Certainty Uncovered

BOOK ID

Translation of Kashf al-Yaqin, Virtues of Imam ‘Ali کشف الیقینThis book, authored by Allamah Hilli, discusses Imam Ali's merits and virtues during the course of his life, before birth and in his years of youth till his last day. The book discusses Imam Ali's physical excellence and superiority demonstrated in different occasions and the numerous honors which Allah (SWT) bestowed him.

Author(s): Jamal al-Din ibn Yusuf Allamah Hilli

Translator(s): Ali Akbar Aghili Ashtiani

Publisher(s): Ansariyan Publications - Qum

ISBN: 964-438-925-5

Category: Imam Ali Hadith Collections

Topic Tags: Hadith commentaries Hadith Collections Miscellaneous information: First Edition 2007-1386-1428

Congress Classification: BP37/34/ع8ک504952 1386

Dewey decimal classification: 297/951

National bibliography number: 1196166

Quds Press

Quantity: 2000

Number of Pages: 440

Size: 162X229 mm

ISBN: 964-438-925-5

Featured Category: Introducing the Ahlul Bayt Resources for Further Research

Person Tags: Imam Ali

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سرشناسه : Ibn Yusuf, Jamal al din

عنوان و نام پدیدآور : CERTAINTY UNCOVERED/ Ibn - Yusuf, Jamal al - Din

مشخصات نشر : Qum: Ansariyan, 2007

مشخصات ظاهری : 440p

شابک : :964-438-925-5

وضعیت فهرست نویسی : در انتظار فهرستنویسی

شماره کتابشناسی ملی : 1156046

Translator’s Note

In the name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful.

All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon Muhammad and his pure progeny!

This book which discusses Imam ‘Ali’s merits and virtues was given to me for translation into English by the honorable manager of Ansarian publication, Mr. Hajj Muhammad Taqi Ansarian, a devotee of Ahl al-Bayt. For this reason, I should really thank him for his good choice.

The translation of this book is dedicated to my dear wife, Maryam Kazemi, for her piety, patience, and her love for Imam ‘Ali (a.s).

I would like to thank my dear son, Arya, for proofreading this book.

Above all, my special thanks will go to my knowledgeable friend, Mr. Badr Shahin, for editing this

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book. I am much obliged to him as usual.

‘Ali Akbar Aghili Ashtiani

Biography of Allamah Hilli

point

The great Sheikh, the supporter of religion and annihilator of the works of the corrupt and the wrongdoers, Jamal al-Din Abu-Mansur Hasan, is the son of Sadid al-Din Yusuf, the son of Zayn al-Din ‘Ali, the son of Muhammad, the son of Mutahhar, known as Allamah Hilli and Allamah ‘ala al-Itlaq.(1)

Sheikh Amili, in (his book of) Tadhkirat al-Mutabahhirin, says: Sheikh Allamah Jamal al-Din Abu-Mansur, Hasan ibn Yusuf ibn ‘Ali ibn Mutahhar Hilli, is a pure learned scholar, most well-versed of all scholars, researcher, trustworthy, jurisprudent, traditionalist, theologian, and a dignified man unrivaled in the rational and transmitted science. His virtues cannot be counted.

He learnt theology and rational science from Muhaqqiq Hilli and Muhaqqiq Tusi and other sciences from other scholars. Muhaqqiq Tusi too learnt jurisprudent (Fiqh) from him.(2)

Hasan ibn ‘Ali ibn Dawud, writing about him in his book, says: He was a great Shi’ite scholar of his time, having numerous books and leading Imamiyyah in the rational and transmitted sciences in his time. His honorable father, may his soul rest in peace, was a dignified jurisprudent and lecturer.(3)

During the life of Allamah Hilli, Sultan Khodabandeh chose Shi’ism as his sect, had coins minted in the name of the twelve Imams and had it circulated in the country in AH 708. It was during the same time that the nation of Islam got rid of the heresy of the tyrant rulers after the Holy Prophet (S), their tyrannical

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1- A’yan al-Shi’ah, vol. 5, pp. 396
2- Mu’jam Rijal al-Hadith, vol. 5, pp. 157
3- Mu’jam Rijal al-Hadith, vol. 5, pp. 158

domination over spiritual leadership came to an end, and Muslims attained certain freedoms denied by the Abbasid Caliphs. If the Abbasid Caliphs were content with political domination alone, and had entrusted the spiritual leadership and Imamate to the right ones, so many followers of Ahl al-Bayt had not been killed mercilessly.(1)

Ibn Hajar says: Hasan ibn Yusuf ibn Mutahhar Hilli, the Shi’ite scholar, was a divine sign in intelligence and cleverness. He wrote a commentary on Ibn Hajib so beautifully that earned him a great reputation during his lifetime. He is the one against whom, ibn Taymiyah wrote a book themed “Rejection of the Heretic (Al-Radd Ala al-Rafidah).”

Ibn Mutahhar was well-known among Muslims for his good temper. Having studied some of ibn Taymiyah’s books, he said: If he could understand what I say, I would respond to him (meaning that he is ignorant).(2)

Ibn Hajar also says: Hasan ibn Yusuf ibn ‘Ali Mutahhar, the well-known Rafidi who led the Imamiyyah Shi’ites in his time, was well-versed in rational science. He wrote a commentary on the book entitled Alfa¨ Mukhtasar authored by ibn Hajib of Mosul and a book on ‘Ali’s virtues. Ibn Taymiah wrote a book in its rejection.

Sheikh Taqi al-Din Sabki too expressed his protest to that book in his poems, ibn Hajar says: After studying ibn Taymiyah’s book, I found out that Sabki’s protest was right.(3)

Said About Him

Sheikh Khabir Mirza Abdullah Afandi Isfahani says: The honorable Sheikh Jamal al-Din Abu-Mansur Hasan ibn Sadid al-Din, Yusuf ibn ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Mutahhar Hilli,

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1- Tabaqat A’lam al-Shi’ah, 8th century, pp. 52
2- Lisan al-Mizan, vol. 2, pp. 315
3- Lisan al-Mizan, vol. 6, pp. 319

is a great ambitious leader, a practicing scholar, a fully-skilled poet and the most learned of the scholars (Allamah in the full sense of the word). He has reached the peak of knowledge. He is famous for prudence and judiciousness. He is the nephew of Muhaqqiq Hilli and a divine sign on the earth. He has also a great right on the Twelvers in terms of the explication of Shi’ite knowledge and jurisprudence.

He was well-versed in all branches of science on which he authored a book. He was expert in philosophy, theology, jurisprudence, Hadith, fundamental dogmas, and Arabic literature, as well as a capable poet. In the city of Ardabil, I came to some of his poems indicating his poetic talent.(1)

Khajeh Nasir al-Din Tusi being asked about this great scholar, following his visit to the city of Hillah and its scholars, said: I found a sagacious and expert teacher who will gain superiority over me if he endeavors.(2)

Sheikh al-Hurr al-Amili says: He is Allamah in the full sense of the word and his reputation has spread all over the world. No Shi’ite scholar has been so far called Allamah ala al-Itlaq.(3)

Amir Mustafa Tafreshi in his book, Naqd al-Rijal, writes: He is Hasan ibn Yusuf ibn ‘Ali ibn Mutahhar, Abu-Mansur Hilli. In his description of Allamah Hilli, he, with apology, writes: I would better not describe him, for my book has no enough room for what he knew of the branches of knowledge, and the virtues he possessed. He is above

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1- Riyad al-Ulama’, vol. 1, pp.358
2- A’yan al-Shi’ah, vol. 5, pp. 396-397
3- A’yan al-Shi’ah, vol. 5, pp. 396-397

what people say about his benefaction and virtues. He has left behind over seventy books on fundamental dogmas, secondary precepts of religion, physics and divinities. May Allah illuminate his tomb, and those of his father and his child. May Allah award him with the best rewards.(1)

The author of the book, Minhaj al-Maqal, writes: Hasan ibn ‘Ali ibn Mutahhar, Abu-Mansur, Allamah Hilli was born in the city of Hillah and took residence in it. His virtues and benefactions are innumerable.(2)

Mawla Niam al-Din Qarashi in his book, Niam al-Aqwal, writes: Hasan ibn Yusuf ibn ‘Ali Mutahhar Hilli known as Abu-Mansur and Jamal al-Din, may Allah purify his soul, is the chief of the tribe, the Allamah of his time, and a researcher of precision. He is the teacher of the new generations, for all the scholars after him benefited from his knowledge. He is well-known for his superiority and is in no need of description.(3)

His Teachers

This great spiritual man has left behind many books, from which known and unknown teachers benefited. A large group of scholars have learnt from him as mentioned in the books written by Shi’ite and Sunni scholars.

In the beginning of his study, Allamah Hilli benefited from the classes of his father Sadid al-Din Yusuf and then those of his maternal uncle, Muhaqqiq Hilli and the author of Shara'i al-Islam. In rational sciences, mathematics and other sciences, he was a student of Muhaqqiq Tusi, Kamal al-Din Maytham ibn ‘Ali Bahrani, Jamal al-Din Ahmad ibn Tawus Hasani and his brother, Radi

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1- A’yan al-Shi’ah, vol. 5, pp. 396-397
2- A’yan al-Shi’ah, vol. 5, pp. 397
3- A’yan al-Shi’ah, vol. 5, pp. 397

al-Din ibn Tawus. He also learnt from other scholars.(1)

His grandfather, who was greatly interested in his education, assigned him a teacher during his childhood making him obliged to teach the Holy Qur'an and writing to the young boy. Allamah Hilli learnt the Holy Qur'an and writing from the same teacher.

His Pupils

Ibn Futi in his book, Mu’jam al-Alqab, on Allamah’s nephew, Amid ibn Abd al-Muttalib ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Ali Husayni Hilli, writes: He learnt jurisprudence from his maternal uncles, Mawlana Jamal al-Din Hasan ibn Mutahhar Hilli.(2) Also a large group of others like his son, Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqin Muhammad, his nephews, Sayyid Amid al-Din and Sayyid Diya’ al-Din Husayni have narrated Hadiths from him.

Sayyid Taj al-Din Muhammad ibn Qasim ibn Maya, Sheikh Zayn al-Din Abu-al-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Tarad Matar Abadi, and sheikh Razi al-Din Abul-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Ahmad Marandi too have quoted him. As evidenced by the documents gathered by sheikh Thani on al-¯ahifah al-Kamilah al-Sajjadiyyah, one of the other persons who has mentioned

Allamah’s name is sheikh Taj al-Din Hasan Sarabashnawi.(3)

His Works

Writing about his biography in the book, Khulasat al-Aqwal fi Ma’rifat al-Rijal, Allamah Hilli has mentioned the names of the books he has succeeded to complete or has begun to author till AH 693 as more than 64 books. Further he says: most of the books have not been completed but I hope God will bless me to complete them.(4)

Ibn Kathir says: The Iraqi Shi’ite Abu-Mansur Hasan ibn Yusuf ibn Mutahhar Hilli is the great sheikh of the heretics

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1- Riyad al-Ulama’, vol. 1, pp. 359
2- Mu’jam al-Alqab, ibn Futi
3- Riyad al-Ulama’, vol. 1, pp. 360
4- Rijal Allamah Hilli, pp. 48

in Iraq. His many books which amounted to 120 volumes include fifty books on jurisprudence, fundamental dogmas, syntax, philosophy, and heresy. The most famous of these books among theological students is a commentary by ibn Hajib on the principles of Fiqh in the style of al-Mahsul wal-Ahkam. It is extremely useful, for it has many traditions and beautiful justifications.(1)

His Birth

In Khulasat al-Aqwal, he says: I was born on the 19th of Ramadan in AH 648. I hope God will be Gracious to me to bring my life to an end gracefully.(2)

Hasan ibn ‘Ali ibn Dawud in his book writes: He was born in AH 648.(3) Quoting Riyad al-Ulama in the book of A’yan al-Shi’ah, it is written that answering the questions of Sayyid al-Muhanna ibn Sinan Madani, Allamah says: My father said that the auspicious birthday of my son, Abu-Mansur Hasan ibn Yusuf ibn Mutahhar took place on the last third part of Friday night, on the 29th of Ramadan, AH 648. Then, he says: It might be 29th and not the 27th.(4)

Shahid has been quoted as saying that the departure of that honorable person took place on Saturday, 21st of Muharram, AH 726. In Tawdih al-Maqasid by sheikh Baha al-Din Amili, we read: The honorable Allamah Hasan ibn Mutahhar Hilli passed away on the 21st of Muharram, AH 726. May his soul rest in peace.(5)

Place of Death and Tomb

Allamah Hilli passed away in the city of Hillah Mazidiyah but his pure body was transferred to the holy city of Najaf and buried on the

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1- al-Bidayah wa’l-Nihayah, vol. 14, pp. 129
2- Khulasat al-Aqwal, pp. 48
3- Mu’jam Rijal al-Hadith, vol. 5, pp. 157
4- A’yan al-Shi’ah, vol. 5, pp. 396
5- A’yan al-Shi’ah, vol. 5, pp. 396

right-side chamber next to the Holy Shrine of Amir al-Mu’minin. His tomb is visited to date by the pilgrims of Amir al-Mu’minin.(1)

Preface

In the name of Allah, The most compassionate, the most merciful

All praise is due to Allah, the Eternal, the Subduing, the Great, the Generous, the Concealer, the First, the Last, the Hidden, the Manifest, the Knower of the nature of secrets, the Aware of the unconscious, the Originator of the beings, with no need of any partner or load, the Inventor of all contingent beings with no need of helper or supporter, I praise Him for his bounties, thank Him for His grace. Greeting and peace be upon the master of the former and latter generations, Muhammad, the chosen one, and his dignified progeny, the infallible Imams.

Whereas the royal order of the dignified king, the master of the affairs of the nations, the ruler of the kings of Arabs and non-Arabs, the king of kings, kind and compassionate to the servants, the grace of the providence in the world, the mercy of God upon the world people, the divine mercy on the world creatures, uprooter of oppression and tyranny, having the divine support, the reviver of the prophets’ traditions, administrators of justice in the world, one who has the Grace of God with him, having holy breath, having control of men, a human having reached the zenith of perfection with his special vision, a star shining in the sky of virtues and his sublime thoughts have supremacy

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1- A’yan al-Shi’ah, vol. 5, pp. 396

over all, his praiseworthy deeds and a model for the world rulers, Oljaytu Khodabandeh Muhammad, the Sultan on the earth, may God prolong his reign till the Day of Judgment and may the banner of his victory be hoisted and may his rule be immune and safe from change and fall—was issued on writing a book about the virtues and merits of the commander of the believers, ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib, peace be upon him, in compliance with his royal order, I endeavored to carry out this task as quickly as possible and called the book “The certainty Uncovered about the Virtues of Amir al-Mu’minin.” The book is as brief as possible, since the prolongation of the book might cause the readers to be bored. The virtues and merits of the Imam are such that cannot be counted by human beings.

Quoting Ibn Abbas, the great orator of Khawarizm has reported that the Holy Prophet said: Should the sky-touching trees turn into pens, and the seas turn onto ink, and should the Jinn become counters, and humans become writers, they cannot possibly enumerate the virtues and merits of ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib.

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِیمِ الْحَمْدُ للهِ القَدِیمِ القَاهِرِ، العَظِیمِ القَادِرِ، الحَلِیمِ الغَافِرِ، الکَرِیمِ السَّاتِرِ، الأَوَّلِ الآخِرِ، البَاطِنِ الظَّاهِرِ، العَالِمِ بِمکنُونَاتِ السَّرائِرِ، الْخَبِیرِ بِمُسْتَودَعَاتِ الضَّمائِرِ، الْمُبدِعِ لأَجنَاسِ الْمَوجُوداتِ مِن غَیرِ احتِیاجٍ إلَی شَریکٍ وَمُؤازِرٍ، الْمُختَرِعِ لأَِنواعِ الْمُمکِناتِ مِن غَیر افتِقارِ مُعِینٍ وَمُظاهرٍ.

أحمَدُهُ علَی إِنعَامِهِ الْغَامِرِ، وَأَشْکُرهُ فَضلَهُ الزَّائِدَ الزَّاخِرَ. وَالصَّلاَهُ عَلَی سَیِّدِ الأَوائِلِ وَالأَواخِرِ مُحَمَّدٍ الْمُصْطَفَی وَعِترَتِهِ الأَمَاجدِ الأَکابِرِ الْمَعصُومِینَ مِنَ الصَّغائِرِ وَالکَبائِرِ

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الْمُؤَیَّدِینَ فِی الْمَوارِدِ وَالْمَصادِرِ.

أمَّا بَعدُ: فإنَّ مَرسومَ السُّلطانِ الأعظَمِ مَالِکِ رِقابِ الأُممِ مَلکِ مُلوکِ طَوائِفِ العَرَبِ والعَجَمِ شاهِنشاهَ المُعَظَّمِ رَاحِمِ الْعِبَادِ وَلُطفِ اللهِ فِی البلاَدِ رَحمَهُ الله تَعالَی فِی العَالَمینَ وَظِلِّ اللهِ عَلی الخَلائقِ أجمَعینَ مُحیِی سُننِ الأنبیاءِ وَالمُرسَلینَ بَاسطِ العَدلِ وَناشِرِهِ وَمُمیتِ الجَورِ ومُدمِّرِهِ المُؤیَّد مِن اللهِ تَعالَی بِالعِنایاتِ الرّبَّانیّهِ وَالمَمدُودِ مِنهُ تَعالَی بِالألطافِ الإلَهیَّهِ ذِی النّفسِ القُدسیَّهِ وَالرِّئاسَهِ الإنْسِیَّهِ الوَاصِلِ بِفِکرِهِ الثَّاقبِ إلَی أسنَی المَراتبِ المُرتَقِی بِرایَهِ الصَّائبِ أَوجَ الشُّهُبِ الثَّواقِبِ المُتَمَیِّزِ عَلَی جَمِیعِ البَرِیَّهِ بِجَودهِ القَرِیحَهِ وَصِدقِ الرّویَّهِ مُحَمَّدٍ سُلطانِ وَجهِ الأرضِ خَلَّدَ اللهُ مُلْکَهُ إلَی یَومِ العَرضِ وَلا زَالتْ ألْوِیَتَهُ محفُوفهً بِالظَّفرِ وَالنَّصرِ وَدَولَتُهُ محروسَهً مِن الغِیَرِ إلَی یَومِ الحَشْرِ والنَّشرِ رَسمَ بِوَضعِ رِسالَهٍ تَشتَملُ عَلی ذِکرِ فَضائِلِ أمِیرِ المؤمنِینَ عَلِیِّ بنِ أَبِی طَالبٍ علیهِ أفضَلُ الصَّلاهِ والسّلامِ. فَامتَثَلتُ مَا رَسَمَهُ وسَارعْتُ إلَی مَا حَتَمَهُ وَوَضَعْتُ هَذَا الْکِتَابَ المَوسومَ بِ(کَشفُ الیَقِینِ) فِی فَضائِلِ أمیرِ المُؤمنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ عَلی سَبیلِ الإیجَازِ وَالاختِصارِ مِن غَیر تَطویلٍ ولا إکثَارٍ.

فإنَّ فَتحَ بابِ ذلکَ یُؤدِّی إلَی المَلالِ إذ لاَ حَصرَ لِفضَائلِهِ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ کَما رَواهُ أخطَبُ خَوَارِِزْمَ عنِ ابن عَبَّاسٍ رَضیَ اللهُ عنهُ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: لَوْ أَنَّ الرِّیَاضَ أَقْلاَمٌ وَالبَحْرَ مِدَادٌ وَالْجِنَّ حُسَّابُ وَالإنْسَ کُتَّابٌ مَا أَحْصَوا فَضَائِلَ عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طَالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ.

The author says: How can we count the virtues of a person who has been so beautifully described and praised by the Holy Prophet of Islam (S).

A poet of high capability who had kept silent in eulogizing the Imam was blamed for not so doing. In response to those blaming him,

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the poet composed a poem expressing his inability the general concept of which is as follows:

Blame me not in giving up the idea of eulogizing ‘Ali, for I know better than you the fact that when the inhabitants of heaven and the earth fail to counter the virtues of Qanbar, that is the slave of ‘Ali, how can I possibly speak of ‘Ali’s merits?

The orator of Khawarizm reports: a scholar was asked if he had composed a poem eulogizing ‘Ali and in answer he said: what should I say about a sublime person whose enemies envied his virtues and concealed them and his friends were not able to propagate his virtues out of fear of their lives and despite these two great obstacles, ‘Ali’s virtues and merits were such that they have enlightened the earth and the heaven as well as the east and the west. Nevertheless, in this book, we will refer to parts of his virtues in the hope that we have complied with the order and we have recounted the words of the orator of Khawarizm in “Manaqib.”

Reporting the Holy Prophet (S), Khawarizmi says: God Almighty has assigned innumerable virtues for my brother ‘Ali. Whoever recalls one of his virtues and internalizes it, God will forgive his past and future sins and whoever writes a book about one of his virtues, angels will seek forgiveness for him as long as that book remains. Whoever listens to one of his virtues, God will forgive the sins he has

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committed through his hearing sense and should he read a book about ‘Ali’s virtues, God will forgive the sins he has committed through seeing. The Holy Prophet has also been quoted as saying: Looking at the face of ‘Ali and remembering him is worship. God will never accept any servant’s faith save by love for ‘Ali and immunity from his enemies.

وَمَن یَصفُهُ النَّبِیُّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ بِمِثلِ ذلکَ کَیفَ یُمکِنُ التَّعبِیرَ عَن وَصفِ فَضَائِلهِ؟

وَقالَ بَعضُ الشُّعراءِ وَقدْ لامُوهُ فِی تَرکِ مَدحِ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ:

لاَ تَلُمْنِی فِی تَرکِ مَدْحٍ عَلیٍّ

أنَا أَدْرَی بِالأَمْرِ مِنْکَ وَأخْبَرْ

إنَّ أهلَ السَّماءِ وَالأرْضِ فِی العَجْ

زِ سَواءٌ عَن حَصْرِ أَوصَافِ قَنْبرْ

وقَالَ بعضُ الفُضَلاءِ وَقدْ سُئلَ عَنهُ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فقَالَ: مَا أَقولُ فِی شَخصٍ أخْفَی أعْداؤهُ فَضَائلَهُ حَسَداً وأخفَی أَولِیاؤهُ فَضَائلَهُ خَوفاً وَحذَراً، فَظَهرَ فِی مَا بَینَ هَذَینِ فَضائِلُ طَبَّقتِ الشَّرقَ وَالغَربَ.

لَکنْ نَحنُ نُشیرُ فِی هَذَا المُختَصَرِ إلَی یَسیرٍ مِن فضَائلِهِ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ طَاعَهً لِرَسمِ السُّلطانِ وَلِما رَواهُ أخْطَبُ خَوارِزمَ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: إنَّ اللهَ تَعالَی جعلَ لأَخی عَلیٍّ فَضائِلَ لاَ تُحصَی کَثرَهً. فَمَنْ ذکَرَ فَضیلَهً مِن فَضائِلهِ مُقِرَّاً بِهَا غَفرَ اللهُ لهُ مَا تقَدَّمَ مِن ذنبِهِ وَما تأَخَّرَ، ومَنْ کتَبَ فَضِیلهً مِنْ فَضائِلهِ لمَ تزَلِ الْمَلائکَهُ تَستَغفِرُ لَهُ مَا بقِیَ لِتلکَ الکِتابَهِ رَسمٌ. وَمنِ استَمَعَ إلَی فَضِیلهٍ مِن فضَائلهِ غَفرَ اللهُ لهُ الذُّنوبَ الَّتی اکتَسَبَها بِالاسْتِماعِ. وَمنْ نَظرَ إلَی کِتابٍ منْ فَضائِلهِ غَفرَ اللهُ لهُ الذُّنوبَ الَّتی اکْتسَبَها بِالنَّظَرِ.

ثُمَّ قَالَ: النَّظرُ إلَی أخِی علِیِّ بنِ أبِی طَالبٍ عِبادَهٌ وَذِکرُهُ عِبادَهٌ. ولاَ یَقبلُ اللهُ إیمَانَ عَبدٍ إلاَّ بولایَتهِ وَالبَراءَهِ مِن أعدَائِهِ.

‘Ali’s Virtues Before His Birth

Section One

God almighty said

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to Abraham (a.s): As for Ishmael, I have heard you; behold, I will bless him and make him fruitful and multiply him exceedingly; he shall be the father of twelve princes, and I will make him a great nation!(1) Beyond doubt, Imam ‘Ali (a.s) is one of those princes, a virtue making him peerless.

وَقد رَتَّبتُها عَلی فُصولٍ:

فِی الفَضائِلِ الثَّابتَهِ لهُ قَبلَ وُجُودِهِ وَولادَتِهِ.

وَهیَ خَمسهٌ:

الأولَی: مَا وردَ فِی التَّورَاهِ مِن ذِکرِهِ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ:

قَالَ اللهُ تَعالَی لإبرَاهِیمَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: وَأمَّا إِسْمَاعِیلُ فقدْ سَمِعْتُ دُعاءَکَ فیهِ، وَقدْ بَارَکتُهُ وَسأثْمرُهُ وَأُکثِّرهُ جِدَّاً جِدَّاً، وَأجعلُ منهُ اثنَی عشرَ شَریفاً یُولدُ وأجعلُهُ حِزباً عَظِیماً.

ولاَ شکَّ فِی أنَّ علیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ أَحدُ الإثنَی عَشرَ، وهَذهِ فَضیلَهٌ لمَ یَلحَقْهُ غَیرُهُ فِیهَا.

Section Two

The orator of Khawarizm quoting Abdullah ibn Mas’ud has reported that the Holy Prophet (S) said: O Abdullah! An angel came to me carrying a message from God who said: O Muhammad! Ask the prophets coming before you what they commissioned for? I said: You say what they were commissioned for? He answered: The very essence of their mission is based on the Wilayah of you and ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib.(2)

الثَّانیهُ:

روَی أخطَبُ خَوارِزمَ عَن عَبدِ اللهِ بنِ مَسعودٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: یَا عَبدَ اللهِ؛ أتانِی مَلَکٌ فقالَ: یَا مُحَمَّدُ سَل مَن أَرسَلْنا قَبلکَ مِنْ رُسُلنا عَلَی مَا بُعثُوا؟

قَالَ: قُلتُ: عَلَی مَا بُعثوا؟

قَالَ: عَلَی وِلایَتِکَ وَولایَهِ عَلِیِّ بنِ أبِی طالبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ.

Section Three

The holy name of ‘Ali has been written on the divine throne.

Khawarizmi has reported Abdullah ibn Mas’ud on the authority of the Holy Prophet

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1- A’yan al-Shi’ah, vol. 5, pp. 396
2- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 19, pp. 221

(S) as saying: When God created the universe and Adam and blew in him His spirit, Adam sneezed and began to praise Allah immediately. God said: My servant! Now that you praised me, by My glory, were if not for the sake of two of my servants, I would never have created you. Adam said: O God! Are those two worthy servants from my issue?

God said: Yes. Now raise your hand and behold what you see. Adam opened his eyes towards heaven and saw an inscription reading: There is no god but Allah and Muhammad (the prophet of mercy) is His Messenger and ‘Ali is Allah’s proof for the people. Whoever recognizes ‘Ali’s right, he is pure inwardly and whoever denies his right will be deprived from my mercy and will suffer. I swear by My glory that whoever obeys ‘Ali, I will give him a place in heaven even if he is sinful and by My glory, if anyone disobeys him, I will punish him with fire even if he has obeyed me.(1)

الثَّالثَهُ: إنَّ اسْمَهُ مَکتوبٌ عَلی العَرشِ:

رَوَی أخطبُ خَوارِزمَ عَن عبدِ اللهِ بنِ مَسعودٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: لَمَّا خَلقَ اللهُ تَعالَی آدَمَ وَنفخَ فیهِ مِن رُوحِهِ عَطَسَ آدَمُ فَقالَ: الحَمْدُ للهِ. فَأوحَی اللهُ تَعالَی إلَیهِ: حَمَدتنِی عَبدِی! وَعِزَّتی وَجَلالِی لَولاَ عَبدَانِ أُرِیدُ أنْ أخلُقَهُما فِی دَارِ الدُّنیَا مَا خَلقتُکَ. قَالَ: إلَهی فَیکُونانِ مِنِّی؟ قَال: نَعَمْ!َ یَا آدَمُ ارفَعْ رَأسَکَ وَانظُرْ. فَرفعَ رَأسَهُ فإذا هُوَ مَکتُوبٌ علَی العَرشِ: لاَ إلَهَ إلاَّ اللهُ، مُحَمَّدٌ

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 19, pp. 227

نَبِیُّ الرَّحمَهِ، عَلِیٌّ مُقِیمُ الحُجَّهِ. وَمَن عرَفَ حَقَّ عَلیٍّ زَکا وَطابَ. ومَنْ أنکَرَ حَقَّهُ لُعِنَ وَخابَ. أَقسَمْتُ بِعزَّتی أُدخِلُ الجَنَّهَ مَن أطاعَهُ وَإن عَصانِی. وَأقْسَمتُ بِعزَّتِی أُدخِلُ النَّارَ مَن عَصاهُ وإنْ أطَاعنِی.

Jabir ibn Abdullah has reported the Holy Prophet (S) as having said: Two thousand years before the creation of heavens and the earth, there was an inscription on the gate of heaven reading: Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib is his brother.(1)

There is a Hadith in Manaqib in which the Holy Prophet has been quoted as saying: Gabriel came to me while he had spread his two wings. On one wing there was the inscription: There is no god but Allah, Muhammad in His messenger and on the other wing, there was the inscription: There is no god but Allah, ‘Ali is Muhammad’s successor.(2)

In Musnad of Ahmad ibn Hanbal, the Holy Prophet (S) has been quoted by Jabir as having said: Before the creation of the heavens and the earth, there was the following inscription on the gate of paradise: Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and ‘Ali is the brother of the Messenger of Allah.(3)

وَمنْ کتابِ المَناقِبِ: عَن جابرِ بنِ عَبدِ اللهِ الأنصارِیِّ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَکتوبٌ عَلی بَابِ الجَنَّهِ: لاَ إلَهَ إلاَّ اللهُ، مُحَمَّدٌ رَسولُ اللهِ، عَلیُّ بنُ أبِی طالبٍ أخُو رَسولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ قَبلَ أنْ یَخلقَ اللهُ

السَّماواتِ والأرضَ بألفَیْ عامٍ. وَمنَ المَناقبِ: قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: أتَانِی جَبرَئیلُ وقدْ نَشرَ

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 14, pp. 88
2- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 14, pp. 90
3- Manaqib, Ahmad

جَناحَیهِ وإذَا عَلی أحدِهِما مَکتوبٌ: لاَ إلهَ إلاَّ اللهُ، مُحَمَّدٌ النَّبِیُّ، وَعلَی الآخَرِ مَکتوبٌ: لاَ إلهَ إلاَّ اللهُ، عَلیٌّ الوَصیُّ.

ومِن مُسندِ أحمدَ: عَن جابرٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَکتوبٌ عَلی بابِ الجَنَّهِ: مُحَمَّدٌ رَسولُ اللهِ، عَلیٌّ أُخو رَسولِ اللهِ، قَبلَ أنْ تُخلقَ السَّماواتِ بِألفَی عَامٍ.

Section Four

There are narrations in which the Holy Prophet (S) has said: I and ‘Ali are of the same light.

Salman has quoted the Holy Prophet (S) as having said: I and ‘Ali were light in the presence of God casting light on the world of creation. This light glorified God fourteen thousand years before the creation of Adam and when God Almighty created Adam, this light was transferred to his loin and in the long period between us and Adam, we were in the pure loins till we were separated in the loin of Abd al-Muttalib into two parts. One part was me and the other was ‘Ali.(1)

Salman has also reported the Holy Prophet (S) as having said: I and ‘Ali were a single light before God. Fourteen thousand years before the creation of Adam, when God created Adam, He placed this light in his loin. Then this light was divided into two, part of this light was placed in Abdullah’s loin and the other part was placed in Abu-Talib’s loin. Therefore, ‘Ali is from me and I am from ‘Ali. His flesh is my flesh and his blood is my blood. Hence, whoever loves ‘Ali is because he loves me and whoever

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 14, pp. 88

is hostile to him is my enemy.

الرَّابعهُ: مَا رُویَ أنَّ رسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ قَالَ: أنَا وَعلِیُّ بنُ أَبِی طالبٍ مِنْ نُورٍ واحِدٍ.

رَوَی صاحِبُ الْمَنَاقِبِ عَن سَلْمَانَ قَالَ: سِمعْتُ حَبِیبِی الْمُصْطفَی صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَقُولُ: کُنتُ أنَا وَعلِیٌّ نُوراً بَیْنَ یَدَیِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجلَّ مُطْبِقاً یُسبِّحُ اللهَ ذَلِکَ النُّورُ وَیُقدِّسهُ قَبلَ أنْ یَخلُقَ اللهُ آدمَ بِأربعَهَ عَشرَ ألفِ عامٍ. فَلمَّا خَلقَ اللهُ تَعالَی آدمَ رَکَّبَ ذَلِکَ النُّورَ فِی صُلبهِ. فَلمْ نَزلْ فِی شَیءٍ واحدٍ حَتَّی افتَرقْنا فِی صُلبِ عَبدِ المُطَّلبِ. فَجُزءٌ أنَا وَجُزءٌ عَلیٌّ.

وفِیهِ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: کُنتُ أنَا وَعلِیٌّ نُوراً بَینَ یَدَیِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجلَّ قَبلَ أن یَخلُقَ الله ُ آدمَ بِأربَعَهَ عَشرَ ألفِ سَنهٍ. فَلمَّا خَلقَ اللهُ تَعالَی أبِی آدَمَ سَلکَ ذَلکَ النُّورُ فِی صُلبهِ. فَلمْ یَزلِ اللهُ یَنقُلهُ مِن صُلبٍ إلَی صُلبٍ حتّی أقَرَّهُ فِی صُلبِ عَبدِ المُطَّلبِ. ثُمَّ أخرَجهُ مِن صُلبِ عَبدِ المُطَّلبِ فَقسمَهُ قِسمَینِ: قِسماً فِی صُلبِ عَبدِاللهِ وَقِسماً فِی صُلبِ أَبِی طَالبٍ. فَعَلیٌّ مِنّی وَأنا مِنهُ؛ لَحمُهُ لَحمی وَدَمُهُ دَمی. فَمنْ أحبَّهُ فَیُحِبُّنی أُحِبُّهُ وَمَن أَبغَضَهُ فَیُبغِضُنی أُبْغِضُهُ.

Section Five

Adam has resorted to ‘Ali as mentioned in the Torah.

Khawarizmi has reported Ibn Abbas who asked the Holy Prophet (S) about the words that Adam received from God and he repented thereby. The Holy Prophet (S) answered: Adam asked God to accept his repentance through the station of Muhammad, ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn. God Almighty too accepted Adam’s repentance and restored his position in honor of those holy persons.

الخَامسهُ: تَوَسُّل آدَمَ بهِ فِی التّوبَهِ:

رَوَی الخَوارزمِیُّ بإسنَادهِ عَن ابنِ عَبَّاسٍ

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قَالَ: سُئلَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ عَن الکَلماتِ الَّتی تَلقَّاها آدَمُ مِن رَبِّهِ فَتابَ علَیهِ. فقالَ: سَألَهُ بِحَقِّ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعلِیٍّ وَفاطِمَهَ وَالحَسَنِ وَالحُسَینِ إلاَّ تُبتَ عَلَیَّ. فَتابَ عَلَیهِ.

‘Ali’s Virtues at Creation and Birth

‘Ali (a.s) was born on 13th of Rajab, thirty years after the year of the Elephant in Ka’bah. This virtue belongs only to him, for no one was ever born in Ka’bah except him neither in the past nor in the future.

The author of Basha’ir al-Mustafa has reported Yazid ibn Qa’nab as saying: I and Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib and a group of the tribe of Abd al-Uzza were sitting near Ka’bah when we saw Fatimah Bint Asad, the mother of Amir al-Mu'minin while she was nine months pregnant and signs of delivery were manifest in her, came from afar raising her hands in prayer and saying: O Lord! I believe in You, Your Messengers and their books while accepting as truth the words of the prophet Ibrahim (a.s) who rebuilt this house. O Lord! I ask You through the one who built this house and the one I have in my womb to make the hardship of his birth easy for me.

Yazid ibn Qa’nab says: I saw the wall of Ka’bah was opened and Fatimah went inside it and the wall returned to its former state. The group of people who were sitting there rose up to unlock the door but it was not opened. We inferred that the wall had been opened on the order of the Lord and that

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it was a favor God had done to that lady and her son. Three days passed and on the fourth day, Fatimah carrying the new-born infant in her hands came out of Ka’bah, saying: Beyond doubt, I am superior to the believing women of former times, for Asiyah, the daughter of Muzahim, worshipped God secretly and God did not like to be worshipped except under necessity that is in Pharaoh’s house which was the cradle of atheism and oppression.

فِی الفَضَائلِ الثَّابتَهِ لَهُ حَالَ خَلقِهِ وَوِلادَتِهِ

وُلدَ أمِِیرُ الْمُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ الجُمُعهَ الثَّالثَ عشَرَ مِن شَهرِ رَجَبٍ بَعدَ عَامِ الفِیلِ بِثَلاثینَ سَنهٍ فِی الکَعبهِ، وَلمْ یُولَدْ أحدٌ سِواهُ فِیها لاَ قَبلَهُ وَلا بَعدَهُ.

رَوَی صَاحبُ کِتابِ (بَشائِرُ المُصطَفَی) عَن یزِیدَ بنِ قُعنُبٍ قَالَ: کُنتُ جَالِساً مَع العَبَّاسِ بنِ عَبدِالمُطَّلبِ وَفریقٍ مِن بَنی عَبدِالعُزّی بإزَاءِ بَیتِ اللهِ الحَرامِ إذْ أقبَلَتْ فَاطِمَهُ بِنتُ أسدٍ أُمُّ أَمِیرِ الْمُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السّلامُ، وَکانَتْ حَاملاً بهِ لِتِسعَهِ أشهُرٍ وَقدْ أخَذها الطَّلَقُ. فَقالَت: یَا رَبِّی إنِّی مُؤمنَهٌ بِکَ وَبِما جاءَ مِن عِندکَ مِن رُسُلٍ وَکُتُبٍ، وإنّی مُصدِّقَهٌ بِکَلامِ جَدِّی إبْرَاهیمَ الخَلیلِ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وإنَّه بَنی بَیتَکَ العَتیقَ، فَبحَقِّ الَّذی بَنَی هَذَا البَیْتَ وَبِحَقِّ الْمَولُودِ الَّذی فِی بَطْنِی إِلاَّ مَا یَسَّرْتَ عَلَیَّ وِلاَدَتِی.

