلُونَ مَنْ لاَ تَضِيقُ لَدَيْهِ الْمَنَادِحُ (23) ، وَلاَ يَخِيبُ عَلَيْهِ الرَّاغِبُونَ.

فَحَاسِبْ نَفْسَكَ لِنَفْسِكَ، فَإِنَّ غَيْرَهَا مِنَ الأ َْنْفُسِ لَهَا حَسِيبٌ غَيْرُكَ.

In Persian

(به هنگام تلاوت آيه 37 سوره نور، «و صبح و شام در آن خانه ها تسبيح مى گويند، مردانى كه نه تجارت و نه معامله اى آنها را از ياد خدا و بر پا داشتن ياد خدا غافل نمى كند» ، فرمود)

1 ارزش ياد خدا

همانا خداى سبحان و بزرگ، ياد خود را روشنى بخش دل ها قرار داد، تا گوش پس از ناشنوايى بشنود، و چشم پس از كم نورى بنگرد، و انسان پس از دشمنى رام گردد ، خداوند كه نعمت هاى او گران قدر است، در دوران هاى مختلف روزگار، و در دوران جدايى از رسالت «تا آمدن پيامبرى پس از پيامبرى ديگر» بندگانى داشته كه با آنان در گوش جانشان زمزمه مى كرد، و در درون عقلشان با آنان سخن مى گفت.

آنان چراغ هدايت را با نور بيدارى در گوش ها و ديده ها و دل ها بر مى افروختند ، روزهاى خدايى را به ياد مى آورند و مردم را از جلال و بزرگى خدا مى ترساندند.

p: 213

آنان نشانه هاى روشن خدا در بيابان هايند، آن را كه راه ميانه در پيش گرفت مى ستودند، و به رستگارى بشارت مى دادند، و روش آن را كه به جانب چپ يا راست كشانده مى شد، زشت مى شمردند، و از نابودى هشدار مى دادند همچنان چراغ تاريكى ها، و راهنماى پرتگاه ها بودند.

2 صفات ياد آوران (اهل ذكر)

همانا مردمى هستند كه ذكر خدا را به جاى دنيا برگزيدند، كه هيچ تجارتى يا خريد و فروشى، آنها را از ياد خدا باز نمى دارد. با ياد خدا روزگار مى گذرانند ، و غافلان را با هشدارهاى خود، از كيفرهاى الهى مى ترسانند به عدالت فرمان مى دهند، و خود عدالت گسترند، از بدى ها نهى مى كنند و خود از آنها پرهيز دارند. با اينكه در دنيا زندگى مى كنند گويا آن را رها كرده به آخرت پيوسته اند، سراى ديگر را مشاهده كرده، گويا از مسائل پنهان برزخيان و مدت طولانى اقامتشان آگاهى دارند، و گويا قيامت وعده هاى خود را براى آنان تحقّق بخشيده است ، آنان پرده ها را براى مردم دنيا برداشته اند، مى بينند آنچه را كه مردم نمى نگرند، و مى شنوند آنچه را كه مردم نمى شنوند. اگر اهل ذكر را در انديشه خود آورى و مقامات ستوده آنان و مجالس آشكارشان را بنگرى، مى بينى كه آنان نامه هاى اعمال خود را گشوده، و براى حسابرسى آماده اند، كه همه را جبران كنند، و در انديشه اند، در كدام يك از اعمال كوچك و بزرگى كه به آنان فرمان داده شده، كوتاهى كرده اند، يا چه اعمالى كه از آن نهى شده بودند مرتكب گرديده اند، بار سنگين گناهان خويش را بر دوش نهاده، و در برداشتن آن ناتوان شدند، گريه در گلويشان شكسته، و با ناله و فرياد مى گريند و با يكديگر گفتگو دارند، در پيشگاه پروردگار خويش به پشيمانى اعتراف دارند. آنان نشانه هاى هدايت، و چراغ هاى روشنگر تاريكى ها مى باشند، فرشتگان آنان را در ميان گرفته، و آرامش بر آنها مى بارند، درهاى آسمان به رويشان گشوده، و مقام ارزشمندى براى آنان آماده كرده اند، مقامى كه خداوند با نظر رحمت به آن مى نگرد، و از تلاش آنها خشنود، و منزلت آنها را مى ستايد دست به دعا برداشته، و آمرزش الهى مى طلبند. در گرو نيازمندى فضل خدا،

p: 214

و اسيران بزرگى اويند، غم و اندوه طولانى دل هايشان را مجروح، و گريه هاى پياپى چشم هايشان را آزرده است. دست آنان به طرف تمام درهاى اميدوارى خدا دراز است، از كسى درخواست مى كنند كه بخشش او را كاستى، و درخواست كنندگان او را نوميدى نيست ، پس اكنون به خاطر خودت، حساب خويش را بررسى كن زيرا ديگران حسابرسى غير از تو دارند.


In English

Amir al-mu'minin recited the verse:

O' thou man! what hath beguild thee from thy Lord the Most Gracious One. (Qur'an 82:6)

Then he said:

The addressee (in this verse) is devoid of argument and his excuse is most deceptive. He is detaining himself in ignorance.

O' man! what has emboldened you to (commit) sins what had deceived you about your Allah and what has made you satis fied with the destruction of yourself. Is there no cure for your ailment or no awakening from your sleep? Do you not have pity on yourself as you have on others? Generally when you see anyone exposed to the heat of the sun you cover him with shade or if you see anyone afflicted with grief that pains his body you weep out of pity for him. What has then made you patient over your own disease what has made you firm in your own afflictions and what has consoled you from weeping over yourself although your life is the most precious of all lives to you and why does not the fear of an ailment that may befall you in the night keep you wakeful although you lie on the way to Allah's wrath due to your sins?

p: 215

You should cure the disease of languor in your heart by determination and the sleep of neglectfulness in your eyes by wakefulness. Be obedient to Allah and love His remembrance and picture to yourself that you are running away while He is approaching you. He is calling you to His forgiveness and concealing your faults with His kindness while you are fleeing away from Him towards others. Certainly Great is Allah the powerful Who is so generous and how humble and weak are you and still so bold to commit His disobedience although you live in His protection and undergo changes of life in the expanse of His kindness. He does not refuse you His kindness and does not remove His protection from you. In fact you have not been without His kindness even for a moment whether it be a favour that He conferred upon you or a sin of yours that He has concealed or a calamity that He has warded off from you. What is your idea about Him if you had obeyed Him? By Allah if this had been the case with two persons equal in power and matching in might (one being inattentive and the other showering favours upon you) then you would have been the first to adjudge yourself to be of bad behaviour and evil deeds.

I truthfully say that the world has not deceived you but you have had yourself deceived by it. The world had opened to you the curtains and divulged to you (everything) equally. And in all that it foretold you about the troubles befalling your bodies and the decay in your power it has been too true and faithful in promise and did not speak a lie to you or deceive you. There are many who advise you about it but they are blamed and speak the truth about it but they are opposed. If you understand the world by means of dilapidated houses and forlorn abodes then with your good understanding and far reaching power of drawing lessons you will find it like one who is kind over you and cautious about you. It is good abode for him who does not like it as an abode and a good place of stay for him who does not regard it a permanent home for stay.

p: 216

Only those who run away from this world today will be regarded virtuous tomorrow. When the earthquake occurs the Day of Resurrection approaches with all its severities the people of every worshipping place cling to it all the devotees cling to the object of their devotion and all the followers cling to their leader. Then on that day even the opening of an eye in the air and the sound of a footstep on the ground will be assigned its due through His Justice and His Equity. On that day many an argument will prove void and a contention for excuses will stand rejected.

Therefore you should now adopt for yourself the course with which your excuse may hold good and your plea may be proved. Take from the transient things of this world that which will stay for you (in the next world) provide for your journey keep (your) gaze on the brightness of deliverance and keep ready the saddles (for setting off).

In Arabic

[ 223 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

قاله عند تلاوته: (يَا أَيُّهَا الْإِنْسَانُ مَا غَرَّكَ بِرَبِّكَ الكَرِيمِ*).

أَدْحَضُ (1) مَسْؤُولٍ حُجَّةً، وَأَقْطَعُ مُغْتَرٍّ مَعْذِرَةً، لَقَدْ أَبْرَحَ (2) جَهَالَةً بِنَفْسِهِ.

يَا أَيُّهَا الْإِنْسَانُ، مَا جَرَّأَكَ عَلَى ذَنْبِكَ، وَمَا غَرَّكَ بِرَبِّكَ، وَمَا أَنَّسَكَ بِهَلَكَةِ نَفْسِكَ؟ أَمَا مِنْ دَائِكَ بُلوُلٌ (3) ، أَمْ لَيْسَ مِنْ نَوْمَتِكَ يَقَظَةٌ؟ أَمَا تَرْحَمُ مِنْ نَفْسِكَ مَا تَرْحَمُ مِنْ غَيْرِكَ؟ فَلَرُبَّمَا تَرَى الضَّاحِيَ (4) مِنْ حَرِّ الشَّمْسِ فَتُظِلُّهُ، أَوْ تَرَى الْمُبْتَلَى بِأَلَمٍ يُمِضُّ جَسَدَهُ (5) فَتَبْكِي رَحْمَةً لَهُ! فَمَا صَبَّرَك عَلَى دَائِكَ، وَجَلَّدَكَ عَلَى مُصَابِكَ، وَعَزَّاكَ عَنِ الْبُكَاءِ عَلَى نَفْسِكَ وَهِيَ أَعَزُّ الْأَنْفُسِ عَلَيْكَ! وَكَيْفَ لاَ يُوقِظُكَ خَوْفُ بَيَاتِ نِقْمَةٍ (6) ، وَقَدْ تَوَرَّطْتَ بمَعَاصِيهِ مَدَارِجَ سَطَوَاتِهِ! فَتَدَاوَ مِنْ دَاءِ الْفَتْرَةِ فِي قَلْبِكَ بِعَزِيمَة، وَمِنْ كَرَى (7) الْغَفْلَةِ فِي نَاظِرِكَ بِيَقَظَةٍ، وَكُنْ لِلَّهِ مُطِيعاً، وَبِذِكْرِهِ آنِساً، وَتَمَثَّلْ (8) فِي حَالِ تَوَلِّيكَ (9) عَنْهُ إِقْبَالَهُ عَلَيْكَ، يَدْعُوكَ إِلَى عَفْوِهِ، وَيَتَغَمَّدُكَ (10) بِفَضْلِهِ، وَأَنْتَ مُتَوَلٍّ عَنْهُ إِلَى غَيْرِهِ. فَتَعَالى مِنْ قَوِيٍّ مَا أَكْرَمَهُ! وَتَوَاضَعْتَ مِنْ ضَعِيفٍ مَا أَجْرَأَكَ عَلَى مَعْصِيَتِهِ! وَأَنْتَ فِي كَنَفِ سِتْرِهِ مُقيِمٌ، وَفِي سَعَةِ فَضْلِهِ مَتَقَلِّبٌ.

p: 217

فَلَمْ يَمْنَعْكَ فَضْلَهُ، وَلَمْ يَهْتِكْ عَنْكَ سِتْرَهُ، بَلْ لَمْ تَخْلُ مِنْ لُطْفِهِ مَطْرِفَ عَيْنٍ (11) فِي نِعْمَةٍ يُحْدِثُهَا لَكَ، أَوْ سَيِّئَةٍ يَسْتُرُهَا عَلَيْكَ، أَوْ بَلِيَّةٍ يَصْرِفُهَا عَنْكَ، فَمَا ظَنُّكَ بِهِ لَوْ أَطَعْتَهُ! وَايْمُ اللهِ لَوْ أَنَّ هذِهِ الصِّفَةَ كَانَتْ فِي مُتَّفِقَيْنِ فِي الْقُوَّةِ، مُتَوَازِيَيْنِ فِي الْقُدْرَِ، لَكُنْتَ أَوَّلَ حَاكِمٍ عَلى نَفْسِكَ بِذَمِيمِ الْأَخْلاَقِ، وَمَسَاوِىءِ الْأَعَمْالِ. وَحَقّاً أَقُولُ! مَا الدُّنْيَا غَرَّتْكَ، وَلكِنْ بِهَا اغْتَرَرْتَ، وَلَقَدْ كَاشَفَتْكَ الْعِظَاتِ (12) ، وَآذَنَتْكَ (13) عَلَى سَوَاءٍ، وَلَهِيَ بِمَا تَعِدُكَ مِنْ نُزُولِ الْبَلاَءِ بِجِسْمِكَ، وَالنَّقْصِ فِي قُوَّتِكَ، أَصْدَقُ وَأَوْفَى مِنْ أَنْ تَكْذِبَكَ، أَوْ تَغُرَّكَ، وَلَرُب َّ نَاصِحٍ لَهَا عِنْدَكَ مُتَّهَمٌ (14) ، وَصَادِقٍ مِنْ خَبَرِهَا مُكَذَّبٌ، وَلَئِنْ تَعَرَّفْتهَا (15) فِي الدِّيَارِ الْخَاوِيَةِ، وَالرُّبُوعِ الْخَالِيَةِ، لَتَجِدَنَّهَا مِنْ حُسْنِ تَذْكِيرِكَ، وَبَلاَغِ مَوْعِظَتِكَ، بِمَحَلَّةِ الشَّفِيقِ عَلَيْكَ، وَالشَّحِيحِ (16) بكَ! وَلَنِعْمَ دَارُ مَنْ لَمْ يَرْضَ بِهَا دَاراً، وَمَحَلُّ مَنْ لَمْ يُوَطِّنْهَا (17) مَحَلاًّ! وَإِنَّ السُّعَدَاءَ بالدُّنْيَا غَداً هُمُ الْهَارِبُونَ مِنْهَا الْيَوْمَ. إِذَا رَجَفَتِ الرَّاجِفَةُ (18) ، وَحَقَّتْ (19) بِجَلاَئِلِهَا الْقِيَامَةُ، وَلَحِقَ بِكُلِّ مَنْسَكٍ (20) أَهْلُهُ، وَبِكُلِّ مَعْبُودٍ عَبَدَتُهُ، وَبِكُلِّ مُطَاعٍ أَهْلُ طَاعَتِهِ، فَلَمْ يُجْزَ (21) فِي عَدْلِهِ وَقِسْطِهِ يَوْمَئِذٍ خَرْقُ بَصَرٍ فِي الْهَوَاءِ، وَلاَ هَمْسُ قَدَمٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ إِلاَّ بِحَقِّهِ، فَكَمْ حُجَّةٍ يَوْمَ ذَاكَ دَاحِضَةٌ، وَعَلاَئِقِ عُذْرٍ مُنْقَطِعَة! فَتَحَرَّ (22) مِنْ أَمْرِكَ مَايَقُومُ بِهِ عُذْرُكَ، وَتَثْبُتُ بِهِ حُجَّتُكَ، وَخُذْ مَا يَبْقَى لَكَ مِمَّا لاَ تَبْقَى لَهُ، وَتَيَسَّرْ (23) لِسَفَرِكَ، وَشِمْ (24) بَرْقَ النَّجَاةِ، وَارْحَلْ (25) مَطَايَا التَّشْمِيرِ.