قَالَ یَزیدُ بنُ قعنب: فَرأَیتُ البَیتَ قَد انشَقَّ عَن ظَهرِهِ وَدَخَلتْ فَاطمَهُ فِیهِ وَغابَتْ عَنْ أبصَارِنا وَعادَ البَیتُ إلَی حَالهِ. فَرُمْنا أنْ یَنفَتحَ لَنا قُفلُ البَابِ فَلَمْ یَنفَتِحْ. فَعَلمْنا أنَّ ذلکَ مِنْ أمْرِ اللهِ تَعالَی. ثُمَّ خَرَجَتْ فِی الیَوْمِ الرَّابِعِ وَعَلَی یَدِها أمِیرُ المُؤمنینَ عَلِیُّ بنُ أبِی طَالبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَقالَتْ: قَدْ فُضِّلْتُ عَلی مَنْ تَقدَّمَنِی مِن النِّساءِ، لأنَّ

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آسیهَ بنتَ مُزاحِمٍ عَبدَتِ اللهَ سِرَّاً فِی مَوضِعٍ لاَ یُحبُّ اللهُ أنْ یُعبدَ فیهِ إلاَّ اضْطِراراً.

Mary, the daughter of Imran, too came out of the mosque of Jerusalem and her place of worship on the order of Lord and then gave birth to Jesus (a.s) eating fresh date from a dry palm-tree. However, I entered Ka’bah on the order of Lord and fed on heavenly fruits. After delivery too when I intended to come out of Ka’bah, an invisible caller told me to name the auspicious infant ‘Ali, for Allah the most High says: I name him after My own name, reared him with special rearing, making him aware of My own profound knowledge.

It is he who, in a near future, will clean My house from idols, will break them, and will declare the rule of one God on the roof of My house. He will glorify Me. Happy is one who loves him and obeys his orders and ill-fated is one who is hostile to him and disobeys his orders.(1)

The narrator says: When ‘Ali was born, the Holy Prophet of Islam (S) was thirty years old. The Holy Prophet loved him greatly and asked his mother, Fatimah to place ‘Ali’s cradle near his bed.

The Messenger of Allah was personally in charge of bringing up ‘Ali. He bathed ‘Ali with his own hands and fed him and rocked his cradle at sleep time. When ‘Ali was awake, the Holy Prophet (S) would speak to him and put him on

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1- Bisharat al-Mustafa, pp. 8

his chest, saying: This dear infant is my brother, guardian, supporter, asset, the chosen one, my son-in-law, successor, the husband of my daughter, my trustworthy, and the caliph after me. The Messenger of Allah would always put ‘Ali on his shoulders and took him to mountains of Mecca so as to be engaged in prayer away from the eyes of the idol-worshippers.

‘Ali’s Virtues in Boyhood and Maturity

point

Virtues are sometimes acquired for a person due to deeds and their consequences and at other times it has no relation with his deeds. What is discussed in this chapter concerns ‘Ali’s acquired virtues as mentioned by the narrators. These acquired virtues are sometimes related to ‘Ali’s spiritual aspect and personality or it is related to his physical aspect.

وَأَنَّ مَریَمَ بِنتَ عِمرَانَ هَزَّتِ النَّخْلهَ الْیَابِسَهَ بِیَدِهَا حَتَّی أَکَلَتْ مِنْهَا رُطَباً جَنِیَّاً؛ وَأنّی دَخَلتُ بَیتَ اللهِ الحَرامَ فَأَکَلْتُ مِن ثِمارِ الجَنَّهِ وَأرزَاقِهَا. فَلمَّا أرَدْتُ أنْ أَخرُجَ هَتفَ بی هَاتِفٌ: یَا فاطِمَهُ، سَمِّیهِ عَلیَّاً، فَهوَ عَلِیٌّ، وَاللهُ العَلِیُّ الأعْلَی یَقولُ: إنّی شَقَقتُ اسمَهُ مِنِ اسمی وَأدَّبتُهُ بِأدَبی وَأوْقَفْتُهُ عَلی غَامِضِ عِلمِی، وَهوَ الَّذی یُکَسِّرُ الأصْنامَ فِی بَیتی، وَهوَ الَّذی یُؤذِّنُ فَوقَ ظَهرِ بَیتِی وَیُقَدِّسُنی وَیُمَجِّدُنی. فَطُوبَی لِمَنْ أحَبَّهُ وَأطاعَهُ، وَوَیلٌ لِمنْ أبغَضَهُ وَعَصاهُ.

قالتْ فَوَلَدتُ عَلیَّاً وَلِرسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ ثَلاثونَ سَنهً. فَأحَبَّهُ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ حُبَّاً شَدیداً وَقالَ لی: إجْعَلی مَهدَهُ بِقُربِ فِراشی. وَکانَ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَلی أَکثَرَ تَربِیَتِهِ وَکانَ یُطهِّرُ عَلیَّاً فِی وَقتِ غُسلِهِ وَیَجُرُّهُ اللَّبنَ عِندَ شُربِهِ وَیُحرِّکُ مَهدَهُ عندَ نَومِهِ وَیُناغِیهِ فِی یَقظَتِهِ وَیَحمِلُهُ عَلی صَدرِهِ وَیَقولُ: هَذَا أخی

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وَوَلِیِّی وَناصِرِی وَصَفِیِّی وَذُخْری وَکَهفِی وَصِهْری وَوَصِیِّی وَزَوجُ کَرِیمَتِی وَأمِینی عَلی وَصِیَّتی وَخَلیفَتی. وَکاَن یَحملُهُ دَائماً وَیَطوفُ بهِ جِبالَ مَکَّهَ وَشِعابَها وَأودِیَتها.

فِی الفَضائلِ الثَّابِتهِ لهُ حَالَ کَمالِهِ وُبُلوغِهِ:

إنّ الفَضائِلَ إمَّا أنْ تَکونَ حاصِلهً لِلشّخْصِ بِاعتْبارِ أفْعالِهِ وَآثارِهِ وإمَّا أنْ لاَ تَکونَ حاصِلهً بِهذا الاعتِبارِ بَلْ بِأسبابٍ خارِجهٍ عنهُ. فَهُنا بَابانِ:

البَابُ الأوَّلُ: فِی الفَضائِلِ المُکتَسَبَهِ مِنَ الفِعلِ وَالأَثرِ:

هَذهِ الفَضائلُ إمَّا أنْ تَکونَ نَفسَانِیّهً أو بَدَنیَّهً.

فَهُنا مَطلَبانِ:

الْمَطلبُ الأوَّلُ: فِی الفَضائِلِ النَّفْسانِیَّهِ:

وَنُنظِّمُها مَباحِثَ:

‘Ali’s Spiritual Virtues

Faith

‘Ali’s spiritual virtues are related to faith which is above all virtues, for faith in man will lead him to the eternal blessing of paradise and divine pleasure and he will be rescued from the painful punishment of hell. On polytheism which is the opposite of faith Allah Almighty says:

“Surely, Allah does not forgive that anything should be associated with Him, and He forgives what is besides this to whom He pleases.” (4:16)

Therefore, Imam ‘Ali (a.s) is far from associating anything with Allah and all Muslims unanimously agree that Imam ‘Ali (a.s) was a pioneer in faith as compared to other companions of the Holy Prophet (S). He was the first among men who believed in Allah and his messenger. He never associated anything with Allah even for a moment nor worshipped any idol.

He is the one who toppled all the idols from Ka’bah when he put his feet on the Holy Prophet’s shoulders and went up to the roof of Ka’bah. Reporting ibn Maryam on the authority of Imam ‘Ali (a.s), Ahmad ibn Hanbal says: The Messenger of

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Allah and I went to the sacred Mosque. When we reached Ka’bah the Holy Prophet said: Sit down. I sat down. He put his feet on my shoulders so that I will raise him to the roof of Ka’bah. As a result of heaviness of prophethood, I was not able to rise up. Finding me in this position, the Holy Prophet (S) took his feet off my shoulders and sat down on the ground. This time, the Holy Prophet ordered me to mount his shoulders. I too obeyed his order. The Holy Prophet raised me in a way I could fly in sky. At that time, I set my foot on the roof of Ka’bah. I found there the statue of an idol made of copper or lead.(1)

I shook it in a way it was unseated. The Holy Prophet said: Throw is down. I threw it down in a way that it shattered into pieces. Then, I came down from the roof of Ka’bah, leaving the sacred mosque hurriedly along with the Holy Prophet. When we saw the houses of Mecca, we ran more hastily lest the people of Mecca should see us.(2)

الإیمَانُ:

وَهذِهِ الفَضِیلهُ لاَ یُوازِنُها شَیءٌ مِن الفَضَائلِ إذْ بِاعتِبارِها یَحصلُ لِلمُکَلَّفِ النّعیمُ المُخلَّدُ وَالخَلاصُ مِن العَذابِ السَّرمدِ کَما قَالَ تَعالَی: ?إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ یَغْفِرُ أَنْ یُشْرَکَ بِهِ وَیَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِکَ لِمَنْ یَشَاءُ.? وَقدْ أجمَعَ المُسْلِمونَ کافّهً عَلَی أنَّ أمیرَ المُؤمنینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ سَبقَ إلَی الإسلامِ قَبلَ کُلِّ أحَدٍ وَلمْ یُشرِکْ باللهِ تَعالَی طَرفَهَ عَیْنٍ وَلَم یَسجُدْ

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1- Tarikh Ibn ‘Asakir, vol. 1, pp. 41
2- Musnad, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol. 1, pp. 151

لِصَنَمٍ بَلْ هُو الَّذی تَوَلَّی تَکسیرَ الأصْنامِ لَمَّا صَعدَ عَلَی کَتِفِ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ. رَوَی أحمَدُ بنُ حَنبل فِی مُسنَدِهِ عَن أَبِی مَریمَ عَن عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ: إنطَلقْتُ أنَا والنَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ حَتَّی أتَیْنا الکَعبَهَ. فَقاَل لی رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ اجْلسْ. فَجَلسْتُ وَصعدَ عَلی مَنکِبی. فَذَهبتُ لأنْهَضَ فَلمْ أُطِقْ. فَرأی منِّی ضَعفاً فَنَزلَ. وَجَلسَ نَبِیُّ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَقالَ: إصْعَدْ علَی مَنکِبی. فَصَعدْتُ عَلَی منْکَبَیهِ. قَالَ: فَنهَضَ. قَالَ: فإنَّهُ تُخُیِّلَ إلیَّ إنّی لَو شِئتُ لَنلْتُ أفُقَ السَّماءِ حتّی صَعدْتُ عَلَی البَیتِ وَعَلیهِ تِمثالٌ صِفرٌ أو نُحاسٌ. فَجعلْتُ أُزاوِلُهُ عَن یَمینِهِ وَشِمالِهِ وَمنْ بَینِ یَدیْهِ وَخَلفِهِ حتّی إذَا استَمْکَنْتُ مِنهُ قَالَ لی رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: إقْذِفْ بهِ. فَقَذفْتُ بِهِ فَتَکَسَّرَ کَما تَتَکَسَّرُ القَواریرُ. ثُمَّ نَزَلتُ وَانطلَقْتُ أنَا وَرسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ نَستَبِقُ حتّی تَوارَیْنا بِالبُیوتِ خَشیَهَ أنْ یَلقَانا أحَدٌ مِن النَّاسِ.

Al-Tabari, the author of Khasa’is has quoted the prophet (S) as saying: The angels sent greeting on me and ‘Ali for seven years in heaven, for during this period of time no voice except that of ‘Ali and me was raised to heaven by saying: There is no god but Allah.(1) In the book, Yawaqit, Abi- Umar Zahid has quoted Layla Ghifar on the authority of the Holy Prophet (S) as saying: Actually, ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib is the first person among people who believed in Islam and the first person whom I will see on the Day of Judgment, the last person to whom I say

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1- This book was available till 10th century A.H. and since then no information of it is at hand.

farewell and trust my last will and testament at deathbed.

Ibn Abbas has been quoted by Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his book Musnad as saying: The first person who worshipped God with the Holy Prophet after Khadijah was ‘Ali (a.s).(1)

Salman Farsi has been quoted by Abu’l-Mu’ayyad as saying: I heard from the Messenger of Allah saying: the first person whom I see at the pond is the first man of faith and Islam, ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib (a.s).(2) Amr ibn Maymun has been quoted by Ahmad ibn Hanbal as saying: I was in the presence of Ibn Abbas when nine groups joined our gathering. They said: We wish to talk to you privately. Either rise up and come along with us or make this gathering private. He said: I will come along with you. This happened when Ibn Abbas had not lost his sight.

When Ibn Abbas attended their gathering, they started speaking to him.

The narrator says: I and those who were in the presence of Ibn Abbas did not hear their discussion but we saw that Ibn Abbas who was angry while rising up and putting the dust off his clothes said: Woe to the people who speak ill of a person who has ten marks of distinction among the companions of the Holy Prophet.

Then he said: These people blame a person about whom the Messenger of Allah in Khaybar battle said: I will soon assign to fight them a person who loves God and His messenger and God and His messenger

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1- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol. 1, pp. 371
2- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 4, pp. 17

too love him. It was at this time that everyone was curious as to whom this honor would be given. But it was a wishful thinking for all, for the Holy Prophet asked: Where is ‘Ali?

وَرَوی الطَّبَرِیُّ صَاحِبُ (الخَصائِصِ) عَنِ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ قَالَ: صَلَّتِ المَلائکَهُ عَلَیَّ وَعلَی عَلِیٍّ سَبعَ سِنینَ. وَذلکَ لأنَّهُ لَم تَرتَفعْ شَهادَهُ أنْ لاَ إلهَ إلاَّ اللهُ إلَی السَّماءِ إلاَّ منِّی وَمنْهُ. وَمنْ کِتابِ (الیَواقیتِ) لأبِی عُمَرَ الزَّاهدِ: عَن لَیلی الغِفاریّهِ عَن رَسولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ أنَّ عَلیَّ بنَ أَبِی طالبٍ أوَّلُ النَّاسِ إیمَاناً وَأوَّلُ النَّاسِ لِقاءً بی یَومَ القِیامَهِ وَآخِرُ النَّاسِ بی عَهداً عِندَ المَوتِ. وَمِن کِتابِ مُسْند أحمَدَ: عَن ابنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: أوَّلُ مَنْ صَلّی معَ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ بَعدَ خَدِیجَهَ عَلَیْهَا السَّلاَمُ عَلِیٌّ.

وَرَوی أَبُو الْمُؤیَّدِ عَن سَلمَانَ قَالَ: سَمعْتُ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَقولُ: أَوَّلُ النَّاسِ وُروداً عَلَیَّ الحَوضَ یَوْمَ القِیامَهِ أوَّلُهمْ إسْلاماً وَهوَ عَلِیُّ بنُ أَبِی طالبٍ. وَمنْ کِتابِ مُسنَد أحمدَ بنِ حَنبَلٍ: عَن عَمْرِو بنِ مَیْمونَ قَالَ إنّی لَجالِسٌ إلَی ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ إذْ أتَاهُ تِسعَهُ رَهطٍ. فَقالوا: یَا ابنَ عَبَّاسٍ إمَّا أنْ تَقومَ مَعَنا وإمَّا أنْ تَخلُوَ بِنا عَنْ هَؤلاءِ. قَالَ: فَقالَ ابنُ عَبَّاسٍ: بَل أقومُ مَعکُمْ. قَالَ: وَهوَ یَومَئِذٍ صَحیحُ لَم یَعْمَ. قَالَ: فَانطَلَقوا فَتَحدَّثوا فلا نَدری مَا قالوا. قَالَ: فَجاءَ یَنفِضُ ثَوبَهُ وَهُوَ یَقولُ: أُفٍّ وَتُفٍّ! وَقَعوا فِی رَجُلٍ قَالَ لهُ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: لأَبْعَثَنَّ رَجُلاً لاَ یُخْزیهِ اللهُ أبَداً، یُحبُّ اللهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَیُحِبُّهُ اللهُ وَرسولُهُ. قَالَ فَاستَشرَفَ لَهَا مَن استَشْرفَ. قَالَ: أَیْنَ عَلِیٌّ؟

They said: He is in the place

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of the grinding, busy with grinding so as to prepare food for the strugglers. The Holy Prophet (S) said: Was there no one else to do this job? At any rate, ‘Ali was informed that the Holy Prophet had sent for him. ‘Ali came to the Holy Prophet with eyesore in a way he could not see before his feet. The Holy Prophet rubbed his saliva on ‘Ali’s eyes which cured him immediately. Hoisting the banner of Islam for three times, the Holy Prophet then gave it to ‘Ali and told him to go ahead. ‘Ali conquered Khaybar Fort in no time and brought Safiyyah, the daughter of Huyay as a captive to the presence of the Holy Prophet.

When the Holy Prophet (S) sent so-and-so (i.e. Abu-Bakr) to read Surah of Bara’ah, he sent ‘Ali after him to take the mission from him. The Holy Prophet (S) said: This mission is carried out by none except me or one who is from me. The Holy Prophet (S) asked his cousins: Which one of you in this world and the hereafter will be my follower? They all answered in negative except ‘Ali who was present in the gathering but silent. All of a sudden, he rose up and said: I will be a follower of you in this world and the hereafter! The Messenger of Allah said: Yes, indeed you will be my friend in this world and the hereafter.

‘Ali was the first to embrace Islam after Khadijah.

The Messenger of Allah

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spread his cloak on ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn and quoted the following holy verse:

“Allah only desires to keep away uncleanness from you, O people of the House, and to purify you, a thorough purifying.” (33:33)

‘Ali sacrificed his life for the Messenger of Allah by putting on his clothes and lying in his bed at that night, which is called Laylat al-Mabit when the Holy Prophet left Mecca for Medina secretly away from the eyes of the people of Quraysh. The polytheists were throwing stones at ‘Ali’s body thinking that it was the Holy Prophet. Abu-Bakr too came and called for the Messenger of Allah. ‘Ali quietly said: The Holy Prophet is not here. He is heading for Bi’r Maymun. If you hurry, you will reach him. The polytheists kept on throwing stones at ‘Ali but he wrapped his garment over his head till morning when the polytheists found out that they were throwing stones at a wrong target. They swore at him saying: Whatever stones we threw at him, he did not say anything but was raising his voice. Hence, it was strange for us as to whether it was Muhammad or someone else lying in his bed.

قَالُوا: هُو فِی الرَّحَی یَطْحَنُ. قَالَ: وَما کانَ أَحدُکُمْ یَطحَنُ عَنهُ. قَالَ: فَجاءَ وَهوَ أرْمَدُ لاَ یَکادُ أنْ یُبصِرَ. فَتَفَلَ فِی عَینَیْهِ ثُمَّ هَزّ الرَّایهَ ثَلاثاً فَأعْطاها إیَّاهُ. فَجاءَ بِصَفِیَّهَ بِنتِ حُیَیٍّ. قَالَ: ثُمّ بَعثَ فُلاناً بِسورَهِ التَّوبَهِ فَبعثَ عَلِیَّاً خَلفَهُ فَأخَذَها مِنهُ. قَالَ: لاَ یَذْهَبُ بِها إلاَّ رَجُلٌ مِنّی وَأنَا مِنهُ.

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قَالَ: وَقالَ لِبَنی عَمِّهِ: أیُّکُم یُوالینِی فِی الدُّنیا وَالآخِرَهِ؟ قَالَ: وَعَلِیٌّ جالِسٌ مَعَهُمْ فَأَبَوْا. فَقالَ عَلِیٌّ: أَنا أُوالِیکَ فِی الدُّنیا وَالآخِرهِ. فَقالَ: أنْتَ وَلِیّی فِی الدُّنیا والآخِرَهِ.

قَالَ: وَکانَ أوَّلَ مَنْ أسلَمَ مِن النَّاسِ بَعدَ خَدیجَهَ. قَالَ وَأخَذَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ ثَوبَهُ فَوَضَعَهُ عَلَی عَلِیٍّ وَفاطِمَهَ وَحَسَنٍ وَحُسَیْنٍ فَقالَ: ?إِنَّمَا یُرِیدُ اللَّهُ لِیُذْهِبَ عَنْکُمْ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَیْتِ وَیُطَهِّرَکُمْ تَطْهِیرًا.? قَالَ: وَشرَی عَلِیُّ نَفسَهُ؛ لَبِسَ ثَوبَ رَسولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ ثُمَّ نامَ مَکانَهُ. قَالَ وَکانَ الْمُشرِکونَ یُریدونَ رَسولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ.

فَجاءَ أَبُو بَکرٍ وَعَلِیٌّ نائِمٌ. قَالَ: وَأبو بَکرٍ یَحسبُ أنَّهُ نَبِیُّ اللهِ. قَالَ: فَقالَ: یَا نَبِیَّ اللهِ. قَالَ: فَقالَ لهُ عَلِیٌّ: إنَّ نبِیَّ اللهِ قَد انطَلَقَ نَحوَ بِئْرِ مَیْمُونٍ فَأَدْرِکْهُ. قَالَ فَانطَلَقَ أَبو بَکرٍ فَدخَلَ مَعَهُ الغَارَ. قَالَ: وَجَعَلَ عَلِیٌّ یُرْمَی بِالْحِجارَهِ کَما کانَ یُرْمَی رَسولُ اللهِ وَهوَ یَتَضَوَّرُ قَدْ لَفَّ رَأسَهُ بِالثَّوْبِ لاَ یُخْرِجُهُ حَتَّی أصبَحَ. ثُمَّ کَشَفَ عَن رَأْسِهِ الثَّوْبَ فَقالُوا: کانَ صَاحِبُکَ نَرْمیهِ فَلا یتَضَوَّرُ وَأَنْتَ تَتَضَوَّرُ وَقَد استَنْکرْنا ذلکَ.

In the battle of Tabuk when the Holy Prophet’s companions were along with him, ‘Ali said: Will you give me permission to take part in this battle with you? The Holy Prophet (S) said, “No.” ‘Ali was greatly impressed by the Holy Prophet’s unusual answer and started weeping. The Holy Prophet (S) said: Are you not happy that you are to me like Aaron to Moses, except that you are not a prophet? I do not like to pass away from this world unless you will succeed me.

The Holy Prophet (S), on another

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occasion, said to ‘Ali, “You are the leader of every believer after me.” The Messenger of Allah, on the order of Allah, closed all the doors opening to Masjid al-Nabi. The door of ‘Ali’s house was the only one which remained open. He sometimes entered the mosque while he was in a state of ceremonial impurity, for there was no other way for going and coming.

The Holy Prophet (S) said: Whomever I am a master, ‘Ali is his master. Ibn Abbas says: Allah Almighty made us known in the Holy Qur’an that He is pleased with the companions who swore allegiance under that Tree, for “He was Aware of their in depth faith.” Does anyone have any Hadith at hand to the contrary?

Afif Kindi has been quoted by Ahmad ibn Hanbal as saying: I was a merchant who once went to Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib who was a merchant too to buy goods from him on my way to Hajj. When we were in Mina, a man came out of the camp next to ours looking at the sun. When he saw that the sun was moving towards the west and had passed by the middle of the sky, rose up to perform his prayer. Then I saw a woman coming out of the same camp following the man in his prayer. A young boy came out of the camp and performed prayer with him. Since this scene was strange to me, I asked Abbas who that man is.

He

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said: It is Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abd al-Muttalib, my nephew. I asked who that woman was. He said: His wife, Khadijah, the daughter of Khuwaylid. I asked who that young boy was. He said: ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib, his cousin. I asked what that act was. He said: He is praying and believes he is a prophet but no one follows him except this woman and this young boy. He believes he will soon possess the treasures of Caesar and Khosrow and will conquer their territories!

قَالَ: وخَرَجَ بِالنَّاسِ فِی غُزاهِ تَبوکَ فقالَ لهُ عَلِیٌّ: أَخرُجُ مَعکَ؟ فقالَ لهُ نَبیُّ اللهِ: لاَ. فَبَکی عَلِیٌّ. فَقالَ لهُ: أمَا تَرْضَی أنْ تَکونَ مِنّی بِمَنْزِلَهِ هَارُونَ مِن مُوسَی إلاَّ أنَّکَ لَستَ بِنَبِیٍّ؟ إنّهُ لاَ یَنبَغی أنْ أذْهَبَ إلاَّ وَأَنْتََ خَلیفَتِی. قَالَ: وَقالَ لهُ رسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: أَنْتََ وَلِیُّ کُلِّ مُؤمنٍ بَعدِی.

قَالَ: وسَدُّوا أبْوابَ الْمَسجِدِ غَیْرَ بَابِ عَلِیٍّ فَیدخُلُ الْمَسجِدَ جُنُباً وَهوَ طَرِیقُهُ لَیسَ لهُ طَریقٌ غَیرُهُ. قَالَ: وقالَ: مَنْ کُنْتُ مَوْلاهُ فَعَلِیٌّ مَولاهُ.

قَالَ: وَأخبَرَنا اللهُ عَزَّ وَجلَّ فِی القُرْآن إنَّهُ قدْ رَضِیَ عَن أصْحابِ الشَّجَرَهِ (فَعَلِمَ مَا فِی قُلُوبِهِمْ) هَل حَدَّثَنا أَحَدٌ أنَّهُ سَخِطَ عَلَیهِمْ بَعدُ؟

وَمِن کِتابِ مُسنَد أحْمَدَ: عَن عَفیفٍ الکِندِیِّ قَالَ: کُنتُ تاجِراً فَقَدِمْتُ الحَجَّ فَأَتَیتُ العَبَّاسَ بنَ عَبدِالمُطَّلِبِ لأَبْتاعَ مِنهُ بَعضَ التِّجارَهِ وَکانَ تاجِراً فَوَاللهِ إنّی لَعِندَهُ بِمِنیً إذ خَرَجَ رَجُلٌ مِن خَباءٍ قَریبٍ مِنهُ فَنَظرَ إلَی الشَّمْسِ فَلمَّا رَآها قَد مالَتْ قامَ یُصَلّی. قَالَ: ثُمَّ خَرَجَتْ إمْرَأَهٌ مِنْ ذلِکَ الخَباءِ الَّذی خَرَجَ مِنهُ ذلکَ الرَّجُلُ فَقامَتْ خَلفَهُ تُصَلّی. ثُمَّ خَرجَ غُلامٌ حینَ رَاهقَ الحُلُمَ مِنْ ذلکَ الخَباءِ

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فَقامَ مَعَهُ یُصَلّی. قَالَ: فَقُلْتُ لِلعَبَّاسِ: مَنْ هَذَا یَا عَبَّاسُ؟ قَالَ: هَذَا مُحَمَّدُ بنُ عَبدِاللهِ ابْنُ أخِی. فقُلْتُ: مَنْ هذِهِ المَرْأهُ؟ قَالَ: هَذِهِ إمْرَأَتُهُ خَدیَجهُ بِنتُ خُوَیلِدٍ. فَقُلتُ: مَن هَذَا الفَتی؟ فقالَ: هَذَا عَلِیُّ بنُ أَبِی طالِبٍ ابنُ عَمِّهِ. فَقُلْتُ: فَما هَذَا الَّذی یَصْنَعُ؟ قَالَ: یُصَلّی، وَهُوَ یَزْعُمُ أنَّهُ نَبِیٌّ، وَلَمْ یَتَّبِعْهُ عَلی أمْرِهِ إلاَّ امرَأَتُهُ وَابنُ عَمِّهِ هَذَا الفَتَی، وَهوَ یَزعُمُ أنَّهُ سَتُفتَحُ عَلَیْهِ کُنوزُ کِسرَی وَقَیصَرَ.

Ibn’Afif, the cousin of Ash’ath ibn Qays, embraced Islam after some time. He used to regretfully say: If I were a Muslim on that day, I would be the second man, after ‘Ali, who had embraced Islam and I would enjoy the virtue of being a pioneer in Islam.(1) Zayd ibn Arqam has been quoted as saying: the first person who performed prayer with the Messenger of Allah was ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib.(2) Ahmad ibn Hanbal has related that the Holy Prophet (S) said to his daughter, Fatimah: My daughter! I gave you in marriage to one who is a pioneer in Islam among the Ummah, his knowledge is above others and his forbearance is great in hardships. Are you not pleased with this marriage?(3)

Tha’labi in his commentary on the holy verse,

“And as for the foremost, the first of the Muhajirs and the Ansar (9:100)”

says: Scholars have unanimously believed that the first person who believed in Islam after Khadijah was ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib.(4) Abu-Dharr and Salman have been reported as saying: The Messenger of Allah took ‘Ali’s hand in his hand saying:

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1- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol. 1, pp. 209
2- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 4, pp. 20
3- Musnad, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol. 5, pp. 26
4- Ihqaq al-Haqq, vol. 3, pp. 386

This is the first person who believed in me. He is a distinguisher between justice and injustice among the Ummah, the leader of the believers, and the first person who will shake hand with me on the Day of Judgment. He is the greater accepter of Islam.(1)

Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib has been quoted as saying: I heard from Umar ibn Khattab saying to those who blamed ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib: Be silent and do not speak ill of ‘Ali, for I heard from the Messenger of Allah saying: There are three qualities in ‘Ali and I wish one of them was in me, while one of those qualities alone is more beloved to me that what the sun shines on. The Holy Prophet said this when I, Abu-Bakr, Abu-’Ubaydah Jarrah and a number of the companions were present. Then, the Messenger of Allah put his hand on ‘Ali’s shoulders and spoke of those three qualities by saying: O ‘Ali, you are the foremost to Islam and the foremost to faith. Your station to me is like that of Aaron to Moses (a.s). Then he added: O ‘Ali! One who claims that he loves me but he is your enemy is telling a lie, for love for you is love for me and enmity with you is enmity with me.(2)

قَالَ: فَکانَ عَفیفٌ، وَهوَ ابْنُ عَمِّ الأَشْعثِ، یَقولُ بَعدَ ذلکَ، وَقدْ أسْلَمَ: لَوْ کانَ اللهُ رَزَقَنِیَ الإسْلاَمَ یَوْمَئِذٍ فَأَکُونَ ثالِثاً مَعَ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. وَمِنْ کِتابِ الْمَناقِبِ: عَنْ زَیدِ بنِ أرقَمَ قَالَ: أَوَّلُ

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1- Khasa’is, Natanzi
2- Khasa’is, Natanzi

مَنْ صَلّی مَعَ النَّبِیّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ عَلِیُّ بنُ أَبِی طالبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ.

وَمِنْ مُسنَدِ أحْمَدَ: إنَّ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ قَالَ لِفَاطِمَهَ عَلَیها السَّلامُ: أَوَمَا تَرْضَیْنَ أنّی زَوَّجْتُکِ أقْدَمَ أُمَّتِی سِلْماً وَأکْثَرَهُمْ عِلماً وَأعْظَمَهَمْ حِلْماً. وَقالَ الثَّعلبیُّ فِی تَفْسیرِ قَوْلِهِ تَعالَی: ?وَالسَّابِقُونَ الأَوَّلُونَ مِنْ الْمُهَاجِرِینَ وَالأَنصَار? إتَّفَقَت العُلَماءُ عَلَی أنَّ أوَّلَ مَنْ آمَنَ بَعدَ خَدیجَهَ مِنَ الذُّکورِ بِرَسولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ عَلِیُّ بنُ أَبِی طَالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. وَمِنْ کِتابِ الخَصائِصِ لِلطَّبریِّ: عَنْ أَبِی ذَرٍّ وَسَلْمانَ قالا: أخَذَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ بِیَدِ عَلِیٍّ فَقالَ: إنَّ هَذَا أوَّلُ مَنْ آمَنَ بِی، وَهذا فاروقُ هَذهِ الأُمَّهِ، وَهَذا یَعْسوبُ المُؤمنینَ، وَأوَّلُ مَنْ یُصافِحُنی یَومَ القِیامَهِ، وَهَذا الصِّدِّیقُ الأکْبَرُ.

وَفیهِ: عَنِ العَبَّاسِ بنِ عَبدِالمُطَّلِبِ قَالَ: سَمِعتُ عُمَرَ بنَ الْخَطَّابِ وَهُوَ یَقولُ: کُفُّوا عَنْ ذِکْرِ عَلِیِّ بنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ فَإنّی سَمِعتُ رَسولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَقولُ فِی عَلِیٍّ ثَلاثَ خِصالٍ وَدِدْتُ أنَّ لی واحِدَهً مِنهُنَّ؛ فَواحِدَهٌ مِنهُنَّ أَحَبُّ إلَیَّ مِمَّا طَلَعَتْ عَلَیْهِ الشَّمسُ. کُنتُ أنَا وَأبو بَکرٍ وأبو عُبَیدَهَ بنُ الجَرَّاحِ وَنَفَرٌ مِن أصْحابِ رَسولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ إذْ ضَرَبَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیهِ وآلهِ کَتِفَ عَلِیِّ بنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَقالَ: یَا عَلِیُّ أنْتَ أوَّلُ المُسْلِمینَ إسْلاماً وَأَنْتََ أوَّلُ المُؤمِنینَ إیماناً وَأَنْتََ مِنّی بِمَنْزِلَهِ هارونَ مِنْ مُوسَی. کَذِبَ یَا عَلِیُّ مَنْ زَعَمَ أنَّهُ یُحِبُّنِی وَیُبْغِضُکَ.

When the Qur’anic verse

“And warn your nearest relations” (26:214)

was revealed, the Holy Prophet (S) gathered Abd al-Muttalib’s sons numbering forty altogether in Abu-Talib’s house and had a meal of a leg of mutton, one Kilo of wheat and some

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milk prepared for them whereas the meal of each one of them at one meal was four-year camel and sixteen pounds of milk. This group of people ate from that little food and felt full. This was nothing but a miracle becoming manifest in that gathering.

After eating the food, the Holy Prophet (S) addressing the gathering and declaring his divine mission, said: let it be known to you that God has sent me to you, sons of Abd al-Muttalib in particular and to other people in general, for He says: “And warn your nearest relations.” I hereby invite you to two formulas which are light on the tongue but heavy and meaningful in action. By uttering these two formulas, you will soon wield the control of affairs of the Arab and non-Arab and various nations will be subdued to you. You will be redeemed from the fire of hell and enter paradise. Those two formulas are bearing witness to the unity of God Almighty and bearing witness to my mission and prophethood.

Anyone of you, who will respond positively and assist me in my mission, will be my brother, my heir and successor after me. From that gathering, even a single person did not give a positive answer. ‘Ali relates: I who was the youngest in the gathering, rose up saying: O Messenger of Allah, give me the honor of this mission. The Holy Prophet (S) said: Take your seat and let me see what the others say. The Holy Prophet

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(S) repeated his words for the second time but there was still silence.

Once again I rose up expressing my positive response. The Holy Prophet (S) again ordered me to sit down. He then repeated his words for the third time. This time too. All kept silent and there was no response. I rose up and expressed my readiness. The Holy Prophet (S) said: O ‘Ali, remain in your place. Verily, you are my heir, successor, brother and vizier. When the Holy Prophet (S) completed his words, those in the gathering rose up and addressing Abu-Talib mockingly said: Congratulation to you that if you accept the religion of your nephew, your son, ‘Ali, will be your leader and chief.(1)

وَلَمَّا نَزَلَ قَولُهُ تَعالَی: ?وَأَنْذِرْ عَشِیرَتَکَ الأَقْرَبِینَ? جَمَعَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ بَنی عَبدِالمُطَّلِبِ فِی دارِ أَبِی طالِبٍ وَهُمْ أرْبَعونَ رَجُلاً وَأمَرَ أنْ یُصْنَعَ لَهُمْ فَخِذُ شاهٍ مَعَ مُدٍّ مِنْ طَعامِ البُرِّ وَیُعَدُّ لَهُمْ صاعاً مِنَ اللَّبَنِ وَکانَ الرَّجُلُ یَأکُلُ الجِذْعَهَ فِی مَقامٍ واحِدٍ وَیَشْرَبُ الزُّقَّ مِنَ الشَّرَابِ. فَأکَلوا مِنَ الیَسِیرِ مَا کَفاهُمْ إظْهاراً لِمُعْجِزَتِهِ.

ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُمْ: یَا بَنی عَبدِالمُطَّلِبِ إنَّ اللهَ تَعالَی بَعَثَنی إلَی الخَلْقِ کَافَّهً وَبَعَثَنی إلَیکُمْ خاصَّهً فَقالَ: ?وَأَنْذِرْ عَشِیرَتَکَ الأَقْرَبِینَ? وَأنا أدْعوکُم إلَی کَلِمَتَیْنِ خَفیفَتَیْنِ عَلَی اللِّسانِ ثَقیلَتَیْنِ فِی المیزانِ تَمْلِکونَ بِهِما العَرَبَ وَالعَجَمَ وَتَنْقادُ لَکُمْ بِها الأُمَمُ وَتَدْخُلونَ بِهِما الجَنَّهَ وَتَنْجَوْنَ بِهِما مِنَ النَّارِ: شَهادَهَ أنْ لاَ إلَهَ إلاَّ اللهُ وَأنّی رَسولُ اللهِ. فَمَنْ یُجیبُنی إلَی هَذَا الأمْرِ وَیُؤازِرُنی عَلَی القِیامِ بِهِ یَکُنْ أخی وَوَصِیّی وَوَزیری وَوارِثی وَخَلیفَتی مِنْ بَعْدی.

فَلَمْ یُجِبْهُ أحَدٌ مِنْهُمْ. فَقالَ أمِیرُ

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1- Kifayat al-Talib, chap. 51, pp. 204

المُؤمِنینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: فَقُمْتُ بَیْنَ یَدَیْهِ وَأنا إذْ ذاکَ أصْغَرُهُمْ سِنَّاً فَقُلْتُ: أنَا یَا رَسولَ اللهِ أُؤازِرُکَ عَلَی هَذَا الأمرِ. فَقالَ: إجْلِسْ. ثُمَّ أعادَ عَلَی القَوْمِ القَولَ ثانِیَهً فَصَمَتوا، وَقُمْتُ فَقُلْتُ مِثْلَ مَقالَتی الأولی. فَقالَ: إجْلِسْ. ثُمَّ أعادَ عَلَی القَومِ مَقالَتَهُ ثالِثَهً فَلَمْ یَنْطِقْ أحَدٌ مِنْهُمْ بِحَرْفٍ. فَقُمْتُ وَقُلْتُ: أنَا یَا رَسولَ اللهِ! أنَا أُؤازِرُکَ عَلَی هَذَا الأمْرِ. فَقالَ: إجْلِسْ فَأنْتَ أخی وَوَصِیّی وَوَزیری وَوارِثی وَخَلیفَتی مِنْ بَعدِی. فَنَهَضَ القَومُ وَهُمْ یَقُولُونَ لأبِی طالِبٍ: لِیُهْنِئْکَ الیَوْمَ إنْ دَخَلْتَ الیَومَ فِی دِینِ ابْنِ أخیکَ، فَقَدْ جَعَلَ ابْنَکَ أمیراً عَلَیْکَ.

والأخْبارُ فِی ذَلِکَ کَثیرَهٌ لاَ تُحْصی.

Knowledge

It is unanimously believed that ‘Ali was the wisest among the people of his time. All people resorted to him learning from his rational and transmitted science. There are proofs testifying to what we have said:

First: ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib was extremely clever and intelligent, having a hunger for knowledge. He was a constant company of the Holy Prophet, from childhood to the day the Messenger of Allah departed from this world, benefiting from the ocean of his knowledge. Evidently, the Holy Prophet (S) was superior to all human beings and his knowledge was above all. Naturally such an intelligent and clever student who accompanied such a perfect man and was hungry for knowledge on the one hand and the student’s interest in learning from childhood till the end of his life had made ‘Ali a student of high capacity who was walking in a path leading to the zenith of perfection on the other.(1)

Second: ‘Ali’s superiority over the

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1- Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. 2, pp. 98

people of his time is that God Almighty has said of him:

“… and the retaining ear might retain it” (69:12)

. Tha’labi, a Sunni commentator, in interpreting the verse says: The Messenger of Allah said to ‘Ali: I called on God Almighty to make you a true example of this verse.

Abu-Nasir Hafi, the Shafi’ite, has related: The Messenger of Allah said to ‘Ali: God Almighty has ordered me to call you and teach you the knowledge so that you will retain it. The above mentioned verse was revealed on the same occasion. O ‘Ali, you have the hearing ear and are the retainer of knowledge.(1)

Third: ‘Ali’s superior knowledge is that the Messenger of Allah said, “‘Ali is the most competent among you in relation to judgment.” Evidently, passing a fair judgment requires an in-depth knowledge and full faith. Since ‘Ali was the most competent and qualified, his knowledge too was certainly above all.(2) Bayhaqi quoted ‘Ali as having said: The Holy Prophet (S) gave me the mission to set out to Yemen for passing judgment among them. Being surprised by the order and its referring to me, I said: O Messenger of Allah! Do you assign me a judge while I am still too young not knowing

العِلْمُ:

وَقَدْ أجْمَعَ النَّاسُ کافَّهً عَلَی أنَّ عَلِیَّ بنَ أَبِی طالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ کانَ أعْلَمَ أهْلِ زَمانِهِ وَمِنْهُ اسْتَفادَ النَّاسُ جَمیعَ العُلومِ العَقْلِیَّهِ وَالنَّقْلِیَّهِ، وَیَدُلُّ عَلَی ذَلِکَ وُجُوهٌ: الأوَّلُ: إنَّ عَلِیَّ بْنَ أَبِی طالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ کانَ فِی غایَهِ الذَّکاءِ وَالفِطْنَهِ شَدیدَ الحِرْصِ عَلَی التَّعَلُّمِ

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1- Hilyat al-Awliya’, vol. 1, pp. 67
2- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 113

عَظیمَ المُلازَمَهِ لِرَسولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ لَیْلاً وَنَهاراً مِنْ صِغَرِ سِنِّهِ إلَی حینَ مُفارَقَتِهِ وَهوَ أکمَلُ أشْخاصِ البَشَرِ عِلْماً وَفَضْلاً. وَمِنَ المَعْلومِ بِالضَّرورَهِ أنَّ مِثلَ هَذَا التِّلْمیذِ المُلازِمِ لِهَذِهِ المُلازَمَهِ لِهَذا المُعَلِّمِ الکامِلِ مَعَ شِدَّهِ حِرْصِ المُعَلِّمِ عَلَی التَّعْلیمِ وَحِرْصِ المُتَعَلِّمِ علَی التَّعَلُّمِ فإنَّ التِّلْمیذَ فِی غایَهِ الکَمالِ وَنِهایَهِ الفَضْلِ وَالعِلْمِ.

وَهَذا بُرهَانٌ قَطْعِیٌّ لاَ خِلافَ فیهِ.

الثَّانی: قَالَ اللهُ تَعالَی فِی حَقِّهِ: ?وَتَعِیَهَا أُذُنٌ وَاعِیَهٌ?. رَوَی الثَّعلَبِیُّ فِی تَفسیرِهِ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ سَأَلْتُ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجلَّ أنْ یَجْعَلَها أُذُنَکَ یَا عَلِیُّ. وَرَوی أَبُو نَعیمٍ الْحَافِظُ الشَّافِعِیُّ بإسْنادِهِ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: یَا عَلِیُّ إنَّ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجلَّ أَمَرَنِی أَنْ أُدْنِیَکَ وَأُعَلِّمَکَ فَأُنْزِلَتْ هَذِهِ الآیَهُ ?وَتَعِیَهَا أُذُنٌ وَاعِیَهٌ? فَأنْتَ أُذُنٌ واعِیَهٌ لِعِلْمِی. الثَّالثُ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: أقْضاکُمْ عَلِیٌّ.

وَالقَضَاءُ یَسْتَلْزِمُ العِلْمَ وَالدِّینَ. فَإذَا کانَ أقْضی مِنْ غَیْرِهِ وَجَبَ أنْ یَکونَ أعْلَمَ مِنهُ. وَرَوی البَیهَقیُّ عَنْ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ: بَعَثَنِی رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ إلَی الیَمَنِ فَقُلْتُ: بَعَثْتَنی وَأنا شابٌّ أَقْضی بَیْنَهُمْ وَلا أدْری مَا القَضاءُ. فَضَرَبَ فِی صَدْری

the principles of judgment! The Holy Prophet (S) put his hand on my chest, prayed for me and said: O Lord! Guide his hear, make his tongue steadfast in telling the truth. ‘Ali said: By the God who cleaves a grain in the earth, after this prayer, I did not pass any judgment between two persons in which there was a bit of doubt.(1)

Nasa’i, in his book of Sahih, and Ahmad ibn Hanbal, in Musnad, have reported ‘Ali

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1- Dala’il al-Nubuwwah, vol. 5, pp. 397

as saying: When the Messenger of Allah sent me to Yemen for judgment among people and I was very young, I said to the Messenger of Allah: You are sending me to people among whom there are many differences and hostilities in relation to legal problems and I do not have experience in passing legal judgment. The Holy Prophet (S) said: God Almighty will guide you tongue in telling the truth and will keep your heart steadfast so that you will judge among people without having any doubt.(1) Fourth: Salman Farsi reports: the Holy Prophet (S) has said: The most knowledgeable among my Ummah after me will be ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib.(2)

Fifth: The eloquent of Khawarizm and Abdullah ibn Mas’ud have reported the Holy Prophet (S) as saying: Wisdom has been divided into ten parts, none parts of which have been given to ‘Ali and the people have been given just one part of it.(3) Sixth: Tirmidhi has quoted the Holy Prophet as saying: I am the city of knowledge and ‘Ali is its gate.(4) Baghawi, in Sihah, has reported the Holy Prophet (S) as saying: I am a collection of wisdom and ‘Ali is the gate of it.(5) Ibn Abbas has quoted the Holy Prophet (S) as saying: I am the city of knowledge and ‘Ali the gate thereof. Therefore, anyone who wishes to enter it should go through its gate.(6)

Khawarizmi has quoted Ibn Abbas on the authority of the Holy Prophet: I am the city of wisdom and ‘Ali

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1- Musnad, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol. 1, pp. 83-88,156
2- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 7, pp. 40
3- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 7, pp. 40
4- Sahih, vol. 5, pp. 637
5- Masabih al-Sunnah Baqwi, vol. 4, pp. 174
6- Manaqib, ibn Maghazili, pp. 80

is the gate thereof. Therefore, whoever longs for wisdom should enter the city through its gate.(1)

Seventh: Baghawi, in Sihah, has quoted Abil-Hamra' on the authority of the Holy Prophet as saying: Whoever wishes to understand about the knowledge of Adam, the perception of Noah, the piety of John, and the power of Moses, should look at ‘Ali, for he has all the virtues of these men altogether.

وَقالَ: اللَّهُمَّ إِهْدِ قَلْبَهُ وَثَبِّتْ لِسَانَهُ. قَالَ: فَوَالَّذی فَلَقَ الْحَبَّهَ مَا شَکَکْتُ بَعْدَها فِی قَضاءٍ بَیْنَ اثْنَیْنِ. وَرَوی النَّسائِیُّ فِی صَحیحِهِ وَأحمَدُ بنُ حَنْبل فِی مُسْنَدهِ قَالَ: قَالَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: بَعَثَنی رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وآلِهِ إلَی الیَمَنِ وَأنا حَدیثُ السِّنِّ. قَالَ: قُلتُ: یَا رَسولَ اللهِ تَبْعَثُنی إلَی قَومٍ یَکونُ بَیْنَهُمْ أحْداثٌ وَلا عِلْمَ لی بِالقَضَاءِ. قَالَ: إنَّ اللهَ سَیَهْدی قَلْبَکَ وَیُثَبِّتُ لِسانَکَ. فَما شَکَکْتُ فِی قَضاءٍ بَیْنَ اثنَینِ بَعْدَهُ.

الرَّابعُ: رَوَی سَلْمانُ الفارِسِیُّ قَالَ: قَالَ رسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: أعْلَمُ أُمَّتی بَعْدی عَلِیُّ بنُ أَبِی طالِبٍ. الخَامسُ: رَوَی أخْطَبُ خَوارِزمَ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بنِ مَسْعودٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: قُسِّمَتِ الحِکْمَهُ عَلی عَشرَهِ أجْزاءٍ فَأُعْطِیَ عَلِیُّ بنُ أَبِی طالِبٍ مِنْها تِسْعَهً وَالنَّاسُ جُزءاً واحِداً.

السَّادِسُ: رَوَی التِّرمِذِیُّ فِی صَحِیحِهِ أنَّ رَسولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ قَالَ: أنَا مَدینَهُ العِلْمِ وَعَلِیُّ بابُها. وَذَکَرَ البَغَویُّ فِی الصِّحاحِ أنَّ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ قَالَ: أنَا دارُ الحِکْمَهِ وَعَلِیٌّ بابُها.

وعَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: أنَا مَدینَهُ العِلْمِ وَعَلِیٌّ بابُها. فَمَنْ أرادَ العِلْمَ فَلْیأْتِ البَابَ. وَرَوی الخَوارِزمیُّ عنِ ابنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ

p: 41


1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 7, pp. 40

صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: أنَا مَدینَهُ الحِکْمَهِ وَعَلِیٌّ بابُها. فَمَنْ أرادَ الحِکْمَهَ فَلْیَأْتِ البابَ.

السَّابعُ: رَوَی البَغَویُّ فِی الصِّحاحِ عَنْ أَبِی الحَمْراءِ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَنْ أرادَ أنْ یَنْظُرَ إلَی آدَمَ فِی عِلْمِهِ وَإلی نوحٍ فِی فَهْمِهِ وإلی یَحیی بنِ زَکَرِیَّا فِی زُهْدِهِ وَإلی مُوسی بنِ عِمْرانَ فِی بَطْشِهِ فَلْیَنْظُرْ إلَی عَلِیِّ بنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ.

Bayhaqi has reported that the Holy Prophet (S) said: Whoever wishes to find out about Adam’s knowledge, Noah’s piety, Abraham’s friendliness, Moses’ power and Jesus’ worship, should look at ‘Ali, for he has all these virtues.(1)

In the book of al-Manaqib, the following is recorded: Harith Awar Hamdani has reported that the Holy Prophet who was among his companions says: I will soon show you Adam in his knowledge, Noah in his insight and Abraham in his friendliness. At this time, ‘Ali joined the Holy Prophet’s companions. Abu-Bakr who was present said: O Messenger of Allah! You have compared a man with three prophets, happy will be this man. Now let us know who this man is. The Holy Prophet (S) said: Do you not know him? Abu-Bakr said: No, messenger of Allah, for His messenger knows better. The Holy Prophet (S) said: That man is ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib. Turning approvingly to ‘Ali, Abu-Bakr said: May you enjoy these virtues. O Abul-Hasan, is there anyone like you who has such a high position?(2)

‘Ali has also been quoted as saying: By God, no single verse of the Qur’an was revealed whose occasion and place

p: 42


1- Fada’il al-Sahabah
2- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 7, pp. 45

of revelation I did not know. Virtually, God Almighty has blessed me with an intelligent and knowing heart, and a guidance-seeking and asking tongue.(1) Abd al-Rahman Salmi has been reported as saying: By God, in the Quraysh tribe, I did not find anyone as knowledgeable as ‘Ali in relation to the Holy Qur’an.(2)

Abul-Bukhtari has also been reported as saying: I saw ‘Ali having the Holy Prophet’s woolen garment on, his turban on the head, his sword fasten to his side, wearing his ring and sitting on the pulpit of Kufah.

Exposing his chest, ‘Ali said: Pose your questions to me before I depart from among you, for there is much knowledge within my chest. Then he emphatically said: This chest is the storage of knowledge and what I say to you is the knowledge I have derived from the mouth of the Holy Prophet (S). This knowledge is one which was revealed to the Holy Prophet who fed it to me because of his interest in me, that is to say I enjoyed from that special consciousness without seeing the angel of revelation. If I were given the position of judgment, I would issue religious decrees for the followers of Torah, Gospel, and the Psalms according to their own books in a way that with God’s power, these books would be able to speak to you saying ‘Ali is speaking truthfully about what we contained and made you aware of. Then, each of those books would blame its followers, saying: Why

p: 43


1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 7, pp. 46
2- Manaqib, Khawarizmi

do you not ponder on and adhere to what you are reading?(1)

وَرَوی البَیهَقیُّ بإسْنادِهِ إلَی رَسولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ قَالَ: مَنْ أرادَ أنْ یَنْظُرَ إلَی آدَمَ فِی عِلْمِهِ وَإلی نُوحٍ فِی تَقْواهُ وإلی إبْراهیمَ فِی حِلْمِهِ وإلی مُوسی فِی هَیْبَتِهِ وإلی عِیسی فِی عِبادَتِهِ فَلْیَنْظُرْ إلَی عَلِیِّ بنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ.

وَمِنْ کِتابِ المَناقِبِ: عَنِ الحارِثِ الأعْوَرِ صاحِبِ رایهِ عَلِیِّ بنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ قَالَ: بَلَغَنا أنَّ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ کانَ فِی جَمْعٍ مِنْ أصْحابِهِ فَقالَ: أُریکُمْ آدَمَ فِی عِلْمِهِ وَنوحاً فِی فَهْمِهِ وَإبراهیمَ فِی حِکْمَتِهِ. فَلَمْ یَکُنْ بِأسْرَعَ مِنْ أنْ طَلَعَ عَلِیُّ بنُ أَبِی طالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. فَقالَ أَبُو بَکْرٍ: یَا رَسولَ اللهِ أقِسْتَ رَجُلاً بِثَلاثَهٍ مِنَ الرُّسُلِ؟! بَخٍ بَخٍ لِهَذا الرَّجُلِ. مَنْ هُوَ یَا رَسولَ اللهِ؟ قَالَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: ألا تَعْرِفُهُ یَا أبا بَکْرٍ؟ قَالَ: اللهُ وَرَسولُهُ أعْلَمُ. قَالَ النَّبِیُّ: هُوَ أَبُو الحَسَنِ عَلِیُّ بنُ أَبِی طالِبٍ. فَقالَ أَبُو بَکْرٍ: بَخٍ بَخٍ لَکَ یَا أبا الحَسَنِ وَأیْنَ مِثْلُکَ.

وَمِنْهُ: عَنْ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ: وَاللهِ مَا نَزَلَتْ آیَهٌ إلاَّ وَقَدْ عَلِمْتُ فِیمَ أُنْزِلَتْ وَأَینَ أُنْزِلَتْ. وَإنَّ رَبِّی وَهَبَ لی قَلْباً عَقولاً وَلِساناً سَؤولاً.

وَمِنْهُ: عَنْ أَبِی عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ السَّلَمیِّ قَالَ: وَاللهِ مَا رَأَیْتُ قِرَشِیَّاً أقْرَأَ لِکِتابِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجلَّ مِنْ عَلِیٍّ. وَمِنْهُ: عَنْ أَبِی البُخْتَریِّ قَالَ: رَأَیْتُ عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ صَعِدَ المِنْبَرَ بِالکُوفَهِ وَعَلَیْهِ مِدْرَعَهٌ لِرَسولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ مُتَقَلِّداً بِسَیْفِ رَسولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ مُتَعَمِّماً بِعِمامَهِ رَسولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَفی إصْبعِهِ خَاتَمُ رَسولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَقَعَدَ عَلَی المِنْبَرِ وَکَشَفَ عَنْ بَطْنِهِ فَقالَ: سَلونی قَبْلَ

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 7, pp. 45

أنْ تَفْقِدونی، فَإنَّما بَینَ الجَوانِحِ مِنّی عِلْمٌ جَمٌّ. هَذَا سِفْطُ العِلْمِ. هَذَا لُعابُ رَسولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ. هَذَا مَا زَقَّنی رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ زَقَّاً مِنْ غَیْرِ وَحْیٍ أوحِیَ إلَیَّ. فَواللهِ لَوْ ثُنِیَتْ لیَ الوِسادَهُ فَجَلَسْتُ عَلَیْها لأَفْتَیْتُ لأهْلِ التَّوْراهِ بِتَوْراتِهِمْ وَلأهْلِ الإنْجیلِ بِإنْجیلِهِمْ وَلأهْلِ الزَّبورِ بِزَبورِهِمْ حَتَّی یُنْطِقَ اللهُ التَّوْراهَ وَالإنجیلَ وَالزَّبورَ فَیَقُولُ: صَدَقَ عَلِیٌّ. قَدْ أفْتاکُمْ بِما أنْزَلَ اللهُ فیَّ وَأنْتُمْ تَتْلونَ الکِتابَ أفَلا تَعقِلُونَ.

On another day, ‘Ali attended the gathering of people saying: Pose your questions to me before you lose the opportunity when I am not among you. Ask the ways of heavens, for I know them better than those of the earth.(1)

Ahmad ibn Hanbal quoting the Messenger of Allah as saying to Fatimah: My daughter! Are you not pleased(2) for giving you in marriage to the most pioneer among my Ummah, the most knowledgeable of religion and the greatest of them in forbearance?(3) Ibn Abbas has quoted the Holy Prophet (S) as saying: Actually nine tenth of knowledge has been bestowed upon ‘Ali and by God ‘Ali shares the other one tenth of knowledge with all the people.(4)

A’ishah has been quoted as saying: ‘Ali was the most knowledgeable in relation to the Holy Prophet’s tradition.(5) Ibn Abbas has been quoted as saying: In one of his sermons Umar said: ‘Ali is the most knowledgeable of us in judgment and his insight is above us.(6) Abu’l-Mu’ayyad, in his book of Manaqib, has reported on the authority of Ibn Abbas that Umar,

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1- Nahj al-Balaghah, 189
2- Evidently this question does not mean that Lady Fatimah was not pleased with this marriage, rather it indicates the high station of ‘Ali so that people will know that ‘Ali is more dignified and honorable than all the companions of the Holy Prophet (S).
3- Musnad, vol. 5, pp. 26
4- Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, chap.14, pp. 69
5- Imam ‘Ali, ibn Asakir, vol. 3, pp. 62
6- Manaqib, chap. 7, pp. 47

once, delivered a speech in which he said, “‘Ali is the most versed of all of us in judicature.”

Eighth: ‘Ali’s scientific supremacy is based on the fact that the fundamentals of all sciences go back to him, for he laid the foundations of religion, expressed the principle rules of Shari’ah and established the rational and transmitted sciences. As for jurisprudence, obviously the very fundamentals of Fiqh are attributed to him, for all the jurisprudents refer to him in problems related to Fiqh. As for attribution of Imamiyyah to ‘Ali, there is no room for argument, for the scholars and jurisprudents of Imamiyyah have derived their knowledge from ‘Ali and his infallible progeny. As for Hanafiyyah whose leader is Abu-Yusuf and Muhammad, they have derived their jurisprudence from Abu-Hanifah who is the student of Imam Sadiq who was the student of his father, Imam Baqir who was the student of Imam Sajjad who learnt his knowledge from his father, Imam Husayn and he too from his father, Amir al-Mu’minin.

وَقالَ یَوماً: إسْأَلونی مِنْ قَبْلِ أنْ تَفْقِدونی. سَلونی عَنْ طُرُقِ السَّماءِ فإنّی أَعْرَفُ بِها مِنْ طُرُقِ الأرْضِ وَمِنْ مُسْنَدِ أحمَدَ بنِ حَنْبلٍ أنَّ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ قَالَ لِفاطِمَهَ: أوَما تَرْضَیْنَ أنّی زَوَّجْتُکِ أقْدَمَ أُمَّتِی سِلْماً وَأکْثَرَهُمْ عِلماً وَأعْظَمَهُمْ حِلماً. وَرَوی عَنِ ابنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: لَقَدْ أُعْطِیَ عَلِیُّ بنُ أَبِی طالِبٍ تِسْعَهَ أعْشارِ العِلْمِ. وَأَیْمُ اللهِ لَقَدْ شارَکَهُمْ فِی العُشْرِ العاشِرِ. وَعَنْ عائِشَهَ قَالَتْ: عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ أعْلَمُ النَّاسِ بِالسُّنَّهِ. وَمِنْ مَناقِبِ أَبِی المُؤَیَّدِ: عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: خَطَبَنا عُمَرُ فَقالَ:

p: 46

عَلِیٌّ أقْضانا. الثَّامِنُ: إنَّ مَبادِئَ العُلُومِ مُسْتَنِدَهٌ إلَیهِ وَهُوَ الَّذی مَهَّدَ قَواعِدَ الدِّینِ وَبَیَّنَ أحْکَامَ الشَّریعَهِ وَقَرَّرَ مَطالِبَ العُلومِ العَقْلِیَّهِ وَالنَّقْلِیَّهِ.

أمَّا الفِقْهُ: فَالفُقَهاءُ کُلُّهُمْ یَرْجِعونَ إلَیْهِ فِیهِ. وَأمَّا الإمامِیَّهُ فَانْتِسابُهُمْ إلَیْهِ مَعْلومٌ وَمِنْهُ أَخَذوا عُلُومَهُمْ. وَأحْکامُهُمْ کُلُّها مُسْتَنِدَهٌ إلَیْهِ وَإلی أوْلادِهِ الْمَعْصُومینَ عَلَیْهِمُ السَّلامُ. وَأمَّا الحَنَفِیَّهُ: فَإنَّ أصْحابَ أَبِی حَنیفَهَ کَأبی یوسُفَ وَمُحَمَّدٍ وَزُفَرَ فَإنَّهُمْ أخَذوا عَنْ أَبِی حَنیفَهَ وَهُوَ تِلْمیذُ الصَّادِقِ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَالصَّادِقُ تِلْمیذُ الباقِرِ وَالباقِرُ تِلْمیذُ زَیْنِ العابِدینَ وَزَیْنُ العَابِدینَ قَرَأَ عَلَی الحُسَیْنِ وَالحُسَیْنُ عَلَیْهِ وَعَلَیْهِمُ السَّلامُ قَرَأَ عَلَی أبِیهِ أمیرِ المُؤْمِنینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ.

As for Shafi’ites, they have derived their jurisprudence from Shafi’i and he from Muhammad ibn Hasan, the student of Abu-Hanifah and Malik. Therefore, the knowledge and sect of Shafi’i are attributed to these two persons. As for Ahmad ibn Hanbal, the founder of Hanbaliyyah sect, he derived his knowledge from al-Shafi’i. Malik, the founder of the Malikiyyah, benefited from Rabi’at-al-Ra'y who was the student of Ikrimah and Ikrimah from Ibn Abbas who was the student of Amir al-Mu’minin.(1)

As for Khawarij, we should say that their leaders were the student of Imam ‘Ali. The founder of syntax is Imam ‘Ali, too. In this relation, Imam ‘Ali said to Abu’l-Aswad Du’’Ali: All words are classified as three things: a noun, a verb or a preposition. The Imam then elaborated on their inflection. As for the interpretation of the Qur’an (Tafsir), it is unquestionably attributed to Imam ‘Ali, because Ibn Abbas was a student of Imam ‘Ali.(2) Ibn Abbas reported: Amir al-Mu’minin kept on speaking to me

p: 47


1- Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, ibn Abi Hadid, vol. 1
2- Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, ibn Abi Hadid, vol. 1

about the exegesis of the letter “b” in “Bismillah al-Rahman al-Rahim” from early night till morning; yet, the interpretation of the letter did not come to an end.

As for theology, beyond doubt ‘Ali is the founder of this science on which he has elaborated. ‘Ali used to speak about theology in his sermons delivered to people who, in turn, benefited from it. Scholars too referred to him for solving their scientific problems. Those who tried to learn this science were four groups; namely: Mu’tazilah, Ash’ariyyah, Shi’ah and Khawarij. The attribution of Shi’ism to ‘Ali is obvious and requires no explanation.

As for Khawarij, their scholars used to refer to Imam ‘Ali who was an authority for them.

وَأمَّا الشَّافِعِیَّهُ: فَأخَذوا عَنِ الشَّافِعِیِّ وَهُوَ قَرَأَ عَلَی مُحَمَّدِ بنِ الحَسَنِ تِلْمیذِ أَبِی حَنیفَهَ وَعَلَی مَالِکٍ فَرَجَعَ فِقْهُهُ إلَیْهِما.

وَأمَّا أحْمَدُ بنُ حَنْبَلٍ: فَقَرَأَ عَلَی الشَّافِعِیِّ فَرَجَعَ فِقْهُهُ إلَیْهِ.

وَأمَّا مَالِکٌ: فَقَرَأَ عَلَی رَبِیعَهَ الرّأْیِ وَقَرَأَ رَبِیعَهُ عَلَی عِکْرِمَهَ وَقَرَأَ عِکْرِمَهُ عَلَی عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ عَبَّاسٍ وَعَبْدُ اللهِ بنُ عَبَّاسٍ تِلْمیذُ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ.

وَأمَّا الخَوارِجُ: فَأَکابِرُهُمْ وَرُؤَساؤُهُمْ تَلامِذَهٌ لَهُ. وَأمَّا النَّحوُ: فَهُوَ وَاضِعُهُ. قَالَ لأبی الأسْوَدِ الدُّؤَلیِّ: الکَلامُ کُلُّهُ ثَلاثَهُ أشْیاءٍ: اسْمٌ وَفِعْلٌ وَحَرْفٌ. وَبَیَّنَ لَهُ وُجُوهَ الإعْرابِ.

وَأمَّا عِلْمُ التَّفْسیرِ فَإنَّهُ مُسْتَنِدٌ إلَیْهِ لأنَّ ابْنَ عَبَّاسٍ کانَ تِلْمیذَ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فِیهِ. وَقالَ: حَدَّثَنی أمیرِ المُؤْمِنینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فِی تَفْسیرِ (البَاءِ) مِنْ (بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحیمِ) مِنْ أوَّلِ اللَّیْلِ إلَی آخِرِهِ.

وَأمَّا عِلْمُ الکَلامِ: فَهُوَ الَّذِی قَرَّرَ قَواعِدَهُ وَأوْضَحَ بَراهینَهُ وَمِنْ خُطَبِهِ اسْتَفادَ النَّاسُ کافَّهً وَمَرْجِعُهُمْ کُلُّهُمْ إلَیْهِ فَإنَّ القَیِّمَ بِعِلْمِ الکَلامِ أرْبَعَهٌ: المُعْتَزِلَهُ وَالأشاعِرَهُ وَالشِّیعَهُ وَالخَوارِجُ. أمَّا

p: 48

الشِّیعَهُ: فَانْتِسابُهُمْ إلَیْهِ مَعْلومٌ.

وَأمَّا الخَوارِجُ: فَإنَّ فُضَلاءَهُمْ رَجَعوا إلَیْهِ وَأخَذوا العِلْمَ عَنْهُ.

As for Mu’tazilah, this group is scientifically related to their master, Wasil ibn Ata, who was the student of Abu-Hashim Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah. Abu-Hashim was the student of his father and his father was the student of his dignified father, Imam ‘Ali. As for Ashariyyah, they were the students of Abu’l-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Abi-Bishr al-Ashari who was the student of Abu-’Ali Al-Jiba’i who was one of the great leaders of Mu’tazilah.(1)

As for the spiritual path and intuition, all Sufis who have taken this path, attribute the Khirqah and other tools of this science to ‘Ali saying. So do the followers of futuwwah.(2)

The valorous men of the time too have learnt the lesson of courage from ‘Ali to whom they are indebted, for on the day of battle of Uhud, Archangel Gabriel descended from the heavens crying out: There is no man (fata) more valorous than ‘Ali and no sword sharper than Dhu’l-Fiqar.(3)

Moreover, one day, the Holy Prophet came out with happy mien and said to his companions: I am a valorous man, the son and brother of valorous men. The reason for my being valorous is that I am the master and leader of the Arabs. As for being the son of a valorous father, I am the son of Abraham (a.s), the friend of God, a prophet about whom God has said:

“… a young man making mention of them, and he was called Abraham” (21:60).

As

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1- Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, ibn Abi Hadid, vol. 1, pp. 17
2- Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, ibn Abi Hadid, vol. 1, pp. 17
3- Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, ibn Abi Hadid, vol. 1, pp. 29

for being the brother of a valorous man, I am the brother of ‘Ali about whom Gabriel said: There is no man more valorous than ‘Ali.(1)

As for eloquence, its founder was ‘Ali, for he had reached the zenith of this technique. It has been rightly said that ‘Ali’s words are above the words of all creatures and beneath those of the Creator. All orators have learnt eloquence from him.(2) Ninth: The Holy Prophet’s companions learnt the principles of religion from ‘Ali alone, often referred to him for religious decrees and if they were faced with problems they would seek the solution from him alone.

‘Ali used to correct wrong judgments passed by Umar. One example is when Umar ordered a pregnant woman who had committed adultery to be stoned, but Imam ‘Ali told him not to execute the sentence. When Umar asked him for the reason, Imam ‘Ali said, “If this woman’s sin has been proven and she has to be stoned to death, what is the sin of the infant she has in her womb?

وَأمَّا المُعْتَزِلَهُ: فَإنَّهُمْ انْتَسَبوا إلَی واصِلِ بْنِ عَطاءٍ وَهُوَ کَبیرُهُمْ وَکانَ تِلْمیذَ أَبِی هاشِمٍ عَبدِ اللهِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الحَنَفِیَّهِ، وَأبو هاشِمٍ تِلْمیذُ أبیهِ وَأبوهُ تِلْمیذُ والِدِهِ عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ. وَأمَّا الأشاعِرَهُ: فَإنَّهُمْ تَلامِذَهُ أَبِی الحَسَنِ عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی بِشْرٍ الأشْعَرِیِّ وَهُوَ تِلْمیذُ أَبِی عَلِیٍّ الجِبائِیِّ وَهُوَ مِنْ مَشائِخِ المُعْتَزِلَهِ.

وَأمَّا عِلْمُ الطَّریقَهِ: فَإنَّ جَمیعَ الصُّوفِیَّهِ یُسْنِدونَ الخِرْقَهَ إلَیْهِ وَأصْحابُ الفُتُوَّهِ یَرْجِعونَ إلَیْهِ لأنَّ جِبریلَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ نَزَلَ یَوْمَ أُحُدٍ مِنَ السَّماءِ وَهُوَ یَقولُ: لاَ سَیْفَ

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1- Amali, sheikh Saduq, 36th Majlis, Hadith 14
2- Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, ibn Abi Hadid, vol. 1, pp. 24

إلاَّ ذو الفِقارِ وَلا فَتی إلاَّ عَلِیٌّ. وَخَرَجَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَوماً فَرِحاً مَسروراً وَقالَ: أنَا الفَتی ابْنُ الفَتی أُخو الفَتی.

أمَّا إنَّهُ الفَتَی فَلأنَّهُ سَیِّدُ العَرَبِ. وَأمَّا ابْنُ الفَتَی فَلأنَّهُ ابْنُ إبراهیمَ خَلیلِ الرَّحْمَنِ الَّذِی نَزَلَ فِی حَقِّهِ ?فَتًی یَذْکُرُهُمْ یُقَالُ لَهُ إِبْرَاهِیمُ.? وَأمَّا أنَّهُ أخو الفَتی فَلأنَّهُ أخو عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ الَّذِی قَالَ جِبریلُ عَنْهُ: لاَ فَتی إلاَّ عَلِیٌّ. وَأمَّا عِلْمُ الفَصَاحَهِ: فَهُوَ مَنْبَعُهُ وَأصْلُهُ قَدْ بَلَغَ فِیهِ الغایَهَ وَتَجاوَزَ النِّهایَهَ حَتَّی قیلَ فِی کَلامِهِ بِأنَّهُ فَوْقَ کَلامِ المَخْلوقِ وَدونَ کَلامِ الخَالِقِ. وَکُلُّ الخُطَباءِ تَعَلَّموا مِنْهُ. التَّاسعُ: إنَّ جَمیعَ الصَّحابَهِ کَانُوا یَرجِعُونَ إلَیْهِ فِی الأحْکامِ وَیَتَعَلَّمونَ الفَتاوَی مِنْهُ وَیَلْتَجِئونَ إلَیْهِ فِی حَلِّ المُشْکِلاتِ.

وَرَدَّ عَلِیٌّ عُمَرَ فِی قَضایا کَثیرَهٍ؛ فَإنَّهُ أمَرَ بِرَجْمِ امْرَأهٍ حامِلٍ کانَتْ قَدْ زَنَتْ فَنَهاهُ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَقالَ لَهُ: إنْ کانَ لَکَ عَلَیْها سَبیلٌ فَلَیْسَ لَکَ عَلَی مَا فِی بَطْنِها سَبیلٌ. أَمْهِلْه

Therefore, give her respite and delay her punishments, as to give birth to child. Punish this woman when the nursing period comes to an end.” Umar complied with ‘Ali’s order saying: If ‘Ali were not here, Umar would perish!(1)

A woman, no more than six month pregnant was brought to Umar. He ordered the woman to be stoned to death because of the sin she had committed. ‘Ali was informed of the affair and stopped his order. Umar asked for the reason. ‘Ali said: God Almighty has said:

“The bearing of him and the weaning of him was thirty months” (46:15)

God Almighty has also said:

“And the mothers should suckle their children for

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1- Al-Ghadir, vol. 6, pp. 111

two whole years” (2:233).

Therefore, if we deduct 24 months which is the period of suckling from thirty months, the remaining six months is the period of bearing. Umar let that woman go saying: If ‘Ali were not here, Umar would be perished.(1)

An insane woman who was pregnant, charged with adultery was brought to Umar. He immediately ordered to stone her to death! ‘Ali was informed of the issue. He stopped Umar saying: Have you not heard what the Messenger of Allah has ordered on this case? Umar said: What is the order of the Messenger of Allah? ‘Ali said: The Messenger of Allah said: Several groups of people are exempt from duty; one who is insane till he becomes mentally healthy, another is a child until he reaches maturity, and the last one is one who is asleep until he wakes up. Hearing this, Umar let the woman go and did not punish her.(2)

One day Umar in his sermon said: Anyone who sets his daughter’s marriage portion more than what is normal, the excess will be returned to the public treasury! A woman from among those present rose up and objected to this, saying: Why do you deprive us of the blessing God has bestowed on us in the Holy Qur’an? God Almighty has said:

“… and you have given one of them a heap of gold, then take not from if anything” (4:20).

Umar expressed regret for what he had uttered, saying: All people are wiser and more

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1- Fara’id al-Simtayn, vol. 1, pp. 346
2- Manaqib, vol. 1, pp. 288

familiar with the religious precepts than Umar, even the women behind the curtain.(1)

A woman charged with adultery was brought to Umar. He immediately ordered the woman to be stoned to death! ‘Ali who was present in that place before the execution of the order, said: Stop the order so that the crime will be investigated. Then, he turned to Umar and said: Is this woman to be stoned to death on your order? Umar said: Yes. Then, he recounted the woman’s admission of adultery. ‘Ali said: Perhaps you have been furious to her or you have intimidated her? Umar said: Yes, the case is so.

‘Ali said: Have you not heard from the Messenger of Allah saying: Confession with torture is not valid and no punishment is carried out on a person who confesses in this way. Getting confession by intimidation, putting someone in prison, or chaining a person is not valid either. Umar let that woman go immediately saying: No mother is able to give birth to a person like ‘Ali. Verily if ‘Ali were not here, Umar would be perished.(2)

إلَی أنْ تَضَعَ وَتُرْضِعَ.

فَامْتَثَلَ عُمَرُ وَقالَ: لَوْلا عَلِیٌّ لَهَلَکَ عُمَرُ. وَأُتِیَ عُمَرُ بِامْرَأهٍ کانَتْ قَدْ وَضَعَتْ لِسِتَّهِ أشْهُرٍ فَأَمَرَ بِرَجْمِها فَنَهاهُ عَلِیٌّ صَلَّی اللهُ علیهِ عَنْ ذَلِکَ فَسَأَلَهُ السَّبَبَ. فَقالَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: اللهُ تَعالَی یَقولُ: ?وَحَمْلُهُ وَفِصَالُهُ ثَلاثُونَ شَهْراً?. ثُمَّ قَالَ: ?وَالْوَالِدَاتُ یُرْضِعْنَ أَوْلاَدَهُنَّ حَوْلَیْنِ کَامِلَیْنِ.? فَبَقِیَ مُدَّهُ الحَمْلِ سِتَّهَ أَشْهُرٍ. فَخَلَّی عُمَرُ عَنْها وَقالَ: لَوْلا عَلِیٌّ لَهَلَکَ عُمَرُ.