In Persian

(به هنگام تلاوت آيه 6 سوره انفطار، «اى انسان، چه چيز تو را در برابر پروردگار كريمت مغرور ساخته است» فرمود)

1 هشدار از غرور زدگى ها

برهان گناهكار، نادرست ترين برهان ها است، و عذرش از توجيه هر فريب خورده اى بى اساس تر، و خوشحالى او از عدم آگاهى است. اى انسان! چه چيز تو را بر گناه جرأت داده؟ و در برابر پروردگارت مغرور ساخته؟ و بر نابودى خود علاقه مند كرده است؟ آيا بيمارى تو را درمان نيست؟ و خواب زدگى تو بيدارى ندارد؟ چرا آنگونه كه به ديگران رحم مى كنى، به خود رحم نمى كنى؟ «1» چه بسا كسى را در آفتاب سوزان مى بينى بر او سايه مى افكنى يا بيمارى را مى نگرى كه سخت ناتوان است، از روى دلسوزى بر او اشك مى ريزى، امّا چه چيز تو را بر بيمارى خود بى تفاوت كرده؟ و بر مصيبت هاى خود شكيبا و از گريه بر حال خويشتن باز داشته است؟ در حالى كه هيچ چيز براى تو عزيزتر از جانت نيست!چگونه ترس از فرود آمدن بلا، شب هنگام تو را بيدار نكرده است؟ كه در گناه غوطه ور، و در پنجه قهر الهى مبتلا شده اى؟

p: 218

2 چگونه بودن

پس سستى دل را با استقامت درمان كن، و خواب زدگى چشمانت را با بيدارى از ميان بردار ، و اطاعت خدا را بپذير، و با ياد خدا انس گير، و ياد آر كه تو از خدا روى گردانى و در همان لحظه او روى به تو دارد، و تو را به عفو خويش مى خواند، و با كرم خويش مى پوشاند! در حالى كه تو از خدا بريده به غير او توجّه دارى! (53141- 53115) پس چه نيرومند و بزرگوار است خدا! و چه ناتوان و بى مقدارى تو، كه بر عصيان او جرأت دارى، در حالى كه تو را در پرتو نعمت خود قرار داده، و در سايه رحمت او آرميده اى، نه بخشش خود را از تو گرفته،

و نه پرده اسرار تو را دريده است. بلكه چشم بر هم زدنى، بى احسان خدا زنده نبودى در حالى كه يا در نعمت هاى او غرق بودى، يا از گناهان تو پرده پوشى شد، و يا بلا و مصيبتى را از تو دور ساخته است، پس چه فكر مى كنى اگر او را اطاعت كنى؟ به خدا سوگند اگر اين رفتار ميان دو نفر كه در توانايى و قدرت برابر بودند وجود داشت (و تو يكى از آن دو بودى) تو نخستين كسى بودى كه خود را بر زشتى اخلاق، و نادرستى كردار محكوم مى كردى. «2»

3 دنيا شناسى

به حق مى گويم آيا دنيا تو را فريفته است؟ يا تو خود فريفته دنيايى؟ دنيا عبرت ها را براى تو آشكار، و تو را به تساوى دعوت كرد، دنيا با دردهايى كه در جسم تو مى گذارد، و با كاهشى كه در توانايى تو ايجاد مى كند، راستگوتر از آن است كه به تو دروغ بگويد، و يا مغرورت سازد. چه بسا نصيحت كننده اى از دنيا را متّهم كردى، و راستگويى را دروغگو پنداشتى! اگر دنيا را از روى شهرهاى ويران شده، و خانه هاى درهم فرو ريخته بشناسى، آن را يادآورى دلسوز، و اندرز دهنده اى گويا مى يابى، كه چونان دوستى مهربان از تباهى و نابودى تو نگران است. دنيا چه خوب خانه اى است براى آن كس كه آن را جاودانه نپندارد، و خوب محلّى است براى آن كس كه آن را وطن خويش انتخاب نكند. سعادتمندان به وسيله دنيا در قيامت، كسانى هستند كه امروز از حرام آن مى گريزند. «3»

p: 219

4 انسان و رستاخيز

آنگاه كه زمين سخت بلرزد، و نشانه هاى هولناك قيامت تحقّق پذيرد، و پيروان هر دينى به آن ملحق شوند، و هر پرستش كننده به معبود خود، و هر اطاعت كننده اى به فرمانده خود رسد نه چشمى بر خلاف عدالت و برابرى در هوا گشوده، و نه قدمى بر خلاف حق، آهسته در زمين نهاده مى شود ، در آن روز چه دليل هايى كه باطل مى گردد، و عذرهايى كه پذيرفته نمى شود! پس در جستجوى عذرى باش كه پذيرفته شود، و دليلى بجوى كه استوار باشد، و از دنياى فانى براى آخرت جاويدان توشه بردار، و براى سفر آخرت وسائل لازم را آماده كن، و چشم به برق نجات بدوز، و بار سفر بربند.


(1) اين رهنمود امام (ع) ثابت مى كند كه انسان بايد در پرتو وحى الهى و عمل به دستورات خداوند بزرگ به كمال واقعى برسد، پس خود اصالت ندارد كه هر چه بخواهد انجام دهد، چون خود را نمى شناسد، و انسان موجودى ناشناخته است، نمى تواند براى خود دستور العمل زندگى (كاتولوگ EUGOLATAC) بنويسد، پس اومانيسم MSINAMUH و اگزيستانسياليسم MSILAITNETSIXE نمى توانند صحيح باشد.

(2) نفى تفكر: انديويد و آليسم MSILAUDIVIDNA (اصالت فرد)

(3) نفى: پسى ميسم MSIMISSEP (بد بينى و بيزارى از جهان و دنيا) و اثبات هدفدارى انسان


In English

About keeping aloof from oppression and misappropriation.

'Aqil's condition of poverty and destitution

By Allah I would rather pass a night in wakefulness on the thorns of as-sa'dan (a plant having sharp prickles) or be driven in chains as a prisoner than meet Allah and His Messenger on the Day of Judgement as an oppressor over any person or a usurper of anything out of worldly wealth. And how can I oppress any one for (the sake of a life) that is fast moving towards destruction and is to remain under the earth for a long time.

p: 220

By Allah I certainly saw (my brother) 'Aqil fallen in destitution and he asked me a sa' (about three kilograms in weight) out of your (share of) wheat and I also saw his children with dishevelled hair and a dusty countenance due to starvation as though their faces had been blackened by indigo. He came to me several times and repeated his request to me again and again. I heard him and he thought I would sell my faith to him and follow his tread leaving my own way. Then I (just) heated a piece of iron and took it near his body so that he might take a lesson from it then he cried as a person in protracted illness cries with pain and he was about to get burnt with its branding. Then I said to him "Moaning women may moan over you O' 'Aqil. Do you cry on account of this (heated) iron which has been made by a man for fun while you are driving me towards the fire which Allah the Powerful has prepared for (a manifestation of) His wrath? Should you cry from pain but I should not cry from the flames?" A stranger incident than this is that a man (1) came to us in the night;with a closed flask full of honey paste but I disliked it as though it was the saliva of a serpent or its vomit. I asked him whether it was a reward or zakat (poor-tax) or charity for these are forbidden to us members of the Prophet's family. He said it was neither this nor that but a present. Then I said "Childless women may weep over you. Have you come to deviate me from the religion of Allah or are you mad or have you been overpowered by some jinn or are you speaking without senses? "

p: 221

By Allah even if I am given all the domains of the seven (stars) with all that exists under the skies in order that I may disobey Allah to the extent of snatching one grain of barley from an ant I would not do it. For me your world is lighter than the leaf in the mouth of a locust that is chewing it. What has 'Ali to do with bounties that will pass away and pleasures that will not last? We do seek protection of Allah from the slip of wisdom and the evils of mistakes and from Him we seek succour.

In Arabic

[ 224 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

يتبرّأ من الظلم

وَاللهِ لَأَنْ أَبِيتَ عَلَى حَسَكِ السَّعْدَانِ (1) مُسَهَّداً (2) ، أَوْ أُجَرَّ فِي الْأَغْلاَلِ مُصَفَّداً، أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِنْ أَنْ أَلْقَى اللهَ وَرَسُولَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ظَالِماً لِبَعْضِ الْعِبَادِ، وَغَاصِباً لِشَيْءٍ مِنَ الْحُطَامِ، وَكَيْفَ أَظْلِمُ أَحَداً لِنَفْسٍ يُسْرِعُ إِلَى الْبِلَى قُفُولُهَا (3) ، وَيَطُولُ فِي الثَّرَى (4) حُلُولُهَا؟! وَاللهِ لَقَدْ رَأَيْتُ عَقِيلاً وَقَدْ أمْلَقَ (5) حَتَّى اسْتَمَاحَنِي (6) مِنْ بُرِّكُمْ (7) صَاعاً، وَرَأَيْتُ صِبْيَانَهُ شُعْثَ (8) الشُّعُورِ، غُبْرَ (9) الْأَلْوَانِ، مِنْ فَقْرِهِمْ، كَأَنَّمَا سُوِّدَتْ وُجُوهُهُمْ بِالْعِظْلِمِ (10) ، وَعَاوَدَنِي مُؤَكِّداً، وَكَرَّرَ عَلَيَّ الْقَوْلَ مُرَدِّداً، فَأَصْغَيْتُ إِلَيْهِ سَمَعِي، فَظَنَّ أَنِّي أَبِيعُهُ دِينِي، وَأَتَّبِعُ قِيَادَهُ (11) مُفَارِقاً طَرِيقِي، فَأَحْمَيْتُ لَهُ حَدِيدَةً، ثُمَّ أَدْنَيْتُهَا مِنْ جِسْمِهِ لِيَعْتَبِرَ بِهَا، فَضَجَّ ضَجِيجَ ذِي دَنَفٍ (12) مِنْ أَلَمِهَا، وَكَادَ أَنْ يَحْتَرِقَ مِنْ مِيسَمِهَا (13) ، فَقُلْتُ لَهُ: ثَكِلَتْكَ الثَّوَاكِلُ (14) ، يَا عَقِيلُ! أَتَئِنُّ مِنْ حَدِيدَةٍ أَحْمَاهَا إِنْسَانُهَا لِلَعِبِهِ، وَتَجُرُّنِي إِلَى نَارٍ سَجَرَهَا جَبَّارُهَا لِغَضَبِهِ! أَتَئِنُّ مِنَ الْأَذَى وَلاَ أَئِنُّ مِنْ لَظىً (15) ؟! وَأَعْجَبُ مِنْ ذلِكَ طَارِقٌ طَرَقَنَا بِمَلْفَوفَةٍ (16) فِي وِعَائِهَا، وَمَعْجُونَةٍ شَنِئْتُهَا (17) ، كَأَنَّمَا عُجِنَتْ بِرِيقِ حَيَّةٍ أَوْ قَيْئِهَا، فَقُلْتُ: أَصِلَةٌ (18) ، أَمْ زَكَاةٌ، أَمْ صَدَقَةٌ؟ فَذلِكَ مُحَرَّمٌ عَلَيْنَا أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ! فَقَالَ: لاَ ذَا وَلاَ ذَاكَ، وَلكِنَّهَا هَدِيَّةٌ. فَقُلْتُ: هَبِلَتْكَ الْهَبُولُ (19) ! أَعَنْ دِينِ اللهِ أَتَيْتَنِي لِتَخْدَعَنِي؟ أَمُخْتَبِطٌ (20) أَنْتَ أَمْ ذُوجِنَّة (21) ، أَمْ تَهْجُرُ (22) ؟ وَاللهِ لَوْ أُعْطِيتُ الْأَقَالِيمَ السَّبْعَةَ بِمَا تَحْتَ أَفْلاَكِهَا، عَلَى أَنْ أَعْصِيَ اللهَ فِي نَمْلَةٍ أَسْلُبُهَا جِلْبَ (23) شَعِيرَةٍ مَا فَعَلْتُهُ، وَإِنَّ دُنْيَاكُمْ عِنْدِي لَأَهْوَنُ مِنْ وَرَقَةٍ فِي فَمِ جَرَادَةٍ تَقْضَمُهَا (24) ، مَا لِعَلِيّ وَلِنَعِيمٍ يَفْنَى، وَلَذَّةٍ لاَ تَبْقَى! نَعُوذُ بِاللهِ مِنْ سُبَاتِ (25) الْعَقْلِ، وَقُبْحِ الزَّلَلِ، وَبِهِ نَسْتَعِينُ.

p: 222

In Persian

(اين سخنرانى در شهر كوفه در دوران زمامدارى آن حضرت ايراد شد)

1 پرهيز از ستمكارى

سوگند به خدا، اگر تمام شب را بر روى خارهاى سعدان «1» به سر ببرم، و يا با غل و زنجير به اين سو يا آن سو كشيده شوم، خوش تر دارم تا خدا و پيامبرش را در روز قيامت، در حالى ملاقات كنم كه به بعضى از بندگان ستم، و چيزى از اموال عمومى را غصب كرده باشم.

چگونه بر كسى ستم كنم براى نفس خويش، كه به سوى كهنگى و پوسيده شدن پيش مى رود، و در خاك، زمانى طولانى اقامت مى كند؟

2 پرهيز از امتياز خواهى

به خدا سوگند، برادرم عقيل «2» را ديدم كه به شدّت تهيدست شده و از من درخواست داشت تا يك من «3» از گندم هاى بيت المال را به او ببخشم. كودكانش را ديدم كه از گرسنگى داراى موهاى ژوليده، و رنگشان تيره شده، گويا با نيل رنگ شده بودند. پى در پى مرا ديدار و درخواست خود را تكرار مى كرد، چون به گفته هاى او گوش دادم پنداشت كه دين خود را به او واگذار مى كنم، و به دلخواه او رفتار و از راه و رسم عادلانه خود دست بر مى دارم ، روزى آهنى را در آتش گداخته به جسمش نزديك كردم تا او را بيازمايم، پس چونان بيمار از درد فرياد زد و نزديك بود از حرارت آن بسوزد.به او گفتم، اى عقيل، گريه كنندگان بر تو بگريند، از حرارت آهنى مى نالى كه انسانى به بازيچه آن را گرم ساخته است؟ امّا مرا به آتش دوزخى مى خوانى كه خداى جبّارش با خشم خود آن را گداخته است؟ تو از حرارت ناچيز مى نالى و من از حرارت آتش الهى ننالم؟ و از اين حادثه شگفت آورتر اينكه شب هنگام كسى به ديدار ما آمد «4» و ظرفى سر پوشيده پر از حلوا داشت، معجونى در آن ظرف بود چنان از آن متنفّر شدم كه گويا آن را با آب دهان مار سمّى، يا قى كرده آن مخلوط كردند! به او گفتم: هديه است؟ يا زكات يا صدقه؟ كه اين دو بر ما اهل بيت پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم حرام است. گفت: نه، نه زكات است نه صدقه، بلكه هديه است.

p: 223

گفتم: زنان بچّه مرده بر تو بگريند، آيا از راه دين وارد شدى كه مرا بفريبى؟ يا عقلت آشفته شده يا جن زده شدى؟ يا هذيان مى گويى؟ به خدا سوگند، اگر هفت اقليم را با آنچه در زير آسمان هاست به من دهند تا خدا را نافرمانى كنم كه پوست جوى را از مورچه اى ناروا بگيرم، چنين نخواهم كرد! و همانا اين دنياى آلوده شما نزد من از برگ جويده شده ملخ پست تر است! على را با نعمت هاى فنا پذير، و لذّتهاى ناپايدار چه كار؟! به خدا پناه مى بريم از خفتن عقل، و زشتى لغزش ها، و از او يارى مى جوييم.


(1) خارى سه شعبه كه خوراك شتران است و سخت گزنده است.

(2) حضرت ابو طالب، چهار پسر داشت كه با يكديگر 10 سال فاصله سنّى داشتند به نام هاى: طالب، عقيل، جعفر و على عليه السّلام. قريش در جنگ بدر عقيل را به اجبار همراه خود آوردند كه اسير شد و با دادن «فدا» آزاد شده به مكّه بازگشت، و پيش از صلح حديبيّه مسلمان شد و به مدينه هجرت كرد، و در جنگ موته همراه برادرش جعفر شركت داشت.

(3) صاع: پيمانه اى به وزن سه كيلو گرم است.

(4) نوشتند كه اشعث بن قيس بود. چون قرار بود فرداى آن روز دادگاه اسلامى به پرونده او رسيدگى شود، شبانه حلوا را خدمت امام برد تا به خيال شيطانى خود، قلب آن حضرت را نسبت به خود تغيير دهد.


(1). It was al-Ash'ath ibn Qays.


In English


O' my Allah! preserve (the grace of) my face with easiness of life and do not disgrace my countenance with destitution lest I may have to beg a livelihood from those who beg from Thee try to seek the favour of Thy evil creatures engage myself in praising those who give to me and be tempted in abusing those who do not give to me although behind all these Thou art the master of giving and denying.

p: 224

. . . Verily Thou over all things art the All-powerful. (Qur'an 66:8)

In Arabic

[ 225 ] ومن دعاء له عليه السلام

يلتجىء إلى الله أن يغنيه

اللَّهُمَّ صُنْ وَجْهِي (1) بِالْيَسَارِ (2) ، وَلاَتَبْذُلْ جَاهِيَ (3) بِالْإِقْتَارِ (4) ، فَأَسْتَرْزِقَ طَالِبِي رِزْقِكَ، وَأَسْتَعْطِفَ شِرَارَ خَلْقِكَ،وَأُبْتَلَى بِحَمْدِ مَنْ أَعْطَانِي، وَأُفْتَتَنَ بِذَمِّ مَنْ مَنَعَنِي، وَأَنْتَ مِنْ وَرَاءِ ذلِكَ كُلِّهِ وَلِيُّ الْإِعْطَاءِ والْمَنْعِ،(إنَّكَ عَلى كُلِّ شَيءٍ قَدِيرٌ)

In Persian

يارى خواستن از خدا در مشكلات اقتصادى

خدايا آبرويم را با بى نيازى نگهدار، و با تنگدستى شخصيّت مرا لكّه دار مفرما، كه از روزى خواران تو روزى خواهم، و از بدكاران عفو و بخشش طلبم! مرا در ستودن آن كس كه به من عطايى فرمود موفّق فرما، و در نكوهش آن كس كه از من دريغ داشت آزمايش فرما ، در صورتى كه در پشت پرده، اختيار هر بخشش و دريغى در دست تو است و تو بر همه چيز توانايى.


In English

Transience of the world and the helplessness of those in graves

This is a house surrounded by calamities and well-known for deceitfulness. Its conditions do not last and those who inhabit it do not remain safe. Its conditions are variable and its ways changing. Life in it is blameworthy and safety in it is non-existent. Yet its people are targets; it strikes them with its arrows and destroys them through death.

Know O' creatures of Allah that certainly you and all the things of this world that you have are (treading) on the lines of those (who were) before you. They were of longer ages had more populated houses and were of more lasting traces. Their voices have become silent their movements have become stationary their bodies have become rotten their houses have become empty and their traces have been obliterated. Their magnificent places and spread-out carpets were changed to stones laid-in-blocks and cave-like dug out graves whose very foundation is based on ruins and whose construction has been made with soil. Their positions are contiguous but those settled in them are like far flung strangers. They are among the people of their area but feel lonely and they are free from work but still engaged (in activity). They feel no attachment with homelands nor do they keep contact among themselves like neighbours despite nearness of neighbourhood and priority of abodes. And how can they meet each other when decay has ground them with its chest and stones and earth have eaten them.

p: 225

It is as though you too have gone where they have gone the same sleeping place has caught you and the same place has detained you. What will then be your position when your affairs reach their end and graves are turned upside down (to throw out the dead)?

There shall every soul realise what it hath sent before and they shall be brought back to Allah their true Lord and what they did fabricate (the false deities) will vanish (away) from them. (Qur'an 10:30)

In Arabic

[ 226 ] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام

في التنفير من الدنيا

دَارٌ بِالْبَلاَءِ مَحْفُوفَةٌ، وَبِالْغَدْرِ مَعْرُوفَةٌ، لاَ تَدُومُ أَحْوَالُهَا، وَلاَ يَسْلَمُ نُزَّالُهَا (1) .

أَحْوَالٌ مُخْتَلِفَةٌ، وَتَارَاتٌ مُتَصَرِّفَةٌ (2) ، الْعَيْشُ فِيهَا مَذْمُومٌ، وَالْأَمَانُ مِنْهَا مَعْدُومٌ، وَإِنَّمَا أَهْلُهَا فِيهَا أَغْرَاضٌ مُسْتهْدَفَةٌ (3) ، تَرْمِيهِمْ بِسِهَامِهَا، وَتُفْنِيهِمْ بِحِمَامِهَا (4)

ووَاعْلَمُوا عِبَادَ اللهِ أَنَّكُم وَمَا أَنْتُمْ فِيهِ مِنْ هذِهِ الدُّنْيَا عَلَى سَبِيلِ مَنْ قَدْ مَضَى قَبْلَكُمْ، مِمَّنْ كَانَ أَطْوَلَ مِنْكُمْ أَعْمَاراً، وَأَعْمَرَ دِيَاراً، وَأَبْعَدَ آثَاراً (5) ، أَصْبَحَتْ أَصْوَاتُهُمْ هَامِدَةً، وَرِيَاحُهُمْ رَاكِدَةً (6) ، وَ أَجْسَادُهُمْ بِالِيَةً، وَدِيَارُهُمْ خَالِيَةً، وَآثَارُهُمْ عَافِيَةً (7) ، فَاسْتَبْدَلُوا بِالْقُصُورِ الْمُشَيَّدَةِ، وَالنَّمارِقِ (8) الْمُمَهَّدَةِ (9) ، الصُّخُورَ وَالْأَحْجَارَ الْمُسَنَّدَةَ، وَالْقُبُورَ اللاَّطِئَةَ (10) الْمُلْحَدَةَ (11) ، الَّتي قَدْ بُنِيَ عَلَى الْخَرَابِ فِنَاؤُهَا (12) ، وَشُيِّدَ بِالتُّرَابِ بِنَاؤُهَا، فَمَحَلُّهَا مُقْتَرِبٌ، وَسَاكِنُهَا مُغْتَرِبٌ، بَيْنَ أَهْلِ مَحَلَّةٍ مُوحِشِينَ، وَأهْلِ فَرَاغٍ مُتَشَاغِلِينَ، لاَيَسْتَأْنِسُونَ بِالْأَوْطَانِ، وَلاَ يَتَوَاصَلُونَ تَوَاصُلَ الْجِيْرَانِ، عَلَى مَا بَيْنَهُمْ مِنْ قُرْبِ الْجِوَارِ، وَدُنُوِّ الدَّارِ، وَكَيْفَ يَكُونُ بَيْنَهُمْ تَزَاوُرٌ، وَقَدْ طَحَنَهُمْ بِكَلْكَلِهِ (13) الْبِلَى (14) ، وَأَكَلَتْهُمُ الْجَنَادِلُ (15) وَالثَّرَى (16) !

p: 226

وَكَأَنْ قَدْ صِرْتُمْ إِلَى مَا صَارُوا إِلَيْهِ، وَارْتَهَنَكُمْ ذَلِكَ الْمَضْجَعُ (17) ، وَضَمَّكُمْ ذَلِكَ الْمُسْتَوْدَعُ، فَكَيْفَ بِكُمْ لَوْ تَنَاهَتْ (18) بِكُمُ الْأُمُورُ، وبُعْثِرَتِ الْقُبُورُ! (19) : (هُنَالِكَ تَبْلُو (20) كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَا أَسْلَفَتْ وَرُدُّوا إِلَى اللهِ مَوْلاَهُمُ الْحَقِّ وَضَلَّ عَنْهُمْ ما كَانُوا يفْتَرُون)

In Persian

1 دنيا شناسى

دنيا خانه اى است پوشيده از بلاها، به حيله و نيرنگ شناخته شده، نه حالات آن پايدار، و نه مردم آن از سلامت برخوردارند، داراى تحوّلات گوناگون، و دوران هاى رنگارنگ، زندگى در آن نكوهيده، و امنيّت در آن نابود است. اهل دنيا همواره هدف تيرهاى بلا هستند كه با تيرهايش آنها را مى كوبيد، و با مرگ آنها را نابود مى كند.

2 عبرت گرفتن از دنيا

اى بندگان خدا! بدانيد، شما و آنان كه در اين دنيا زندگى مى كنيد، بر همان راهى مى رويد كه گذشتگان پيمودند! آنان زندگانى شان از شما طولانى تر، خانه هاى شان آبادتر، و آثارشان از شما بيشتر بود، كه ناگهان صداهايشان خاموش، و وزش بادها در سرزمينشان ساكت، و اجسادشان پوسيده، و سرزمينشان خالى، و آثارشان ناپديد شد! قصرهاى بلند و محكم، و بساط عيش و بالش هاى نرم را به سنگ ها و آجرها، و قبرهاى به هم چسبيده تبديل كردند:

گورهايى كه بناى آن بر خرابى، و با خاك ساخته شده است، گورها به هم نزديك اما ساكنان آنها از هم دور و غريبند ، در وادى وحشتناك به ظاهر آرام امّا گرفتارند، نه در جايى كه وطن گرفتند انس مى گيرند، و نه با همسايگان ارتباطى دارند، در صورتى كه با يكديگر نزديك، و در كنار هم جاى دارند. چگونه يكديگر را ديدار كنند در حالى كه فرسودگى آنها را در هم كوبيده، و سنگ و خاك آنان را در كام خود فرو برده است. شما هم راهى را خواهيد رفت كه آنان رفته اند، و در گرو خانه هايى قرار خواهيد گرفت كه آنها قرار دارند، و گورها شما را به امانت خواهد پذيرفت ، پس چگونه خواهيد بود كه عمر شما به سر آيد؟ و مردگان از قبرها برخيزيد؟

p: 227

«در آن هنگام كه هر كس به اعمال از پيش فرستاده آزمايش مى شود، و به سوى خدا كه مولا و سرپرست آنهاست باز مى گردد، و هر دروغى را كه مى بافتند براى آنان سودى نخواهد داشت».


In English


O' my Allah! Thou art the most attached to Thy lovers and the most ready to assist those who trust in Thee. Thou seest them in their concealments knowest whatever is in their consciences and art aware of the extent of their intelligence. Consequently their secrets are open to Thee and their hearts are eager from Thee. If loneliness bores them Thy remembrance gives them solace. If distresses befall them they beseech Thy protection because they know that the reins of affairs are in Thy hands and that their movements depend upon Thy commands .

O' my Allah! if I am unable to express my request or cannot see my needs then guide me towards my betterment and take my betterment and take my heart towards the correct goal. This is not against (the mode of) Thy guidance nor anything new against Thy ways of support.

O' my Allah! deal with me through Thy forgiveness and do not deal with me according to Thy justice.