وَأُتِیَ عُمَرُ بِامْرَأَهٍ مَجْنونَهٍ حُبْلی قَدْ زَنَتْ فَأَمَرَ بِرَجْمِها. فَقالَ

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1- Al-Ghadir, vol. 6, pp. 9
2- Fara’d al-Simtayn, vol. 1, pp. 350

لَهُ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: أَمَا سَمِعْتَ مَا قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ؟ قَالَ: وَما قَالَ؟

قَالَ: قَدْ قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: رُفِعَ القَلَمُ عَنْ ثَلاثَهٍ؛ عَنِ المَجْنونِ حَتَّی یَبْرَأَ وَعَنِ الغُلامِ حَتَّی یُدْرِکَ وَعَنِ النَّائِمِ حَتَّی یَسْتَیْقِظَ. قَالَ: فَخَلّی عَنْها وَقالَ: لَوْلا عَلِیٌّ لَهَلَکَ عُمَرُ. وَخَطَبَ عُمَرُ یَوماً فَقالَ: مَنْ غَالی فِی مَهْرِ ابْنَتِهِ فَقَدْ جَعَلْتُهُ فِی بَیْتِ المَالِ. فَقَامَتِ امْرَأَهٌ إلَیْهِ وَقَالَتْ: کَیْفَ تَمْنَعُنا مَا مَنَحَنا اللهُ تَعالَی بِهِ فِی کِتابِهِ فِی قَوْلِهِ تَعالَی: ?وَآتَیْتُمْ إِحْدَاهُنَّ قِنطَارًا فَلاَ تَأْخُذُوا مِنْهُ شَیْئًا?؟ فَقالَ: کُلُّ النَّاسِ أفْقَهُ مِنْ عُمَرَ حَتَّی المُخَدَّراتِ فِی البُیُوتِ.

وَأُتِیَ عُمَرُ أیْضاً بِامْرَأَهٍ نُسِبَ إلَیْها الزِّنا فَأَمَرَ بِرَجْمِهَا، فَلَقِیَها عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَقالَ: مَا بَالُ هَذِهِ؟ فَقالوا: أُمِرَ بِها أَنْ تُرْجَمَ. فَرَدَّها عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَقالَ لَهُ: أَمَرْتَ بِرَجْمِها؟ فَقالَ: نَعَمْ لأَنَّها اعْتَرَفَتْ عِنْدِی بِالفُجُورِ. فَقالَ: فَلَعَلَّکَ انْتَهَرْتَها أَوْ أَخَفْتَها أَوْ تَهَدَّدْتَها؟ فَقالَ: قَدْ کانَ ذاکَ. فَقالَ: أَوَما سَمِعْتَ رَسولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَقولُ: لاَ حَدَّ عَلَی مُعْتَرِفٍ بَعْدَ بَلاءٍ؟ إنّهُ مَنْ قِیدَتْ أَوْ حُبِسَتْ أَوْ تُهُدِّدَتْ فَلا إقْرارَ لَها.

Abu’l-Mu’ayyad has reported that one day when Umar was speaking to people, said: What will you do if we will persuade you from good to evil? He repeated this three times but received no answer. At that moment, ‘Ali rose up from among people, saying: In that case we will make you repent and restore justice. In other words, we will make you take back what you have said. Should you accept it, it will be better. Umar said: And if I do

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not repent? ‘Ali said: We will then behead you with the sword of law. Umar said: Thanks God, He has set a person among the Ummah who will rightfully guide us from deviations and will show us the right path.(1)

Said ibn al-Musayyab has reported Umar as having said: O Lord! Do not spare my life in relation to a complicated problem for whose solution ‘Ali is not alongside me so as to guide me to its solution, for among this Ummah there is no one except ‘Ali who can solve problems.(2) Jabir has quoted Umar as saying: There were eighteen merits for the Holy Prophet’s companions altogether and thirteen of them belonged solely to ‘Ali and he shared the other five with us.(3)

Ibn Abbas has been reported as saying: Knowledge has been divided into six parts. Five parts have been allocated to ‘Ali and he shares the other part with us too. Nevertheless, he is wiser than all of us in the remaining one part.(4) There are many narrations on ‘Ali’s superior knowledge which cannot be counted.

فَخَلّی عُمَرُ سَبیلَها ثُمَّ قَالَ: عَجِزَتِ النِّساءُ أَنْ تَلِدَ مِثْلَ عَلِیِّ بنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ. لَوْلا عَلِیٌّ لَهَلَکَ عُمَرُ. وَمِنْ مَناقِبِ أَبِی الْمُؤیَّدِ: إنَّ عُمَرَ خَطَبَ النَّاسَ فَقالَ: لَوْ صَرَفْناکُمْ عَمَّا تَعْرِفونَ إلَی مَا تُنْکِرونَ مَا کُنْتُمْ صانِعینَ؟ فَسَکَتوا. قَالَ ذَلِکَ ثَلاثاً. فَقالَ لَهُ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: إذاً کُنَّا نَسْتَتیبُکَ فَإنْ تُبْتَ قَبِلْناکَ. قَالَ فَإنْ لَمْ أَتُبْ؟ قَالَ: إذاً نَضْرِبُ الَّذِی فِیهِ عَیناکَ. فَقالَ: الحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِی جَعَلَ فِی هَذِهِ الأُمَّهِ مَنْ إذَا اعْوَجَجْنا أقَامَ

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 7, pp. 52
2- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 7, pp. 51
3- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 7, pp. 52
4- Maqtal, Khawarizmi, chap. 4, vol. 1, pp. 44

أَوَدَنا.

وَقالَ سَعِیدُ بنُ المُسَیَّبِ: سَمِعْتُ عُمَرَ یَقول: اللَّهُمَّ لاَ تُبْقِنی لِمُعْضِلَهٍ لَیْسَ لَها عَلِیُّ بنُ أَبِی طالِبٍ حَیَّاً. وَعَنْ جابِرٍِ قَالَ: قَالَ عُمَرُ: کانَتْ لأصْحابِ مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ ثَمانِی عَشرَهَ سابِقَهً فَخُصَّ عَلِیٌّ مِنْها بِثَلاثَ عَشرَهَ وَشَرَکَنا فِی الْخَمْسِ. وَقالَ ابنُ عَبَّاسٍ: العِلْمُ سِتُّهُ أسْداسٍ؛ لِعَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ مِنْ ذَلِکَ خَمْسَهُ أسْداسٍ وَلِلنَّاسِ سُدُسٌ، وَلَقَدْ شَارَکَنا فِی السُّدُسِ حَتَّی لَهُوَ أعْلَمُ بِهِ مَنَّا. وَالأخْبارُ فِی ذَلِکَ أکْثَرُ مِنْ أنْ تُحْصی.

Tenth: Imam ‘Ali endeavored to collect the Qur’anic verses more than anyone else after the departure of the Holy Prophet (S).

Abul-Mu’ayyad has reported ‘Ali as saying, “After the departure of the Holy Prophet, I made a vow not to put on my cloak unless I will collect all the Qur’anic verses. As a result, I did not do anything except after doing so due to the great task I had undertaken.” ‘Ali taught the interpretation of the Holy Qur’an to people and Ibn Abbas was distinguished among all for learning the interpretation of the Holy Qur’an.

Eleventh: Imam ‘Ali had amazing merits and scientific perfection. One of the stories told is that two men who were co-travelers came to him. One of them had five loaves of bread and the other had three. They chose a place to sit down, test and have a meal. At this time, a third person came along and ate with them.

After having the food, he gave eight Dirhams to them for the food he had eaten and left. The one who had five

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loaves of bread took five of the eight Dirhams and gave the rest to his co-traveler, but the latter considered this division as unjust and refused to take the three Dirhams. So they started quarreling. Therefore, they came to ‘Ali and informed him of the issue.

Turning to one who had three loaves of bread, Amir al-Mu’minin said: Your co-traveler has been fair to you and has given you more than what you deserve. But the man insisted that he had not been given his due share, saying that the money should be divided equally between them. ‘Ali said: Now that you do not accept your co-traveler’s share, you must know that what is due to you is not more than one Dirham.

The man being surprised said: Why? ‘Ali said: Each of you have eaten 22/3 of a loaf of bread from the eight loaves. Therefore, out of three loaves of bread belonging to you has been eaten by the third person and out of the five loaves of bread belonging to your co-traveler, 21/3 of the bread has been eaten by the third person. Therefore, the price of one third of the bread belonging to you eaten by the third person is no more than one Dirham. Hence what is due to you is only one Dirham.(1)

Another judgment passed by ‘Ali is about a woman who was riding on the back of another woman. A third woman arrived and prodded the woman who was giving the ride, spurring her to

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1- Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, pp. 288

move more quickly. At this time, the woman on the top fell down on the ground and lost her life.

العَاشرُ: إنَّهُ اشْتَغَلَ بِجَمْعِ القُرْآنِ بَعْدَ مَوْتِ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ قَبْلَ کُلِّ أَحَدٍ. رَوَی أَبُو المُؤَیَّدِ بِإسْنادِهِ إلَی عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ: لَمَّا قُبِضَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ أَقْسَمْتُ لاَ أَضَعُ رِدائِی عَنْ ظَهْری حَتَّی أجْمَعَ مَا بَینَ اللَّوْحَیْنِ. فَما وَضَعْتُ رِدائِی عَنْ ظَهْری حَتَّی جَمَعْتُ القُرْآنَ. وَعَلَّمَ النَّاسَ تَفْسیرَهُ وَکانَ أَخَصَّهُمْ بِهِ فِی ذَلِکَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ.

الحَادِی عَشرَ: قَضَایاه العَجِیبَهُ الدَّالَّهُ عَلَی کَمالِ عِلْمِهِ وَغَزارَهِ فَضْلِهِ. مِنْها: أنَّهُ جاءَهُ شَخْصانِ کانا سائِرَیْنِ فِی طَریقٍ مَعَ أحَدِهِما خَمْسَهُ أرْغِفَهٍ وَمَعَ الآخَرِ ثَلاثَهٌ. فَجَلَسا یَأْکُلانِ فَقَدِمَ عَلَیْهِما ثالِثٌ فَأکَلَ مَعَهُما فَلَمَّا فَرِغوا رَمی لَهُما ثَمانِیَهَ دَراهِمَ عِوَضاً عَنْ أکْلِهِ. فَطَلَبَ صاحِبُ الأکْثَرِ خَمْسَهً فَامْتَنَعَ عَلَیْهِ صاحِبُ الأَقَلِّ. فَتَرافَعا إلَی عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. فَقالَ لِصاحِبِ الأَقَلِّ: قَدْ أَنْصَفَکَ. فَقالَ لَهُ: مَا آخُذُ إلاَّ حَقِّی وَهُوَ أکْثَرُ مِنْ ثَلاثَهٍ وَأنا أُریدُ أَمْرَ الحَقِّ. فَقالَ لَهُ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: إذَا کانَ کَذلِکَ فَلَکَ دِرْهَمٌ واحِدٌ؛ کُلُّ واحِدٍ مِنْکُمْ قَدْ أَکَلَ رَغیفَیْنِ وَثُلُثَیْ رَغِیفٍ فَبَقِیَ لَکَ مِنْ خُبْزِکَ ثُلُثُ رَغیفٍ أَکَلَهُ الثَّالِثُ وَأکَلَ مِنْ خُبْزِ صاحِبِکَ رَغیفَیْنِ وَثُلُثَ رَغیفٍ، فَلِکُلٍّ ثُلُثُ دِرْهَمٍ.

وَمِنْها: أنَّ امْرَأَهً رَکِبَتْ أُخْری فَجاءَتْ ثالِثَهٌ فَنَخَسَتِ المَرْکوبَهَ فَوَقَعَتِ الرَّاکِبَهُ فَمَاتَتْ. فَقَضی بِثُلُثَیْ دِیَتِها عَلَی النَّاخِسَهِ وَالمَرْکوبَهِ لأَنَّ التَّلَفَ وَقَعَ مِنْهُمْا وَأَسْقَطَ الثُّلُثَ لِرُکوبِه عَبَثاً

‘Ali’s judgment was that two thirds of blood money had to be paid by the woman who was giving ride and the woman who had prodded her, for the woman’s death was because of their acts and

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annulled one third of blood money, for the woman killed had done a futile attempt and there was no compensation for it. This judgment passed at the time of the Holy Prophet (S) was approved by him.(1)

One of the other judgments passed by ‘Ali was about a slave girl jointly owned by two persons who had sexual intercourse with her during the period of purity. The slave girl became pregnant, so the case became dubious for them. As for the child, ‘Ali drew lot between them. This judgment too was approved by the Holy Prophet (S) who raised his hands in prayer, saying: Thanks God who has set among us Ahl al-Bayt a person acting according to the tradition of Prophet David. By David’s tradition, the Holy Prophet (S) meant divine inspiration.(2)

Another example of judgment passed by ‘Ali was when a cow had killed an ass. The owners of the two animals went to Abu-Bakr for judgment informing him of the case. Abu-Bakr said: An animal has killed another animal. So the owner of the killer animal does not have to pay anything! The two persons referred the case to Umar who passed a judgment similar to that of Abu-Bakr.

Then, they informed the case to ‘Ali who said: If the cow has gone to the place of the ass and has killed it, the owner of the cow has to pay the price of the ass to its owner and if the ass has gone to the place of the

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1- Ihqaq al-Haqq, vol. 8, pp. 86
2- Sunan Nasa’i, vol. 6, pp. 182

cow and it has killed the ass, the owner of the cow does not have to be compensated. Hearing this, the Holy Prophet said: Actually, ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib has passed judgment among you based on God’s decree and there is no doubt about this judgment.(1)

One of the other judgments passed by ‘Ali is about two women who had a dispute over a child each claiming that the child belonged to her. They came to ‘Ali to offer a solution. ‘Ali first advised each of them to give up her baseless claim but they both insisted on what they said believing the other party’s claim to be false. To resolve this problem, ‘Ali ordered Qanbar to bring his sword. The two women said: What is the sword for? ‘Ali said: I will cut the child into two parts and give a half to each of you. At this point, one of the two women cried out saying: O Amir al-Mu’minin! If you are supposed to cut the child into two parts, I will give up my claim. Give the child to this woman. ‘Ali found that the child belonged to her and the other woman’s claim was false. Therefore, he gave the child to his true mother and the other woman whose claim was false, took back her word and confessed the truth.(2)

. فَصَوَّبَهُ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ. وَمِنْها: أنَّهُ کَانَتْ جَارِیَهٌ بَیْنَ اثْنَیْنِ وَطَآها فِی طُهْرٍ وَاحِدٍ فَحَمَلَتْ. فَأَشْکَلَ الْحالُ فَتَرافَعا إلَیْهِ فَحَکَمَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ بِالقُرْعَهِ. فَصَوَّبَهُ رَسُولُ

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1- Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, pp. 76-228
2- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 196

اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَقالَ: الحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِی جَعَلَ فینا أهْلَ البَیْتِ مَنْ یَقْضی عَلَی سُنَنِ دَاوُدَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ، یَعنِی بِهِ: القَضاءَ بِالإلْهامِ.

وَمِنْها: أنَّ بَقَرَهً قَتَلَتْ حِماراً، فَتَرافَعَ المَالِکانِ إلَی أَبِی بَکْرٍ. فَقالَ: بَهیمَهٌ قَتَلَتْ بَهیمَهً، لاَ شَیْءَ عَلَی رَبِّها. ثُمَّ مَضَیا إلَی عُمَرَ فَقَضَی بِما قَضی صاحِبُهُ. ثُمَّ مَضَیا إلَی عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَقالَ: إنْ کَانَتِ البَقَرَهُ دَخَلَتِ الحِمَارَ فِی مَنامِهِ فَعَلَی رَبِّها قِیمَهُ الحِمَارِ لِصاحِبِهِ. وَإنْ کَانَ الحِمارُ دَخَلَ عَلَی البَقَرَهِ فِی مَنامِها فَقَتَلَتْهُ فَلا غُرْمَ عَلَی صَاحِبِها.

فقَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: لَقَدْ قَضی عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طالِبٍ بَیْنَکُما بِقَضاءِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجلَّ. وَمِنْها: أنَّ امْرَأَتَیْنِ جاءَتا إلَیْهِ وَمَعَهُما طِفْلٌ ادَّعَتْهُ کُلٌّ مِنْهُمْا. فَوَعَظَهُما فَلَمْ تَرْجَعا. فَقالَ: یَا قَنْبَرُ ائْتِنِی بِالسَّیْفِ. فَقالَتا لَهُ: مَا تَصْنَعُ بِهِ؟ فَقالَ: أَشُقُّهُ نِصْفَیْنِ وَأُعْطی کُلَّ واحِدَهٍ مِنْکُما نِصْفَهُ. فَرَضِیَتْ إحْداهُما وَصاحَتِ الأُخْری وَقالَتْ: یَا أمیرَ الْمُؤْمِنینَ إنْ کُنْتَ لا

One of the other judgments passed by ‘Ali is when a building collapsed on a group of people but two young boys survived and each of them claimed that the other was his slave. There was no witness in this relation either. To settle the dispute, they went to ‘Ali to find a solution for their problem. To discover the truth, ‘Ali ordered the two young boys to put their heads out of a window. Then he said to Qanbar: cut off the head of the slave. One of the two young boys pulled his head out of the window starting to run away but the other one remained in the

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same place. The one who had pulled his head out of the window confessed that he was the slave and the other was the master.(1)

Another example of the judgments passed by ‘Ali is about a man who had drunk wine at the time of Abu-Bakr. The man was brought to Abu-Bakr and admitted that he had drunken wine but he said he did not know that drinking wine was forbidden and it was unlawful, for he said he was living among people for whom drinking wine was lawful. Hearing this, Abu-Bakr was at a loss, not knowing how to carry out the punishment, for the problem was of an unknown nature to him. So he had to inform the problem to ‘Ali so as to find a solution for it.

‘Ali said: Send with him two trustworthy men to the group of Muhajir and Ansar making them swear by God if there is anyone to whom the verse on the prohibition of drinking wine had been recited or had reported the Holy Prophet as having said anything about this issue or not. Should anyone bear witness that the wine-drinker knew about the unlawful nature of wine-drinking, give him punishment for wine drinking, otherwise make him repent and let him go, for he has not been aware of the unlawful nature of wine-drinking. Abu-Bakr carried out ‘Ali’s instruction. When inquiry was made, it was found out that the verse on the prohibition of drinking wine had not been recited to him. Therefore,

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1- Manaqib, ibn Shahr Ashub, vol. 2, pp. 38

they made him repent and let him go.(1)

بُدَّ فاعِلاً فَأَعْطِها إیَّاهُ. فَعُرِفَ أنَّهُ وَلَدُها وَلا شَیءَ لِلرَّاضِیَهِ. فَسَلَّمَهُ إلَیْها فَرَجَعَتْ مُدَّعِیَهُ البَاطِلِ إلَی الحَقِّ. وَمِنْها: أنَّهُ وَقَعَتْ دارٌ عَلَی قَومٍ وَخَرَجَ مِنْها صَبِیَّانِ إدَّعی کُلُّ واحِدٍ مِنْهُمْا أنَّهُ مالِکُ الآخَرِ. فَأمَرَ بإخْراج رَأْسَیْهِما مِنْ رَوْزَنَهٍ ثُمَّ قَالَ: یَا قَنْبَرُ جَرِّدِ السَّیْفَ. وَأشارَ إلَیْهِ لاَ تَفْعَلْ إلاَّ مَا آمُرُکَ. ثُمَّ قَالَ: یَا قَنْبَرُ إضْرِبْ رَقَبَهَ العَبْدِ. فَهَرَبَ أحَدُهُما وَبَقِیَ الآخَرُ. وَرَجَعَ الهَارِبُ إلَی الحَقِّ وَاعتَرَفَ بِأنَّهُ العَبْدُ. وَمِنْها: أنَّ رَجُلاً رُفِعَ إلَی أَبِی بَکْرٍ وَقَدْ شَرِبَ الخَمْرَ فَأرادَ أنْ یُقیمَ عَلَیْهِ الحَدَّ. فَقالَ لَهُ: إنَّنی شَرِبْتُها وَلا عِلْمَ لی بِتَحْریِمَها لأَنِّی نَشَأْتُ بَیْنَ قَوْمٍ یَسْتَحِلّونَها. فَارْتَجَّ بِأبی بَکْرٍ الأمْرُ بِالحُکْمِ عَلَیْهِ وَلَمْ یَعْلَمْ وَجْهَ القَضاءِ فِیهِ.

فَاسْتَخْبَرَ عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ عَنِ الحُکْمِ فِی ذَلِکَ. فَقالَ: إبْعَثْ ثِقَتَیْنِ مِنْ رِجالِ المُسْلِمینَ یَطوفانِ عَلَی مَجالِسِ المُهاجِرینَ وَالأنْصارِ وَیُناشِدانِهِمْ: هَلْ فیهِمْ أحَدٌ تَلا عَلَیْهِ آیَهَ التَّحْریمِ أوْ أخْبَراهُ بِذَلِکَ عَنْ رَسولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ؟ فإنْ شَهِدَ بِذَلِکَ رَجُلانِ مِنْهُمْ فَأَقِمِ الحَدَّ عَلَیْهِ. وَإنْ لَمْ یَشْهَدْ أَحَدٌ بِذَلِکَ فَاسْتَتِبْهُ وَخَلِّ سَبِیلَهُ. فَفَعَلَ ذَلِکَ أَبُو بَکْرٍ فَلَمْ یَشْهَدْ عَلَیْهِ أحَدٌ مِنَ المُهاجِرینَ وَالأنصَارِ أنَّهُ تَلا آیَهَ التَّحْریمِ عَلَیْهِ وَلا أخْبَرَهُ عَنْ رَسولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ، فَاسْتَتابَهُ وَخَلَّی سَبِیلَهُ.

One of the other reasons for ‘Ali’s superiority over other companions of the Holy Prophet is that Abu-Bakr was asked a question about the meaning of the word “abban” in

“And fruits and herbage” (80:31).

He helplessly said: If I say I do know what I really do not know of the book of Allah, which

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1- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 2, chap. 58

sky shall cast its shade on me and which earth shall give accommodation to me? As a matter of fact, I know the meaning of fakiha (fruits) but I have no idea of what the word “abban” means.

Being informed of what Abu-Bakr had said, ‘Ali said: Glory be to Allah. He is free from all defects. Did Abu-Bakr not know that the meaning of “abban” was herbage? The reason God has brought this word in His book is to remind His servants that not only He has prepared a provision for men and for cattle but the cattle enjoy a vital material too so that in this way the human life in eating fruits and his physical power in eating the meat of some of the animals are strengthened.(1)

Another story about ‘Ali’s supreme position is when Abu-Bakr was asked a question about the meaning of kalalah to which he said: I will express my opinion about it. If my feeling is near to the truth, it would be from divine grace and if I make a mistake, it would be from me and Satan. Being informed of this, Amir al-Mu’minin said: there is no room here for expressing one’s feeling. Is he not sure that kalalah is a term sometimes used for a full blood brother and at other times for half-brother?(2)

Another story based on ‘Ali’s superiority over the other companions of the Holy Prophet (S) is that a Jewish scholar came to Abu-Bakr, saying: Are you the caliph who

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1- Al-Durr al-Manthur, vol. 6, pp. 317
2- Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 40, chap. 97, pp. 247

succeeded the prophet of this nation? Abu-Bakr said: Yes! The Jewish scholar said: In Torah, we have it that the successors of the prophets are above their followers. Now, considering that you are the successor of the prophet of this Ummah, tell me where is God, in heaven or on earth? Abu-Bakr said: God is in heaven, placed on the throne. The Jewish scholar said: Therefore, He is not on the earth. In other words, He is in one place and is not in the other place.

Being helpless in answer, Abu-Bakr began to talk roughly to him saying: This saying of yours is that of an atheist. Get away from me or I will have you killed! Being astonished and making fun of Islam, the Jewish scholar left the place. Meeting him on the way, ‘Ali said: I was informed of what passed between you and Abu-Bakr. The answer to your question is this: We believe that God Almighty is the determiner of all times and places. He is too powerful to be in one place and not in another place or in one time and not in another time. He exists in every place but not in the scope of proximity and His knowledge encompasses all objects. There is nothing outside His prudence and there is no being outside His domination or deprived from His Grace.

وَمِنْها: أنَّ أبا بَکْرٍ سُئِلَ عَنْ قَوْلِهِ تَعالَی ?وَفَاکِهَهً وَأَبًّا? مَا مَعْنی الأَبِّ؟ فَقالَ: أیُّ سَماءٍ تُظِلُّنی أَمْ أَیُّ أَرْضٍ تُقِلُّنی إنْ قُلتُ فِی

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کِتابِ اللهِ بِما لاَ أعْلَمُ. أمَّا الفاکِهَهُ فَنَعْرِفُها، وَأمَّا الأَبُّ فَاللهُ أعْلَمُ بِهِ. فَبَلَغَ أمِیرَ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ مَقالَتَهُ فَقالَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: یَا سُبْحانَ اللهِ! أمَا عَلِمَ أنَّ الأَبَّ هُوَ الکَلأُ وَالمَرْعی؟ وَأنَّ اللهَ تَعالَی ذَکَرَ ذَلِکَ تَعْریفاً لِعِبادِهِ مَا أَنْعَمَ بِهِ عَلَیْهِمْ وَعَلَی أنْعَامِهِمْ مِمَّا تَحْیا بِهِ أنْفُسُهُمْ وَتَقُومُ بِهِ أجْسادُهُمْ.

وَمِنْها: أنَّ أبا بَکْرٍ سُئِلَ عَنِ الکَلالَهِ فَقالَ: أَقولُ فِیهَا بِرَأْیی. فإن أَصَبْتُ فَمِنَ اللهِ، وَإنْ أخْطَأْتُ فَمِنّی وَمِنَ الشَّیْطانِ. فَبَلَغَ أمیرَ المُؤْمِنینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ ذَلِکَ فَقالَ: مَا أَغْناهُ عَنِ الرَّأْیِ فِی هَذَا المَکانِ. أمَا عَلِمَ أنَّ الکَلالَهَ هُمُ الإخْوَهُ وَالأَخَواتُ مِنْ قِبَلِ الأُمِّ وَالأَبِ وَمِنْ قِبَلِ الأَبِ عَلَی انْفِرادِهِ وَمِنْ قِبَلِ الأُمِّ أیْضاً عَلی انْفِرادِهَا؟

وَمِنْها: أنَّ رَجُلاً مِنْ أحْبارِ الیَهودِ جاءَ إلَی أَبِی بَکْرٍ فَقالَ لَهُ: أنْتَ خَلیفَهُ نَبِیِّ هَذِهِ الأُمَّهِ؟ قَالَ: نَعَمْ. قَالَ: إنَّا نَجِدُ فِی التَّوْراهِ أنَّ خُلَفاءَ الأنْبِیاءِ أعْلَمُ أُمَمِهِمْ. فَأَخْبِرْنی عَنِ اللهِ أیْنَ هُوَ؛ أَفی السَّماءِ أَمْ فِی الأَرْضِ؟ فَقالَ أَبُو بَکْرٍ: هُوَ فِی السَّماءِ عَلَی العَرْشِ. فَقالَ الیَهودِیُّ: فَأَری الأرْضَ خالِیَهً مِنْهُ وَأراهُ عَلَی هَذَا القَوْلِ فِی مَکانٍ دونَ مَکانٍ. فَقالَ لَهُ أَبُو بَکْرٍ: هَذَا کَلامُ الزَّنادِقَهِ. أُغْرُبْ عَنّی وَإلاَّ قَتَلْتُکَ. فَوَلّی الحَبْرُ مُتَعَجّباً یَسْتَهْزِئُ

I will now inform you of what, one of your books, accepts as truth. Now that you are getting to know the truth, will you accept and believe it? The Jewish scholar said: Yes. ‘Ali said: Is it not in one of your books that one day when Moses (a.s) was sitting, suddenly an angel appeared to him from the east. Moses (a.s) said: Where do you come from?

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The angel said: I came from the presence of the Lord of universe.

Then another angel came from the west and when Moses (a.s) asked: Where do you come from? The angel said: I came from god Almighty. Another angel came. Again Moses asked his: Where do you come from? He said: From the seventh heaven and from the presence of God Almighty. The fourth angel who came to the presence of Moses (a.s) said: I come from the seventh layer of the earth and from the presence of God Almighty.

At this time, Moses (a.s) said: Glory be to God Almighty, for no place is depleting from His existence and no place is nearer to Him than another place. The Jewish scholar confirmed what he heard, saying: What you say is right and there is no doubt in it. I testify that being caliph and successor to the Holy Prophet is your indisputable right but another person has usurped it.(1)

During Umar’s caliphate, Qudamah ibn Maun had drunken wine. When the issue was proved, Umar decided to punish him. In defense of himself, Qudamah said: It is not fair to punish me, for God Almighty says:

“On those who believe and do good, there is no blame for what they eat, when they are careful of their duty and believe and do good deed” (5:93).

Therefore, I am not to be punished for the sin I have committed, for I am careful of my duty and a believer. Umar gave up punishing

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1- Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 40, chap. 97, pp. 247

him and let him go. Being informed of this affair, ‘Ali went to Umar immediately, saying: this verse does not apply to Qudamah, for a man who is careful of his duty does not consider as lawful what is unlawful. If he believed in this verse, he would never commit such an act and would not consider it as a lawful act. Turning to Umar, ‘Ali said: Send for him immediately and make him repent so as not to repeat it. If he repented, punish him, for punishment is not annulled with repentance. However, if he insisted on his words, kill him, for in this case he is not a Muslim anymore because of taking distance from the Islamic Ummah.

بالإسْلامِ. فَاسْتَقْبَلَهُ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَقالَ: یَا یَهودِیُّ، قَدْ عَرَفْتُ مَا سَأَلْتَ عَنْهُ وَما أُجِبْتَ بِهِ وَإنَّا نَقولُ: إنَّ اللهَ جَلَّ جَلالُهُ أَیَّنَ الأَیْنَ فَلا أَیْنَ لَهُ، وَجَلَّ عَنْ أنْ یَحْوِیَهُ مَکانٌ وَهُوَ فِی کُلِّ مَکانٍ بِغَیْرِ مَماسَّهٍ وَلا مُجاوَرَهٍ، یُحیطُ عِلماً بِما فِیها وَلا یَخْلو شَیْءٌ مِنْ تَدْبیرِهِ تَعالَی، وَإنّی مُخْبِرُکَ بِما جاءَ فِی کِتابٍ مِنْ کُتُبِکُمْ یُصَدِّقُ مَا ذَکَرْتُهُ لَکَ، فَإنْ عَرَفْتَهُ أَتُؤْمِنُ بِهِ؟ قَالَ الیَهودِیُّ: نَعَمْ. قَالَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: تَجِدونَ فِی بَعْضِ کُتُبِکُمْ أنَّ مُوسَی بْنَ عِمْرانَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ کَانَ ذاتَ یَوْمٍ جالِساً إذْ جاءَهُ مَلَکٌ مِنَ المَشْرِقِ فَقالَ لَهُ مُوسَی عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: مِنْ أَیْنَ أقْبَلْتَ؟ فَقالَ: مِنْ عِنْدِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجلَّ. ثُمَّ جاءَهُ مَلَکٌ مِنَ المَغْرِبِ فَقالَ لَهُ: مِنْ أَیْنَ جِئْتَ؟ فَقالَ: مِنْ عِنْدِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجلَّ. ثُمَّ جَاءَهُ مَلَکٌ آخَرُ فَقالَ لَهُ: مِنْ أَیْنَ جِئْتَ؟

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فَقالَ: قَدْ جِئْتُکَ مِنَ السَّماءِ السَّابِعَهِ مِنْ عِنْدِ اللهِ تَعالَی. ثُمَّ جَاءَهُ مَلَکٌ آخَرُ فَقالَ: قَدْ جِئْتُکَ مِنَ الأَرْضِ السُّفْلی السَّابِعَهِ مِنْ عِنْدِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجلَّ. فَقالَ مُوسَی: سُبْحانَ مَنْ لاَ یَخْلو مِنْهُ مَکانٌ وَلا یَکونُ إلَی مَکانٍ أَقْرَبَ مِنْ مَکانٍ. فَقالَ الیَهودِیُّ: أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ هَذَا هُوَ الحَقُّ وَأنَّکَ أحَقُّ بِمَقامِ نَبِیِّکَ مِمَّنِ اسْتَوْلَی عَلَیْهِ.

وَمِنْها: أنَّ قُدامَهَ بْنَ مَظْعونٍ شَرِبَ الخَمْرَ فَأرادَ عُمَرُ أنْ یَحِدَّهُ. فَقالَ لَهُ قُدامَهُ: لاَ یَجِبُ عَلَیَّ الحَدُّ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعالَی: ?لَیْسَ عَلَی الَّذِینَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ جُنَاحٌ فِیمَا طَعِمُوا إِذَا مَا اتَّقَوْا وَآمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ.? فَدَرأَ عُمَرُ عَنْهُ الحَدَّ. فَبَلَغَ ذَلِکَ أمیرَ المُؤْمِنینَ

Being informed of ‘Ali’s judgment, Umar decided to carry out the punishment but did not know the extent of punishment. ‘Ali said: One who drinks wine receives eighty lashes. Commenting on the philosophy behind this issue, ‘Ali said: One who drinks wine becomes drunk, will say something unfair, and slanders God and the messenger of God. Therefore, he has to be punished. So Umar gave Qudamah eighty lashes making him give a pledge not to repeat it again.(1)

One of the other fair judgments passed by ‘Ali was when Umar was informed that a woman had attended a gathering of strange men flirting with them. So he sent a group to her house to find the fact. Entering the woman’s house, the fact-finding group conveyed Umar’s message to her. The woman who was shaking with fear left her house along with the caliph’s agents.

On the way, she went into labor and aborted the fetus she

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1- Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 40, chap. 97, pp. 249

had in her womb as a result of which it lost its life after a few moments. Umar called the Holy Prophet’s companions asking about the fate of the dead infant. They unanimously said: As you decided to punish the woman for the wrong she had done, no responsibility is on you!

Nevertheless, Umar was not satisfied with their judgment, turned to ‘Ali asking: O Abul-Hasan, what is your judgment in this relation? ‘Ali answered: If this group have expressed their opinion without pondering to make you pleased they have undoubtedly misled you having passed a wrong judgment and if they have pondered on it, they have not thought of the truth of the problem. Now, listen carefully to me to make the case clear to you. The aborted infant has blood money which is on your charge, for it was because of your mistake that the woman aborted her child. Umar said: By God, among these people, it was you who have passed a fair judgment. Now, do not leave this place before you divide this blood money among Banu-Adi (Umar’s tribe) and give it to the heirs of the infant. ‘Ali divided the blood money among Umar’s tribe and gave it to the next of kin.(1)

عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ، فَمَشی إلَی عُمَرَ وَأنْکَرَ عَلَیْهِ فِی تَرْکِ إقامَهِ الْحَدِّ، فَاعْتَذَرَ بِالآیَهِ. فَقالَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: لَیْسَ قُدامَهُ مِنْ أهْلِ هَذِهِ الآیَهِ، إنَّ الَّذینَ آمَنوا وَعَمِلوا الصَّالِحاتِ لاَ یَسْتَحِلُّونَ حَراماً. فَارْدُدْهُ وَاسْتَتِبْهُ مِمَّا قَالَ. فَإنْ تَابَ فَأَقِمْ عَلَیْهِ الحَدَّ. وَإنْ لَمْ

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1- Fada’il al-Khamsah, vol. 2, pp. 277

یَتُبْ فَاقْتُلْهُ فَقَدْ خَرَجَ عَنِ الإسلامِ.

فَاسْتَیْقَظَ عُمَرُ وَلَمْ یَدْرِ کَمْ یَحِدُّهُ. فَقالَ لأَمیرِ المُؤْمِنینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: عَرِّفْنِی الحَدَّ؟ فَقالَ: حَدُّهُ ثَمانُونَ. إنَّ شارِبَ الخَمْرِ إذَا شَرِبَها سَکَرَ وَإذا سَکَرَ هَذِیَ وَإذا هَذِیَ افْتَری. فَحَدَّهُ عُمَرُ ثَمانِینَ.

وَمِنْها: أنَّ عُمَرَ اسْتَدْعی امْرَأَهً کَانَتْ تَتَحَدَّثُ الرِّجالُ عَنْها. فَلَمَّا جاءَها رَسولُهُ فَزِعَتْ وَخافَتْ فَأَسْقَطَتْ فَوَقَعَ وَلَدُها إلَی الأرْضِ مُسْتَهلاًّ ثُمَّ ماتَ. فَجَمَعَ الصَّحابَهَ وَسَأَلَهُمْ عَنِ الحُکْمِ. فَقالوا لَهُ: نَراکَ مُؤَدِّباً وَلا شَیْءَ عَلَیْک. فَقالَ لأمیرِ المُؤْمِنین عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: مَا عِنْدَکَ یَا أبا الحَسَنِ؟ فَقالَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: إنْ کَانَ القَوْمُ قارَبوکَ فَقَدْ غَشُّوکَ، وَإنْ کَانُوا ارْتَأَوْا فَقَدْ قَصَّروا. وَالدِّیَهُ عَلَی عاقِلَتِکَ لأَنَّ قَتْلَ الصَّبِیِّ خَطَأٌ تَعَلَّقَ بِکَ. فَقالَ: أنْتَ وَاللهِ نَصَحْتَنی مِنْ بَیْنِهِمْ، وَاللهِ لاَ أَبْرَحُ حَتَّی تُجَزِّئَ

Another example of the judgments passed by ‘Ali was that an old man married a woman and after some time the woman became pregnant but the man claimed he had not had any intercourse with her saying: This is not my child. This happened under the caliphate of Uthman. Not knowing how to find the truth, the caliph started to investigate the issue asking the woman: Have you been to bed with your husband and has he deflowered you?