In Arabic

[ 227 ] ومن دعاء له عليه السلام

يلجأ فيه إلى الله لِيهديه إلى الرشاد

اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّكَ آنَسُ (1) الْآنِسِينَ لْأَوْلِيَائِكَ، وَأَحْضَرُهُمْ بِالْكِفايَةِ لِلْمُتَوَكِّلِينَ عَلَيْكَ. تُشَاهِدُهُمْ فِي سَرَائِرِهِمْ، وَتَطَّلِعُ عَلَيْهِمْ فِي ضَمَائِرِهِمْ، وَتَعْلَمُ مَبْلَغَ بَصَائِرِهِمْ، فَأَسْرَارُهُمْ لَكَ مَكْشُوفَةٌ، وَقُلُوبُهُمْ إِلَيْكَ مَلْهُوفَةٌ (2) ، إِنْ أَوْحَشَتْهُمُ الْغُرْبَةُ آنَسَهُمْ ذِكْرُكَ، وَإِنْ صُبَّتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الْمَصَائِبُ لَجَؤُوا إِلَى الْإِسْتِجَارَةِ بِكَ، عِلْماً بَأَنَّ أَزِمَّةَ الْأُمُورِ بِيدِكَ، وَمَصَادِرَهَا عَنْ قَضَائِكَ.

p: 228

اللَّهُمَّ إِنْ فَهِهْتُ (3) عَنْ مسْأَلَتِي، أَوْ عَمِيتُ عَنْ طِلْبَتِي (4) ، فَدُلَّنِي عَلَى مَصَالِحِي، وَخُذْ بِقَلْبِي إِلَى مَرَاشِدِي (5) ، فَلَيْسَ ذَلِكَ بِنُكْرٍ (6) مِنْ هِدَايَاتِكَ، وَلاَ بِبِدْعٍ (7) مِنْ كِفَايَاتِكَ. اللَّهُمَّ احْمِلْنِي عَلَى عَفْوِكَ، وَلاَ تَحْمِلْنِي عَلَى عدْلِكَ.

In Persian

يكى از دعاهاى امام عليه السّلام

خدايا! تو با دوستانت از همه انس گيرنده ترى، و بر طرف كننده نيازهاى توكّل كنندگانى، بر اسرار پنهانشان آگاه، و به آنچه در دل دارند آشنايى، و از ديدگاه هاى آنان با خبر، و رازشان نزد تو آشكار، و دل هايشان در حسرت ديدار تو داغدار است ، اگر تنهايى و غربت به وحشتشان اندازد ياد تو آرامشان مى كند، اگر مصيبت ها بر آنان فرود آيد، به تو پناه مى برند، و روى به درگاه تو دارند، زيرا مى دانند كه سر رشته كارها به دست توست، و همه كارها از خواست تو نشأت مى گيرد. خدايا! اگر براى خواستن درمانده شوم، يا راه پرسيدن را ندانم، تو مرا به اصلاح كارم راهنمايى فرما، و جانم را به آنچه مايه رستگارى من است هدايت كن، كه چنين كارى از راهنمايى هاى تو بدور، و از كفايت هاى تو ناشناخته نيست. خدايا، مرا با بخشش خود بپذير، و با عدل خويش، با من رفتار مكن!


In English

About a companion who passed away from this world before the occurrence of troubles.

May Allah reward such and such man (1) who straightened the curve cured the disease abandoned mischief and established the sunnah. He departed (from this world) with untarnished clothes and little shortcomings. He achieved good (of this world) and remained safe from its evils. He offered Allah's obedience and feared Him as He deserved. He went away and left the people in dividing ways wherein the misled cannot obtain guidance and the guided cannot attain certainty.

p: 229

In Arabic

[ 228 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

يريد به بعض أصحابه

لِلَّهِ بِلَاءُ فُلاَنٍ (1) ، فَلَقَدْ قَوَّمَ (2) الْأَوَدَ، وَدَاوَى الْعَمَدَ (3) ، وَأَقَامَ السُّنَّةَ، وَخَلَّفَ (4) الْفِتْنَةَ! ذَهَبَ نَقِيَّ الثَّوْبِ، قَلِيلَ الْعَيْبِ. أَصَابَ خَيْرَهَا، وَسَبَقَ شَرَّهَا، أَدَّى إِلَى اللهِ طَاعَتَهُ، وَاتَّقَاهُ بِحَقِّهِ، رَحَلَ وَتَرَكَهُمْ فِي طُرُقٍ مَتَشَعِّبَةٍ (5) ، لاَ يَهْتَدِي بِهَا الضَّالُّ، وَلاَ يَسْتَيْقِنُ الْمُهْتَدِي.

In Persian

(در تعريف سلمان فارسى كه قبل از پيدايش فتنه ها درگذشت) «1»

ويژگى هاى سلمان فارسى

خدا او را در آنچه آزمايش كرد پاداش خير دهد، كه كجى ها را راست، و بيمارى ها را درمان، و سنّت پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم را به پاداشت، و فتنه ها را پشت سر گذاشت ، با دامن پاك، و عيبى اندك، درگذشت، به نيكى هاى دنيا رسيده و از بدى هاى آن رهايى يافت، وظائف خود نسبت به پروردگارش را انجام داد، و چنانكه بايد از كيفر الهى مى ترسيد. خود رفت و مردم را پراكنده بر جاى گذاشت، كه نه گمراه، راه خويش شناخت، و نه هدايت شده به يقين رسيد.


(1) مرحوم شهرستانى نقل مى كند كه در نسخه خطّى سيّد رضى (ره) كه دخترش خدمت عموى بزرگوار، سيّد مرتضى، آن را مى آموخت، نام سلمان فارسى در ابتداى اين خطبه نوشته شده بود. و همين درست است، زيرا با بررسى ديگر خطبه هاى نهج البلاغه، و شناخت تفكّرات امام عليه السّلام و بررسى صحيح زندگانى ياران امام عليه السّلام اين حقيقت روشن مى شود كه شخص ياد شده بايد سلمان فارسى يا مالك اشتر باشد و ديگر احتمالاتى كه داده شده است با عصمت و اعتقادات امام عليه السّلام سازگار نيست.

p: 230


(1). Ibn Abi'l-Hadid has written (in Sharh Nahj al-balaghah vol. 14 pp. 3-4) that the reference here is to the second Caliph 'Umar and that these sentences have been uttered in his praise as indicated by the word ''Umar' written under the word 'such and such' in as-Sayyid ar-Radi's own hand in the manuscript of Nahj al-balaghah written by him. This is Ibn Abi'l-Hadid's statement but it is to be seen that if as-Sayyid ar-Radi had written the word ''Umar' by way of explanation it should have existed as other explanations by him have remained in those versions which have been copied from his manuscript. Even now there exists in al-Musil (Iraq) university the oldest copy of Nahj al-balaghah written by the famous calligraphist Yaqut al-Musta'simi; but no one has afforded any clue to this explanation of as-Sayyid ar-Radi. Even if the view of Ibn Abi'l-Hadid is accepted it would be deemed to represent the personal opinion of as-Sayyid ar-Radi which may serve as a supplementary argument in support of an original argument but this personal view cannot be assigned any regular importance.

It is strange that two and a half centuries after as-Sayyid ar-Radi namely in the seventh century A.H. Ibn Abi'l Hadid makes the statement that the reference here is to Caliph 'Umar and that as-Sayyid ar-Radi himself had so indicated as a result of which some other annotators also followed the same line but the contemporaries of as-Sayyid ar-Radi who wrote about Nahj al-balaghah have given no such indication in their writings although as contemporaries they should have had better information about as-Sayyid Ar-Radi's writing. Thus al-'Allamah 'Ali ibn Nasir who was a contemporary of as-Sayyid ar-Radi and wrote an annotation of Nahj al-balaghah under the name of A'lam Nahj al-balaghah writes in connection with this sermon:

p: 231

Amir al-mu'minin has praised one of his own companions for his good conduct. He had died before the troubles that arose after the death of the Prophet of Allah.

This is supported by the annotations of Nahj al-balaghah written by al-'Allamah Qutbu'd-Din ar-Rawandi (d. 573 A.H.). Ibn Abi'l-Hadid (vol. 14 p. 4) and Ibn Maytham al-Bahrani (in Sharh Nahj al-balaghah vol. 4 p. 97) have quoted his following view.

By this Amir al-mu'minin refers to one of his own companions who died before the mischief and disruption that occurred following the death of the Prophet of Allah.

Al-'Allamah al-Hajj al-Mirza Habibu'llah al-Khu'i is of the opinion that the person is Malik ibn al-Harith al-Ashtar on the ground that after the assassination of Malik the situation of the Muslim community was such as Amir al-mu'minin explains in this sermon.

al-Khu'i adds that:

Amir al-mu'minin has praised Malik repeatedly such as in his letter to the people of Egypt sent through Malik when he was made the governor of that place and like his utterances when the news of Malik's assassination reached him he said: "Malik! who is Malik? If Malik was a stone he was hard and solid; if he was a rock he was a great rock which had no parallel. Women have become barren to give birth to such as Malik." Amir al-mu'minin had even expressed in some of his utterances that "Malik was to me as I was to the Holy Prophet." Therefore one who possesses such a position certainly deserves such attributes and even beyond that. (Sharh Nahj al-balaghah vol. 14 pp. 374-375)

p: 232

If these words had been about Caliph 'Umar and there was some trustworthiness about it Ibn Abi'l-Hadid would have recorded the authority or tradition and it would have existed in history and been known among the people. But here nothing is found to prove the statement except a few self-concocted events. Thus about the pronouns in the words "khayraha" and "sharraha" he takes them to refer to the caliphate and writes that these words can apply only to one who enjoys power and authority because without authority it is impossible to establish the sunnah or prevent innovation. This is the gist of the argument he has advanced on this occasion; although there is no proof to establish that the antecedent of this pronoun is the caliphate. It can rather refer to the world (when Amir al-mu'minin says "He achieved good [of this world] and remained safe from its evils.") and that would be in accord with the context. Again to regard authority as a condition for the safeguarding of people's interest and the propagation of the sunnah means to close the door to prompting others to good and dissuading them from evil although Allah has assigned this duty to a group of the people without the condition of authority:

And that there should be among you a group who call (mankind) unto virtue and enjoin what is good and forbid wrong; and these are they who shall be successful. (Qur'an 3:104)

Similarly it is related from the Prophet:

So long as people go on prompting for good and dissuading from evil and assisting each other in virtue and piety they will remain in righteousness.

p: 233

Again Amir al-mu'minin in the course of a will says in general terms:

Establish the pillars of the Unity of Allah and the sunnah and keep both these lamps aflame.

In these sayings there is no hint that this obligation cannot be discharged without authority. Facts also tell us that (despite army and force and power and authority) the rulers and kings could not prevent evil or propagate virtue to the extent to which some unknown godly persons were able to inculcate moral values by imprinting their morality on heart and minds although they were not backed by any army or force and they didn't have any equipment save destitution. No doubt authority and control can bend heads down before it but it is not necessary that it should also pave the way for virtue in hearts. History shows that most of the rulers destroyed the features of Islam. Islam's existence and progress has been possible by the efforts of those helpless persons who possessed nothing save poverty and discomfiture.

If it is insisted that the reference here should only be to a ruler then why should it not be taken to mean a companion of Amir al-mu'minin who had been the head of a Province such as Salman al-Farisi for whose burial Amir al-mu'minin went to al-Mada'in; and it is not implausible that Amir al-mu'minin might have uttered these words after his burial by way of comments on his life and way of governance. However to believe that they are about Caliph 'Umar is without any proof. In the end Ibn Abi'l-Hadid has quoted the following statements of (the historian) at-Tabari in proof of his hypothesis:

p: 234

"It is related from al-Mughirah ibn Shu'bah that when Caliph 'Umar died Ibnah Abi Hathmah said crying. "Oh 'Umar you were the man who straightened the curve removed ills destroyed mischief revived the sunnah remained chaste and departed without entangling in evils.' (According to at-Tabari) al-Mughirah related that "When 'Umar was buried I came to 'Ali and I wanted to hear something from him about 'Umar. So on my arrival Amir al-mu'minin came out in this state that was wrapped in one cloth after bathing and was jerking the hair of his head and beard and he had no doubt that the Caliphate would come to him. On this occasion he said "May Allah have mercy on 'Umar." Ibnah Abi Hathmah has correctly said that he enjoyed the good of the Caliphate and remained safe from its evils. By Allah she did not say it herself but was made to say so." (at-Tabari vol. 1 p. 2763; Ibn Abi'l-Hadid vol. 12 p. 5; Ibn Kathir vol. 7 p. 140)

The relater of this event is al-Mughirah ibn Shu'bah whose adultery with Umm Jamil the Caliph 'Umar's saving him from the penalty despite the evidence and his openly abusing Amir al-mu'minin in Kufah under Mu'awiyah's behest are admitted facts of history. On this ground what weight his statements can carry is quite clear. From the factual point of view also this story cannot be accepted. Al-Mughirah's statement that Amir al-mu'minin had no doubt about his Caliphate is against the facts. What were the factors from which he made this guess when the actual facts were to the contrary. If the caliphate was certain for any one it was 'Uthman. Thus at the Consultative Committee 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn 'Awf said to Amir al-mu'minin: "O' 'Ali! do not create a situation against yourself for I have observed and consulted the people and they all want 'Uthman." (at-Tabari vol. 1 p. 2786; Ibn al-Athir vol. 3 p. 71; Abu'l-Fida' vol. 1 p. 166)

p: 235

Consequently Amir al-mu'minin was sure not to get the caliphate as has already been stated on the authority of at-Tabari's History under the sermon of the Camel's Foam (ash-Shiqshiqiyyah) namely that on seeing the names of the members of the Consultative Committee Amir al-mu'minin had said to al-'Abbas ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib that the caliphate could not be given to anyone except 'Uthman since all the powers had been given to 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn 'Awf and he was 'Uthman's brother-in-law (sister's husband) and Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas was a relative and tribesman of 'Abd ar-Rahman. These two would join in giving the caliphate to him.

At this stage the question arises as to what the reason was that actuated al-Mughirah to prompt Amir al-mu'minin to say something about 'Umar. If he knew that Amir al-mu'minin had good ideas about 'Umar he should have also known his impression; but if he thought that Amir al-mu'minin did not entertain good ideas about him then the purpose of his asking Amir al-mu'minin would be none other than that whatever he may say he would by exposing it create an atmosphere against him and make the members of the Consultative Committee suspicious of him. The views of the members of the Consultative Committee are well understood from the very fact that by putting the condition of following the conduct of the first two Caliphs in electing the caliph they had shown their adherence to them. In these circumstances when al-Mughirah tried to play this trick Amir al-mu'minin said just by way of relating a fact that 'Umar achieved the good (of this world) and remained safe from its evil. This sentence has no connection with praise or eulogy. 'Umar did in his days enjoy all kinds of advantages while his period was free from the mischiefs that cropped up later. After recording this statement Ibn Abi'l-Hadid writes:

p: 236

From this event the belief gains strength that in this utterance the allusion is towards 'Umar.

If the utterance means the word uttered by Ibnah Abi Hathmah about which Amir al-mu'minin has said that they are not her own heart's voice but she was made to utter them then doubtlessly the reference is to 'Umar but the view that these words were uttered by Amir al-mu'minin in praise of 'Umar is not at all established. Rather from this tradition it is evidently shown that these words were uttered by Ibnah Abi Hathmah. Allah alone knows on what ground the words of Ibnah Abi Hathmah are quoted and then it is daringly argued that these words were uttered by Amir al-mu'minin about 'Umar.

It seems Amir al-mu'minin had uttered these words about someone on some occasion then Ibnah Abi Hathmah used similar words on 'Umar's death and then even Amir al-mu'minin's words were taken to be in praise of 'Umar. Otherwise no mind except a mad one can argue that the words uttered by Ibnah Abi Hathmah should be deemed a ground to hold that Amir al-mu'minin said these words in praise of 'Umar. Can it be expected after (a glance at) the sermon of the Camel's Foam that Amir al-mu'minin might have uttered these words. Again it is worth consideration that if these words had been uttered by Amir al-mu'minin on 'Umar's death then at the Consultative Committee when he refused to follow the conduct of the (first) two Caliphs it should have been said to him that only the other day he has said that 'Umar had established the sunnah and banished innovations so that when his conduct was in accord with the sunnah what was the sense in accepting the sunnah but refusing to follow his conduct .

p: 237


In English

(About allegiance to Amir al-mu'minin for the Caliphate. A similar sermon in somewhat different version has already appeared earlier.)

You drew out my hand towards you for allegiance but I held it back and you stretched it but I contracted it. Then you crowed over me as the thirsty camels crowd on the watering cisterns on their being taken there so much so that shoes were torn shoulder-cloths fell away and the weak got trampled and the happiness of people on their allegiance to me was so manifested that small children felt joyful the old staggered (up to me) for it the sick too reached for it helter skelter and young girls ran for it without veils.

In Arabic

[ 229 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

في وصف بيعته بالخلافة

قال الشريف : وقد تقدم مثله بألفاظ مختلفة. وَبَسَطْتُمْ يَدِي فَكَفَفْتُهَا، وَمَدَدْتُمُوهَا فَقَبَضْتُهَا، ثُمَّ تَدَاكَكْتُمْ عَلَيَّ (1) تَدَاكَّ الْإِبِلِ الْهِيمِ (2) عَلَى حِيَاضِهَا يَوْمَ وِرْدِهَا، حَتَّى انْقَطَعَتِ النَّعْلُ، وَسَقَطَ الرِّدَاءُ، وَوُطِىءَ الضَّعِيفُ، وَبَلَغَ مِنْ سُرُورِ النَّاسِ بِبَيْعَتِهِمْ إِيَّايَ أَنِ ابْتَهَجَ بِهَا الصَّغِيرُ، وَهَدَجَ (3) إِلَيْهَا الْكَبِيرُ، وَتَحَامَلَ نَحْوَهَا الْعَلِيلُ، وَحَسَرَتْ (4) إِلَيْهَا الْكِعَابُ (5) .

In Persian

(وصف روز بيعت مردم با امام عليه السّلام كه شبيه اين خطبه در عبارات گذشته آمد)

ويژگى هاى بيعت مردم با امام

دست مرا براى بيعت مى گشوديد و من مى بستم، شما آن را به سوى خود مى كشيديد و من آن را مى گرفتم!

سپس چونان شتران تشنه كه به طرف آبشخور هجوم مى آورند بر من هجوم آورديد ، تا آن كه بند كفشم پاره شد، و عبا از دوشم افتاد، و افراد ناتوان پايمال گرديدند. آنچنان مردم در بيعت با من خشنود بودند كه خردسالان شادمان، و پيران براى بيعت كردن، لرزان به راه افتادند، و بيماران بر دوش خويشان سوار، و دختران، جوان بى نقاب به صحنه آمدند ! «1».

p: 238


(1) اثبات: حكومت مردمى و دخالت مردم در حكومت و نفى حكومت: دسپوتيسم Despotism (حكومت استبدادى) البتّه مراد مردم مسلمانى مى باشند كه در پرتو وحى انتخاب مى كنند، و نقد دموكراسى YCARCOMED (حكومت اكثريّت مردم)، زيرا رأى اكثريّت مردم در پرتو وحى قانونى است.


In English

Advice about fear of Allah and an account of those who remain apprehensive of death and adopt abstemiousness

Certainly fear of Allah is the key to guidance provision for the next world freedom from every slavery and deliverance from all ruin. With its help the seeker succeeds and he who makes for safety escapes and achieves his aims.

Perform (good) acts while such acts are being raised (in value) repentance can be of benefit prayer can be heard condi tions are peaceful and the pens (of the two angels) are in motion (to record the actions). Hasten towards (virtuous) actions before the change of age (to oldness) lingering illness or snatching death (overtakes you). Certainly death will end your enjoyments mar your pleasures and remove your objectives. It is an unwanted visitor an invincible adversary and an unaccounting killer. Its ropes have entrapped you its evils have surrounded you its arrowheads have aimed at you its sway over you is great its oppression on you is continuous and the chance of its missing you is remote.

Very soon you will be overwhelmed with the gloom of its shades the severity of its illness the darkness of its distresses the nonsense utterances of its pangs the grief of its destruction the darkness of its encompassment and the unwholesomeness of its taste. It will seem as if it has come to you all of a sudden silenced those who were whispering to you separated your group destroyed your doings devastated your houses and altered your successors to distribute your estate among the chief relatives who did not give you any benefit or the grieved near ones who could not protect (you) or those rejoicers who did not lament (you).

p: 239

Therefore it is upon you to strive make effort equip yourself get ready and provide yourself from the place of provision. And let not the life of this world deceive you as it deceived those before you among the past people and by-gone periods -- those who extracted its milk benefited from its neglectfulness passed a long time and turned its new things into old (by living long). Their abodes turned into graves and their wealth into inheritable estate. They do not know who came to them (at their graves); do not pay heed to those who weep over them and do not respond to those who call them. Therefore beware of this world as it is treacherous deceitful and cheating it gives and takes back covers with clothes and uncovers. Its pleasure does not last its hardship does not end and its calamity does not stop.

A part of the same sermon about ascetics

They are from among the people of this world but are not its people because they remain in it as though they do not belong to it. They act herein on what they observe and hasten here in (to avoid) what they fear. Their bodies move among the people of the next world. They see that the people of this world attach importance to the death of their bodies but they themselves attach more importance to the death of the hearts of those who are living.

In Arabic

[ 230 ] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام

p: 240

في مقاصد أُخرى

فَإِنَّ تَقْوَى اللهِ مِفْتَاحُ سَدَادٍ، وَذَخِيرَةُ مَعَادٍ، وَعِتْقٌ مِنْ كُلِّ مَلَكَةٍ (1) ، وَنَجَاةٌ مِنْ كُلِّ هَلَكَةٍ (2) ، بِهَا يَنْجَحُ الطَّالِبُ، وَيَنْجُوا الْهَارِبُ، وَتُنَالُ الرَّغَائِبُ.

فضل العمل

فَاعْمَلُوا وَالْعَمَلُ يُرْفَعُ، وَالتَّوْبَةُ تَنْفَعُ، وَالدُّعَاءُ يُسْمَعُ، وَالْحَالُ هَادِئَةٌ، وَالْأَقْلامُ جَارِيَةٌ.وَبَادِرُوا (3) بِالْأَعْمَالِ عُمُراً نَاكسِاً (4) ، أَوْ مَرَضاً حَابِساً (5) ، أَوْ مَوْتاً خَالِساً (6) ، فَإِنَّ الْمَوْتَ هَادِمُ لَذَّاتِِكُمْ، وَمُكَدِّرُ شَهَوَاتِكُمْ، وَمُبَاعِدُ طِيَّاتِِكُمْ (7) ، زَائِرٌ غَيْرُ مَحْبُوبٍ، وَقِرْنٌ (8) غَيْرُ مَغْلُوبٍ، وَوَاترٌ (9) غَيْرُ مَطْلُوبٍ، قَدْ أَعْلَقَتْكُمْ حَبَائِلُهُ (10) ، وَتَكَنَّفَتْكُمْ (11) غَوَائِلُهُ (12) ، وَأَقْصَدَتْكُمْ (13) مَعَابِلُهُ (14) ، وَعَظُمَتْ فِيكُمْ سَطْوَتُهُ، وَتَتَابَعَتْ عَلَيْكُمْ عَدْوَتُهُ (15) ، وَقَلَّتْ عَنْكُمْ نَبْوَتُهُ (16) ، فَيُوشِكُ (17) أَنْ تَغْشَاكُمْ (18) دَوَاجِى (19) ظُلَلِهِ (20) ، وَاحْتِدَامُ (21) عِلَلِهِ، وَحَنَادِسُ (22) غَمَرَاتِهِ (23) ، وَغَوَاشِي سَكَرَاتِهِ، وَأَلِيمُ إِرْهَاقِهِ (24) ، وَدُجُوُّ (25) أَطْبَاقِهِ (26) ، وَجُشُوبَةُ (27) مَذَاقِهِ. فَكَأَنْ قَدْ أَتْاكُمْ بَغْتَةً فَأَسْكَتَ نَجِيَّكُمْ (28) ، وَفَرَّقَ نَدِيَّكُمْ (29) ، وَعَفَّى آثَارَكُمْ (30) ، وَعَطَّلَ دِيَارَكُمْ، وَبَعَثَ وُرَّاثَكُمْ، يَقْتَسِمُونَ تُرَاثَكُمْ (31) ، بَيْنَ حَمِيمٍ (32) خَاصٍّ لَمْ يَنْفَعْ، وَقَرِيبٍ مَحْزُونٍ لَمْ يَمْنَعْ، وَآخَرَ شَامِتٍ لَمْ يَجْزَعْ.

فضل الجد

فَعَلَيْكُمْ بِالْجِدِّ وَالْإِجْتِهَادِ، وَالتَّأَهُّبِ وَالْإِسْتِعْدَادِ، وَالتَّزَوُّدِ فِي مَنْزِلِ الزَّادِ. وَلاَ تَغُرَّنَّكُمُ الدُّنْيَا كَمَا غَرَّتْ مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكُمْ مِنَ الْأُمَمِ الْمَاضِيَةِ، وَالْقُرُونِ الْخَالِيَةِ، الَّذِينَ احْتَلَبُوا دِرَّتَهَا (33) ، وَأصَابُوا غِرَّتَهَا (34) ، وَأَفْنَوْا عِدَّتَهَا، وَأَخْلَقُوا جِدَّتَهَا (35). وأَصْبَحَتْ مَسَاكِنُهُمْ أَجْدَاثاً (36) ، وَأَمْوَالُهُمْ مِيرَاثاً. لاَ يَعْرِفُونَ مَنْ أَتَاهُمْ، وَلاَ يَحْفِلُونَ مَنْ بَكَاهُمْ (37) ، وَلاَ يُجِيبُونَ مَنْ دَعَاهُمْ. فَاحْذَرُوا الدُّنْيَا فَإِنَّهَا غَدَّارَةٌ غَرَّارَةٌ خَدُوعٌ، مُعْطِيَةٌ مَنُوعٌ، مُلْبِسَةٌ نَزُوعٌ (38) ، لاَ يَدُومُ رَخَاؤُهَا، وَلاَ يَنْقَضِي عَنَاؤُهَا، وَلاَ يَرْكُدُ (39) بَلاَؤُهَا.

p: 241

و منها في صفة الزّهاد : كَانُوا قَوْماً مِنْ أَهْلِ الدُّنْيَا وَلَيْسُوا مِنْ أَهْلِهَا، فَكَانُوا فِيهَا كَمَنْ لَيْسَ مِنْهَا، عَمِلُوا فِيهَا بَمَا يُبْصِرُونَ، وَبَادَرُوا (40) فِيهَا مَا يَحْذَرُونَ، تَقَلَّبُ أَبْدَانُهُمْ بَيْنَ ظَهْرَانَيْ أَهْلِ الْآخِرَةِ (41) ، يَرَوْنَ أَهْلَ الدُّنْيَا يُعَظِّمُونَ مَوْتَ أَجْسَادِهِمْ وَهُمْ أَشدُّ إِعْظَاماً لِمَوْتِ قُلُوبِ أَحْيَائِهِمْ.

In Persian

1 پرهيزكارى و عمل

همانا ترس از خدا كليد هر در بسته، و ذخيره رستاخيز، و عامل آزادگى از هر گونه بردگى، و نجات از هر گونه هلاكت است. در پرتو پرهيزكارى، تلاشگران پيروز، پرواكنندگان از گناه رستگار، و به هر آرزويى مى توان رسيد. مردم! عمل كنيد كه عمل نيكو به سوى خدا بالا مى رود، و توبه سودمند است، و دعا به اجابت مى رسد، و آرامش برقرار، و قلم هاى فرشتگان در جريان است. به سوى اعمال نيكو بشتابيد پيش از آن كه عمرتان پايان پذيرد، يا بيمارى مانع شود، و يا تير مرگ شما را هدف قرار دهد.

2 ضرورت ياد مرگ

مرگ نابود كننده لذّت ها، تيره كننده خواهش هاى نفسانى، و دور كننده اهداف شماست، مرگ ديدار كننده اى دوست نداشتنى، هماوردى شكست ناپذير و كينه توزى است كه بازخواست نمى شود ، دام هاى خود را هم اكنون بر دست و پاى شما آويخته، و سختى هايش شما را فرا گرفته، و تيرهاى خود را به سوى شما پرتاب كرده است. قهرش بزرگ، و دشمنى او پياپى و تيرش خطا نمى كند. چه زود است كه سايه هاى مرگ، و شدّت دردهاى آن، و تيرگى هاى لحظه جان كندن، و بيهوشى سكرات مرگ، و ناراحتى و خارج شدن روح از بدن، و تاريكى چشم پوشيدن از دنيا، و تلخى خاطره ها، شما را فرا گيرد. پس ممكن است ناگهان مرگ بر شما هجوم آورد، و گفتگوهايتان را خاموش، و جمعيّت شما را پراكنده، و نشانه هاى شما را نابود، و خانه هاى شما را خالى، و ميراث خواران شما را بر انگيزد تا ارث شما را تقسيم كنند، آنان يا دوستان نزديكند كه به هنگام مرگ نفعى نمى رسانند، يا نزديكان غم زده اى كه نمى توانند جلوى مرگ را بگيرند، يا سرزنش كنندگانى كه گريه و زارى نمى كنند.

p: 242

3 سفارش به نيكوكارى

بر شما باد به تلاش و كوشش، آمادگى و آماده شدن، و جمع آورى زاد و توشه آخرت و در دوران زندگى دنيا. دنيا شما را مغرور نسازد، چنانكه گذشتگان شما و امّت هاى پيشين را در قرون سپرى شده مغرور ساخت.