The woman said: No. Uthman ordered to give punishment to the woman. Being informed of this, ‘Ali denounced the judgment, pursued the case with further precision and said: Perhaps the man has reached her without ingress and his semen has reached her. Therefore, ‘Ali asked: How was your intercourse? The man said: I came before defloration and my

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semen reached her vulva. ‘Ali said: This child belongs to the old man. My judgment is to punish this man for his denial.(1)

One of the other hard cases on which ‘Ali passed a fair judgment is as follows: A woman gave birth to a son having two heads, two bodies but one flank. This was a quite strange issue for the Holy Prophet’s companions, for they did not know whether this was one man or two men. To remove any ambiguity, they referred to ‘Ali for the answer. ‘Ali said: Take his sleeping and awakening into consideration. Wake him up after sleeping. If the two wake up at the same moment, they are one but if one is asleep and the other awake, they are two, hence two shares of inheritance must be given to them.(2)

Another story of ‘Ali’s judgment concerns a hermaphrodite. To distinguish the sex, ‘Ali ordered to count the hermaphrodite’s right and left ribs. In this way, ‘Ali passed a judgment and determined the sex of the creature, saying: It is a male not a female.(3) One of the other merits of ‘Ali is his injunctions on rebels and outlaws. The Shafi’ite Imam says: I learnt the injunctions concerning the atheists from the Messenger of Allah and those concerning the rebels and outlaws from ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib Abu-Talib.(4)

الدِّیَهَ عَلَی بَنِی عَدِیٍّ. فَفَعَلَ أمیرُ المُؤْمِنینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ.

وَمِنْها: أنَّ امْرَأَهً نَکَحَها شَیخٌ کَبیرٌ فَزَعَمَ الشَّیْخُ أنَّهُ لَمْ یَصِلْ إلَیْها وَأنْکَرَ حَمْلَها فِی خِلافَهِ عُثْمانَ. فَاشْتَبَهُ الحُکْمَ وَسأَلَ المَرْأَهَ: هَلْ

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1- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 2, chap. 61, pp. 202
2- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 2, chap. 62, pp. 204
3- Manaqib, chap. 7, pp. 54
4- Manaqib, vol. 2, pp. 44

افْتَضَّکِ الشَّیْخُ؟ وَکانَتْ بِکْراً، فَقالَتْ: لاَ. فَأَمَرَ عُثْمانُ بِإقامَهِ الحَدِّ عَلَیْها. فَأَنْکَرَ أمیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ ذَلِکَ وَقالَ: لَعَلَّ الشَّیْخَ کَانَ یَنالُ مِنْها وَیَسیلُ المَاءُ فِی قِبَلِها مِنْ غَیْرِ افْتِضاضٍ. فَسَأَلَ الشَّیْخَ فَقالَ: کُنْتُ أُنْزِلُ المَاءَ فِی قِبَلِها مِنْ غَیْرِ وُصولٍ إلَیْها بِالافْتِضاضِ. فَقالَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: الحَمْلُ لَهُ وَالوَلَدُ وَلَدُهُ، وَأرَی عُقُوبَتَهُ عَلَی الإنْکارِ.

وَمِنْها: أنَّ امْرَأَهً وَلَدَتْ وَلَداً لَهُ رَأْسانِ وَبَدَنانِ عَلَی حَقْوٍ وَاحِدٍ. فَالْتَبَسَ الأَمْرُ عَلَیْهِمْ. فَالتَجَأُوا إلَی أمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. فَقالَ: إعْتَبِرُوهُ إذَا نَامَ ثُمَّ أَنْبِهوا أَحَدَ البَدَنَیْنِ وَالرَّأْسَیْنِ. فَإنِ انْتَبَها جَمیعاً مَعاً فِی حالَهٍ واحِدَهٍ فَهُما إنْسانٌ وَاحِدٌ. وَإنِ اسْتَیْقَظَ أَحَدُهُما وَالآخَرُ نَائِمٌ فَهُما اثْنانِ وَحَقُّهُما مِنَ المِیرَاثِ حَقُّ اثْنَیْنِ.

وَمِنْها: إسْتِخْراجُ حُکْمِ ذِی الفَرْجَیْنِ بِعَدِّ الأضْلاعِ. وَمِنْها: أَحْکامُ البُغاهِ. قَالَ الشَّافِعِیُّ: عَرَفْنا مِنْ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ أَحْکامَ المُشْرِکینَ وَمِنْ عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ أَحْکامَ البُغاهِ. وَالقْضَایا الغَریبَهُ کَثیرَهٌ لاَ تُحْصی.

Twelfth: Imam ‘Ali’s superiority over other people is that he challenged the scholars of his time, revealing his superior knowledge asking them to pose to him questions nobody but he could answer. On various occasions, he used to say: Pose to me your questions and receive the answers before I will depart from among you.

Addressing Kumayl ibn Ziyad sorrowfully and pointing with the finger to his chest, ‘Ali would say: I have stored a great amount of knowledge here. I wish I could find those worthy of receiving this knowledge so that I would make them familiar with these divine mysteries and blessings. This is because I am a proof

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of God on the earth for people. The earth is never deplete of a leader who propagate divine guidelines among people whether he is seen openly by people in society or he is in hiding out of fear of the oppressors’ tyranny. This appointment of Imam is an indisputable divine tradition, to prevent the evident proofs of God from being put into oblivion.

In his sermons, Imam ‘Ali used to admonish people by saying: it is incumbent on you to get to know the person about whose knowledge you are sure. The knowledge which was with Adam on his descent and after him, all prophets and the seal of them, prophet Muhammad were blessed with it, gathered in the household of the Messenger of Allah. You people who are not independent of knowledge have to resort to the progeny of the Messenger of Allah and not the others.(1)

‘Ali’s Prescience

One of the spiritual merits and superiorities of ‘Ali was his prescience which has not been related in the history of Islam for the Ummah of the Holy Prophet (S).

An example of ‘Ali’s prescience was that he used to say: Pose your questions to me before I will depart from among you. By God, if you ask me about a hundred deviated groups or a hundred guided groups, I will inform you of their leaders throughout the time till the Day of Judgment. Amid this, a man rose up and mockingly said: If your knowledge is to that extent, tell me how many

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1- Nahj al-Sa’adah, vol. 3, pp. 95

hairs are there on my face and head.

‘Ali said: By God, my friend and my beloved, the Messenger of Allah informed me of this question of yours. I can privately tell you that for each hair on your head, there is an angel who will curse you and for each hair on your face there is a Satan who whispers into your heart to do evil. Let it be known to you that in your house, there is a kid (son) who will kill the son of the Messenger of Allah in a not too far future. I would bring up the main reason behind your question if answer to this question did not create a problem. Yet, the reason I will not say more about your question is the same information I gave about you and your cursed son.

الثَّانی عَشَر: أنَّهُ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ تَحَدّی العُلَماءَ فِی زَمانِهِ وَأمَرَهُمْ بِسُؤالِهِ. فَقالَ فِی غَیْرِ مَوْطِنٍ: سَلُونِی قَبْلَ أَنْ تَفْقِدُونِی.

وَقالَ لِکُمَیْلِ بْنِ زِیادٍ مُتَأَوِّهاً: آهٍ إنَّ هُنا لَعِلْماً جَمَّاً، وَأَشارَ بِیَدِهِ إلَی صَدْرِهِ، لَوْ أَصَبْتُ لَهُ حَمَلَهً. بَلی لاَ تَخْلو الأرْضُ مِنْ قائِمٍ للهِ بِحُجَّهٍ عَلَی عِبادِهِ؛ إمَّا ظَاهِرٌ مَشْهورٌ أوْ خائِفٌ مَغْمورٌ، لِئَلاَّ تَبْطِلَ حُجَجُ اللهِ وَبَیِّناتُهُ. وَقالَ فِی بَعْضِ خِطَبِهِ: أَیُّها النَّاسُ عَلَیْکُمْ بِالطَّاعَهِ وَالمَعْرِفَهِ لِمَنْ لاَ تُعْذَرونَ بِجَهالَتِهِ. فَإنَّ العِلْمَ الَّذِی هَبَطَ بِهِ آدَمُ وَجَمِیعَ مَا فُضِّلَتْ بِهِ النَّبِیُّونَ إلَی مُحَمَّدٍ خاتَمِ النَّبِیِّینَ فِی عِتْرَهِ مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ. فَأَیْنَ یُتَاهُ بِکُمْ؟ بَلْ أَیْنَ تَذْهَبُونَ؟

الإِخْبارُ بِالغَیْبِ:

وَکَانَ مِنْ جُمْلَهِ فَضائِلِهِ النَّفْسانِیَّهِ إخْبارُهُ بِالمُغَیَّباتِ وَلَمْ یَحْصَلْ لأَحَدٍ مِنْ أُمَّهِ

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مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ ذَلِکَ.

فَمِنْ ذَلِکَ أنَّهُ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ خَطَبَ یَوْماً فَقالَ فِی خِطْبَتِهِ: سَلُونِی قَبْلَ أَنْ تَفْقِدُونِی؛ فَوَاللهِ لاَ تَسْأَلونی عَنْ فِئَهٍ تُضِلُّ مِائَهً وَتَهْدِی مِائَهً إلاَّ أنْبَأْتُکُمْ بِناعِقِها وَسائِقِها إلَی یَوْمِ القِیَامَهِ. فَقامَ إلَیْهِ رَجُلٌ فَقالَ: أَخْبِرْنی کَمْ عَلَی رَأْسِی وَلِحْیَتی مِنْ طاقَهِ شَعْرٍ؟ فَقالَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: وَاللهِ لَقَدْ حَدَّثَنی خَلِیلی رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ بِما سَأَلْتَ

At the time the man posed this question, his son was no more than a small child but it was not long before the child became the same commander of the army of Yazid in the events of Karbala’ who killed Imam Husayn.(1)

One of the other examples of ‘Ali’s prescience was his words about Talhah and Zubayr when they went to him to get permission to go on the minor Hajj! Reacting to this, ‘Ali said: By God, you two are not leaving here for performing minor Hajj! In fact, you have not intended to do so. Your main destination is Basrah. But let it be known to you that God will foil their plot and will return their trick to themselves. I will soon gain victory over them. The situation later turned out to be what ‘Ali had foreseen.(2)

Another example of ‘Ali’s prescience is when he was holding a session to receive allegiance from people. In that session he said: A thousand-strong crowd (no more, no less) will come to you from Kufah. Ibn Abbas who was a devoted student and kept everything under watch reports:

To speak about

p: 76


1- The man who posed such a question was no one but Sa’d ibn Abi-Waqqas. It is strange as to how ignorant these people were. They not only did not benefit from ‘Ali’s abundant knowledge but tried to underestimate ‘Ali’s meaningful sermons by mocking them. One example, was the same ignorant man who did not benefit from the ocean of ‘Ali’s knowledge nor did he allow others to do so and thus made the sermon abortive. (Shaykh al-Mufid, al-Irshad)
2- al-Khara’ij wa’l-Jara’ih, Rawandi, pp. 188

the fixed number of a thousand made my heart beat anxiously, saying to myself: If the crowd will turn out to be less or more than a thousand, the blind-hearted hypocrites will start mocking and denying him. For this reason, I started counting newcomers one by one till it came to be 999. The fact that the number of those attending the session was not a thousand brought sadness to me, saying to myself: Can a true leader like ‘Ali say something wrong. Amid this, I saw a person coming from afar. When he came near, I found out that he was Uways Qarani whose presence made the number perfect.(1)

Another example of ‘Ali’s prescience was the prophecy of the killing of Dhu’l-Thadyah, the Kharijite to people in the battle of Nahrawan.

عَنْهُ. وَإنَّ عَلَی کُلِّ طاقَهِ شَعْرٍ مِنْ رَأْسِکَ مَلَکاً یَلْعَنُکَ، وَإنَّ عَلَی کُلِّ طاقَهِ شَعْرٍ مِنْ لِحْیَتِکَ شَیْطاناً یَسْتَفِزُّکَ، وَإنَّ فِی بَیْتِکَ لَسَخْلاً یَقْتُلُ ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللهِ. وَلَوْلا أنَّ الَّذِی سَأَلْتَ عَنْهُ یَعْسُرُ بُرْهانُهُ لأَخْبَرْتُ، وَلَکِنْ آیَهُ ذَلِکَ مَا نَبَّأْتُکَ بِهِ مِنْ نَفْسِکَ وَسَخْلِکَ الْمَلْعونِ.

وَکانَ ابْنُهُ فِی ذَلِکَ الوَقْتِ صَبِیَّاً صَغیراً. فَلَمَّا کَانَ مِن أمْرِ الحُسَیْنِ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ مَا کَانَ تَوَلّی ابْنُهُ قَتْلَهُ. وَمِنْ ذَلِکَ: قَوْلُهُ لِطَلْحَهَ وَالزُّبَیْرِ لَمَّا اسْتَأْذَناهُ فِی الخُروجِ لِلْعُمْرَهِ: لاَ وَاللهِ، مَا یُریدَانِ العُمْرَهَ إنَّما یُریدانِ البَصْرَهَ، وَأنَّ اللهَ تَعالَی سَیَرُدُّ کَیْدَهُما وَیُظْفِرُنِی بِهِما. وَکانَ الأَمْرُ کَما قَالَ.

وَمِنْ ذَلِکَ قَوْلُهُ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَقَدْ جَلَسَ لأَخْذِ البَیْعَهِ: یَأتیکُمْ مِنْ قِبَلِ الکُوفَهِ ألْفُ رَجُلٍ لاَ یَزیدونَ واحِداً وَلا یَنْقُصونَ واحِداً یُبایِعونی عَلَی الْمَوْتِ. قَالَ ابن عَبَّاسٍ: فَجَزِعْتُ لِذَلِکَ

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1- Nahj al-Sa’adah, vol. 1, sermons, pp. 285

وَخَشِیتُ أَنْ یَنْقُصَ القَوْمُ عَنِ العَدَدِ أَوْ یَزِیدوا عَلَیْهِ، فَلَمْ أَزَلْ مَهْموماً فَجَعَلْتُ أُحْصیهِمْ فَاسْتَوْفَیْتُ تِسْعَ مِائَهٍ وَتِسْعَهً وَتِسْعینَ رَجُلاً ثُمَّ انْقَطَعَ مَجیءُ القَوْمِ. فَبَیْنا مُفَکِّرٌ فِی ذَلِکَ إذْ رَأَیْتُ شَخْصاً قَدْ أقْبَلَ فَإذا هُوَ أُوَیْسٌ القِرَنیُّ تَمامَ العَدَدِ.

وَمِنْ ذَلِکَ إخْبارُهُ بِقَتْلِ ذی الثَّدْیَهِ مِنَ الخَوارِجِ. فَلَمَّا قُتِلَ جَعَلَ یَطْلُبُهُ فِی القَتْلی وَیَقولُ:

Searching for Dhu’l-Thadyah’s body after the battle among those killed, ‘Ali said: By God, I am not telling lie, for he has been killed. Soon, he was found killed among the dead. To assure others, ‘Ali tore Dhu’l-Thadyah’s shirt on the top exposing swelling on his shoulder looking like a woman breast with a few hairs on it. If this swelling were pulled his shoulder blade would be pulled too and if it were set free, his shoulder blade would go back to its place.(1)

About ‘Ali’s prescience, Jandab ibn Abdullah Azdi reports: A horse rider who informed ‘Ali of the situation in the front, coming to ‘Ali said: the Khawarij have crossed Nahrawan river. ‘Ali said: They have not crossed the river yet. The man said: By God, they have crossed it. ‘Ali said: They have never crossed the river. A second man came, reporting what the first man had said, adding: I saw them crossing the river. Again ‘Ali said: By God, they have not crossed the river, for all of them except a few will be killed here while referring to their killing place.

Jandab reports: I took an oath in my heart to be the first

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1- Muruj al-Dhahab, vol. 2, pp. 406

one to fight ‘Ali if what the reporters say is true and to be among ‘Ali’s army if they are wrong. We then went to the front with ‘Ali to discover the truth. It was there that I found out what ‘Ali had said was true, for they had not crossed the river and eventually all of them except a few were killed there.(1) Another example of ‘Ali’s knowledge about things before they happen, is his own martyrdom, saying: By God, this will be dyed, pointing to his beard which was dyed with the blood running from his head.(2)

One of the other examples of ‘Ali’s prescience was when he said: Juwayriyah ibn Ma’shar would be hanged after amputation of his hands and legs. A short time after this, under the rule of Mu’awiyah, Ziyad ibn Abi- amputated his hands and legs and then hanged him.(3) Foreseeing the martyrdom of Maytham Tammar, ‘Ali said: He would be the tenth person killed with a dagger in his side at the door of the house of Amr ibn Harith and then hanged by a palm tree, pointing the tree to Maytham. Thence, he would come to the tree, performed prayer, to Amr: As I will be your neighbor, you have to observe good neighborly relations. Soon afterwards, Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad hanged him by the same tree and had him stricken in his side which led to his martyrdom.(4)

وَاللهِ مَا کَذِبْتُ وَلا کُذِّبْتُ. حَتَّی وَجَدَهُ فِی القَوْمِ فَشَقَّ قَمیصَهُ وَکانَ عَلَی کَتِفِهِ سَلْعَهٌ کَثَدْیِ

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1- Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 1, pp. 199
2- Ihqaq al-Haqq, vol. 8, pp. 138
3- Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, ibn Abi Hadid, vol. 2, pp. 290
4- Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, ibn Abi Hadid, vol. 2, pp. 291

المَرْأَهِ عَلَیْها شَعراتٌ إذَا جُذِبَتْ انْجَذَبَتْ کَتِفُهُ مَعَها وَإذا تُرِکَتْ رَجَعَتْ کَتِفُهُ إلَی مَوْضِعِها.

ومن ذَلِکَ: مَا رَواهُ جُنْدُبُ بنُ عُبَیْدِ اللهِ الأزدِیُّ قَالَ: جاءَ فارِسٌ إلَی أمِیر المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَقالَ: إنَّ القَوْمَ قَدْ عَبَروا النَّهَرَ. فَقالَ: کلاّ مَا عَبَروهُ. فَقالَ: بَلی وَاللهِ لَقَدْ فَعَلوا. فَقالَ: کلاّ مَا فَعَلوا. فَجاءَ آخَرُ فَأَخْبَرَ بِعُبورِهِمْ وَقالَ: مَا جِئْتُ حَتَّی رَأَیْتُ الرَّایاتِ فِی ذَلِکَ الجانِبِ وَالأثْقالَ. فَقالَ: وَاللهِ مَا فَعَلوا وَأنَّهُ لَمَصْرَعُهُمْ. فَحَلَفْتُ فِی نَفْسی إنْ کَانَ الأمْرُ کَما أخْبَرَ أُولئِکَ لأَکونَنَّ أوَّلَ مَنْ یُقاتِلُهُ وَإنْ لَمْ یَکُنْ بَقِیتُ عَلَی المُحارَبَهِ مَعَهُ. ثُمَّ مَضَیْتُ مَعَهُ إلَی الصُّفوفِ فَوَجَدْتُ الأمْرَ کَما قَالَ أمِیر المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ.

ومن ذَلِکَ: إخْبارُهُ عَنْ قَتْلِ نَفْسِهِ فَقالَ: وَاللهِ لَتُخَضَّبُنَّ هَذِهِ مِنْ هَذَا، وَوَضَعَ یَدَهُ عَلَی رَأسِهِ وَلِحْیَتِهِ. ومن ذَلِکَ: إخْبارُهُ بِصَلْبِ جُوَیْرِیَهَ بْنِ مُسْهِرٍ بَعْدَ قَطْعِ یَدَیْهِ وَرِجْلَیْهِ. فَقَطَعَ زِیادٌ فِی أیَّامِ مُعاوِیَهَ یَدَیْهِ وَرِجْلَیْهِ وَصَلَبَهُ. ومن ذَلِکَ: إخْبارُهُ بِصَلْبِ مَیْثَمٍ التَّمَّارِ وَطَعْنِهِ بِحَرْبَهٍ عاشِرَ عَشَرَهٍ عَلَی بابِ دارِ عَمْرِو بْنِ حُرَیْثٍ. وَأراهُ النَّخْلَهَ الَّتی یُصْلَبُ عَلَی جِذْعِها، فَکانَ مَیْثَمُ یَأتیها وَیُصَلّی عِنْدَها وَیَقولُ لِعَمْرِو بْنِ حُرَیثٍ: إنّی مُجاوِرُکَ فَأَحْسِنْ جِوارِی. فَصَلَبَهُ عُبَیْدُ اللهِ بْنُ زِیادٍ فِی ذَلِکَ الْمَوْضِعِ وَطَعَنَهُ بِحَرْبَهٍ.

Imam ‘Ali also foresaw amputation of hands and legs of Rashid Hejri as well as his hanging.(1)

Another example of Imam ‘Ali’s prescience was foreseeing the martyrdom of his faithful aide, Kumayl ibn Ziyad by Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, the cruel. After not long time since the martyrdom of ‘Ali, Hajjaj martyred Kumayl and ‘Ali’s prediction came true.(2)

On another occasion, Imam ‘Ali foresaw the martyrdom of Qanbar at Hajjaj’s hands, for

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1- Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, ibn Abi Hadid, vol. 2, pp. 191
2- Fada’il al-Khamsah, vol. 2, pp. 254

he had heard these predictions from the Messenger of Allah and he had to inform people of it at a proper time. One day when Hajjaj was sitting among his treacherous collaborators he said: I would like to kill one of the aides of Abu-Turab to get near to God, introduce one to me. They said: One who has been long with Abu-Turab is Qanbar. So he immediately summoned him saying: Give up the faith of Abu-Turab!

Qanbar said: Do you know any better faith than that of ‘Ali? Being helpless to give an answer, Hajjaj said: I have decided to kill you. It is up to you to choose its kind! Qanbar said: I will give you the option. Hajjaj said: Why? Qanbar said: I will kill you the same way you will kill me, for my master, Amir al-Mu’minin had informed me that I would be martyred by a blood-thirsty like you! The blood-sucking Hajjaj immediately ordered to behead Qanbar and the executioner beheaded him. In this way Qanbar went to heaven.(1)

Another example of ‘Ali’s prescience was that a man came to him saying: I passed by Wadi al-Qira, saw Khalid ibn Arfatah passing away and buried there. O Amir al-Mu’minin, seek forgiveness for him. ‘Ali said: He has not died and will not die till he will lead the deviated group whose standard bearer is Habib ibn Hammar. At this time, a man sitting there said: O Amir al-Mu’minin, I am a Shi’ite following you.

‘Ali said:

p: 81


1- Ihqaq al-Haqq, vol. 8, pp. 162

Who are you? He said: Habib ibn Hammar! ‘Ali said: Beware not to be the standard bearer of that group but I am sure, you will be! You will enter the mosque through this gate, pointing to the gate called Bab al-Fil. When ‘Ali was martyred, Imam Hasan was poisoned and passed away, when Imam Husayn’s uprising came about and Karbala’ event happened, and Umar ibn Sa’d was appointed as commander of the army by Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad and equipped Kufah’s army to fight Imam Husayn, he entrusted the army command to Khalid ibn Arfatah and made Habib ibn Hammar its standard bearer. The latter entered the mosque from the same gate, i.e., Bab al-Fil, and thence went to Karbala’, taking part in the fight against the son of the Holy Prophet (S).(1)

ومن ذَلِکَ: إخْبارُهُ بِقَطْعِ یَدَیْ رَشیدٍ الهَجْریِّ وَرِجْلَیْهِ وَصَلْبِهِ، فَفُعِلَ بِهِ ذَلِکَ. ومن ذَلِکَ: إخْبارُهُ بِأنَّ الحَجَّاجَ یَقْتُلُ کُمَیلَ بنِ زِیادٍ، وَکانَ الأمْرُ کَذَلِکَ.

ومن ذَلِکَ: إخْبارُهُ بِقَتْلِ قَنْبَر. وَکانَ الحَجَّاجُ قَالَ یَوْماً: أُحِبُّ أنْ أُصیبَ رَجُلاً مِنْ أصْحابِ أَبِی تُرابٍ فَأَتَقَرَّبُ إلَی اللهِ تَعالَی بِدَمِهِ. فَقیلَ لَهُ: مَا نَعْلَمُ أَحَداً کَانَ أطْوَلَ صُحْبَهً لأبی تُرابٍ مِنْ قَنْبَرٍ مَوْلاهُ. فَأحْضَرَهُ وَقالَ: إبْرَأْ مِنْ دینِهِ. قَالَ: فَإذا بَرِئْتُ مِنْ دِینهِ تَدُلُّنی عَلَی دینٍ غَیْرِهِ أفْضَلَ مِنْهُ؟ قَالَ: إنّی قاتِلُکَ فَاخْتَرْ أیَّ قَتْلَهٍ أحِبُّ إلَیْکَ. قَالَ: قَدْ صَیَّرْتُ ذَلِکَ إلَیْکَ. قَالَ: وَلِمَ؟ قَالَ: لأنَّکَ لاَ تَقْتُلُنی قَتْلَهً إلاَّ قَتَلْتُکَ مِثْلَها. وَبِهذا أخْبَرَنی أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ إنّ مَنِیَّتی تَکونُ ذَبحا ظُلْماً بِغَیْرِ حَقٍّ. فَأمَرَ بِهِ فَذُبِحَ.

ومن ذَلِکَ: أنَّ رَجُلاً جاءَ إلَی

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1- Maqatil al-Talibiyyin, pp. 46

أمِیر المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَقالَ: یَا أمِیر المُؤْمِنِینَ إنّی مَرَرْتُ بِوادِی القِری فَرَأَیْتُ خالِدَ بْنَ عَرْفَطَهَ قَدْ ماتَ بِها فَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُ. فَقالَ أمِیر المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: إنَّهُ لَمْ یَمُتْ وَلا یَموتُ حَتَّی یَقودَ جَیْشَ ضَلالَهٍ، صاحِبُ لِوائِهِ حَبیبُ بْنُ حَمَّارٍ. فَقامَ رَجُلُ مِنْ تَحْتِ المِنْبَرِ فَقالَ: یَا أمِیر المُؤْمِنِینَ، إنّی لَکَ شیعَهٌ وَإنّی لَکَ مُحِبٌّ. فَقالَ: وَمَنْ أنْتَ؟ قَالَ: أنَا حَبیبُ بْنُ حَمَّارٍ. قَالَ: إیَّاکَ أنْ تَحْمِلَها، وَلَتَحْمِلُنَّها فَتَدْخُلُ بِها هَذَا البابَ. وَأَومَأَ بِیَدِهِ إلَی بابِ الفیلِ. فَلَمَّا مَضی أمِیر المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَمضی الحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِما السَّلامُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ، وَکانَ مِنْ أَمْرِ الحُسَیْنِ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ مَا کَانَ، بَعَثَ ابْنُ زِیادٍ بِعُمَرَ بْنِ سَعْدٍ، عَلَیْهِمُ اللَّعْنَهُ، إلَی الْحُسَیْن عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَجَعَلَ خالِدَ بْنَ

Another occasion which shows Imam ‘Ali’s prescience was when addressing Bara ibn Azib. ‘Ali said: My son, Husayn will be killed while you are alive but you do not help him. After martyrdom of the master of the martyrs, Bara said: By God, ‘Ali informed me of Husayn’s martyrdom. Yes, he was martyred but I did not help him. He expressed regret as long as he lived following the events of Karbala’ for not having helped Imam Husayn.(1)

One of the other examples of ‘Ali’s prescience is a Hadith reported by Juwayriyah ibn Ma’shar Abdi on the authority of ‘Ali about Imam Husayn. He has reported: When I was accompanying ‘Ali on the way to Siffin, when we reached the high lands of Karbala’, ‘Ali stood in a corner of the army camp, looking right and left, he

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1- Ihqaq al-Haqq, vol. 8, pp. 142

started weeping.

Then, he said: By God, this is their landing place where they are killed. Someone asked: O Amir al-Mu’minin, what is the name of this land? ‘Ali said: This is the land of Karbala’ and the place of martyrdom of a group who will go to paradise without reckoning. People did not understand what he meant till Imam Husayn and his companions were martyred there.(1)

The last example of ‘Ali’s prescience is about the building of the city of Baghdad, Abbasid rule, their performance for five hundred and odd years, name of each of them and their fall by Hulagu Khan.

Allamah Hilli says: My father has related this news and has a few words as to why Mongol did not invade the cities of Hillah and Kufah nor the two holy cities of Najaf and Karbala’, for Mongol did not invade any city without having ruined it and killed its inhabitants. It was for this reason that when Hulagu besieged Baghdad, looting by Mongols had intimidated everyone though Baghdad had not collapsed yet.

When the news of Mongols reached the people of Hillah, they all left their homes for deserts out of fear and a few of them including my late father, Sayyid Majd al-Din ibn Tawus and the great jurisprudent, ibn Abi’l-Izz who remained in the city. These people gathered in a place, exchanged views on how to save themselves and the residents of Hillah and finally decided to write a letter to Hulagu expressing their allegiance to him

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1- Waq’at Siffin, pp. 140-142

and assuring him that they would not confront him but were obeying his instructions. They sent the letter to Hulagu through a Persian-speaking man. Having received the letter, Hulagu ordered two men by the names of Tekolm and Aladdin to go to the city of Hillah and convey to the inhabitants of the city the message to the effect that if you obey the sultan, you must rush to meet him.

عَرْفَطَهَ عَلَی مُقَدِّمَتِهِ وَحَبیبَ بْنَ حَمَّارٍ صاحِبَ رایَتِهِ. فَسارَ بِها حَتَّی دَخَلَ المَسْجِدَ مِنْ بابِ الفیلِ. ومن ذَلِکَ: قَوْلُهُ لِلبَراءِ بْنِ عازِبٍ: یُقْتَلُ ابْنی الْحُسَیْنُ وَأنْتَ حَیٌّ لاَ تَنْصُرُهُ. فَلَمَّا قُتِلَ الحُسَیْنُ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ کَانَ البَراءُ یَقولُ: حَدَّثَنِی، وَاللهِ، عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ بِقَتْلِ الحُسَیْنِ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَلَمْ أَنْصُرْهُ. ثُمَّ أَظْهَرَ الحْسَرَهَ وَالنَّدَمَ.

ومن ذَلِکَ: مَا رَواهُ جُوَیْرِیَّهُ بْنُ مُسْهِرٍ العَبْدیُّ قَالَ: لَمَّا تَوَجَّهْنا إلَی صِفِّینَ مَعَ أمِیر المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَبَلَغْنا طُفُوفَ کَرْبَلاءَ وَقَفَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ ناحِیَهً مِنَ العَسْکَرِ ثُمَّ نَظَرَ یِمیناً وَشِمالاً وَاسْتَعْبَرَ، ثُمَّ قَالَ: هَذَا وَاللهِ مَناخُ رِکابِهِمْ وَمَوْضِعُ مَنِیَّتِهِمْ. فَقیلَ لَهُ: یَا أمِیرَ المُؤْمِنِینَ، مَا هَذَا المَوْضِعُ؟ فَقالَ: هَذَا کَرْبَلاءُ، یُقْتَلُ فِیهِ قَوْمٌ یَدْخُلُونَ الجَنَّهَ بِغَیْرِ حِسابٍ. ثُمَّ سارَ وَکانَ النَّاسُ لاَ یَعْلَمونَ تَأْویلَ مَا قَالَ حَتَّی کَانَ مِنْ أمْرِ الحُسَیْن عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ مَا کَانَ.

وَمِنْ ذَلِکَ: إخْبارُهُ بِعِمارَهِ بَغْدادَ وَمُلْکِ بَنی العَبَّاسِ وَذِکْرِ أحْوالِهِمْ وَأَخْذِ المَغُولِ المُلْکَ مِنْهُمْ. رَواهُ والِدِی رَحِمَهُ اللهُ تَعالَی. وَکَانَ ذَلِکَ سَبَبَ سَلامَهِ أَهْلِ الحِلَّهِ وَالکُوفَهِ وَالمَشْهَدَیْنِ الشَّریفَیْنِ مِنَ القَتْلِ، لأنَّهُ لَمَّا وَصَلَ السُّلْطانُ هولاکو إلَی بَغْدادَ وَقَبْلَ أنْ یَفْتَحَها هَرَبَ أکْثَرُ أهْلِ الحِلَّهِ إلَی البَطائِحِ إلاَّ القَلیلَ. فَکَانَ مِنْ جُمْلَهِ

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القَلیلِ والِدِی رَحِمَهُ اللهُ وَالسَّیِّدُ مَجْدُ الدِّینِ بْنِ طاوُوسٍ وَالفَقیهُ ابْنُ أَبِی العِزِّ. فَأجْمَعَ رَأْیُهُمْ عَلَی مُکاتَبَهِ

The two men came to the city of Hillah informing people of Sultan’s order but no one dared to take any action or go to Hulagu with them, for they did not know what would finally happen. My father said: If I go to Hulagu by myself and brief him on the affair, there will be no need for the presence of others. Sayyid ibn Tawus and ibn Abi’l-Izz too approved his decision, saying: You go to Hulagu along with these two agents and convey to him the decision of others. It is well to mention that my father went to meet Hulagu before the conquest of Baghdad and the killing of the last Abbasid caliph.

Receiving my father, Hulagu said: How did you decide to come to me when the end of affairs is not clear, when Caliph’s problem with me is still unresolved, when he may decide to make peace with me and I may leave him to himself and leave this place? My father said: What we have done is based on a narration from our master, Amir al-Mu’minin who has spoken of Baghdad in this way: Al-Zawra and what will make you comprehend what Al-Zawra is?

It is a land abounding in Manna trees. Sky-touching buildings will be made there and people turn to it from everywhere.

There are abundant treasures in the depth of it persuading its inhabitant to suffer a lot

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in order to gain it. The sons of Abbas will turn it into the seat of their rule. They will also turn it into a place of debauchery, oppression, injustice and violation of the rights of the deprived people. The leaders of this city are a group of adulterers, lewd scientists, and treacherous viziers.

Their employees are the sons of Persia and Rome. If there is any praiseworthy act, no one will do it and if there is any blameworthy act, they will not forsake it. In that city, men have inclination towards men and women have intercourse with women. Amid this tumult, people of this city will be afflicted with murder and looting by the dominating Turks.

Long-lasting moaning and cries will be raised among the residents of this city. What will make you comprehend what the Turks are? They are people with slant eyes, shield-like faces who are iron-clad with no hair on their faces. Their commander is a man with loud voice whose authority is all-encompassing with a great ambition. He will not pass by any city without conquering it. No banner is raised against him without being toppled. Woe to one who is hostile to him. He keeps on seizing all the cities till he conquers everywhere and brings them under his control.

السُّلْطانِ بِأَنَّهُمْ مُطِیعونَ داخِلونَ تَحْتَ الأیلِیَّهِ. وَأَنْفَذوا بِهِ شَخْصاً أعْجَمِیَّاً. فَأَنْفَذَ السُّلْطانُ إِلَیْهِمْ فَرَماناً مَعَ شَخْصَیْنِ: أَحَدُهُما یُقال لَهُ: تَکْلَمُ. وَالآخَرُ یُقالُ لَهُ: عَلاءُ الدِّینِ. وَقالَ لَهُما إنْ کَانَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ کَما وَرَدَتْ بِهِ کُتُبُهُمْ

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فَیَحْضُرونَ إلَیْنا.

فَجاءَ الأمِیرانِ فَخَافوا لِعَدَمِ مَعْرِفَتِهِمْ بِما یَنْتَهِی الحَالُ إلَیْهِ. فَقالَ وَالِدِی رَحِمَهُ اللهُ: إنْ جِئْتُ وَحْدی کَفَی؟ فَقالا: نَعَمْ. فَصَعَدَ مَعَهُما. فَلَمَّا حَضَرَ بَیْنَ یَدَیْهِ وَکَانَ ذَلِکَ قَبْلَ فَتْحِ بَغْدادَ وَقَبْلَ قَتْلِ الخَلیفَهِ قَالَ لَهُ: کَیْفَ أَقْدَمْتُمْ مُکاتَبَتِی وَالحُضُورَ عِنْدِی قَبْلَ أنْ تَعْلَموا مَا یَنْتَهی إلَیْهِ أَمْری وَأمْرُ صاحِبِکُمْ؟ وَکَیْفَ تَأْمَنونَ أنْ صالَحَنِی وَرَحَلْتُ عَنْهُ؟

فَقالَ لَهُ والِدِی: إنَّما أقْدَمْنا عَلَی ذَلِکَ لأنَّا رُوینا عَنْ إمَامِنا عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ أنَّهُ قَالَ فِی بَعْضِ خُطَبِهِ: الزَّوُراءُ وَما أدْراکَ مَا الزَّوْراءُ؟ أرْضٌ ذاتُ أثْلٍ یَشْتَدُّ فِیها البُنْیانُ وَیَکْثُرُ فِیها السُّکَّانُ وَیَکونُ فیهَا قَهازِمُ وَخُزَّانٌ. یَتَّخِذُها وِلْدُ العَبَّاسِ مَوطِناً وَلِزُخْرُفِهِمْ مَسْکناً. تَکونُ لَهُمْ دارُ لَهْوٍ وَلَعِبٍ یَکونُ بِهَا الْجَوْرُ الْجَائِرُ وَالْخَوْفُ الْمُخیفُ وَالأئِمَّهُ الْفَجَرَهُ وَالقُرَّاءُ الفَسَقَهُ وَالوُزَراءُ الخَوَنَهُ. یَخْدِمُهُمْ أبْناءُ فارِسٍ وَالرُّومِ. لاَ یَأْتَمِرُونُ بِمَعْروفٍ إذَا عَرَفُوهُ وَلا یَتَناهَوْنَ عَنْ مُنْکَرٍ إذَا أنْکَروهُ. یَکْتَفی الرِّجالُ مِنْهُمْ بِالرِّجالِ وَالنِّساءُ بِالنِّساءِ. فَعِنْدَ ذَلِکَ الغَمُّ الغَمیمُ وَالبُکَاءُ الطَّویلُ وَالوَیْلُ وَالعَویلُ لأَِهْلِ

When we heard, read about and saw all these features about you, we found out that you have all these features in you, so we set our hope on you and decided to come to you. Hearing this, Hulagu became extremely pleased and happy. So, he wrote a decree in the name of my father in which he gave amnesty to the residents of Hillah and the nearby cities and never invaded them.(1)

‘Ali’s Courage in Battlefields

Muslims unanimously believe that ‘Ali was the most courageous man after the Holy Prophet (S) in the battlefields. ‘Ali attacked the enemy in such a way that surprised the angels in

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1- Safinat al-Bihar, vol. 1, pp. 567

heaven!