آنان كه دنيا را دوشيدند، به غفلت زدگى در دنيا گرفتار آمدند، فرصت ها را از دست دادند،

و تازه هاى آن را فرسوده ساختند، سرانجام خانه هايشان گورستان، و سرمايه هايشان ارث اين و آن گرديد، آنان كه نزديكشان را نمى شناسند، و به گريه كنندگان خود توجّهى ندارند، و نه دعوتى را پاسخ مى گويند. مردم! از دنياى حرام بپرهيزيد، كه حيله گر و فريبنده و نيرنگ باز است، بخشنده اى باز پس گيرنده، و پوشنده اى برهنه كننده است، آسايش دنيا بى دوام، و سختى هايش بى پايان، و بلاهايش دائمى است.

4 دنيا و زاهدان

زاهدان گروهى از مردم دنيايند كه دنيا پرست نمى باشند، پس در دنيا زندگى مى كنند امّا آلودگى دنيا پرستان را ندارند، در دنيا با آگاهى و بصيرت عمل مى كنند، و در ترك زشتى ها از همه پيشى مى گيرند، بدن هايشان به گونه اى در تلاش و حركت است كه گويا ميان مردم آخرتند، اهل دنيا را مى نگرند كه مرگ بدن ها را بزرگ مى شمارند، امّا آنها مرگ دل هاى زندگان را بزرگ تر مى دانند.


In English

Amir al-mu'minin delivered this sermon at Dhiqar on his way to Basrah and the historian al-Waqidi has mentioned it (in Kitab al-Jamal).

About the Holy Prophet

The Prophet manifested whatever he was commanded and conveyed the messages of his Lord. Consequently Allah repaired through him the cracks joined through him the slits and created (through him) affection among kin although they bore intense enmity in (their) chests and deep-seated rancour in (their) hearts.

p: 243

In Arabic

[ 231 ] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام

خطبها بذي قار، وهو متوجّه إلى البصرة، وذكرها الواقدي في كتاب (الجمل)

فَصَدَعَ (1) بَمَا أُمِرَ بِهِ، وَبَلَّغَ رِسَالَةِ رَبِّهِ، فَلَمَّ اللهُ بِهِ الصَّدْعَ (2) ، وَرَتَقَ بِهِ الْفَتْقَ (3) ، وَأَلَّفَ بِهِ بَيْنَ ذَوِي الْأَرْحَامِ، بَعْدَ الْعَدَاوَةِ الْوَاغِرَةِ (4) فِي الصُّدُورِ، والضَّغَائِنِ الْقَادِحَةِ (5) فِي الْقُلُوبِ.

In Persian

(اين سخنرانى در سرزمين «ذى قار» «1» هنگام حركت به سوى بصره در سال 36 هجرى ايراد شد و واقدى آن را در كتاب «جمل» نقل كرد)

ويژگى پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم

پيامبر اسلام صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم آنچه را كه به ابلاغ شد آشكار كرد، و پيام هاى پروردگارش را رساند. او شكاف هاى اجتماعى را به وحدت اصلاح، و فاصله ها را به هم پيوند داد و پس از آن كه آتش دشمنى ها و كينه هاى بر افروخته در دل ها راه يافته بود، ميان خويشاوندان يگانگى بر قرار كرد.

(1) ذى قار: نام سرزمينى است در نزديكى شهر بصره، كه جنگ اعراب و ايران پيش از اسلام در آن جا اتّفاق افتاده است.


In English

'Abdullah ibn Zama'ah who was one of the followers of Amir al-mu'minin came to him during his Caliphate to ask for some money when Amir al-mu'minin said:

This money is not for me nor for you but it is the collective property of the Muslims and the acquisition of their swords. If you had taken part with them in their fighting you would have a share equal to theirs otherwise the earning of their hands cannot be for other than their mouths.

p: 244

In Arabic

[ 232 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

كلّم به عبدالله بن زمعة وهو من شيعته وذلك أنه قَدِمَ عليه في خلافته يطلب منه مالاً، فقال عليه السلام:

إِنَّ هذَا الْمَالَ لَيْسَ لِي وَلاَ لَكَ، وَإِنَّمَا هُوَ فَيْءٌ لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ (1) ، وَجَلْبُ أَسْيَافِهِمْ (2) ، فَإِنْ شَرِكْتَهُمْ (3) فِي حَرْبِهِمْ كَانَ لَكَ مِثْلُ حَظِّهِمْ، وَإِلاَّ فَجَنَاةُ (4) أَيْدِيهِمْ لاَ تَكُونُ لِغَيْرِ أَفْوَاهِهِمْ.

In Persian

(عبد الله بن زمعة «1» از ياران امام بود و درخواست مالى داشت، در جوابش فرمود)

احتياط در مصرف بيت المال

اين اموال كه مى بينى نه مال من و نه از آن توست، غنيمتى گرد آمده از مسلمانان است كه با شمشيرهاى خود به دست آوردند، اگر تو در جهاد همراهشان بودى، سهمى چونان سهم آنان داشتى، و گر نه دسترنج آنان خوراك ديگران نخواهد بود.

(1) عبد اللّه ابن زمعه كسى است كه پدر و عمو و برادرش در جنگ بدر به دست مسلمانان كشته شدند، جدّ او أسود، رسول خدا را فراوان آزار مى داد، اما او از شيعيان امام على عليه السّلام شد و فكر مى كرد، در تقسيم بيت المال به او بيشتر توجّه مى شود. امّا پاسخ قاطع امام او را بيدار كرد.


In English

On Ja'dah ibn Hubayrah al-Makhzumi's (1) inability to deliver a sermon.

About speaking the truth

Know that the tongue is a part of a man's body. If the man desists speech will not co-operate with him and when he dilates speech will not give him time to stop. Certainly we are the masters of speaking. Its veins are fixed in us and its branches are hanging over us.

p: 245

Know that - may Allah have mercy on you - you are living at a time when those who speak about right are few when tongues are loath to utter the truth and those who stick to the right are humiliated. The people of this time are engaged in disobedience. Their youths are wicked their old men are sinful their learned men are hypocrites and their speakers are sycophants. Their youngs do not respect their elders and their rich men do not support the destitute.

In Arabic

[ 233 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

بعد أن أقدم أحدهم على الكلام فحصر وهو في فضل أهل البيت، ووصف فساد الزمان

أَلاَ إِنَّ اللِّسَانَ بَضْعَةٌ (1) مِنَ الْإِنْسَانِ، فَلاَ يُسْعِدُهُ الْقَوْلُ إِذَا امْتَنَعَ، وَلاَ يُمْهِلُهُ النُّطْقُ إِذَا اتَّسَعَ، وَإِنَّا لَأُمَرَاءُ الْكَلاَمِ، وَفِينَا تَنَشَّبَتْ (2) عُرُوقُهُ، وَعَلَيْنَا تَهَدَّلَتْ (3) غُصوُنُهُ.

فساد الزمان

وَاعْلَمُوا رَحِمَكُمُ اللهُ أَنَّكُمْ فِي زَمَانٍ الْقَائِلُ فِيهِ بالْحَقِّ قَلِيلٌ، وَاللِّسَانُ عَنِ الصِّدْقِ كَلِيلٌ (4) ، وَاللاَّزِمُ لِلْحَقَّ ذَلِيلٌ. أَهْلُهُ مُعْتَكِفُونَ عَلَى الْعِصْيَانِ، مُصْطَلِحُونَ عَلَى الْإِدْهَانِ، فَتَاهُمْ عَارِمٌ (5) ، وَشَائِبُهُمْ آثِمٌ، عَالِمُهُمْ مُنَافِقٌ، وَقَارِئُهُمْ مُمَاذِقٌ (6) ، لايُعَظِّمُ صَغِيرُهُمْ كَبِيرَهُمْ، وَلاَ يَعُولُ غَنيِيُّهُمْ فَقِيرَهُمْ.

In Persian

(هنگامى كه «جعدة بن هبيرة» خواهر زاده امام عليه السّلام نتوانست در حضور آن حضرت سخن بگويد فرمود)

1 فصاحت و بلاغت اهل بيت عليهم السّلام

آگاه باشيد، همانا زبان، پاره اى از وجود انسان است، اگر آمادگى نداشته باشد، سخن نمى گويد، و به هنگام آمادگى، گفتار او را مهلت نمى دهد ، همانا ما اميران سخن مى باشيم، درخت سخن در ما ريشه دوانده، و شاخه هاى آن بر ما سايه افكنده است. «1»

p: 246

2 علل سقوط جامعه انسانى

خدا شما را رحمت كند، بدانيد كه همانا شما در روزگارى هستيد كه گوينده حق اندك، و زبان از راستگويى عاجز، و حق طلبان بى ارزشند ، مردم گرفتار گناه، و به سازشكارى همداستانند، جوانانشان بد اخلاق، و پير مردانشان گنه كار، و عالمشان دو رو، و نزديكانشان سود جوينده، نه خردسالانشان بزرگان را احترام مى كنند و نه توانگرانشان دست مستمندان را مى گيرند.


(1) اشاره به علم: اوراشن NOITARO (علم خطابه و سخنورى)


(1). Once Amir al-mu'minin asked his nephew (sister's son) Ja'dah ibn Hubayrah al-Makhzumi to deliver a sermon but when he rose for speaking his tongue faltered and he could utter nothing whereupon Amir al-mu'minin ascended the pulpit to speak and delivered a long sermon out of which a few sentences have been recorded here by as-Sayyid ar-Radi.

of their characters are formed. Therefore to the extent that their clay of origin is akin their mental and imaginative tendencies too will be similar and to the extent by which they differ there will be a difference in their inclinations and tendencies. By origins of a thing are meant those things on which its coming into existence depends but they should not be its cause. The word "tin" is the plural of "tinah" which means origin or basis. Here "tinah" means semen which after passing through various stages of development emerges in the human shape. Its origin means those constituents from which those items are created which help in the formation of semen. Thus by saltish sweet soft or hard soil the reference is to these elementary constituents. Since those elementary constituents carry different properties the semen growing out of them will also bear different characteristics and propensities which will (eventually) show forth in the differences in features and conduct of those borne in it.

p: 247

Ibn Abi'l-Hadid has written (in Sharh Nahj al-balaghah vol. 13 p. 19) that "origins of tinah" implies those preservative factors which are different in their properties as Plato and other philosophers have held. The reason for calling them "origins of tinah" is that they serve as an asylum for the human body and prevent the elements from diffusion. Just as the existence of a thing hinges on its basis in the same way the existence of this body which is made up of elements depends on preservative factors. So long as the preservative factor exists the body is also safe from disruption and disintegration and the elements too are immune to diffusion and dispersal. When it leaves the body the elements also get dispersed.

According to this explanation Amir al-mu'minin's words would mean that Allah has created different original factors among whom some are vicious and some are virtuous some are weak and some are strong and every person will act according to his original factor. If there is similarity in the inclinations of two persons it is because their original factor are similar and if their tendencies differ it is because their original factors do not have any similarity. But this conclusion is not correct because Amir al-mu'minin's words do not only refer to differences in conduct and behaviour but also of features and shape and the differences of features and shape cannot be the result of differences in original factors.

In any case whether the original factors are the cause of differences in features and conduct or the elementary constituents are the cause these words appear to lead to the negation of volition and to prove the compulsion (of destiny) in human actions because if man's capacity for thinking and acting is dependent on "tinah" then he would be compelled to behave himself in a fixed way on account of which he would neither deserve praise for good acts nor be held blame worthy for bad habits. But this hypothesis is incorrect because it is well established that just as Allah knows everything in creation after its coming into being in the same way He knew it before its creation. Thus He knew what actions man would perform of his free will and what he would leave. Therefore Allah gave him capacity to act according to his free will and created him from a suitable "tinah". This tinah is not the cause of his actions so as to snatch away from him his free will but the meaning of creating from suitable tinah is that Allah does not by force stand in man's way but allows him to tread the path he wants to tread of his own free will.

p: 248


In English

Causes for difference in the features and traits of people

Dhi'lib al-Yamami has related from Ahmad ibn Qutaybah and he from 'Abdullah ibn Yazid and he from Malik ibn Dihyah who said "We were with Amir al-mu'minin when discussion arose about the differences of men (in features and conduct) and then Amir al-mu'minin said":

They differ among themselves because of the sources (1) of their clay (from which they have been created). This is because they are either from saltish soil or sweet soil or from rugged earth or soft earth. They resemble each other on the basis of the affinity of their soil and differ according to its difference. Therefore sometimes a person of handsome features is weak in intelligence a tall statured person is of low courage a virtuous person is ugly in appearance a short statured person is far-sighted a good-natured person has an evil trait a person of perplexed heart has bewildering mind and a sharp-tongued person has a wakeful heart.

In Arabic

[ 234 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

روى ذعلب اليماني، عن أحمد بن قتيبة، عن عبدالله بن يزيد، عن مالك بن دِحْيَةَ، قال: كنّا عند أميرالمؤمنين عليه السلام، وقد ذكر عنده اختلاف الناس فقال :

إِنَّمَا فَرَّقَ بَيْنَهُمْ مَبَادِىءُ طِينِهِمْ (1) ، وَذلِكَ أَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا فِلْقَةً (2) مِنْ سَبَخِ (3) أَرْضٍ وَ عَذْبِهَا، وَحَزْنِ تُرْبَةٍ وَسَهْلِهَا، فَهُمْ عَلَى حَسَبِ قُرْبِ أَرْضِهِمْ يَتَقَارَبُونَ، وَعَلَى قَدْرِ اخْتِلاَفِهَا يَتَفَاوَتُونَ، فَتَامُّ الرُّوَاءِ (4) نَاقِصُ الْعَقْلِ، وَمَادُّ الْقَامَةِ (5) قَصِيرُ الْهِمَّةِ، وَزَاكِي الْعَمَلِ قَبِيحُ المَنْظَرِ، وَقَرِيبُ الْقَعْرِ (6) بَعِيدُ السَّبْرِ،مَعْرُوفُ الضَّرِيبَةِ (7) مُنْكَرُ الْجَلِيبَةِ (8) ، وَتَائِهُ الْقَلْبِ مُتَفَرِّقُ اللُّبِّ، وَطَلِيقُ اللِّسَانِ حدِيدُ الْجَنَانِ.

p: 249

In Persian

(ذعلب يمانى از جمله احمد بن قتيبة، از عبد الله بن يزيد، از مالك بن دحيه نقل كرد كه در حضور امام از علّت تفاوت هاى ميان مردم پرسيدند، امام فرمود)

علل تفاوت ها ميان انسان ها

علّت تفاوت هاى ميان مردم، گوناگونى سرشت آنان است، زيرا آدميان در آغاز، تركيبى از خاك شور و شيرين، سخت و نرم، بودند، پس آنان به ميزان نزديك بودن خاكشان با هم نزديك، و به اندازه دورى آن از هم دور و متفاوتند «1».

يكى زيبا روى و كم خرد، و ديگرى بلند قامت و كم همّت، يكى زشت روى و نيكوكار، ديگرى كوتاه قامت «2» و خوش فكر، يكى پاك سرشت و بد اخلاق، ديگرى خوش قلب و آشفته عقل، و آن ديگرى سخنورى دل آگاه است! «3»


(1) اشاره به علم: يوژنيكس SCINEGUE (نژاد شناسى) و علم: اتنولوژى YGOLONHTE (نژاد شناسى)

(2) اشاره به علم: مرفولوژى YGOLOHPROM (شكل شناسى) و فيزيونومى YMONGOISYHP (قيافه شناسى)

(3) اين خطبه بسيارى از مشكلات علمى نسبت به پيدايش نژادها و تفاوتهاى روانى و جسمى انسانها را بر طرف مى سازد، و شبهات مربوط به عدل الهى را پاسخ مى دهد كه تفاوتها، علل و عوامل طبيعى داشته و به انتخاب و اختيار و نوع تغذيه و شرائط جغرافيايى محيط زيست ارتباط دارد.

پدر و مادرم فداى تو اى رسول خدا! با مرگ تو رشته اى پاره شد كه در مرگ ديگران اينگونه قطع نشد، با مرگ تو رشته پيامبرى، و فرود آمدن پيام و اخبار آسمانى گسست.

p: 250

مصيبت تو، ديگر مصيبت ديدگان را به شكيبايى واداشت ، و همه را در مصيبت تو يكسان عزادار كرد.

اگر به شكيبايى امر نمى كردى، و از بى تابى نهى نمى فرمودى، آنقدر اشك مى ريختم تا اشك هايم تمام شود، و اين درد جانكاه هميشه در من مى ماند، و اندوهم جاودانه مى شد، كه همه اينها در مصيب تو ناچيز است! چه بايد كرد كه زندگى را دوباره نمى توان بازگرداند، و مرگ را نمى شود مانع شد، پدر و مادرم فداى تو! ما را در پيشگاه پروردگارت ياد كن، و در خاطر خود نگهدار!


In English

Spoken when Amir al-mu'minin was busy in the funeral ablution (ghusl) of the Holy Prophet and shrouding him

May my father and my mother shed their lives for you. O' Messenger of Allah! With your death the process of prophethood revelation and heavenly messages has stopped which had not stopped at the death of others (prophets). Your position with us (members of your family) is so special that your grief has become a source of consolation (to us) as against the grief of all others; your grief is also common so that all Muslims share it equally. If you had not ordered endurance and prevented us from bewailing we would have produced a store of tears and even then the pain would not have subsided and this grief would not have ended and they would have been too little of our grief for you. But this (death) is a matter that cannot be reversed nor is it possible to repulse it. May my father and my mother die for you; do remember us with Allah and take care of us.

p: 251

In Arabic

[ 235 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

قاله وهو يلي غسل رسول الله, صلى الله عليه وآله وتجهيزه :

بِأَبِي أَنْتَ وأُمِّي يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ، لَقَدِ انْقَطَعَ بِمَوْتِكَ مَا لَمْ يَنْقَطِعْ بِمَوْتِ غَيْرِكَ مِنَ النُّبُوَّةِ وَالْإِنْبَاءِ وأَخْبَارِ السَّماءِ، خَصَصْتَ حَتَّى صِرْتَ مُسَلِّياً عَمَّنْ سِوَاكَ، وَعَمَمْتَ حَتّى صَارَ النَّاسُ فِيكَ سَواءً، وَلَوْ لاَ أَنَّكَ أَمَرْتَ بِالصَّبْرِ، وَنَهَيْتَ عَنِ الْجَزَعِ، لَأَنْفَدْنَا (1) عَلَيْكَ مَاءَ الشُّؤُونِ (2) ، وَلَكَانَ الدَّاءُ مُمَاطِلاً (3) ، وَالْكَمَدُ مُحَالِفاً (4) ، وَقَلاَّ لَكَ (5) ! وَلكِنَّهُ مَا لاَ يُمْلَكُ رَدُّهُ، وَلاَ يُسْتَطَاعُ دَفْعُهُ! بِأَبِي أَنْتَ وَأُمّي! اذْكُرْنَا عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ، وَاجْعَلْنَا مِنْ بَالِكَ!

In Persian

(به هنگام غسل دادن پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم فرمود)

در سوگ پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم

پدر و مادرم فداى تو اى رسول خدا! با مرگ تو رشته اى پاره شد كه در مرگ ديگران اينگونه قطع نشد، با مرگ تو رشته پيامبرى، و فرود آمدن پيام و اخبار آسمانى گسست.

مصيبت تو، ديگر مصيبت ديدگان را به شكيبايى واداشت ، و همه را در مصيبت تو يكسان عزادار كرد.

اگر به شكيبايى امر نمى كردى، و از بى تابى نهى نمى فرمودى، آنقدر اشك مى ريختم تا اشك هايم تمام شود، و اين درد جانكاه هميشه در من مى ماند، و اندوهم جاودانه مى شد، كه همه اينها در مصيب تو ناچيز است! چه بايد كرد كه زندگى را دوباره نمى توان بازگرداند، و مرگ را نمى شود مانع شد ، پدر و مادرم فداى تو! ما را در پيشگاه پروردگارت ياد كن، و در خاطر خود نگهدار!

p: 252


In English

In (1) this sermon Amir al-mu'minin has related his own condition after the Prophet's immigration till his meeting with him.

I began following the path adopted by the Prophet and treading on the lines of his remembrance till I reached al-'Arj.

as-Sayyid ar-Radi says: Amir al-mu'minin's words "faata'u dhikrahu" constitute the highest forms of brevity and eloquence. He means to say that he was being given news about the Prophet from the commencement of his setting out till he reached this place and he has expressed this sense in this wonderful expression.

In Arabic

[ 236 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام

اقتصّ فيه ذكر ما كان منه بعد هجرة النبي-صلى الله عليه وآله- ثم لحاقه به:

فَجَعَلْتُ أَتْبَعُ مَأْخَذَ رَسُولِ الله -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ- فَأَطَأُ ذِكْرَهُ، حَتَّى انْتَهَيْتُ إِلَى الْعَرَجِ (1) .

قال السيد الشريف رضي الله عنه في كلام طويل: قوله عليه السلام: «فَأطَأُ ذِكْرَهُ»، من الكلام الذي رُمِيَ به إلى غايتي والايجاز والفصاحة، وأراد أني كنتُ أُعْطي خبره -صلى الله عليه وآله- من بدء خروجي إلى أن انتهيتُ إلى هذا الموضع، وكنّى عن ذلك بهذه الكناية العجيبة.

In Persian

(از هجرت و پيوستن به پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم سخن مى گويد)

ياد مشكلات هجرت

خود را در راهى قرار دادم كه پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم رفته بود، و همه جا از او پرسيدم تا به سرزمين «عرج» رسيدم «1».

«اين جملات در يك سخن طولانى آمده است، جمله

«فأطأ ذكره»

p: 253

(در همه جا از او مى پرسيدم.) يكى از سخنانى است كه در اوج فصاحت قرار دارد، يعنى خبر حركت پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم از ابتداء حركت تا پايان به من مى رسيد، كه امام اين معنا را با كناية آورده است)


(1) عرج: يكى از منزلگاه هاى بين مكّه و مدينه است، وقتى امام عليه السّلام زنان و فرزندان رسول خدا صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم را با پاى پياده از مكّه تا محلّه قبا در مدينه رساند پاهاى آن حضرت ورم كرد، و خونين شد. پيامبر در منزل «كلثوم بن هدم» بودند، وقتى نگاهش به پاهاى امام على عليه السّلام افتاد اشك در چشمان آن حضرت حلقه زد.


(1) . Since the commencement of prophethood the Prophet remained in Mecca for thirteen years. For him this period was of the severest oppression and destitution. The unbelievers of the Quraysh had closed all the doors of livelihood upon him and had left no deficiency in inflicting hardships upon him so much so that in order to take his life they began contriving how to do away with him. Forty of their nobles assembled in the hall of audience (Dar an-Nadwah) for consultation and decided that one individual should be picked out from every tribe and they should jointly attack him. In this way Banu Hashim would not dare to face all the tribes and the matter would quieten down on the payment of blood price. To give a practical shape to this scheme these people sat in ambush near the house of the Prophet on the night of the first of Rabi' al-awwal so that when the prophet slept in his bed he would be attacked. On this side the preparation for killing him was complete and on the other side Allah informed him of all the intrigues of the Quraysh unbelievers and commanded him to make 'Ali (p.b.u.h.) sleep on his bed and himself to immigrate to Medina.

p: 254

The Prophet sent for 'Ali (p.b.u.h.) and disclosing to him his plan said: "Ali you lie on my bed." Amir al-mu'minin enquired: "O' Messenger of Allah will your life be saved by my sleeping here?" The Prophet said: "Yes." Hearing this Amir al-mu'minin performed a prostration in thanks-giving and exposing himself fully to the danger lay on the Prophet's bed while the Prophet left from the rear door. The Quraysh unbelievers were peeping and getting ready for the attack but Abu Lahab said: "It is not proper to attack in the night because there are women and children also in the house. When morning dawns you attack him but keep watch during night that he should not move anywhere." Consequently they kept their eyes on the bed throughout the night and soon on the appearance of the dawn proceeded forward stealthily. Hearing the sound of their footsteps Amir al-mu'minin removed the covering from his face and stood up. The Quraysh gazed at him with stretched eyes as to whether it was an illusion or fact. After making sure that it was 'Ali they enquired "Where is Muhammad?" and 'Ali replied "Did you entrust him to me that now you are asking me?" They had no reply to this. Men ran to chase him but found footprints only up to the cave of Thawr. Beyond that there were neither footprints nor any sign of hiding in the cave.

They came back bewildered while the Prophet after staying in the cave for three days left for Medina. Amir al-mu'minin passed these three days in Mecca returned to the people their properties lying in trust with the Prophet and set off towards Medina to join the Prophet. Upto al-'Arj which is a place between Mecca and Medina he kept getting news about the Prophet and he continued his anxious march in his search till he met the Prophet at Quba on the twelfth of Rabi' al-awwal and entered Medina with him. (at-Tabari at-Tafsir vol. 9 pp. 148-151; at-Tarikh vol. 1 pp. 1232-1234; Ibn Sa'd at-Tabaqat vol. 1 Part 1 pp. 153-154; Ibn Hisham as-Sirah vol. 2 pp. 124-128; Ibn al-Athir Usd al-ghabah vol. 4 p. 25; al-Kamil vol. 2 pp. 101-104; Ibn Kathir at-Tafsir vol. 2 pp. 302-303; at-Tarikh vol. 3 pp. 180-181; Ibn Abi'l-Hadid vol. 13 pp. 303-306; as-Suyuti ad-Durr al-manthur vol. 3 pp. 179-180; al-'Allamah al-Majlisi Bihar al-anwar vol. 19 pp. 28-103).

p: 255


In English

About collecting provision for the next world while in this world and performing good acts before death

Perform (good) acts while you are still in the vastness of life the books are open (for recording of actions) repentance is allowed the runner away (from Allah) is being called and the sinner is being given hope (of forgiveness) before the (light of) action is put off time expires life ends the door for repentance is closed and angels ascend to the sky.

Therefore a man should derive benefit from himself for himself from the living for the dead from the mortal for the lasting and from the departer for the stayer. A man should fear Allah while he is given age to live upto his death and is allowed time to act. A man should control his self by the rein and hold it with its bridle thus by the rein he should prevent it from disobedience towards Allah and by the bridle he should lead it towards obedience to Allah.

In Arabic

[ 237 ] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام في المسارعة إلى العمل

فَاعْمَلُوا وَأَنْتُمْ فِي نَفَسِ الْبَقَاءِ (1) ، وَالصُّحُفُ مَنْشُورَةٌ (2) ، وَالتَّوْبَةُ مَبْسُوطَةٌ (3) ، وَالْمُدْبِرُ (4) يُدْعَى، وَالْمُسِيءُ يُرْجَى، قَبْلَ أَنْ يَخْمُدَ العَمَلُ (5) ، وَيَنَقَطِعَ الْمَهَلُ، وَيَنْقَضِيَ الْأَجَلُ، وَيُسَدَّ بَابُ التَّوْبَةِ، وَتَصْعَدَ الْمَلاَئِكَةُ (6) . فَأخَذَ امْرُؤٌ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ لِنَفْسِهِ، وَأَخَذَ مِنْ حَيّ لِمَيِّتٍ، وَمِنْ فَانٍ لِبَاقٍ، وَمِنْ ذَاهِبٍ لِدَائِمٍ. امْرُءٌ خَافَ اللهَ وَهُوَ مُعَمَّرٌ إلَى أَجَلِهِ، وَمَنْظُورٌ (7) إلَى عَمَلِهِ. امْرُءٌ أَلْجَمَ نَفْسَهُ بِلِجَامِهَا، وَزَمَّهَا بِزِمَامِهَا (8) ، فَأَمْسَكَهَا بِلِجَامِهَا عَنْ مَعَاصِي اللهِ، وَقَادَها بِزِمَامِهَا إِلَى طَاعَةِ اللهِ.

p: 256

In Persian

سفارش به نيكوكارى

حال كه زنده و برقراريد، پس عمل نيكو انجام دهيد، زيرا پرونده ها گشوده، راه توبه آماده، و خدا فراريان را فرا مى خواند، و بدكاران اميد بازگشت دارند.