Speaking about fighting between Amr ibn Abd-Wudd Amiri and ‘Ali who eventually killed him, the Holy Prophet (S) said: The killing of Amr by ‘Ali is better that the worship of Jinn and human beings.(1) In the battle of Badr in which many atheists of Quraysh were killed by ‘Ali, Gabriel was present. All the Muslims heard him saying with a loud voice: There is no man more valorous than ‘Ali and there is no sword sharper than Dhu’l-Fiqar.(2)

Ahmad ibn Hanbal has written: Following martyrdom of his father, Hasan ibn ‘Ali made a speech in which he said: O people, yesterday an honorable man departed from among you and rushed to the hereafter who was unrivaled among the former nations, and the future generations too will fail to comprehend him, for anytime the Holy Prophet (S) sent him to a battle, he was accompanied by Gabriel on the right side and by Michael on the left side and he would not return from battlefield until he achieved victory.(3)

Khawarizmi has reported: Abdullah ibn A’ishah quoted his father as saying: Anytime the polytheists looked at ‘Ali in the battlefield, they would make their last will and testament, for they could see death before their eyes.(4)

الزَّوْراءِ مِنْ سَطَواتِ التُّرْکِ وَما هُمُ التُّرْکُ؟ قَوْمٌ صِغارُ الحُدُقِ وُجُوهُهُمْ کَالْمِجانِّ المُطْرَقَهِ، لِباسُهُمُ الحَدیدُ، جُرْدٌ مُرْدٌ، یَقْدِمُهُمْ مَلِکٌ یَأتِی مِنْ حَیْثُ بَدَأَ مُلْکُهُمْ جَهْوَرِیُّ الصَّوْتِ قَویُّ الصَّوْلَهِ عالِی الهِمَّهِ، لاَ یَمُرُّ بِمَدینَهٍ إلاَّ فَتَحَها وَلا تُرْفَعُ لَهُ رَایَهٌ إلاَّ نَکَّسَها. الوَیْلُ الوَیْلُ لِمَنْ نَاوَأَهُ. فَلا یَزالُ کَذَلِکَ

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1- Shawahid al-Tanzil, vol. 2, pp. 5
2- Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 1, pp. 158, Hadith 197
3- Musnad, vol. 1, pp. 199
4- Manaqib, pp. 72

حَتَّی یَظْفُرَ. فَلَمَّا وُصِفَ لَنا ذَلِکَ وَوَجَدْنا الصِّفاتِ فِیکُمْ رَجَوْناکَ فَقَصَدْناکَ. فَطَیَّبَ قُلوبَهُمْ وَکَتَبَ لَهُمْ فَرَماناً بِاسْمِ وَالِدی رَحِمَهُ اللهُ یُطَیِّبُ فِیهِ قُلُوبَ أَهْلِ الحِلَّهِ وَأعْمَالِها.

فِی الشَّجاعَهِ:

وَلا خِلافَ بَیْنَ الأُمَّهِ أنَّ عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ کَانَ أشْجَعَ النَّاسِ بَعْدَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَأعْظَمَهُمْ بَلاءً فِی الحُروبِ، تَتَعَجَّبُ مِنْ حَمْلاتِهِ مَلائِکَهُ السَّماءِ. وَجَعَلَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَقولُ: قَتْلُهُ لِعَمْرِو بْنِ عَبْدِ وُدٍّ العَامِرِیِّ أفْضَلُ مِنْ عِبادَهِ الثَّقَلَیْنِ. وَنَزَلَ جَبْرَئیلُ فِی یَوْمِ أُحُدٍ وَهُوَ یَقولُ وَیَسْمَعُهُ المُسْلِمونَ کافَّهٍ: لاَ سَیْفَ إلاَّ ذو الفِقارِ ولا فَتَی إلاَّ عَلِیٌّ.

وَنَقَلَ أحْمَدُ بْنُ حَنْبَلٍ فِی مُسْنَدِهِ قَالَ خَطَبَ الحَسَنُ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَقالَ: لَقَدْ فارَقَکُمْ رَجُلٌ بِالأَمْسِ لَمْ یَسْبِقْهُ الأَوَّلونَ بِعِلْمٍ وَلا یُدْرِکُهُ الآخِرونَ. کَانَ رَسُول اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَبْعَثُهُ بِالرَّایَهِ، جِبْریلُ عَنْ یَمینِهِ وَمیکَائیلُ عَنْ شِمالِهِ، لاَ یَنْصَرِفُ حَتَّی یُفْتَحُ لَهُ. وَرَوی الخَوارِزْمِیُّ قَالَ: حَدَّثَنا عُبَیْدُ اللهِ بْنُ عائِشَهَ عَنْ أبِیهِ قَالَ: کَانَ المُشْرِکونَ إذَا أبْصَروا عَلِیَّاً فِی الحَرْبِ عَهِدَ بَعْضُهُمْ إلَی بَعْضٍ.

Imam ‘Ali’s situations in this field are too many to be counted. Only through his sword did the religion of Islam raise and achieve maintenance and the wrong diminish and fade away.

In the coming chapter about jihad, we will refer to some of his campaigns.

‘Ali’s Piety

It was unanimously believed that ‘Ali was the most pious man after the Holy Prophet (S). He was detached from the world which he had divorced three times. The Holy Prophet (S) has been quoted by Ammar ibn Yasir as saying: O ‘Ali, God Almighty has adorned you with an ornament which was

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extremely praiseworthy with Him whereas He has not adorned anyone of His servants with such an adornment.

This divine ornament has three stages which are all rooted in you: He detached you from the world; made the world look disgusting to you; and placed the love for the poor in your heart to the extent that they are pleased with your leadership and you are pleased to be followed by them.

Happy is one who has the love for you, he is steadfast in following you and practically approves your instructions. Woe is to your enemy and one who denies you. As for your friends and followers, they are your brothers in faith and they will abide in paradise with you. As for your enemies and those who have denied you, God Almighty should place them in the abode of liars.(1)

Abdullah ibn Abi- al-Hudhayl reports: I saw ‘Ali wearing a Razi shirt which was such that, if stretched, it would reach the nail of his finger and if let loose, it could hardly reach the elbow.(2)Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz reports: Among this Ummah we do not know anyone more pious than ‘Ali after the Holy Prophet (S).(3) Qubaysah ibn Jabir reports: I have not found anyone more pious than ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib.(4)

Suwayd ibn Ghaflah reports: I went to see Imam ‘Ali while he was in Caliphate’s seat. Before the Imam, there was a bowl of sour yoghourt the smell of which I could feel. A loaf of bread of barley the husk

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1- Manaqib, pp. 66
2- Manaqib, chap. 10, pp. 66
3- Manaqib, chap. 10, pp. 67
4- Manaqib, chap. 10, pp. 71

of which I could see was in his hands. The Imam was breaking the dry bread with his hand and when the bread is too hard to be broken by his hand, the Imam would break it with his knee and then throw it in the yoghurt. He then asked me to approach him and share him in eating that food. “I am observing fasting,” I apologized. The Imam said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah saying: He whom is prevented by fasting from eating from food that he desired, it will be incumbent upon Allah to feed him from the food of Paradise and serve him from its drink.”

وَمَقاماتُهُ فِی الغَزَواتِ مَشْهورَهٌ، وَبِسَیْفِهِ قامَ الدِّینُ وَاعْتَدَلَ، وَاضْمَحَلَّ الکُفْرُ وَبَطَلَ. وَسَیَأْتِی فِی بابِ الجِهادِ نُبَذٌ مِنْ غَزَواتِهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ. فِی الوَرَعِ وَالزُّهْدِ:

وَقَدْ أجْمَعَ النَّاسُ کافَّهً عَلَی أنَّهُ أزْهَدُ النَّاسِ فِی الدُّنْیَا بَعْدَ رَسُول اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَأکْثَرَهُمْ تَرْکاً لَهَا، وَقَدْ طَلَّقَ الدُّنْیَا ثَلاثاً. رَوَی الخَوارِزْمِیُّ فِی مَنَاقِبِهِ عَنْ عَمَّارِ بْنِ یَاسِرٍ قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُول اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَقولُ: یَا عَلِیُّ إنَّ اللهَ تَعالَی زَیَّنَکَ بِزِینَهٍ لَمْ یُزَیِّنِ العِبادَ بِزِینَهٍ أَحَبَّ إلَیْهِ مِنْهَا: زَهَّدَکَ فِیهَا وَبَغَّضَهَا إلَیْکَ وَحَبَّبَ إلَیْکَ الفُقَراءَ فَرَضِِیتَ بِهِمْ أتْباعاً وَرَضُوا بِکَ إمَاماً. یَا عَلِیُّ طُوبَی لِمَنْ أَحَبَّکَ وَصَدَّقَ بِکَ، وَالْوَیْلُ لِمَنْ أبْغَضَکَ وَکَذَّبَ عَلَیْک. أمَّا مَنْ أحَبَّکَ وَصَدَّقَ بِکَ فَإخْوانُکَ فِی دِینِکَ وَشُرَکاؤکَ جَنَّتَکَ، وَأمَّا مَنْ أبْغَضَکَ وَکَذَّبَ عَلَیْک فَحَقیقٌ عَلَی اللهِ تَعالَی أنْ یُقیمَهُ یَوْمَ القِیَامَهِ مَقَامَ الکذَّابِینَ.

قَالَ عَبْدُ اللهِ بْنُ أَبِی الْهُذَیْلِ: رَأَیْتُ عَلَی عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ قَمیصاً زَریَّاً إذَا

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مَدَّهُ بَلَغَ الظُّفُرَ وَإذَا أرْسَلَهُ کَانَ مَعَ نِصْفِ الذِّراعِ.

وَقالَ عُمَرُ بْنُ عَبْدِ العَزیزِ: مَا عَلِمْنا أنَّ أحَداً کَانَ فِی هَذِهِ الأُمَّهِ بَعْدَ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ أزْهَدَ مِنْ عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ.

وَقالَ قُبَیْصَهُ بْنُ جابِرٍ: مَا رَأَیْت فِی الدُّنْیَا أزْهَدَ مِنْ عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ. وَقالَ سُوَیْدُ بْنُ غَفْلَهَ: دَخَلْتُ عَلَی عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَوَجَدْتُهُ جالِساً بَیْنَ یَدَیْهِ صَحیفَهٌ فِیهَا لَبَنٌ أجِدُ ریحَهُ مِنْ شِدَّهِ حُموضَتِهِ وَفِی یَدِهِ رَغیفٌ أرَی آثَارَ قِشارِ

At this time, I said to Fiddah, his slave-girl who was standing by him: Don’t you fear Allah for treating this old man as such? Fiddah said: He has asked me not to sieve the flour. ‘Ali asked: What are you talking about? I told him the story. At this time ‘Ali said: May my parents be ransom for the one for whom the flour was not sieved, nor did he eat fill bread of wheat for three straight says until he passed away.(1)

One day Imam ‘Ali (a.s) went to the market, bought a shirt for three Dirhams and wore it. The sleeve of the shirt was not long enough to cover his wrist completely and the shirt itself was not long enough to cover the legs properly. Raising his hand in prayer while wearing it, Imam ‘Ali said: O Lord, thank you for blessing me with a shirt which both covers my body and gives me splendor among people.(2)

Imam ‘Ali (a.s) used to say: O yellow gold and white silver! Deceive someone

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1- Manaqib, chap. 10, pp. 67
2- Manaqib, chap. 10, pp. 69

else and set the trap on the way of others.(1) One day, Imam ‘Ali who had prepared his special sword for selling went to the market, saying: Who will buy this sword? By God who makes the grain grow in the earth, this sword has long served the Messenger of Allah, removing the dust of sorrow from his holy face. If I could afford to buy one piece of clothes, I would never sell it.(2)

One day, Imam ‘Ali who was wearing a garment with patches attended a gathering. An ignorant man started blaming him. Imam ‘Ali said: Wearing this shirt for a leader like me is not blameworthy, for it makes my heart humble on the one hand, and a believer who sees me wearing it will follow me on the other.(3)

One day, Imam ‘Ali went to the market buying two coarse shirts. He said to Qanbar, his servant: Choose between the two. He chose one and put it on. Putting on the other one, ‘Ali found that the sleeves were too long, so he cut it short and wore it.(4)

الشَّعیرِ فِی وَجْهِهِ وَهُوَ یَکْسِرُهُ بِیَدِهِ أحْیاناً أعْیَی عَلَیْهِ کَسَرَهُ بِرُکْبَتِهِ وَطَرَحَهُ فِی اللَّبَنِ. فَقالَ: أُدْنُ فَأَصِبْ مِنْ طَعامِنا هَذَا. فَقُلْتُ: إنّی صائِمٌ. فَقالَ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَقولُ: مَنْ مَنَعَهُ الصِّیامُ مِنْ طَعامٍ یَشْتَهیهِ کَانَ حَقَّاً عَلَی اللهِ أنْ یُطْعِمَهُ مِنْ طَعامِ الجَنَّهِ وَیَسْقِیَهُ مِنْ شَرابِها.

فَقُلْتُ لِجَارِیَتِهِ وَهِیَ قائِمَهٌ بِقُرْبٍ مِنْهُ: وَیْحَکِ یَا فِضَّهُ ألاَ تَتَّقینَ اللهَ فِی هَذَا الشَّیْخِ؟ ألا تَنْخُلینَ لَهُ طَعاماً

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1- Hilyat al-Awliya’, vol. 1, pp. 80
2- Hilyat al-Awliya’, vol. 1, pp. 83
3- Hilyat al-Awliya’, vol. 1, pp. 83
4- Usd al-Ghabah, vol. 4, pp. 24

مِمَّا أرَی فِیهِ مِنَ النُّخالَهِ؟ فَقالَتْ: لَقَدْ تَقَدَّمَ إلَیْنا لاَ نَنْخُلُ لَهُ طَعاماً. قَالَ لی: مَا قُلتُ لَهَا؟ فَأخْبَرْتُهُ. فَقالَ: بِأبِی وَأُمّی مَنْ لَمْ یُنْخَلْ لَهُ طَعامٌ وَلَمْ یَشْبَعْ مِنْ خُبْزِ البُرِّ ثَلاثَهَ أیَّامٍ حَتَّی قَبَضَهُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجلَّ.

وَاجْتازَ یَوماً فِی السُّوقِ فَاشْتَری قَمیصاً بِثَلاثَهِ دَراهِمَ وَلَبِسَهُ مَا بَیْنَ الرِّسْغَیْنِ إلَی الکَعْبَیْنِ وَقالَ حینَ لَبِسَهُ: الحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِی رَزَقَنی مِنَ الرِّیاشِ مَا أتَجَمَّلُ بِهِ النَّاسَ. وَقالَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: یَا صَفْراءُ غُرِّی غَیْرِی. یَا بَیْضَاءُ غُرِّی غَیْرِی. وَخَرَجَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ یَوْماً إلَی السُّوقِ وَمَعَهُ سَیْفُهُ لِیَبیعَهُ فَقالَ: مَنْ یَشْتَری مِنّی هَذَا السَّیْفَ؟ فَوَالَّذی فَلَقَ الحَبَّهَ لَطالَما کَشَفْتُ بِهِ الکُرَبَ عَنْ وَجْهِ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ، وَلَوْ کَانَ عِنْدی مِنْ إزارٍ لَما بِعْتُهُ. وَخَرَجَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ یَوْماً وَعَلَیْهِ إزَارٌ مَرْقوعٌ فَعُوتِبَ. فَقالَ: یَخْشَعُ القَلْبُ بِلِبْسِهِ وَیَقْتَدی بِهِ المُؤْمِنُ إذَا رَآهُ عَلَیَّ.

وَاشْتَرَی یَوْماً ثَوْبَیْنِ غَلیظَیْنِ فَخَیَّرَ قَنْبَراً فِیهِما فَأخَذَ واحِداً وَلَبِسَ هُوَ الآخَرَ فَرَأی فِی کُمِّهِ طُولاً عَنْ أصَابِعِهِ فَقَطَعَهُ.

Imam ‘Ali appointed a man from the tribe of Thaqif as governor of the city of Akbar, saying to him: Come to me tomorrow after the Noon Prayer. I have a business with you. The man reports: I went to see him the next day. Contrary to what is usual with rulers, I did not find any doorkeeper to stop me at the time of appointment. So I went to the Imam and found him sitting with a clay bowl and a jug of water only.

At this time, the Imam ordered to bring him a sealed package. I said to myself: The

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Imam considers me as trustworthy, so he wants to show me a precious Jewel he has kept hidden from others. Soon, he removed the seal from the package and opened it. Suddenly, my eyes fell on some soft flour of barley and wheat.

He poured it into a bowl, added some water to it, ate a little of it and offered the rest to me. To see this scene made me lose my patience, so I said: O Amir al-Mu’minin, it is strange that you are living in a country like Iraq which abounds with so many blessings yet you are living a hard life.

The Imam said: By God, the seal I have put on this package is not because of meanness so that no one will eat with me rather I wish to use it to the extent of my need. I am also afraid that one of my kinsmen may take away some of it and add some delicious food to it and as a result of it add some non-pure food which I do not like. The Imam then warned me against eating a food about which I was doubtful. He further said: Do not eat anything but lawful (Halal) food.(1)

وَکَانَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ قَدْ وَلَّی عَلَی عَکْبَرَ رَجُلاً مِنْ ثَقیفٍ فَقالَ لَهُ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: إذَا صَلَّیْتَ الظُّهْرَ غَداً فَعُدْ إلَیَّ. قَالَ: فَعُدْتُ إلَیْهِ فَلَمْ أَجِدْ عَنْهُ حاجِباً یَحْجُبُنِی دُونَهُ، فَوَجَدْتُهُ جَالِساً وَعِنْدَهُ قَدَحٌ وَکُوزُ مَاءٍ، فَدَعا بِوِعاءٍ مَسْدودٍ مَخْتُومٍ. فَقُلْتُ فِی نَفْسِی: لَقَدْ أَمِنَنِی حَتَّی یُخْرِجَ إلَیَّ جَواهِرَ،

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1- Tarikh Dimashq, ibn Assaker, vol. 3, pp. 246

فَکَسَرَ الخَتْمَ وَحَلَّهُ فَإذَا فِیهِ سُوَیْقٌ، فَأَخْرَجَ مِنْهُ قَبْضَهً فِی القَدَحِ وَصَبَّ مَاءً فَشَرِبَ وَسَقَانِی. فَلَمْ أَصْبِرْ فَقُلْتُ: یَا أمِیرَ المُؤْمِنِینَ، أَتَصْنَعُ هَذَا فِی العِرَاقِ وَطَعَامُهُ کَمَا تَرَی فِی کَثْرَتِهِ؟ فَقالَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: أَمَا وَاللهِ مَا أَخْتِمُ عَلَیْهِ بُخْلاً بِهِ وَلَکِنّی أبْتَاعُ قَدْرَ مَا یَکْفِینِی فَأَخَافُ أَنْ یَنْفَضَّ فَیُوضَعُ فِیهِ مِنْ غَیْرِهِ وَأنا أَکْرَهُ أنْ أُدْخِلَ بَطْنِی إلاَّ طَیِّباً، فَلِذَلِکَ أَحْتَرِزُ کَما تَرَی، فَإیَّاکَ وَتَنَاوُلَ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُ حِلَّهُ.

‘Ali’s Generosity and Magnanimity

Beyond doubt, Imam ‘Ali was the most generous and the most honest man after the Holy Prophet (S) for the highest degree of generosity is to offer one’s life and ‘Ali, by lying in the bed of the Holy Prophet at Laylat al-Mabit, sacrificed his life for the sake of the Messenger of Allah. Ibn Athir reports:

The Qur’anic verse:

“And among men is he who sells himself to seek the pleasure of Allah” (2:207)

was revealed about Imam ‘Ali when the Holy Prophet (S) left Mecca for Medina, ordering ‘Ali to lie in his bed and to transfer people’s trust to them the next day. This was at a time when the atheists of Quraysh had brotherhood between you, making the life of one of you longer. Does anyone of you prefers his brother to himself and accepts his shorter life?

فِی السَّخَاءِ وَالکَرَمِ: لاَ خِلافَ فِی أنَّ أمِیرَ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ أسْخَی النَّاسِ بَعْدَ رَسُول اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَأکْرَمُهُمْ وَأَشْرَفُهُمْ.

جَادَ بِنَفْسِهِ حینَ بَاتَ عَلَی فِرَاشِ رَسُول اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ. قَالَ ابْنُ الأَثیرِ: إنَّ قَوْلَهُ تَعالَی: ?وَمِنْ النَّاسِ مَنْ یَشْرِی

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نَفْسَهُ ابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاهِ اللَّهِ? نَزَلَ فِی عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. ذَلِکَ لأَنَّ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ لَمَّا هَاجَرَ وَتَرَکَ عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فِی بَیْتِهِ بِمَکَّهَ وَأَمَرَهُ أنْ یَنامَ عَلَی فِراشِهِ لِیُوصِلَ إذَا أَصْبَحَ وَدائِعَ النَّاسِ إِلَیْهِمْ. فَقالَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجلَّ لِجَبْرَئیلَ وَمِیکائِیلَ: إنِّی قَدْ آخَیْتُ بَیْنَکُمَا وَجَعَلْتُ عُمُرَ أَحَدِکُمَا أَطْوَلَ مِنْ عُمْرِ الآخَرِ، فَأَیُّکُمَا یُؤْثِرُ أخَاهُ؟

They both opted for the longer life and showed no self-sacrifice. At that time, God Almighty by sending a revelation asked: Why are you not like ‘Ali who, by making a contract of brotherhood between Muhammad and ‘Ali, lay in his bed and sacrificed his life for him, preferring Muhammad’s life.

I now give you a mission to go down to the earth and safeguard him from the harms of the enemy. Gabriel and Michael, to fulfill the divine order, came down to the earth. Gabriel stood at the head and Michael at the foot of ‘Ali safeguarding him from the harms of the enemies. Addressing ‘Ali, Gabriel said: Hail to you, O son of Abu-Talib! Is there anyone like you while God prides Himself on your position to angels?(1)

‘Ali’s property which was four Dirhams on the whole, was given as charity, one by night, one by day, the third secretly, and the fourth openly. God Almighty revealed the verse:

“As for those who spend their property by night and by day, secretly and openly, they have their reward from their Lord and they shall have no fear, nor shall they grieve. (2:274)”

On the same

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1- Usd al-Ghabah, vol. 4, pp. 25

occasion like some of the other verses, this verse is not applied to anyone but ‘Ali. Hence, the revelation of this verse about ‘Ali is one of his special merits. Most of the commentators of the Holy Qur’an believe that the verse was revealed in relation to the purified ‘Ali.(1)

Tha’labi and some other commentators in their interpretations on the occasion of revelation of Surah Hal-Ata (Surah al-Dahr or al-Insan No. 76) have written: Hasan and Husayn fell sick. Their grandfather, the Messenger of Allah went to ‘Ali’s house to visit them. All the people who had gathered in ‘Ali’s house called on him to make a vow for the healing of Holy Prophet’s young sons, a vow entailing some sort of undertaking.

‘Ali agreed to this suggestion, saying: If my sons are healed, I will fast for three days as a sign of thanks to please Allah. Lady Fatimah too said: If my sons are healed, I will fast for three days to thank Allah. Fiddah, the female servant too said: If my masters are healed, I will fast three days to thank this blessing. God healed Hasan and Husayn, so ‘Ali, Fatimah, and Fiddah prepared themselves to fast. But there was nothing in ‘Ali’s house for eating. So ‘Ali went to Simon, the Jew, and borrowed three kilos of barley from him. Lady Fatimah personally rose up to bake the bread so she grinded the barley baking five loaves of bread.

فَاخْتَارَ کُلٌّ مِنْهُمْا الحَیَاهَ. فَأَوْحَی اللهُ تَعالَی إلَیْهِما: ألاَ کُنْتُمَا

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1- Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 2, pp. 413

مِثْلَ عَلِیٍّ؟ آخَیْتُ بَیْنَهُ وَبَیْنَ مُحَمَّدٍ فَبَاتَ عَلَی فِرَاشِهِ یُفَدِّیهِ بِنَفْسِهِ وَیُؤْثِرُهُ بِالحَیَاهِ؟ إهْبِطَا إلَیْهِ فَاحْفَظَاهُ مِنْ عَدُوِّهِ. فَنَزَلا إلَیْهِ فَحَفِظَاهُ؛ جِبْریلُ عِنْدَ رَأْسِهِ وَمِیکائِیلُ عِنْدَ رِجْلَیْهِ، وَجِبْریلُ یَقولُ: بَخٍ بَخٍ یَا بْنَ أَبِی طَالِبٍ. مَنْ مِثْلُکَ وَقَدْ بَاهَی اللهُ بِکَ المَلائِکَهَ.

وَکَانَ عِنْدَ أمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ أَرْبَعَهُ دَراهِمَ لَمْ یَمْلِکْ سِوَاها، فَتَصَدَّقَ بِدِرْهَمٍ لَیْلاً وَبِدِرْهَمٍ نَهَاراً وَبِدِرْهَمٍ سِرَّاً وَبِدِرْهَمٍ عَلانِیَهً. فَنَزَلَ قَوْلُهُ تَعالَی: ?الَّذِینَ یُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ بِاللَّیْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ سِرًّا وَعَلاَنِیَهً فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَیْهِمْ وَلاَ هُمْ یَحْزَنُونَ.?

وَمِنْ تَفْسیرِ الثَّعْلَبِیِّ وَغَیْرِهِ مِنَ المُفَسِّرینَ أنَّ الحَسَنَ وَالحُسَیْنَ عَلَیْهِمَا السَّلامُ مَرِضَا فَعادَهُمَا جَدُّهُمَا رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَمَعَهُ أبُو بَکْرٍ وَعُمَرُ، وَعَادَهُما عَامَّهُ العَرَبِ. فَقَالُوا: یَا أبَا الْحَسَنِ، لَوْ نَذَرْتَ عَلَی وَلَدَیْکَ نَذْراً، وَکُلُّ نَذْرٍ لاَ یَکُونُ لَهُ وَفَاءٌ فَلَیْسَ بِشَیْءٍ.

فَقالَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: إنْ بَرِئَ وَلَدَایَ مِمَّا بِهِمَا صُمْتُ للهِ ثَلاثَهَ أیَّامٍ شُکْراً. وَقَالَتْ فَاطِمَهُ عَلَیْها السَّلامُ: إنْ بَرِئَ وَلَدَایَ مِمَّا بِهِمَا صُمْتُ للهِ ثَلاثَهَ أیَّامٍ شُکْراً. وَقَالَتْ جَارِیَتُهُمَا فِضَّهُ: إنْ بَرِئَ سَیِّدایَ مِمَّا بِهِمَا صُمْتُ للهِ ثَلاثَهَ أیَّامٍ شُکْراً.

فَأُلْبِسَ الغُلامَانِ الْعَافِیَهَ وَلَیْسَ عِنْدَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ قَلیلٌ وَلا کَثیرٌ. فَانْطَلَقَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ إلَی شَمْعونَ بْنِ حابا الخَیْبَرِیِّ وَکَانَ یَهودِیَّاً فَاقْتَرَضَ مِنْهُ ثَلاثَهَ أَصْوُعٍ مِنْ شَعیرٍ. فَقَامَتْ فَاطِمَهُ عَلَیْها السَّلامُ إلَی صاعٍ فَطَحَنَتْهُ وَاخْتَبَزَتْ مِنْهُ خَمْسَهَ أقْراصٍ؛ لِکُلِّ وَاحِدٍ

The first day all were fasting, ‘Ali went to the mosque to perform his evening prayer behind the Messenger of Allah. Having completed his prayer, ‘Ali came home to break his fast. The tablecloth was spread with five loaves of bread on it. Before they start eating,

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a poor man stood at the door, saying: Greeting to you the Ahl al-Bayt of Muhammad.

I am a poor man among Muslims seeking refuge to your house. Give some food to me. May God feed you with heavenly food. Hearing this, ‘Ali said: Give my share of food to this man! Fatimah said: I will do the same. Hence, there was nothing but water for them to break their fast with. The second day, Fatimah grinded another kilo of barley baking five loaves of bread for five persons.

In the evening, again ‘Ali went to the mosque for performing evening prayer and returned home after completing his prayer. When the tablecloth was spread, immediately an orphan came to the door, saying: Hail to you, the Ahl al-Bayt of Muhammad. I am an orphan of the immigrants. My father was martyred on the day of ‘Aqabah. I am starving. Give me some food. May God feed you with heavenly food. Giving their food to the orphan, ‘Ali and Fatimah broke their fast with plain water again.

In the third night too, the same thing happened. Fatimah grinded one more Kilo of barley baking five loaves of bread again. Having performed his evening prayer in the mosque, ‘Ali returned home. This time, a captive came to the door, saying: Greeting to you Ahl al-Bayt of the Messenger of Allah. Is it right to make me a captive but not feed me? I am a captive of Muhammad. Give some food to me. May God

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feed you with heavenly food. Hearing this, ‘Ali gave his own food and that of others to the captive. Hence, they had nothing but water instead of food for three straight nights.

On the fourth day, when they were completing the vow, ‘Ali took the hand of Hasan in his right hand and the hand of Husayn in his left hand heading for the Holy Prophet (S) while they were shivering from hunger. As soon as the Holy Prophet saw them, he said: This scene has greatly saddened me. So they decided to go and visit Fatimah. At this time, Lady Fatimah was engaged in prayer in the altar. Her eyes were sunken and her belly stuck to her back because of hunger! This scene was so heavy to the Messenger of Allah that he raised his hands in prayer immediately, saying: O Lord! I seek refuge in you and ask help from you.

مِنْهُمْ قُرْصٌ. وَصَلَّی أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ المَغْرِبَ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ ثُمَّ أَتَی المَنْزِلَ فَوُضِعَ الطَّعامُ بَیْنَ یَدَیْهِ إذْ أتَاهُمْ مِسْکینٌ مِنْ مَساکِینِ المُسْلِمینَ فَوَقَفَ بِالبَابِ وَقالَ: السَّلامُ عَلَیْکُمْ یَا أهْلَ بَیْتِ مُحَمَّدٍ؛ مِسْکینٌ مِنْ مَسَاکِیِن المُسْلِمینَ، أطْعِمُونِی أَطْعَمَکُمُ اللهُ مِنْ مَوائِدِ الجَنَّهِ. فَسَمِعَهُ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَقالَ: أعْطُوهُ حِصَّتِی. فَقَالَتْ فَاطِمَهُ عَلَیْها السَّلامُ وَالبَاقُونَ کَذَلِکَ. فَأَعْطَوْهُ الطَّعامَ وَمَکَثوا یَوْمَهُمْ وَلَیْلَتَهُمْ لَمْ یَذُوقوا إلاَّ المَاءَ القُراحَ. فَلَمَّا کَانَ الیَوْمُ الثَّانی طَحَنَتْ فَاطِمَهُ عَلَیْها السَّلامُ صاعاً وَاخْتَبَزَتْهُ وَأَتی أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ مِنْ صَلاهِ المَغْرِبِ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَوُضِعَ الطَّعامُ بَیْنَ

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یَدَیْهِ إذْ أتَاهُمْ یَتِیمٌ فَقالَ: السَّلامُ عَلَیْکُمْ أهْلَ بَیْتِ مُحَمَّدٍ؛ یَتِیمٌ مِنْ أَوْلادِ المُهاجِرِینَ، إسْتُشْهِدَ وَالِدِی یَوْمَ العَقَبَهِ، أَطْعِمُونِی أَطْعَمَکُمُ اللهُ مِنْ مَوَائِدِ الجَنَّهِ. فَسَمِعَهُ عَلِیٌّ وَفاطِمَهُ عَلَیْها السَّلامُ وَالبَاقُونَ فَأَعْطَوْهُ الطَّعامَ وَمَکَثوا یَوْمَیْنِ وَلَیْلَتَیْنِ لَمْ یَذوقوا إلاَّ المَاءَ القُراحَ. فَلَمَّا کَانَ الیَوْمُ الثَّالِثُ قَامَتْ فَاطِمَه عَلَیْها السَّلامُ إلَی الصَّاعِ البَاقی فَطَحَنَتْهُ وَاخْتَبَزَتْهُ وَصَلّی عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ مَعَ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ المَغْرِبَ ثُمَّ أَتَی المَنْزِلَ فَوُضِعَ الطَّعامُ بَیْنَ یَدَیْهِ إذْ أتَاهُمْ أَسیرٌ فَوَقَفَ عَلَی البَابِ فَقالَ: السَّلامُ عَلَیْکُمْ أهْلَ بَیْتِ مُحَمَّدٍ؛ تَأْسِرُونَنا وَلا تُطْعِمونَنا، أَطْعِمُونِی فَإنّی أسِیرُ مُحَمَّدٍ أَطْعَمَکُمُ اللهُ مِنْ مَوائِدِ الجَنَّهِ. فَسَمِعَهُ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَآثَرَهُ وَآثَرُوهُ مَعَهُ وَمَکَثوا ثَلاثَهَ أیَّامٍ بِلَیالِیها لَمْ یَذُوقوا سِوَی المَاءِ القُراحِ. فَلَمَّا کَانَ الیَوْمُ الرَّابِعُ وَقَدْ قَضَوا نَذْرَهُمْ أَخَذَ عَلِیٌّ الحَسَنَ بِیَدِهِ الیُمْنی وَالحُسَیْنَ بِالیُسْری وَأقْبَلَ نَحْوَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَهُما یَرْتَعِشانِ کالفِراخِ مِنْ شِدَّهِ الجُوعِ. فَلَمَّا بَصُرَ بِهِمُ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ قَالَ: یَا أَبَا الحَسَنِ مَا أَشَدَّ مَا یَسُوءُنِی مِمَّا أرَی بِکُمْ. إنْطَلِقْ إلَی ابْنَتِی فَاطِمَهَ. فَانْطَلَقوا إلَیْها وَهِیَ فِی مِحْرابِها قَدْ لَصِقَ بَطْنُها بِظَهْرِها مِنْ شِدَّهِ الجُوعِ وَغَارَتْ عَیْناها. فَلَمَّا رَآه

Turning to Ahl al-Bayt, he said: I do not think there is anything left of your life as a result of hunger, for you may soon depart from this world! At this time, Gabriel came down saying: O Muhammad! Take this divine blessing. The Holy Prophet (S) said: What is it? Gabriel recited to him the verse “Hal Ata.”(1)

Tha’labi has quoted Abayah ibn Rab’i as saying: Once Abdullah Ibn Abbas was sitting among

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 17, pp. 118

a group of people near ZamZam relating Hadiths from the Holy Prophet (S), a man who had covered his head and face with a turban joined them and began to relate Hadiths from the Holy Prophet (S) like Ibn Abbas.

Being surprised, Ibn Abbas said: For the sake of God, tell us who you are. He removed his turban and said: Whoever knows me has recognized me, and whoever has not recognized me, I am Jundub ibn Janadah, Abu-Dharr Ghifari. I heard the Messenger of Allah, with my two ears and if I am lying, may I be deprived of my hearing, and saw with these two eyes, if I am lying, may I be deprived of seeing, as saying: ‘Ali is the leader of benefactors and the slayer of the atheists. Whoever helps him, will be helped by God and whoever refuses to help him will be deprived of God’s help forever.

Tha’labi further said: Let it be known to you that one day I performed noon prayer with the Messenger of Allah in the mosque. Amid this, a needy man rose up to ask for help but no one responded. The needy man raised his hands towards the sky, saying: O Lord, you are witnessing that I asked for help but no one took heed of my request. At that time ‘Ali who was bowing in his prayer pointed with the small finger of his right hand to the needy man. He went to ‘Ali and took the ring. The

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Messenger of Allah was looking this scene from near.

After completing his prayer, the Messenger of Allah raising his hand towards the sky, said:

“O Lord! Expand my breast for me, and make my affair easy to me, and loose the knot from my tongue, that they may understand my word and give to me an aide from my family: Harun, my brother” (20:24-31)

and You revealed the verse

“We will strengthen your arm with your brother and we will give you both an authority, so that they shall not reach you; go with our signs” (28:35).

O Lord! I am your chosen prophet. Expand my breast for me, and make my affair easy to me, and set ‘Ali who is from my family my vizier so that he will support me.(1)

النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ قَالَ: وَاغَوْثاهُ! یَا للهِ! أهْلَ بَیْتِ مُحَمَّدٍ تَمُوتُونَ جُوعاً! فَهَبَطَ جِبْریلُ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَقالَ: یَا مُحَمَّدُ خُذْها هَنَّأَکَ اللهُ فِی أهْلِ بَیْتِکَ. قَالَ: وَمَاذا آخُذُ یَا جِبْریلُ؟ فَأَقْرَأَهُ ?هَلْ أَتَی عَلَی الإِنْسَانِ…?