عمل كنيد، پيش از آن كه چراغ عمل خاموش، و فرصت پايان يافته، و اجل فرارسيده، و در توبه بسته، و فرشتگان به آسمان پرواز كنند.پس هر كسى با تلاش خود براى خود، از روزگار زندگانى براى ايّام پس از مرگ، از دنياى فنا پذير براى جهان پايدار، و از گذرگاه دنيا براى زندگى جاودانه آخرت، توشه برگيرد ، انسان بايد از خدا بترسد، زيرا تا لحظه مرگ فرصت داده شده، و مهلت عمل نيكو دارد. انسان بايد نفس را مهار زند، و آن را در اختيار گرفته از طغيان و گناهان باز دارد، و زمام آن را به سوى اطاعت پروردگار بكشاند.


In English

About the two arbitrators (Abu Musa al-Ash'ari and 'Amr ibn al-'As) and disparagement of the people of Syria (ash-Sham).

Rude low people and mean slaves. They have been collected from all sides and picked up from every pack. They need to be taught the tenets (of Islam) disciplined instructed trained supervised and led by the hand. They are neither muhajirun (immigrants from Mecca) nor ansar (helpers of Medina) nor those who made their dwellings in the abode (in Medina) and in belief. Look! They have chosen for themselves one who is nearest of all of them to what they desire while you have chosen one who is nearest to what you dislike. You may certainly recall that the other day 'Abdullah ibn Qays (Abu Musa) was saying: "It is a mischief therefore cut away your bow-string and sheathe your swords." If he was right (in what he said) then he was wrong in marching (with us) without being forced but if he was lying then he should be viewed with suspicion. Therefore send 'Abdullah ibn al-'Abbas to face 'Amr ibn al-'As. Make use of these days and surround the borders of Islam. Do you not see that your cities are being attacked and your prowess is being aimed at?

p: 257

In Arabic

[ 238 ] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام في شأن الحكمين وذمّ أهل الشام

جُفَاةٌ (1) طَغَامٌ، (2) عَبِيدٌ أَقْزَامٌ (3) ، جُمِّعُوا مِنْ كُلِّ أَوْبٍ، وَتُلُقِّطُوا مِنْ كُلِّ شَوْبٍ (4) ، مِمَّنْ يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يُفَقَّهَ وَيُؤَدَّبَ، وَيُعَلَّمَ وَيُدَرَّبَ، وَيُوَلَّى عَلَيْهِ، وَيُؤْخَذَ عَلَى يَدَيْهِ، لَيْسُوا مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالْأَنْصَارِ، وَلاَ مِنَ الَّذِينَ تَبَوَّؤُا الدَّارَ وَ الْإِيمَانَ.

أَلاَ وَإِنَّ الْقَوْمَ اخْتَارُوا لِأَنْفُسِهِمْ أَقْرَبَ الْقَوْمِ مِمَّا تُحِبُّونَ، وَإنَّكُمُ اخْتَرْتُمْ لِأَنْفُسِكُمْ أَقْرَبَ الْقَوْمِ مِمَّا تَكْرَهُونَ. وَإِنَّمَا عَهْدُكُمْ بَعَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ قَيْسٍ بِالْأَمْسِ يَقُولُ: (إِنَّهَا فِتْنَةٌ فَقَطِّعُوا أَوْتَارَكُمْ (5) وَشِيمُوا (6) سُيُوفَكُمْ) فَإِنْ كَانَ صَادِقاً فَقَدْ أَخْطَأَ بِمَسِيرِهِ غَيْرَ مُسْتَكْرَهٍ، وَإِنْ كَانَ كَاذِباً فَقَدْ لَزِمَتْهُ التُّهَمَهُ. فَادْفَعُوا فِي صَدْرِ عَمْرِوبْنِ الْعَاصِ بِعَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ الْعَبَّاسِ، وَخُذُوا مَهَلَ الْأَيَّامِ، وَحُوطُوا قَوَاصِيَ الْإِسْلاَمِ. أَلاَ تَرَوْنَ إِلَى بَلاَدِكُمْ تُغْزَى، وَإِلَى صَفَاتِكُمْ تُرْمَى؟

In Persian

(در باره دو داور عراق و شام و نكوهش كوفيان فرمود)

1 وصف شاميان

شاميان درشت خويانى پست، بردگانى فرو مايه اند كه از هر گوشه اى گرد آمده، و از گروه هاى مختلفى تركيب يافته اند «1»، مردمى كه سزاوار بودند احكام دين را بياموزند، و تربيت شوند، و دانش فراگيرند، و كار آزموده شوند، و سرپرست داشته باشند، و دستگيرشان كنند، و آنها را به كار مفيد وادارند. آنان نه از مهاجرانند و نه از انصار، و نه آنان كه خانه و زندگى خود را براى مهاجران آماده كرده، و از جان و دل ايمان آوردند.

2 نكوهش از انتخاب حكم

آگاه باشيد كه شاميان در انتخاب حكم، نزديك ترين فردى را كه دوست داشتند برگزيدند، و شما فردى را كه از همه به ناخشنودى نزديك تر بود انتخاب كرديد، «2» همانا سر و كار شما با عبد اللّه پسر قيس است كه مى گفت: «جنگ فتنه است بند كمان ها را ببرّيد و شمشيرها را در نيام كنيد» اگر راست مى گفت پس چرا بدون اجبار در جنگ شركت كرده؟ و اگر دروغ مى گفت پس متّهم است.

p: 258

براى داورى. عبد اللّه بن عباس را رو در روى عمرو عاص قرار دهيد، و از فرصت مناسب استفاده كنيد، و مرزهاى دور دست كشور اسلامى را در دست خود نگه داريد ، آيا نمى بينيد كه شهرهاى شما ميدان نبرد شده؟ و خانه هاى شما هدف تيرهاى دشمنان قرار گرفته است؟


(1) طرفداران تفكّر موبوكراسى YCARCOBOM كه اعتقاد دارند حكومت بايد در دست رجّاله ها و اوباش و مردم عوام باشد، كه يكى از تعاريف دموكراسى هم همين است.

(2) شاميان عمرو عاص، و كوفيان ابو موسى را انتخاب كردند، نام ابو موسى، عبد اللّه بن قيس است كه در زمان عثمان والى كوفه گرديد، و چون امام او را عزل كرد كينه اى در دل گرفت، از منافقانى بود كه پس از بيعت غدير خم مى خواستند پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم را ترور كنند.


In English

Amir al-mu'minin describes herein the members of the Prophet's family

They are life for knowledge and death for ignorance. Their forbearance tells you of their knowledge and their silence of the wisdom of their speaking. They do not go against right nor do they differ (among themselves) about it. They are the pillars of Islam and the asylums of (its) protection. With them right has returned to its position and wrong has left its place and its tongue is severed from its root. They have understood the religion attentively and carefully not by mere heresy or from relaters because the relaters of knowledge are many but its understanders are few.

p: 259

In Arabic

[239] ومن خطبة له عليه السلام يذكر فيها آل محمد(ص)

هُمْ عَيْشُ الْعِلْمِ، وَمَوْتُ الْجَهْلِ، يُخْبِرُكُمْ حِلْمُهُمْ عَنْ عِلْمِهِمْ، ظَاهِرُهُمْ عَنْ بَاطِنِهِمْ, وَصَمْتُهُمْ عَنْ حِكَمِ مَنْطِقِهِمْ. لاَ يُخَالِفُونَ الْحَقَّ وَلاَ يَخْتَلِفُونَ فِيهِ. هُمْ دَعَائِمُ الْإِسْلاَمِ، وَوَلاَئِجُ (1) الْإِعْتِصَامِ، بِهِمْ عَادَ الْحَقُّ فِي نِصَابِهِ (2) ، وَانْزَاحَ الْبَاطِلُ (3) عَنْ مُقَامِهِ، وَانْقَطَعَ لِسَانُهُ عَنْ مَنْبِتِهِ (4) . عَقَلُوا الدِّينَ عَقْلَ وِعَايَةٍ وَرِعَايَةٍ (5) ، لاَ عَقْلَ سَمَاعٍ وَرِوَايَةٍ. فَإِنَّ رُوَاةَ الْعِلْمِ كَثِيرٌ، وَرُعَاتَهُ قَلِيلٌ.

In Persian

(در اين خطبه از جايگاه خاندان پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم سخن مى گويد)

فضائل اهل بيت پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم

خاندان پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم مايه حيات دانش، و نابودى جهل اند، بردبارى شان شما را از دانش آنها خبر مى دهد، و ظاهرشان از صفاى باطن، و سكوتشان از حكومت هاى گفتارشان با خبر مى سازد ، هرگز با حق مخالفت نكردند، و در آن اختلاف ندارند.

آنان ستون هاى استوار اسلام، و پناهگاه مردم مى باشند، حق به وسيله آنها به جايگاه خويش بازگشت، و باطل از جاى خويش رانده و نابود، و زبان باطل از ريشه كنده شد. اهل بيت پيامبر صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم دين را چنانكه سزاوار بود، دانستند و آموختند و بدان عمل كردند، نه آنكه شنيدند و نقل كردند، زيرا راويان دانش بسيار، امّا حفظ كنندگان و عمل كنندگان به آن اندكند.


In English

When 'Uthman ibn 'Affan was surrounded 'Abdullah ibn al-'Abbas brought a letter to Amir al-mu'minin from 'Uthman in which he expressed the desire that Amir al-mu'minin should leave for his estate Yanbu' so that the proposal that was being mooted out for him to become caliph should subside. 'Uthman had this request earlier also. Upon this Amir al-mu'minin said to Ibn al-'Abbas:

p: 260

O' Ibn al-'Abbas! 'Uthman just wants to treat me like the water-drawing camel so that I may go forward and backward with the bucket. Once he sent me word that I should go out then sent me word that I should come back. Now again he sends me word that I should go out. By Allah I continued protecting him till I feared lest I become a sinner.

In Arabic

[ 240 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام قاله لعبد الله بن العباس,

وقد جاء برسالة من عثمان وهو محصور يسأله فيها الخروج إلى ماله بينبُع، ليقلّ هتف (1) الناس باسمه للخلافة، بعد أن كان سأله مثل ذلك من قبل، فقال عليه السلام: يَابْنَ عَبَّاسٍ، مَا يُرِيدُ عُثْمَانُ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَجَعَلَنِي جَمَلاً نَاضِحاً بِالْغَرْبِ (2) : أَقْبِلْ وَأَدْبِرْ! بَعَثَ إِلَيَّ أَنْ أَخْرُجَ، ثُمَّ بَعَثَ إِليَّ أَنْ أَقْدُمَ، ثُمَّ هُوَ الْآنَ يَبْعَثُ إِلَيَّ أَنْ أَخْرُجَ! وَاللهِ لَقَدْ دَفَعْتُ عَنْهُ حَتَّى خَشِيتُ أَنْ أَكُونَ آثِماً.

In Persian

(در سال 35 هجرى وقتى عثمان محاصره شد، ابن عباس را فرستاد كه على عليه السّلام در مدينه نباشد و به باغات ينبع «محلّى در اطراف مدينه» برود، كه مردم به نام او شعار ندهند، امام رفت. وقتى احتياج شديد به يارى داشت پيغام داد و امام به مدينه برگشت. دوباره ابن عباس را فرستاد كه على عليه السّلام از مدينه خارج شود ، امام فرمود)

نكوهش از موضع گيرى هاى نارواى عثمان

اى پسر عبّاس! عثمان جز اين نمى خواهد كه مرا سرگردان نگهدارد، گاهى بروم، و زمانى برگردم، «1» يك بار پيغام فرستاد از مدينه خارج شوم، دوباره خبر داد كه باز گردم، هم اكنون تو را فرستاده كه از شهر خارج شوم. به خدا سوگند، آنقدر از او دفاع كردم كه ترسيدم گناهكار باشم!.

p: 261


In English

Exhorting his men to jihad and asking them to refrain from seeking ease

Allah seeks you to thank Him and assigns to you His affairs. He has allowed time in the limited field (of life) so that you may vie with each other in seeking the reward (of Paradise). Therefore tight up your girdles and wrap up the skirts. High courage and dinners do not go together. Sleep causes weakness in the big affairs of the day and (its) darkness obliterates the memories of courage.

In Arabic

[ 241 ] ومن كلام له عليه السلام يحثّ به أصحابه على الجهاد

وَاللهُ مُسْتأْدِيكُمْ (1) شُكْرَهُ، وَمُوَرِّثُكُمْ أَمْرَهُ، وَمُمْهِلُكُمْ (2) فِي مِضْمارٍ (3) مَحْدُودٍ، لِتَتَنَازَعُوا سَبَقَهُ (4) ، فَشدُّوا عُقَدَ الْمَآزِرِ (5) ، وَاطْوُوا فُضُولَ الْخَوَاصِر (6) ، وَلاَ تَجْتَمِعُ عَزِيمَةٌ وَوَلِيمَةٌ (7) ، وَمَا أَنْقَضَ النَّوْمَ لِعَزَائِمِ الْيَوْمِ،أَمحَى الظُّلَمَ (8) لِتَذَاكِيرِ الْهِمَمِ! و صلي الله على سيدنا محمد النبي الأمي, و على آله مصابيح الدجى و العروة الوثقى, و سلم تسليماً كثيراً.

In Persian

(در اين سخنرانى ياران را به جهاد تشويق مى كند)

تشويق براى جهاد

خدا شكر گزارى را بر عهده شما نهاده، و امر حكومت را در دست شما گذارده، و فرصت مناسب در اختيارتان قرار داده است تا براى جايزه بهشت با هم ستيز كنيد.

پس كمربندها را محكم ببنديد، و دامن همّت بر كمر زنيد ، كه به دست آوردن ارزش هاى والا با خوشگذرانى ميسّر نيست! چه بسا خواب هاى شب كه تصميم هاى روز را از بين برده ، و تاريكى هاى فراموشى كه همّتهاى بلند را نابود كرده است.

p: 262


(1) يجعلني جملا ناصحا (مرا چون شتر آبكش قرار داد) ضرب المثل است و پيامش همان است كه در ترجمه آمد. دلو بزرگ چاه آب را با طنابى بر شتر مى بستند، وقتى از چاه دور مى شد دلو بالا كشيده شده زمين آبيارى مى شد و چون به عقب بر مى گشت و به چاه نزديك مى شد دلو آب به ته چاه مى رسيد.

About center

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Are those who know equal to those who do not know?
al-Zumar: 9
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