وَمِنْ تَفْسیرِ الثَّعْلَبِیِّ: عَنْ غبایَهَ بْنِ الرَّبْعِیِّ قَالَ: بَیْنا عَبْدُاللهِ بْنُ عَبَّاسٍ جَالِسٌ عَلَی شَفِیرِ زَمْزَمَ یَقولُ قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ، إذْ أَقْبَلَ رَجُلٌ مُتَعَمِّمٌ بِعِمامَهٍ. فَجَعَلَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ لاَ یَقول قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ إلاَّ وَقالَ الرَّجُلُ قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ. فَقالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ: سَأَلْتُکَ بِاللهِ أنْ تَکْشِفَ عَنْ وَجْهِکَ. فَکَشَفَ العِمَامَهَ عَنْ وَجْهِهِ وَقالَ: یَا أَیُّهَا النَّاسُ مَنْ عَرَفَنِی فَقَدْ عَرَفَنِی وَمَنْ لَمْ یَعْرِفْنِی فَأَنا أُعَرِّفُهُ بِنَفْسِی. أَنَا جُنْدُبُ بْنُ جَنادَهَ الْبَدْرِیُّ أبُو ذَرٍّ الغِفارِیُّ، سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ بِهاتَیْنِ

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1- Ihqaq al-Haqq, vol. 3, pp. 503

وَإلاّ فَصُمَّتا، وَرَأَیْتُهُ بِهاتَیْنِ وَإلاّ فَعَمِیَتا یَقولُ: عَلِیٌّ قائِدُ البَرَرَهِ وَقَاتِلُ الکَفَرَهِ، مَنْصورٌ مَنْ نَصَرَهُ مَخْذولٌ مَنْ خَذَلَهُ. أمَا إنّی صَلَّیْتُ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَوماً مِنَ الأیَّامِ صَلاهَ الظُّهْرِ، فَسَأَلَ سائِلٌ فِی المَسْجِدِ فَلَمْ یُعْطِهِ أحَدٌ شَیْئاً. فَرَفَعَ السَّائِلُ یَدَهُ إلَی السَّماءِ وَقالَ: اللَّهُمَّ إشْهَدْ أنّی سَأَلْتُ فِی مَسْجِدِ رَسُولِ اللهِ فَلَمْ یُعْطِنِی أحَدٌ شَیْئاً. وَکَانَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ راکِعاً فَأَوْمَأَ إلَیْهِ بِخُنْصُرِهِ الیُمْنَی وَکَانَ یَتَخَتَّمُ فِیهَا، فَأَقْبَلَ السَّائِلُ حَتَّی أخَذَ الخَاتَمَ مِنْ خُنْصُرِهِ، وَذَلِکَ بِعَیْنِ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ، فَلَمَّا فَرَغَ مِنْ صَلاتِهِ رَفَعَ رَأْسَهُ إلَی السَّماءِ وَقالَ: اللَّهُمَّ إنَّ مُوسَی سَأَلَکَ فَقَالَ: ?قَالَ رَبِّ اشْرَحْ لِی صَدْرِی. وَیَسِّرْ لِی أَمْرِی. وَاحْلُلْ عُقْدَهً مِنْ لِسَانِی. یَفْقَهُوا قَوْلِی. وَاجْعَلْ لِی وَزِیرًا مِنْ أَهْلِی. هَارُونَ أَخِی. اشْدُدْ بِهِ أَزْرِی. وَأَشْرِکْهُ فِی أَمْرِی.? فَأَنْزَلْتَ عَلَیْهِ قُرْآناً ناطِقاً: ?قَالَ سَنَشُدُّ عَضُدَکَ بِأَخِیکَ وَنَجْعَلُ لَکُمَا سُلْطَانًا فَلاَ یَصِلُونَ إِلَیْکُمَا بِآیَاتِنَاز? اللَّهُمَّ وَأَنا مُحَمَّدٌ نَبِیُّکَ وَصَفِیُّکَ فَاشْرَحْ لِی صَدْرِی وَیَسِّرْ لِی أمْرِی وَاجْعَلْ لِی وَزیراً مِنْ أهْلِی عَلِیَّاً أخِی اشْدُدْ بِهِ ظَهْرِی.

Abu-Dharr reports: The Messenger of Allah had hardly finished this when Gabriel came down, saying: O Muhammad, Read! He said: What shall I read? Gabriel said:

“Only Allah is your Wali and His Apostle and who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor-rate while they bow” (5:55).

In Tha’labi’s commentary (Tafsir), we read that this verse has been mentioned in the six most reliable Sunni reference books of Hadith.(1) Mujahid reports: God Almighty prohibited consulting the Holy Prophet without giving charity. Following the revelation of this verse,

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1- Ihqaq al-Haqq, vol. 3, pp. 503

no one consulted him except ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib who did so after giving one Dinar in charity. Then the verse was abrogated and the permission was given.(1)

Imam ‘Ali (a.s) has said: There is a verse in the Holy Qur’an that no one but me has acted on it;(2)

“O you who believe! When you consult the Apostle, then offer something in charity before your consultation.” (58:12).

Amir al-Mu’minin said: God Almighty discharged this Ummah of a duty because of me, for if I did not act according to that verse, it would remain valid forever while no one could act to it, that is to offer charity he wished to consult the Messenger of Allah. Therefore, it was I who removed the heavy burden from the shoulder of this Ummah. I am the true proof of this verse which is not applicable to anyone before or after me.(3)

Abdullah Umar has said: ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib had three features and if I had just one of them, it was more valuable than having red-haired camels! The first is marriage with Lady Fatimah, second is having the honor of standard bearing on the day of Khaybar and the third is the verse “Najwa” which is applicable to no one but ‘Ali.(4)

‘Ali used to plant trees and irrigate orchards with his own holy and powerful hands. He made orchards one after the other giving them in the path of Allah and never saved the money for himself and his family.(5)

‘Ali’s Religiosity, Piety and Prayer

There is no doubt that ‘Ali

p: 107


1- Shawahid al-Tanzil, vol. 2, pp. 353
2- Shawahid al-Tanzil, vol. 2, pp. 343
3- Shawahid al-Tanzil, vol. 2, pp. 343
4- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 168
5- Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 3, pp. 227

was steadfast in religion, and strenuous in piety making him peerless. The truth of religion was firm in his pure heart. Due to these two powers of religiosity and piety, his prayer was always answered. It is for the same reason that the Messenger of Allah resorted to him on the day of mutual curse (Mubahalah), for no companion could match him.

قَالَ أَبُو ذر: فَما اسْتَتَمَّ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ الکَلِمَهَ حَتَّی نَزَلَ عَلَیْهِ جِبْریلُ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ مِنْ عِنْدِ اللهِ تَعالَی فَقالَ: یَا مُحَمَّدُ إقْرَأْ. قَالَ: وَمَا أَقْرَأُ؟ قَالَ: إِقْرَأْ ?إِنَّمَا وَلِیُّکُمْ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِینَ آمَنُوا الَّذِینَ یُقِیمُونَ الصَّلاَهَ وَیُؤْتُونَ الزَّکَاهَ وَهُمْ رَاکِعُونَ.?

وَمِنْ تَفْسیرِ الثَّعْلَبِیِّ وَنُقِلَ فِی الجَمْعِ بَیْنَ الصِّحاحِ السِّتَّهِ نَحْوُهُ قَالَ مُجاهِدُ: نَهَی اللهُ تَعالَی عَنْ مُنَاجَاهِ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وآلهِ حَتَّی یَتَصَدَّقوا. فَلَمْ یُناجِهِ إلاَّ عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طالِبٍ، قَدَّمَ دِیناراً فَتَصَدَّقَ بِهِ. ثُمَّ نَزَلَتِ الرُّخْصَهُ. وَقالَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: إنَّ فِی کِتابِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجلَّ لآَیَهً مَا عَمِلَ بِهَا أَحَدٌ قَبْلی وَلا یَعْمَلُ بِهَا أَحَدٌ بَعْدِی: ?یَا أَیُّهَا الَّذِینَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نَاجَیْتُمْ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدِّمُوا بَیْنَ یَدَیْ نَجْوَاکُمْ صَدَقَهً…?

وَقالَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: بِی خَفَّفَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجلَّ عَنْ هَذِهِ الأُمَّهِ أَمْرَ هَذِهِ الآیَهِ، فَلَمْ تَنْزِلْ فِی أَحَدٍ قَبْلی وَلَمْ تَنْزِلْ فِی أَحَدٍ بَعْدی. قَالَ ابْنُ عُمَرَ: کَانَ لعَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ ثَلاثَهٌ، لَوْ کَانَتْ لِی وَاحِدَهٌ مِنْهُنَّ کَانَتْ أَحَبَّ إلَیَّ مِنْ حُمُرِ النَّعَمِ: تَزْویُجُه فَاطِمَهَ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْها، وَإعْطاؤهُ الرَّایَهَ یَوْمَ خَیْبَرٍ وَآیَهُ النَّجْوَی. وَکَانَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ یَعْمُرُ بِیَدِهِ الشَّریفَهِ حَدیقَهً یَتَصَدَّقُ، وَلَمْ یُخَلِّفْ دِینَاراً وَلا دِرْهَماً. فِی الْوَرَعِ وَالدِّینِ وَاسْتِجابَهِ الدُّعَاءِ:

لاَ

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خِلافَ أنَّ أمِیرَ الْمُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ شَدیدُ الوَرَعِ عَظیمُ الدِّینِ، رَسَخَ الإیمانُ فِی قَلْبِهِ، وَلِشِدَّهِ دِینِهِ وَوَرَعِهِ کَانَ مُسْتَجَابَ الدَّعْوَهِ. تَوَسَّلَ بِهِ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْه

The Holy Prophet (S), threatening the rebels of Quraysh said: O rebels! Stop your hostile act, or God will raise a man whose heart he has tested with faith to fight you and to behead you for promoting faith and justice. The Messenger of Allah was asked: Is it Abu-Bakr? He said: No. they asked: Is it Umar? He said: No, he is the one who is mending sandals.(1)

Khawarizmi has reported: addressing ‘Ali on the day of Khaybar’s conquest, the Messenger of Allah said: If I were sure a group of my Ummah did not attribute to you what the Christians attributed to Jesus, son of Mary, I would say about your high position something that wherever you passed by people they would take the dust under your feet as something holy, using the water with which you perform ablution as a cure for their pains. But for certain exigency, I will not speak of it. As for your superiority over others, it would suffice to say that you are from me and I am from you. I will inherit you and you will inherit me. Your position to me is like that of Aaron to Moses except that there is no prophet after me.

O ‘Ali, you will propagate my faith, you will fight the enemies of Islam after me, you are the nearest

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1- Tarikh Baghdad, pp. 134

to me on the Day of Judgment, you are my vicegerent at the Pond, which is the gathering place of the people, rejecting the hypocrites! And you are the first to meet me at the Pond and the first of my Ummah to enter paradise.

Your followers on the Day of Judgment will be quenched by the water of Kawthar; they will come to me with bright faces; I will intercede for them and will be my neighbors in paradise; your enemies on the Day of Judgment will be restless out of thirst, their faces are black and wrinkled. O ‘Ali, enmity with you is enmity with me and friendship with you is friendship with me. There is no open or hidden distance between you and me. What is hidden in my breast and I am informed of it is in your breast too. Your children are truly my children. You are the gate of my knowledge and whoever seeks it must hear it from your tongue. Your flesh is my flesh and the blood running in your veins is running in my veins with no difference.

وَآلِهِ فِی الْمُباهَلَهِ، وَلَوْ کَانَ أَحَدٌ مِنْ أصْحَابِهِ یُقارِبُهُ لأَخْرَجَهُ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ لأَنَّهُ وَقْتُ الْحَاجَهِ إلَی الدُّعَاءِ وَالإسْتِعانَهِ فِیهِ بِمُسْتَجَابِ الدُّعاءِ. وقَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ، لَتَنْتَهُنَّ یَا مَعْشَرَ قُرَیْشٍ أوْ لَیَبْعَثُنَّ اللهُ عَلَیْکُمْ رَجُلاً إمْتَحَنَ اللهُ قَلْبَهُ بِالإیمانِ یَضْرِبُ رِقابَکُمْ عَلَی الدِّینِ. قِیلَ: یَا رَسولَ اللهِ، أَهُوَ أبُو بَکْرٍ؟ قَالَ: لاَ. فَقیلَ: فَعُمَرُ؟ قَالَ: لاَ، وَلَکِنَّهُ خاصِفُ النَّعْلِ الَّذِی

p: 110

فِی الحُجْرَهِ.

وَمِنْ کِتابِ المَناقِبِ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَوْمَ فَتْحِ خَیْبَرٍ لِعَلِیٍّ: لَوْلا أنْ تَقولَ فِیکَ طَوائِفُ مِنْ أُمَّتِی مَا قَالَتِ النَّصَاری فِی عِیسَی بْنِ مَرْیَمَ لَقُلْتُ فِیکَ الیَوْمَ مَقالاً لاَ تَمُرُّ عَلَی مَلأٍ مِنَ المُسْلِمینَ إلاَّ أخَذوا مِنْ تُرابِ نَعْلَیْکَ وَفَضْلِ طَهُورِکَ یَسْتَشْفُونَ بِهِ. وَلَکِنْ حَسْبُکَ أَنْ تَکونَ مِنّی وَأنا مِنْکَ تَرِثُنِی وَأَرِثُکَ وَأنْتَ مِنّی بِمَنْزِلَهِ هَارُونَ مِنْ مُوسَی إلاَّ أنَّهُ لاَ نَبِیَّ بَعْدِی. أَنْتَ تُؤَدِّی عَنّی دَیْنِی وَتُقاتِلُ عَلَی سُنَّتِی، وَأَنْتَ فِی الآخِرَهِ أقْرَبُ النَّاسِ مِنّی، وأَنْتَ غَداً عَلَی الحَوْضِ خَلیفَتِی تَذودُ عَنْهُ المُنافِقِینَ، وَأَنْتَ أَوَّلُ مَنْ یَرِدُ عَلَیَّ الحَوْضَ، وأَنْتَ أَوَّلُ دَاخِلٍ لِلْجَنَّهِ مِنْ أُمَّتِی، وَإنَّ شِیعَتَکَ عَلَی مَنابِرَ مِنْ نُورٍ رُواءٌ مَرْوِیُّونَ مُبْیَضَّهٌ وُجُوهُهُمْ حَولِی أَشْفَعُ لَهُمْ فَیَکونونَ غَداً فِی الجَنَّهِ جِیرَانِی. وَإنَّ أَعْداءَکَ غَداً ظِماءٌ مُظْمَئونَ مُسْوَدَّهٌ وُجُوهُهُمْ مُقْمَحُونَ. حَرْبُکَ حَرْبِی وَسِلْمُکَ سِلْمِی وَسِرُّکَ سِرِّی وَعَلانِیَتُکَ عَلانِیَتِی وَسَرِیرَهُ صَدْرِکَ کَسَریرَهِ صَدْری، وَأَنْتَ بَابُ عِلْمی وَأنَّ وِلْدَکَ وِلْدِی وَلَحْمَکَ لَحْمی وَدَمَکَ دَمی. وَأنَّ الْحَقَّ مَعَکَ وَالْحَقُّ

Truth which is not perishable is in your tongue, heart and face. Faith is placed in the depth of your blood and flesh as it exists in me. Verily, God Almighty has ordered me to give you the good tidings that on the Day of Judgment, you and your family will enjoy all the blessings of paradise whereas the enemies of you and your family will be punished in the fire of hell. Your unhappy enemies are not seen on that day at the pond of Kawthar whereas a single friend of yours will not be absent there.

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At this time, ‘Ali said: To thank all these blessings God Almighty has bestowed upon me, I perform prostration and praise Him.(1)

Zamakhshari has been quoted by Khawarizmi as saying: Two men came to Umar asking him about the divorce of a female slave. Turning to a group of people with a man who was bald in the front part of his head, Umar said: What is your judgment on this issue? The man said: She should keep two Iddah (period during which a divorced or widowed woman may not be married to another man) whereas a free woman should keep three Iddah. So Umar said: Two Iddah. Addressing Umar, one of the two men said: You are Amir al-Mu’minin and caliph. We came here to pose our question to you but you are asking others for the answer though, by God, he did not speak to you but gave you a sign. Umar said: Woe to you. Do you know who this man is? He is ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib. I heard the Messenger of Allah saying: If heavens and the earth are put on a pan of a scale and ‘Ali’s faith is placed on the other, surely ‘Ali’s faith will be heavier.(2)

Ummu-Salamah has been quoted as saying: The day the Messenger of Allah was in my house, Gabriel came down speaking to him for some time. In that position, the Messenger of Allah was smiling. After the meeting, I said: O Messenger of Allah, may my parents be ransom

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1- Manaqib, chap. 13, pp. 75
2- Manaqib, chap. 13, pp. 77

for you, what was the reason for your smiling and rejoicing? The Holy Prophet (S) said: Gabriel informed me that when he was coming to me, he had seen ‘Ali grazing his camels and lying because of tiredness and since he had gone to sleep and the cover he had put on himself had gone aside and half of his body was exposed to the sun, he had put the cover on his body and he had felt that ‘Ali’s strong faith had penetrated his heart.(1)

عَلَی لِسَانِکَ وَفِی قَلْبِکَ وَبَیْنَ عَیْنَیْکَ وَالإیمانُ مُخالِطٌ لَحْمَکَ وَدَمَکَ کَما خَالَطَ لَحْمِی وَدَمِی، وَأنَّ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجلَّ أَمَرَنِی أنْ أُبَشِّرَکَ أنَّکَ وَعِتْرَتَکَ فِی الجَنَّهِ وَأنَّ عَدُوَّکَ فِی النَّارِ، لاَ یَرِدُ عَلَیَّ الحَوْضَ مُبْغِضٌ لَکَ وَلا یَغیبُ عَنْهُ مُحِبٌُّ لَکَ. قَالَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: فَخَرَرْتُ للهِ سُبْحانَهُ سَاجِداً وَحَمَدْتُهُ عَلَی مَا أَنْعَمَ بِهِ عَلَیَّ مِنَ الإسْلامِ وَالقُرْآنِ وَحَبَّبَنِی إلَی خَاتَمِ النَّبِیِّین وَسَیِّدِ المُرْسَلینَ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ.

وَمِنَ المَناقِبِ عَنِ الزَّمَخْشَرِیِّ قَالَ: جَاءَ رَجُلانِ إلَی عُمَرَ فَقالا لَهُ: مَا تَری فِی طَلاقِ الأَمَهِ؟ فَقامَ إلَی حَلَقَهٍ فِیهَا رَجُلٌ أصْلَعُ فَقالَ: مَا تَرَی فِی طَلاقِ الأَمَهِ؟ فَقالَ: اثْنَتَانِ. فَالْتَفَتَ إلَیْهِما فَقالَ: اثْنَتَانِ. فَقالَ لَهُ أَحَدُهُما: جِئْناکَ وَأَنْتَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ فَسَأَلْناکَ عَنْ طَلاقِ الأَمَهِ فَجِئْتَ رَجُلاً فَسَأَلْتَهُ فَوَاللهِ مَا کَلَّمَکَ. فَقالَ عُمَرُ: وَیْلَکَ أَتَدْرِی مَنْ هَذَا؟ هَذَا عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طالِبٍ. سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَقولُ: لَوْ أنَّ السَّمَاواتِ وَالأرْضَ وُضِعَتْ فِی کَفَّهٍ وَوُزِنَ مَعَ إیمانِ عَلِیٍّ لَرَجَحَ إیمانُ عَلِیٍّ.

وَمِنَ المَناقِبِ: عَنْ أُمِّ سَلَمَهَ قَالَتْ: بَیْنا رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وآلهِ عِنْدِی إذْ أتَاهُ

p: 113


1- Manaqib, chap. 14, pp. 76

جِبْریلُ فَنادَاهُ، فَتَبَسَّمَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ ضَاحِکاً. فَلَمَّا سَرَی عَنْهُ قُلتُ: بِأَبِی أَنْتَ وَأُمّی یَا رَسولَ اللهِ، مَا أَضْحَکَکَ؟ فَقالَ: أخْبَرَنِی جِبْریلُ أَنَّهُ مَرَّ بِعَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَهُوَ یَرْعَی ذَوْداً وَهُوَ نائِمٌ قَدْ أُبْدِیَ بَعْضُ جَسَدِهِ قَالَ: فَرَدَدْتُ عَلَیْهِ ثَوْبَهُ فَوَجَدْتُ بَرْدَ إیمانِهِ قَدْ وَصَلَ إلَی قَلْبِی.

وَاسْتَشْهَدَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ جَماعَهً مِنَ الْمُسْلِمینَ فِی قَوْلِ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ

‘Ali (a.s) called to witness a group of Muslims about the Holy Prophet’s saying “Whomever I am the master, ‘Ali is his master too.” This group of people among whom was Anas ibn Malik testified the truthfulness of the saying. Although Anas had heard if from the Holy Prophet (S), he refused to testify it. Amir al-Mu’minin said to him: Why did you not testify while what they heard from the Holy Prophet and testified, you have also heard. Anas said: As a result of old age, I am afflicted with oblivion. Hence I do not remember anything! ‘Ali who knew Anas was lying and the reason he denied it was his close ties with the rulers, raised his hands in prayer, heaved a sigh, cursed him, saying: O Lord! If this man is lying, strike a blow on his face in a way even his turban cannot cover it. Following this prayer, Talhah ibn Umar reports: By God, I observed the spot on his forehead and cheeks which remained forever.(1)

Imam ‘Ali also cursed a man by the name of ‘Aizar who was suspicious of being a spy

p: 114


1- Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. 4, pp. 74

and gathering information for Mu’awiyah. Addressing him, ‘Ali asked: Why do you report to Mu’awiyah what is happening here? The man denied, swearing that he had not done so. ‘Ali raised his hands in prayer, saying to him: If you are not truthful in what you say, and deny the truth, may God strike you blind. Soon before the following Friday, he became blind as a result of ‘Ali’s curse in a way they brought him to the mosque while taking his hand.

‘Ali who was preaching a sermon on the pulpit, said: I am a servant of Allah and the brother of His messenger; I have the honor of marrying the Lady of paradise; I am leader of the believers and the successor of the last prophet. No one can boast of it except me and whoever has such a claim will be saddened by God Almighty. Amid this, a man from the tribe of ‘Abs rose up, protested what ‘Ali had said, and mockingly said: Who is there who cannot have such a claim? I now say that I am the servant of Allah and the brother of His messenger while I am not afflicted with any distress. He had hardly finished his words when insanity afflicted him and he started trembling all over. He was then pulled out of the mosque from his feet.

Another prayer of ‘Ali, answered was when he asked God to return the sun which was setting to a position he could perform his prayer.

p: 115

This happened twice for ‘Ali, once at the time of the Holy Prophet (S) and the other after his departure from this world.(1)

وَآلِهِ: مَنْ کُنْتُ مَوْلاهُ فَعَلِیٌّ مَوْلاهُ، فَشَهِدوا لَهُ وَأَنَسُ بْنُ مَالِکٍ حاضِرٌ لَمْ یَشْهَدْ. فَقالَ لَهُ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: مَا یَمْنَعُکَ أَنْ تَشْهَدَ؟ فَقَدْ سَمِعْتَ مَا سَمِعوا. فَقالَ: یَا أمِیرَ المُؤْمِنِینَ، کَبُرْتُ وَنَسِیتُ.

فَقالَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: اللَّهُمَّ إنْ کَانَ کاذِباً فَاضْرِبْهُ بِبَیاضٍ لاَ تُوارِیِه العِمَامَهُ. قَالَ طَلْحَهُ بْنُ عُمَرَ: فَأَشْهَدُ بِاللهِ لَقَدْ رَأَیْتُها بَیْضاءَ بَیْنَ عَیْنَیْهِ. وَدَعا عَلَی العَیْزارِ وَقَدِ إتُّهِمَ بِرَفْعِ أخْبارِهِ إلَی مُعاوِیَهَ فَجَحَدَ وَأحْلَفَ. فَقالَ: إنْ کُنْتَ کَاذِباً فَأَعْمَی اللهُ بَصَرَکَ.

فَما دَارَتِ الجُمُعَهُ حَتَّی خَرَجَ أعْمَی یُقادُ قَدْ أذْهَبَ اللهُ بَصَرَهُ. وَخَطَبَ عَلَی المِنْبَرِ فَقالَ: أنَا عَبْدُ اللهِ وَأَخو رَسُولِهِ، وَرِثْتُ نِبِیَّ الرَّحْمَهِ وَنَکَحْتُ سَیِّدَهَ نِسَاءِ أهْلِ الجَنَّهِ. وَأنَا سَیِّدُ المُؤْمِنِینَ وَآخِرُ أَوْصِیَاءِ النَّبِیِّینَ. لاَ یَدَّعِی ذَلِکَ غَیْری إلاَّ أَصَابَهُ اللهُ بِسُوءٍ. فَقالَ رَجَلٌ مِنْ عَبْسٍ کَانَ جَالِساً بَیْنَ یَدَیِ القَوْمِ: وَمَنْ لاَ یُحْسِنُ أنْ یَقولُ هَذَا؟ أنَا عَبْدُ اللهِ وَأَخُو رَسُولِهِ! فَلَمْ یَبْرَحْ مَکانَهُ حَتَّی تَخَبَّطَهُ الشَّیْطانُ. فَجُرَّ بِرِجْلِهِ إلَی بَابِ المَسْجِدِ. وَدَعَا فَرُدَّتْ عَلَیْهِ الشَّمْسُ مَرَّتَیْنِ:

إحْداهُما فِی زَمَنِ الرَّسُولِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ:

Asma bint Umays, Ummu-Salamah, Jabir ibn Abdullah Ansari, Abu-Sa’id Khidri and a group of the companions have reported: The Holy Prophet (S) was at home and ‘Ali was in his presence. At this time, Gabriel came down to convey a divine message to the Holy Prophet (S). While the Holy Prophet was receiving the message, he had put his head on ‘Ali’s knees.

This state continued till sunset. ‘Ali who

p: 116


1- Fara’id al-Simtayn, vol. 1, pp. 227

had not performed afternoon prayer had to perform his prayer in a sitting position by hints, given that the Holy Prophet’s head was on his knees. Following the revelation, the Holy Prophet said: O ‘Ali, have you missed the afternoon prayer? ‘Ali said: No, I did it by hints. The Holy Prophet said: Why? ‘Ali said: Because you were receiving the revelation and I did not like any change to take place in that situation.

Considering ‘Ali’s courtesy and his respect for revelation and prophethood, the Holy Prophet said: O ‘Ali, call on the Lord to return the sun to the Asr Prayer time so that you will perform your prayer at its proper time. Be sure, God will not delay answering your prayer for being so obedient to God and His messenger. ‘Ali did so on the order of the Holy Prophet and the sun which was setting returned immediately to the position of Asr Prayer. When ‘Ali completed his prayer, the sun set in the same position.(1)

As for the second time, it was after the departure of the Holy Prophet from this world. When Imam ‘Ali intended to go through the Euphrates River to the land of Babylon, a large number of his aides were preparing themselves to go through the river. Only ‘Ali and a few number of his army had performed their Asr prayer.

They had not gone through the river when the sun set. So some of his aides missed their prayer and thus were deprived of

p: 117


1- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 346

the virtue of congregational prayer. They spoke to Imam ‘Ali expressing their regret for having defaulted their prayer and being deprived of congregational prayer. Hearing this, ‘Ali raised his hands in prayer called on God to return the sun to the Asr prayer time. Imam ‘Ali’s prayer was answered, that is the sun returned to Asr prayer time till the Imam’s companions performed their prayer. This scene made the Imam’s aides rejoice and they started glorifying the Lord and asking for forgiveness.(1)

رَوَتْ أسْماءُ بِنْتُ عُمَیْسٍ وَأُمُّ سَلَمَهَ وَجابِرُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللهِ الأنْصارِیُّ وَأَبو سَعِیدٍ الخِدْرِیُّ وَجَماعَهٌ مِنَ الصَّحَابَهِ أنَّ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ کَانَ ذَاتَ یَوْمٍ فِی مَنْزِلِهِ وَعَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ بَیْنَ یَدَیْهِ إذْ جَاءَهُ جِبْریلُ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ یُناجِیهِ عَنِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجلَّ. فَلَمَّا تَغَشَّاهُ الوَحْیُ تَوَسَّدَ فَخِذَ أمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. فَلَمْ یَرْفَعْ رَأْسَهُ حَتَّی غَابَتِ الشَّمْسُ. فَاضْطُرَّ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ لِذَلِکَ إلَی صَلاهِ العَصْرِ جَالِساً یُومِئُ بِرُکُوعِهِ وَسُجودِهِ إیماءً. فَلَمَّا أَفاقَ مِنْ غُشْیَتِهِ قَالَ لأمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: أَفاتَتْکَ صَلاهُ العَصْرِ؟ قَالَ لَهُ: لَمْ أَسْتَطِعْ أنْ أُصَلِّیَها قائِماً لِمَکانِکَ یَا رَسولَ اللهِ وَالحَالَهِ الَّتِی کُنْتَ عَلَیْها فِی اسْتِماعِ الوَحْیِ. فَقالَ لَهُ، أُدْعُ اللهَ تَعالَی حَتَّی یَرُدَّ عَلَیْکَ الشَّمْسَ حَتَّی تُصَلِّیها قائِماً فِی وَقْتِها کَما فاتَتْکَ، فَإنَّ اللهَ یُجیبُکَ لِطاعَتِکَ للهِ وَلِرَسولِهِ. فَسَأَلَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجلَّ فِی رَدِّ الشَّمْسِ فَرُدَّتْ عَلَیْهِ حَتَّی صارَتْ فِی مَوْضِعِها مِنَ السَّماءِ وَقْتَ صَلاهِ العَصْرِ. فَصَلّی أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ صَلاهَ العَصْرِ فِی وَقْتِها ثُمَّ غَرُبَتْ.

والثَّانِیَهُ بَعْدَ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ:

لَمَّا أرَادَ أنْ یَعْبُرَ الفُراتَ بِبابِلَ اشْتَغَلَ

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1- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 3, chap. 76

کَثیرٌ مِنَ الصَّحابَهِ بِتَعْبیرِ دَوابِّهِمْ وَرِحالِهِمْ وَصَلَّی عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ بِنَفْسِهِ فِی طَائِفَهٍ مَعَهُ العَصْرَ. فَلَمْ یَفْرُغِ النَّاسُ مِنْ عُبورِهِمْ حَتَّی غَرُبَتِ الشَّمْسُ فَفاتَتِ الصَّلاهُ کَثیراً مِنْهُمْ وَفاتَ الجُمْهورُ فَضْلَ الاجْتِماعِ مَعَهُ، فَتَکَلَّموا فِی ذَلِکَ. فَلَمَّا سَمِعَ کَلامَهَمْ فِیهِ سَأَلَ اللهَ تَعالَی رَدَّ الشَّمْسِ عَلَیْهِ لِیَجْمَعَ کافَّهَ أصْحابِهِ عَلَی صَلاهِ العَصْرِ فِی وَقْتِها. فَأَجابَهُ اللهُ تَعالَی إلَی رَدِّها عَلَیْهِ وَکانَتْ فِی الأُفُقِ عَلَی الحَالِ الَّتِی تَکونُ عَلَیْها وَقْتَ العَصْرِ. فَلَمَّا سَلَّمَ القَوْمُ غابَتِ الشَّمْسُ فَسُمِعَ لَهَا وَجیبٌ شَدیدٌ، فَهالَ النَّاسَ ذَلِکَ وَأَکْثَروا مِنَ التَّسْبیحِ وَالتَّقْدیسِ وَالتَّهْلیلِ وَالاسْتِغْفارِ.

وَلَمَّا زادَ الْمَاءُ فِی الکُوفَهِ وَخافَ أهْلُها مِنَ الغَرَقِ فَزِعوا إلَی أمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ.

When the river Euphrates overflew and the city of Kufah was exposed to flood, the inhabitants of the city, from fear of drowning, took refuge with Imam ‘Ali, beseechingly asking him to raise his hands in prayer. He mounted the Holy Prophet’s special horse and being accompanied by people went to the bank of Euphrates, where he dismounted, performed ablution, turned to Kiblah and stood for prayer. People, who were looking on, saw him raising his hands in supplication after having performed his prayer.

Relying on the stick he had in hand, he struck the water on the surface, saying: Stop overflowing with the permission of the Lord. Water in river subsided on Imam ‘Ali’s order, to the extent that fishes could be seen. Amid this, most of the fishes hailed the leader of the believers except some of them which were silent and did not say anything. They were eels and

p: 119

two other kinds. People were surprised by hail of some and silence of others and asked the reason. Imam ‘Ali (a.s) said: Those fishes which God made to speak and hail me are pure and eating them is lawful (Halal) and those which were silent, were impure the eating of which is unlawful (Haram) for people. Hence, they must be avoided.(1)

‘Ali’s Good Temper

Beyond doubt, Imam ‘Ali’s good temper was superior to all people in a way that his enemies and his friends recognized his humor which was motivated by his good temper.

One night, Imam ‘Ali came across a poor widow whose small children were weeping. This scene greatly impressed Imam ‘Ali’s kind heart, for the woman, to keep her hungry children calm, had put a pot of water on the fire. Being informed of this, Amir al-Mu’minin went along with Qanbar to her house, putting some dates, oil and bread in a basket and carried them on his shoulder.

Qanbar said: O master! Let me do this work! Imam ‘Ali said: I deserve more to carry food for the poor. Reaching the house of the woman, Imam ‘Ali asked permission of the woman to enter. The door was opened. Imam ‘Ali personally undertook to prepare the food. So, he put some water, rice and oil in the pot and waited for the food to be cooked. When it was ready, he called the children for eating.

The children were happily engaged in eating the food. To amuse them after eating, Imam ‘Ali started

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1- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 348

imitating the bleating of lambs, making them laugh. Qanbar, who was witnessing the scene, said: O my master, I saw a strange scene from you which was imitating the bleating of lambs. Carrying the food was certainly aimed at winning God’s pleasure, nearness to Him and a reward in the hereafter. Imam ‘Ali said: When we entered the old woman’s house, her children were crying from hunger. I intended to make them happy in addition to feeding them. I found no way better than that for making them happy.

فَرَکِبَ بَغْلَهَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَخَرَجَ والنَّاسُ مَعَهُ حَتَّی أَتی شاطِئَ الفُراتِ فَنَزَلَ عَلَیْهِ فَأَسْبَغَ الوُضوءَ وَصَلّی مُنْفَرِدا بِنَفْسِهِ وَالنَّاسُ یَرَوْنَهُ. ثُمَّ دَعا اللهَ بِدَعَواتٍ سَمِعَها أکْثَرُهُمْ. ثُمَّ تَقَدَّمَ إلَی الفُراتِ فَتَوَکّأَ عَلَی قَضیبٍ بِیَدِهِ حَتَّی ضَرَبَ بِهِ صَفْحَهَ المَاءِ وَقالَ: أُنْقُصْ بِإِذْنِ اللهِ وَمَشِیَّتِهِ. فَغاضَ المَاءُ حَتَّی بَدَتِ الحِیتانُ فِی قَعْرِ الفُراتِ. فَنَطَقَ کَثیرٌ مِنْهَا بِالسَّلامِ عَلَیْهِ بِإمْرَهِ المُؤْمِنِینَ وَلَمْ یَنْطِقْ مِنْهَا أصْنافٌ مِنَ السُّموکِ وَهِیَ الجِرِّیُّ وَالمارْماهِی والزُّمَّارُ. فَتَعَجَّبَ النَّاسُ لِذَلِکَ وَسَأَلوهُ عِلَّهَ نُطْقِ مَا نَطَقَ وَصَمْتِ مَا صَمَتَ. فَقالَ: أُنْطِقَ لِی مَا طَهُرَ مِنَ السُّموکِ وَأُصْمِتَ عَنّی مَا حُرِّمَهُ وَنُجِّسَهُ وَبُعِّدَهُ.

فِی حُسْنِ الخُلُقِ:

لاَ خِلافَ بَیْنَ العُقَلاءِ فِی أنَّ أمِیرَ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلِیَّ بْنَ أَبِی طالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ أشْرَفُ النَّاسِ خُلُقاً. حَتَّی أنَّهُ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ نُسِبَ إلَی الدُّعابَهِ لِطیبِ أخْلاقِهِ وَلُطْفِ سیرَتِهِ مَعَ أصْحابِهِ. رُوِیَ أنَّهُ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ اجْتازَ لَیْلَهً عَلَی امْرَأَهٍ مِسْکینَهٍ لَهَا أَطْفالٌ صِغارٌ یَبْکونَ مِنَ الجُوعِ وَهِیَ تُشاغِلُهُمْ وَتُلْهیهِمْ حَتَّی یَناموا، وَکانَتْ قَدْ أشْعَلَتْ ناراً تَحْتَ قِدْرٍ فِیهَا ماءٌ لاَ غَیْرَ، وَأوْهَمَتْهُمْ أنَّ فِیهَا طَعاماً

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تَطْبُخُهُ لَهُمْ. فَعَرَفَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ حالَها فَمَشی وَمَعَهُ قَنْبَرُ إلَی مَنْزِلِهِ فَأَخْرَجَ قَوْصَرَهَ تَمْرٍ وَجَرابَ دَقیقٍ وَشَیْئاً مِنَ الشَّحْمِ وَالأرُزِّ وَالخُبْزِ، وَحَمَلَهُ عَلَی کَتِفِهِ الشِّریفِ. فَطَلَبَ قَنْبَرُ حَمْلَهُ فَلَمْ یَفْعَلْ. فَلَمَّا وَصَلَ إلَی بابِ المَرْأَهِ اسْتَأْذَنَ عَلَیْها فَأَذِنَتْ لَهُ فِی الدُّخولِ. فَرَمی شَیْئاً مِنَ الأرُزِّ فِی القِدْرِ وَمَعَهُ شَیْءٌ مِنَ الشَّحْمِ، فَلَمَّا فَرَغَ مِنْ نُضْجِهِ غَرَفَ لِلصِّغارِ وَأَمَرَهُمْ بِأَکْلِهِ. فَلَمَّا شَبِعوا أَخَذَ یَطوفُ فِی البَیْتِ وَیُبَعْبِعُ لَهُمْ فَأَخَذوا فِی الضَّحِکِ. فَلَمَّا خَرَجَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ لَهُ قَنْبَرُ: یَا

Dirar ibn Damarah reports: Following the martyrdom of Amir al-Mu’minin, I headed for Syria to see Mu’awiyah. Knowing that I was a devotee of Imam ‘Ali, Mu’awiyah said: Describe ‘Ali for me. I said: accept my excuse, for my tongue cannot possibly describe him. Mu’awiyah said: Your excuse is not accepted. You have to describe him to me. I said: Now that you refuse to accept my excuse, listen carefully!

‘Ali was sharp-sighted, prudent, powerful, and strong in the way of Allah. What he said was a criterion to distinguish between what was just and unjust. His judgments were fair. He was abounding in knowledge. Wisdom was evident in all dimensions of his character. His intuition satiated those who had a thirst for it.

He feared the ornaments of the world. He was devoted to the nightly supplications. Pondering on the tumultuous future made him cry ceaselessly. Wearing coarse garment was pleasant for him. He loved plain food. He was not pretentious but was like one of us. If we had any question,

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we would pose it to him and he would immediately answer it. If we asked for any help, he would immediately help us.

Although he was very intimate, he was so awesome that we would never dare to say anything in vain. He was so dignified that we would never open our eyes on his face. He honored people of religion and pleased the poor by fondling them. No man of authority dared to misuse his power in his presence so as to get his approval for the unjust act he had done. No common man was made disappointed by his justice, thinking that since he had no power, he would be deprived of his justice.

Dirar ibn Damarah then said: I take God as witness that in the middle of night and also when the stars were about to disappear, I saw him holding his beard in his hands, and like one bitten by a snake, he wept bitterly, saying: O world, go and deceive someone else, for I am not fond of you. Nevertheless, if you are offering yourself to me, you are quite mistaken, for I have divorced you three times, giving you no chance of recourse. O world, know that your life is short, your worth little and your pleasure transient.

مَوْلایَ، رَأَیْتُ اللَّیْلَهَ شَیْئاً عَجیباً، قَدْ عَلِمْتُ سَبَبَ بَعْضِهِ وَهُوَ حَمْلُکَ الزَّادَ طَلَباً لِلثَّوابِ. أمَّا طَوافُکَ فِی البَیْتِ عَلَی یَدَیْکَ وَرِجْلَیْکَ وَالبَعْبَعَهُ فَما أدْرِی سَبَبَ ذَلِکَ. فَقالَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: یَا قَنْبَرُ إنّی دَخَلْتُ عَلَی هَؤلاءِ الأطْفالِ وَهُمْ

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یَبْکونَ مِنْ شِدَّهِ الجُوعِ فَأَحْبَبْتُ أَنْ أَخْرُجَ عَنْهُمْ وَهُمْ یَضْحَکونَ مَعَ الشَّبْعِ، فَلَمْ أَجِدْ سَبَباً سِوَی مَا فَعَلْتُ.

وَقالَ ضِرارُ بْنُ ضَمَرَهَ: دَخَلْتُ عَلَی مُعاوِیَهَ بَعْدَ قَتْلِ أمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ، فَقالَ: صِفْ لِی عَلِیَّاً. فَقُلْتُ: إعْفِنِی. فَقالَ: لاَ بُدَّ أَنْ تَصِفَهُ.

فَقُلْتُ: أمَّا إذْ لاَ بُدَّ مِنْ ذَلِکَ، فَإنَّهُ کَانَ وَاللهِ بَعیدَ الْمَدَی، شَدیدَ الْقِوَی، یَقولُ فَصْلاً، وَیَحْکُمُ عَدْلاً، یَتَفَجَّرُ العِلْمُ مِنْ جَوانِبِهِ، وَتَنْطِقُ الحِکْمَهُ مِنْ نَواحِیهِ، یَسْتَوْحِشُ مِنَ الدُّنْیَا وَزَهْرَتِهَا، وَیَأْنَسُ بِاللَّیْلِ وَوَحْشَتِهِ، غَزیرَ العَبْرَهِ، طَویلَ الفِکْرَهِ، یُقَلِّبُ کَفَّهُ، وَیُخاطِبُ نَفْسَهُ، وَیُناجی رَبَّهُ، یُعْجِبُهُ مِنَ اللِّباسِ مَا خَشُنَ وَمِنَ الطَّعامِ مَا جَشُبَ، وَکَانَ فینا کَأَحَدِنَا، یُجیبُنا إذَا سَأَلْناهُ، وَیَأْتینا إذَا دَعَوْناهُ، وَنَحْنُ وَاللهِ مَعَ تَقَرُّبِهِ لَنا وَقُرْبِهِ مَنَّا لاَ نَکادُ نُکَلِّمُهُ هَیْبَهٍ لَهُ، یُعَظِّمُ أهْلَ الدِّین، وَیُقَرِّبُ المَساکِینَ، لاَ یَطْمَعُ القَوِیُّ فِی باطِلِهِ، وَلا یَیْأَسُ الضَّعیفُ مِنْ عَدْلِهِ.

فَأَشْهَدُ لَقَدْ رَأَیْتُهُ فِی بَعْضِ مَواقِفِهِ وَقَدْ أَرْخَی اللَّیْلُ سُدولَهُ وَغارَتْ نُجومُهُ وَهُوَ قائِمٌ فِی مِحْرابِهِ قَابِضاً عَلَی لِحْیَتِهِ یَتَمَلْمَلُ تَمَلْمُلَ السَّلیمِ وَیَبْکی بُکاءَ الْحَزینِ وَیَقولُ: یَا

Then he heaved a sigh, saying: Woe to little provision, long journey and a path full of horror. Hearing this, Mu’awiyah was deeply impressed and started weeping. Those who were present burst into tears and wept. Then Mu’awiyah said: May God bless you Abul Hasan ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib. He is the very same you described, but Dirar, to what extent is your sorrow for ‘Ali? Dirar said: the sorrow of a woman whose child is beheaded in his lap, for neither her eyes become dry of tear nor her sorrows will come to an end.(1)

‘Ali’s Forbearance

Beyond doubt, Imam

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1- Hilyat al-Awliya’, vol. 1, pp. 84

‘Ali was more patient and forbearing than all people. The best proof is the fact that he was deprived of his right and an unjust rule was imposed on him. Nevertheless, he adopted patience and restrained his anger.

Abu-Ayyub Ansari has been quoted as saying: The Messenger of Allah was afflicted with a little illness. Lady Fatimah went to visit her father. Finding her father ill and weak, she started weeping in a way that her tears dropped on the earth. To remove sorrows from his daughter, the Holy Prophet said: My dear daughter, one of God’s blessing bestowed upon you is that on the order of the Lord, I married you to one who was foremost in Islam, the most knowledgeable, and the most patient and forbearing man. God Almighty whose knowledge encompasses everything chose me as being worthy of prophethood, giving me the honor of a divine mission and with another grace, chose your husband ordering to me to give you in marriage to ‘Ali and appointing him as my successor.(1)

Imam ‘Ali’s Physical Excellence and Superiority

‘Ali’s Worship

It is evident to everyone that Imam ‘Ali was the most pious of his time. He has left behind a heritage of night prayers and supplications. He was so devoted in his prayer that he did not pay attention to anything but Allah. He was detached from the world and so absorbed in Allah that he did not feel the pains. Once he was hit with a lance in the leg in one of the battles and

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1- Manaqib, chap. 9, Hadith. 11, pp. 62

no one was able to pull the lance out of his leg because of much pain. It was decided to do so when he was in his prayer. They knew that only in prayer, ‘Ali’s spirit took distance from his body making him not feel the pain.(1)

دُنْیَا غُرِّی غَیْرِی! أَبِی تَعَرَّضْتِ أَمْ إلَیَّ تَشَوَّقْتِ! هَیْهاتَ هَیْهاتَ! قَدْ تُبْتُکِ ثَلاثاً لاَ رَجْعَهَ فِیهَا؛ فَعُمْرُکِ قَصیرٌ، وَخَطَرُکِ کَثیرٌ، وَعَیْشُکِ حَقیرٌ. آهٍ مِنْ قِلَّهِ الزَّادِ وَبُعْدِ السَّفَرِ وَوَحْشَهِ الطَّریقِ. فَبَکی مُعاوِیَهُ وَقالَ: رَحِمَ اللهُ أَبَا الحَسَنِ، کَانَ وَاللهِ کَذَلِکَ. فَما حُزْنُکَ عَلَیْهِ یَا ضِرارُ؟ قَالَ: حُزْنُ مَنْ ذُبِحَ وَلَدُها فِی حِجْرِها، فَلا تَرْقی عَبْرَتُها وَلا یَسْکُنُ حُزْنُها. فِی الْحِلْمِ:

لاَ خِلافَ فِی أنَّ عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ کَانَ أَحْلَمَ النَّاسِ. فَإنَّهُ أُخِذَ حَقُّهُ وَقُهِرَ عَلَیْهِ وَمُنِعَ مِنْ مَرْتَبَتِهِ وَصَبَرَ عَلَی ذَلِکَ وَکَظَمَ الغَیْظَ وَحَلِمَ.

وَرَوی صَاحِبُ المَناقِبِ عَنْ أَبِی أیُّوبٍ الأنْصارِیِّ: أنَّ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ مَرِضَ مَرَضَهُ فَأَتَتْهُ فَاطِمَهُ عَلَیْها السَّلامُ تَعودُهُ. فَلَمَّا رَأَتْ مَا بِرَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ مِنَ الجَهْدِ وَالضَّعْفِ إسْتَعْبَرَتْ فَبَکَتْ حَتَّی سالَتِ الدُّموعُ عَلَی خَدَّیْها. فَقالَ لَهَا رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: یَا فَاطِمَهُ إنَّ لِکَرامَهِ اللهِ إیَّاکِ زَوَّجْتُکِ مِنْ أقْدَمِهِمْ سِلْماً وَأَکْثَرِهِمْ عِلْماً وَأَعْظَمِهِمْ حِلْماً. إنَّ اللهَ تَعالَی إطَّلَعَ إلَی أهْلِ الأَرْضِ إطِّلاعَهً فَاخْتارَنِی مِنْهُمْ فَبَعَثَنِی نَبِیَّاً مُرْسَلاً. ثُمَّ إطَّلَعَ إطِّلاعَهً فَاخْتارَ مِنْهُمْ بَعْلَکِ، فَأَوْحَی إلَیَّ أنْ أُزَوِّجَهُ إیَّاکِ وَأَتَّخِذَهُ وَصِیَّاً وَأَخاً. فِی الفَضائِلِ البَدَنِیَّهِ:

العِبادَهِ:

وَمِنَ المَعْلومِ عِنْدَ کُلِّ أَحَدٍ أنَّ عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ کَانَ أَعْبَدَ أَهْلِ زَمانِهِ وَمِنْهُ تَعَلَّمَ النَّاسُ صَلاهَ اللَّیْلِ وَالأَدْعِیَهَ الْمَأْثُورَهَ فِیهَا وَالْمُنَاجَاهَ وَالأَدْعِیَهَ فِی الأَوْقاتِ الشَّریفَهِ وَالأَماکِنِ الْمُقَدَّسَهِ. وَبَلَغَ فِی العِبادَهِ إلَی

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1- Hilyat al-Abrar, vol. 1, pp. 321

أَنَّهُ إذَا تَوَجَّهَ إلَی اللهِ تَعالَی فِی صَلاتِهِ تَوَجَّهَ بِکُلِّیَّتِهِ

Imam Sajjad (a.s) used to perform one thousand Rak’ah prayer, tolerating much hardship. If he was benevolently asked not to tolerate this much hardship, he would say: Have a look at the record of prayer of my grandfather Amir al-Mu’minin. After opening the book and looking like one who was unable to do anything, he would put down the book, saying: Who has the merit of ‘Ali in praying? What is my prayer as compared to that of my grandfather, ‘Ali.(1)

Imam Musa ibn Jafar has been quoted as saying: The verse

“You will see them bowing down, prostrating themselves, seeking grace from Allah and pleasure, their marks are in their faces because of the effect of prostration” (48:29)

was revealed in honor and dignity of ‘Ali.(2) Ibn Abbas has been reported as saying: The verse

“And they say: we believe in Allah and in the apostle and we obey” (24:47)

was revealed in honor of ‘Ali.(3)

Mujahid has been quoted as saying: The verse

“And he who brings the truth and accepts it as truth” (39:33)

was revealed in honor of ‘Ali.(4) Imam Baqir (a.s) has been quoted as saying: The verse “and he who brings the truth” was revealed to the Holy Prophet (S) and “accepts it as truth” was revealed in honor of ‘Ali.(5)

Ibn Abbas has been reported as saying: The verse

“and bow down with those who bow down” (2:43)

was exclusively revealed in honor of the Holy Prophet and

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1- Manaqib, ibn Shahr Ashub, vol. 2, pp. 125
2- Shawahid al-Tanzil, vol. 2, pp. 182, Hadith 888
3- Tafsir al-Burhan, vol. 3, pp. 144
4- Manaqib, ibn Maghazili, Hadith 317, pp. 144
5- Tafsir al-Burhan, vol. 4, pp. 76

‘Ali, for they were the first who bowed down.(1)

Imam ‘Ali never abandoned the recommended night prayer even at that most horrible night during Siffin battle, which is called laylat al-harir. One day, Imam ‘Ali was involved in the battle of Siffin, he was closely watching the sun to see when it passes by the middle of sky so as to be prepared for prayer. Ibn Abbas who had him under watch said: O ‘Ali, why are you looking so much at the sun? The Imam said: To perform prayer. Ibn Abbas said: Is this a proper time for performing prayer? Imam ‘Ali said: O Ibn Abbas! What are we fighting these people for? Is it not for performing the prayer that we are fighting them?(2)

وَیَنْقَطِعُ نَظَرُهُ عَنِ الدُّنْیَا حَتَّی أنَّهُ لاَ یُدْرِکُ الأَلَمَ لأَنَّ النُّشَّابَ إذَا أُریدَ إخْراجُهُ مِنْ جَسَدِهِ الشَّریفِ یُتْرَکُ حَتَّی یُصَلّی فَإذَا اشْتَغَلَ بِالصَّلاهِ وَأقْبَلَ عَلَی اللهِ تَعالَی أَخْرَجوا الحَدیدَ مِنْ جَسَدِهِ. وَکَانَ مَوْلانَا زَیْنُ العَابِدینَ صَلَواتُ اللهِ عَلَیْهِ یُصَلّی فِی الیَوْمِ وَاللَّیْلَهِ أَلْفَ رَکْعَهً وَیَدْعو بِصَحیفَهِ أمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ ثُمَّ یَرْمی بِهَا کالْمُتَضَجِّرِ وَیَقُولُ: أنَّی لِی بِعِبادَهِ عَلِیٍّ.

وَکَانَ طَویلَ الرُّکُوعِ وَالسُّجُودِ، کَثیرَ الخُضُوعِ وَالتَّذَلُّلِ فِیهِما.

وَقَدْ رُوِیَ عَنْ مَوْلانا مُوسَی بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ الکاظِمِ عَلَیْهِمَا السَّلام أنَّ قَوْلَهُ تَعالَی: ?تَرَاهُمْ رُکَّعًا سُجَّدًا یَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلاً مِنْ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا سِیمَاهُمْ فِی وُجُوهِهِمْ مِنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِ? نَزَلَ فِی أمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. وَعَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ أنَّ قَوْلَه تَعالَی ?وَیَقُولُونَ سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا? أَنَّها نَزَلَتْ فِی عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. وَعَنِ البَاقِرِ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ أَنَّ قَوْلَهُ تَعالَی ?وَالَّذِی جَاءَ

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1- Shawahid al-Tanzil, vol. 1, pp. 117
2- Hilyat al-Abrar, vol. 1, pp. 321

بِالصِّدْقِ? نَزَلَ فِی مُحَمَّدٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَقَوْلَهُ ?وَصَدَّقَ بِهِ? نَزَلَ فِی عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ.

وَعَنْ مُجاهِدٍ أَنَّ قَوْلَهُ تَعالَی ?وَالَّذِی جَاءَ بِالصِّدْقِ وَصَدَّقَ بِهِ? نَزَلَتْ فِی عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. وَعَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ أَنَّ قَوْلَهُ تَعالَی ?وَارْکَعُوا مَعَ الرَّاکِعِینَ? نَزَلَ فِی رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَعَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ أَفْضَلُ الصَّلاهِ وَالسَّلامِ خَاصَّهً. وَهُما أَوَّلُ مَنْ صَلّی وَرَکَعَ. وَلَمْ یَتْرُکْ صَلاهَ اللَّیْلِ قَطُّ حَتَّی لَیْلَهَ الْهَریرِ.

وَکَانَ یَوْماً فِی حَرْبِ صِفِّینَ مُشْتَغِلاً بِالْحَرْبِ وَالقِتالِ وَکَانَ مَعَ ذَلِکَ بَیْنَ الصَّفَّیْنِ

Jihad in the Way of Allah

point

Muslims unanimously believe that the pillars of Islam were strengthened by the sword of ‘Ali. In this relation, no one preceded him nor did anyone reach his position after him. He was courageous and valorous in the battlefields, Allah’s sword and remover of sorrow from the face of the Holy Prophet (S) in a way he amazed the angels in attacking the atheists. After the departure of the Holy Prophet (S) from this world, Imam ‘Ali went through trials the most important of which were fighting the breakers of promise (the companions of camel), the deviators (Mu’awiyah and his aides), and apostates (those fighting ‘Ali in Nahrawan), but Imam ‘Ali was victorious and reached the highest position.

Ahmad ibn Hanbal reports: Hasan ibn ‘Ali, following the martyrdom of his father, preached a sermon among people, saying: O people, yesterday, a man departed from among you who had no peer in knowledge in the past nor will have in the future, for he was the foremost. My grandfather, the Messenger of Allah repeatedly entrusted the standard of

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Islam to him. Gabriel safeguarded him on the right side and Michael safeguarded him on the left side from the harms of enemy. He never backed down in the battlefield till he achieved victory.(1)

Wahidi reports: ‘Ali, Abbas and Talhah were engaged in self-glorying. Talhah said: What a better honor is there for me than having the key of God’s House and its opening on my order! Abbas said: It is an honor for me to provide the Hajj pilgrims with the water of ZamZam which is solely at my disposal! ‘Ali said: I have no idea of what you are speaking about. But I started to worship Allah six month before other people. I had an active participation in the battlefields in a way God Almighty states:

“What! Do you make one who undertakes the giving of drink to the pilgrims and the guarding of the sacred mosque like him who believes in Allah and the latter day and strives hard in Allah’s way? They are not equal with Allah; and Allah does not guide the unjust people. Those who believed and fled their homes, and strove hard in Allah’s way with their property and their souls, are much higher in rank with Allah; and those are they who are the achievers of their objects.” (9:19-20)

God Almighty revealed this verse in judgment among them and in honor of ‘Ali, praising his pride in terms of faith, immigration and fighting in the way of God.(2)

یُراقِبُ الشَّمْسَ. فَقالَ لَهُ ابن عَبَّاسٍ: یَا

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1- Musnad, vol. 1, pp. 199
2- Asbab al-Nuzul, pp. 139

أمِیر المُؤْمِنِینَ مَا هَذَا الفعل؟ فَقالَ: انظر إلَی الزوال حَتَّی نصلی. فَقالَ لَهُ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ: هَلْ هَذَا وَقْتُ صَلاهٍ؟ إنَّ عِنْدَنا لَشُغْلاً بِالقِتالِ عَنِ الصَّلاهِ. فَقالَ لَهُ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: فَعَلَی مَا نُقاتِلُهُمْ؟ إنَّما نُقاتِلُهُمْ عَلَی الصَّلاهِ. فِی الجِهادِ:

لاَ خِلافَ بَیْنَ المُسْلِمینَ کافَّهً أنَّ الدِّین إنَّما تَمَهَّدَتْ قَواعِدُهُ وَتَشَیَّدَتْ أرْکانُهُ بِسَیْفِ مَوْلانا أمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ علیهِ أَفضَلُ الصَّلاهِ والسَّلامِ لَمْ یَسْبِقْهُ فِی ذَلِکَ سابِقٌ وَلا لَحِقَهُ لاحِقٌ. کَانَ رابِطَ الْجَأْشِ قَوِیَّ الْبَأْسِ سَیْفَ اللهِ وَکاشِفَ الْکُرَبِ عَنْ وَجْهِ رَسُولِ اللهِ. تَعَجَّبَتِ الْمَلائِکَهُ مِنْ حَمْلاتِهِ عَلَی الْمُشْرِکینَ وَابْتُلِیَ بِجِهادِ الْکُفَّارِ وَالْمَارِقینَ وَالْقَاسِطینَ وَالنَّاکِثینَ.

رَوَی أحْمَدُ بْنُ حَنْبَلٍ فِی مُسْنَدِهِ قَالَ: خَطَبَ الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِمَا السَّلامُ فَقالَ: لَقَدْ فارَقَکُمْ بِالأَمْسِ رَجُلٌ لَمْ یَسْبِقْهُ الأَوَّلُونَ بِعِلْمٍ وَلا یُدْرِکُهُ الآخِرونَ. کَانَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَبْعَثُهُ بِالرَّایَهِ، جِبْریلُ عَنْ یَمِینِهِ وَمِیکائِیلُ عَنْ شِمالِهِ، لاَ یَنْصَرِفُ حَتَّی یُفْتَحَ لَهُ. وَنَقَلَ الواحِدِیُّ قَالَ: إنَّ عَلِیّاً وَالعَبَّاسَ وَطَلْحَهَ افْتَخَروا. فَقالَ طَلْحَهُ: أنَا صَاحِب البَیْتِ بِیَدی مِفْتاحُهُ. وَقالَ العَبَّاسُ: أنَا صَاحِبُ السِّقایَهِ وَالقائِمُ عَلَیْها. وَقالَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: مَا أَدْری مَا تَقُولانِ، لَقَدْ صَلَّیْتُ سِتَّهَ أشْهُرٍ قَبْلَ النَّاسِ وَأنَا صَاحِبُ الْجِهادِ. فَأَنْزَلَ اللهُ تَعَالَی: ?أَجَعَلْتُمْ سِقَایَهَ الْحَاجِّ وَعِمَارَهَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ کَمَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْیَوْمِ الآخِرِ

Battle of Badr

What is Badr? Abu’l-Yaq¨an says: Badr is the name of a man of Ghifar, the tribe of Abu-Dharr Ghifari.(1) Shi’bi says: Badr is the name of a well attributed to a man called Badr.(2) The battle of Badr was the most horrific among the other battles, the first trial of Muslims, and the one taking place vehemently between the Holy Prophet and the

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1- Jandab ibn Janadah Ghifari, companion of the holy prophet
2- Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 19, pp. 218

atheists of Quraysh.

God Almighty states about the trial of Muslims:

“Even as your Lord caused you to go forth from your house with the truth, though a party of the believers were surely averse; They disputed with you about the truth after it had become clear, and they went forth as if they were being driven to death while they saw it.” (8:5-6).

This battle happened eighteen months after the immigration of the Holy Prophet (S) to Medina and ‘Ali was twenty seven years old.(1)

The atheists of Quraysh insisted on fighting this battle, for they outnumbered the Muslims, though among them, there were far-sighted men who were not ignorant of the consequences of this battle, had taken part reluctantly, had been forced into the battle and challenged only their peers. The Messenger of Allah too warned his army not to fight them, saying: They only challenge their peers. Hence, the first person who was given mission to fight them was ‘Ali and his match was Walid ibn Utbah, a man of courage and valor but he was killed by ‘Ali after a short fighting.(2) Al-As ibn Sa’id ibn al-As was a man of courage and horror. For this reason, no one was ready to fight him. He too was killed by ‘Ali. (3)

وَجَاهَدَ فِی سَبِیلِ اللَّهِ لاَ یَسْتَوُونَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ لاَ یَهْدِی الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِینَ. الَّذِینَ آمَنُوا وَهَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا فِی سَبِیلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ أَعْظَمُ دَرَجَهً عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَأُوْلَئِکَ هُمْ الْفَائِزُونَ…? إلَی قَوْلِهِ: ?أَجْرٌ عَظِیمٌ? فَصَدَقَ اللهُ عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ

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1- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 182
2- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 183
3- Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 19, pp. 338

فِی دَعْواهُ وَشَهِدَ لَهُ بِالإیمانِ وَالمُهاجَرَهِ وَالجِهادِ. وَغَزَواتُهُ مَشْهورَهُ:

فَفِی غَزاهِ بَدْرٍ: قَالَ أَبُو الیَقْظانِ: إنَّهُ رَجُلٌ مِنْ غِفارٍ رَهْطِ أَبِی ذَرٍّ الغِفارِیِّ. وَقالَ الشِّعْبِیُّ: (بَدْرٌ) بِئْرٌ کَانَتْ لِرَجُلٍ یُسَمّی بَدْراً.

وَهَذِهِ الغَزاهُ هِیَ الدَّاهِیَهُ العُظْمی وَأَوَّلُ حَرْبٍ کَانَ بِهِ الإمْتِحانُ حَیْثُ قَالَ الله تَعالَی: ?کَمَا أَخْرَجَکَ رَبُّکَ مِنْ بَیْتِکَ بِالْحَقِّ وَإِنَّ فَرِیقًا مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِینَ لَکَارِهُونَ. یُجَادِلُونَکَ فِی الْحَقِّ بَعْدَ مَا تَبَیَّنَ کَأَنَّمَا یُسَاقُونَ إِلَی الْمَوْتِ وَهُمْ یَنظُرُونَ.? کَانَتْ عَلَی رَأْسِ ثَمانِیَهَ عَشَرَ شَهْراً مِنْ قُدومِهِ الْمَدینَهَ وَعُمْرُ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ سَبْعَ عَشرَهَ سَنَهً. وَکَانَ الْمُشْرِکونَ قَدْ أَصَرُّوا عَلَی القِتالِ لِکَثْرَتِهِمْ وَقِلَّهِ المُسْلِمینَ، وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ خَرَجَ کارِهاً. فَتَحَدَّتْهُمْ قُرَیْشٌ بِالبِرازِ وَاقْتَرَحَتِ الأَکْفاءَ. فَمَنَعَهُمُ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَقالَ إنَّ القَوْمَ طَلَبوا الأَکْفاءَ. ثُمَّ أَمَرَ عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ یَبْرُزُ إِلَیْهِمْ، فَبارَزَهُ الوَلیدُ بْنُ عُتْبَهَ، وَکَانَ شُجاعاً جَریئاً، فَقَتَلَهُ. وَقَتَلَ العَاصَ بْنَ سَعیدِ بْنِ العاصِ بَعْدَ أنْ أحْجَمَ عَنْهُ النَّاسُ لأَنَّهُ کَانَ هَوْلاً عِظیماً.

Hanzalah ibn Abi-Sufyan too fought ‘Ali but he was killed. ‘Ali injured ibn Adi, too.(1) Then, Nawfal ibn Khuwaylid, who was highly-esteemed and obeyed by people of Quraysh, entered the battle. Nawfal was very clever and a mischief-maker and the one who had tied down Abu-Bakr and Talhah with a rope and had tortured them till he set them free with the mediation of others.(2)

Once the Messenger of Allah found out that Nawfal had taken part in this battle, he raised his hands in prayer, saying: O Lord, eradicate him. Soon, he was killed by Imam ‘Ali in a hand to hand fighting. After Nawfal’s perdition, the Holy Prophet

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1- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 2, chap. 16, pp. 60
2- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 2, chap. 19, pp. 63

said: Who will bring me the news of Nawfal? ‘Ali said: O Messenger of Allah, I killed him. While rejoicing and saying: Allah is the Greatest, the Holy Prophet said: Thanks Lord who answered my prayer.(1)

Imam ‘Ali was in the front line of the battle fighting the atheists of Quraysh and killing them one after the other. In this battle, seventy of Quraysh leaders were killed by ‘Ali and the rest were killed by Muslims and three thousand angels who had taken part in the battle.(2) Following the killing of seventy courageous men of Quraysh, the Holy Prophet (S) threw a handful of small sands on them, saying: May your faces turn ugly thereby they were all defeated and started fleeing.(3)

The Battle of Uhud

The battle of Uhud took place in the month of Shawwal and ‘Ali was hardly nineteen years old then.(4) The battle of Uhud was waged to make up for the defeat of leaders of Quraysh in the battle of Badr. Therefore, they plotted to annihilate Muslims by spending much money and informed Abu-Sufyan of the plot. Abu-Sufyan, after counseling with his aides, decided to besiege Medina in order to kill the Messenger of Allah and his aides.(5) The Holy Prophet (S) was informed of Quraysh’s move, so he exchanged views with his companions and decided that the fighting to take place outside Medina and moved towards Uhud with the Muslims. One third of crowd who were hypocrites returned to Medina, half way. So the Holy Prophet (S) headed for the

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1- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 2, chap. 20, pp. 67
2- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 2, chap. 18, pp. 62
3- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 2, chap. 18, pp. 62
4- Kashf al-Ghummah
5- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 187

place of martyrdom along with seven hundred people. In this relation, God Almighty states:

“And when you did go forth early in the morning from your family to lodge the believers in encampments for war…” (3:121). (1)

وَبَرَزَ إلَیْهِ حَنْظَلَهُ بْنُ أَبِی سُفْیانَ فَقَتَلَهُ.

وَطَعَنَ ابْنَ عَدِیٍّ ثُمَّ نَوْفَلَ بْنَ خُوَیْلِدٍ وَکَانَ مِنْ شَیاطِینِ قُرَیْشٍ وَکانَتْ تُقَدِّمُهُ وَتُعَظِّمُهُ وَتُطیعُهُ وَکَانَ قَدْ قَرَنَ أَبَا بَکْرٍ وَطَلْحَهَ قَبْلَ الْهِجْرَهِ بِمَکَّهَ وَأَوْثَقَهُما بِحَبْلٍ وَعَذَّبَهُما یَوْماً حَتَّی سُئِلَ فِی أَمْرِهِما. وقَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ لَمَّا عَلِمَ بِحُضورِ نَوْفَلٍ بَدْراً قَالَ: اللَّهُمَّ إکْفِنِی نَوْفلاً. فَلَمَّا قَتَلَهُ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ: مَنْ لَهُ عِلْمٌ بِنَوْفَلٍ؟ قَالَ: أنَا قَتَلْتُهُ یَا رَسولَ اللهِ. فَکَبَّرَ وَقالَ: الْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِی أَجابَ دَعْوَتِی فِیهِ.

وَلَمْ یَزَلْ یَقْتُلُ واحِداً بَعْدَ واحِدٍ حَتَّی قَتَلَ نِصْفَ الْمَقْتولینَ وَکانوا سَبْعینَ، وَقَتَلَ الْمُسْلِمونَ کافَّهً وَثَلاثَهُ آلافٍ مِنَ الْمَلائِکَهِ الْمُسَوِّمینَ النِّصْفَ الآخَرَ.

ثُمَّ رَمَی رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ بِکَفٍّ مِنَ الْحَصا وَقالَ: شَاهَتِ الوُجُوهُ. فَانْهَزَموا جَمِیعاً. وَفی غَزاهِ أُحُدٍ: وَکانَتْ فِی شَوَّالٍ وَلَمْ یَبْلُغْ عُمْرُ أَمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ تِسْعَ عَشرَهَ سَنَهً.

وَسَبَبُها أنَّ قُرَیْشاً لَمَّا کُسِروا یَوْمَ بَدْرٍ وَقُتِلَ رُؤَساؤُهُمْ بَذَلوا الأَمْوالَ لإسْتِئْصالِ الْمُؤْمِنینَ. وَتَوَلَّی ذَلِکَ أَبُو سُفْیانَ لِیَقْصُدوا النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَالْمُؤْمِنینَ بِالْمَدینَهِ. وَخَرَجَ النَّبِیُّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فِی جَماعَهٍ مِنَ المُسْلِمینَ فَرَجَعَ قَریبٌ مِنْ ثُلُثِهِمْ إلَی الْمَدینَهِ وَبَقِیَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فِی سَبْعِمِائَهٍ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمینَ. وَقَدْ قَالَ اللهُ تَعالَی: ?وَإِذْ غَدَوْتَ مِنْ أَهْلِکَ تُبَوِّئُ الْمُؤْمِنِینَ مَقَاعِدَ لِلْقِتَالِ…?

The Holy Prophet (S) on that day lodged the encampments, organized then in a long line, appointed fifty men of

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1- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 187

Ansar under the command of a man by the name of Abdullah ibn Umar ibn Khiram to be stationed at the top of the mountain, dangerous for the enemy’s hidden attack, ordering them not to move from their places and to closely watch the enemy’s moves even if all Muslims were killed, for it was a strategic place. If there was any possible attack, it would start from the same place. Therefore, it had to be safeguarded, for the enemy might besiege Muslims from the same position.(1)

The Holy Prophet (S) entrusted the standard of Muslims to ‘Ali. The enemy’s standard bearer was Talhah ibn Abi-Talhah whom they called Kabsh al-Katibah. ‘Ali plucked out his eyes from its sockets with one blow. He made a loud cry and the standard of atheism fell down from his hand. He was then killed and his brother, Mus’ab, carrying the standard on his shoulder prepared himself for fighting but Asim ibn Thabit killed him by throwing an arrow.

Then their male servant whose name was Sawwab and was the most agile and strong picked up the standard and prepared himself for fighting but ‘Ali cut off his right arm with a single blow. Sawwab wielded the standard in his left hand but ‘Ali cut off his left arm too with another blow. When his two arms were cut off, Sawwab stuck the standard on his chest with the help of his remaining arms but ‘Ali struck a blow on his head with his sword,

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1- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 2, chap. 22, pp. 71

making him fall down on the ground and die. Having lost their standard bearers, the enemy was frightened, Muslims who were rejoicing for the enemy’s escape and their victory, were engaged in gathering war booties.(1)

Those Muslims stationed on the order of the Holy Prophet at the top of the mountain overlooking the battle front, seeing the enemy’s defeat and gathering of the was booties, asked their commanders to give them permission to come to the scene of fighting so that they will not be deprived of war booties!

Abdullah said: The Messenger of Allah has ordered me not to move from this place even one step. Therefore, we should not leave our position. They said: You are right. The Holy Prophet’s order was right but he did not know that we could achieve victory so quickly. Hence, they collectively entered the scene to gather war booties, leaving Abdullah by himself! Khalid ibn Walid attacked him from behind and martyred him, attacking the Holy Prophet and his aides from behind. Addressing those who had left their positions, the Holy Prophet said with a sad tone: Here is what you were after! So the enemy in a solid column attacked on Muslims with swords, spears, arrows and stones, launching a hard fighting. Seeing this, the companions of the Holy Prophet gathered around him, trying to protect him from the enemy but seventy Muslims were martyred.(2)

وَکَانَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ صَفَّ الْمُسْلِمینَ صَفّاً طَویلاً وَجَعَلَ عَلَی الشِّعْبِ خَمْسینَ رَجُلاً مِنَ الأَنْصارِ وَأَمَّرَ عَلَیْهِمْ

p: 137


1- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 2, chap. 22, pp. 71
2- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 2, chap. 22, pp. 73

رَجُلاً مِنْهُمْ یُقالُ لَهُ: عَبْدُ اللهِ بْنُ عُمَرَ بْنِ خِرَمٍ. وَقالَ: لاَ تَبْرَحوا مِنْ مَکانِکُمْ وَإنْ قُتِلْنا عَنْ آخِرِنا فَإنَّما نُؤْتَی مِنْ مَوْضِعِکُمْ هَذَا.

وَجَعَلَ لِواءَ الْمُسْلِمینَ بِیَدِ أَمِیرِ الْمُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَلَوْاءُ الکُفَّارِ بِیَدِ طَلْحَهَ بْنِ أَبِی طَلْحَهَ، وَکَانَ یُسَمَّی کَبْشَ الکَتیبَهِ. ضَرَبَهُ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَنَدَرَتْ عَیْنُهُ وَصاحَ صَیحَهً عَظیمَهً وَسَقَطَ اللِّواءُ مِنْ یَدِهِ. فَأَخَذَهُ أخوهُ مُصْعَبٌ فَرَماهُ عاصِمُ بْنُ ثابِتٍ فَقَتَلَهُ. فَأَخَذَهُ عَبْدٌ لَهُمْ اسمُهُ صَوَّابٌ وَکَانَ مِنْ أَشَدِّ النَّاسِ فَقَطَعَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ یَدَهُ الیُمْنَی، فَأَخَذَ اللِّواءَ بِالیُسْری فَقَطَعَها أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ، فَأَخَذَ اللِّواءَ عَلَی صَدْرِهِ وَجَمَعَ عَلَیْهِ یَدَیْهِ وَهُما مَقْطوعَتانِ، فَضَرَبَهُ أمِیرُ الْمُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ عَلَی أُمِّ رَأْسِهِ فَسَقَطَ صَریعاً فَانْهَزَمَ القَوْمُ. وَأَکَبَّ الْمُسْلِمونَ عَلَی الْغَنائِمِ.

وَرَأی أَصْحَابُ الشِّعْبِ النَّاسَ یَغْتَنِمونَ فَخَافُوا فَوْتَ الْغَنیمَهِ فَاسْتَأْذَنوا رَئیسَهُمْ عَبْدَ اللهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ بْنِ خِرَمٍ فِی أَخْذِ الغَنَائِمِ. فَقالَ: إنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ أَمَرَنِی إلاَّ أبْرَحَ مِنْ مَوْضِعی. فَقَالُوا: إنَّهُ قَالَ ذَلِکَ وَهُوَ لاَ یَدْری أنَّ الأَمْرَ یَبْلُغُ مَا تَرَی. وَمَالوا إلَی الغَنائِمِ وَتَرَکُوهُ. فَحَمَلَ عَلَیْهِ خالِدُ بْنُ الوَلیدِ فَقَتَلَهُ. وَجَاءَ مِنْ ظَهْرِ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ

In this battle, ‘Ali remained steadfast, defended the Holy Prophet and his divine mission, and was prepared to sacrifice himself for the Holy Prophet from every side the enemies attacked him. When the Holy Prophet opened his eyes after fainting as a result of the enemy’s brutal attack, he saw no one but ‘Ali, saying: O ‘Ali! What did these people do and where have they gone to? ‘Ali said: O Messenger of Allah! They have broken their promises and

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by escaping from the battle scene, have taken shelter on the mountain! The Holy Prophet (S) said: O ‘Ali, repel this fierce group which attacked me. ‘Ali launched a hard attack, dispersed all of them, and returned to the Holy Prophet. The enemy invaded from another direction but ‘Ali defeated them again with his matchless resistance.(1)

Those how escaped from the scene, though seeing the Holy Prophet was being attacked, remained on the mountain except fourteen of them who returned.(2)

At that time, sad news which was heart-rending spread in Medina and that was the news on the martyrdom of the Holy Prophet (S).(3)

Hind, the daughter of Utbah, who had lost her relatives in the battle of Badr promised Wahshi (a slave) that she would provide him with a great sum of money if he could kill the Holy Prophet, ‘Ali, or Hamzah (the Holy Prophet’s uncle). Accepting the act, Wahshi said: Forget about killing the Prophet, for I can in no way kill him, for he is being circled by his companions. As for ‘Ali, I cannot play any trick to kill him either, for when fighting, he is careful about himself from every side, repelling the enemy’s attack. So I am only hopeful of killing Hamzah, for when he is fighting and angry, he does not see even before himself. Wahshi martyred Hamzah Hind came and ordered to tear Hamzah’s belly and give her his liver. She then lynched his body. His nose and ears were two broken. (4)

عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ

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1- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 2, chap. 22, pp. 73
2- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 2, chap. 22, pp. 74
3- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 2, chap. 22, pp. 74
4- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 2, chap. 22, pp. 74

وَقالَ لأَصْحابِهِ: دُونَکُمْ هَذَا الَّذِی تَطْلُبونَ. فَحَمَلوا عَلَیْهِ حَمْلَهَ رَجُلٍ واحِدٍ ضَرْباً بِالسُّیُوفِ وَطَعْناً بِالرِّمَاحِ وَرَمْیاً بِالنِّبَالِ وَرَضْخاً بِالْحِجَارَهِ. وَجَعَلَ أصْحَابُ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یُقَاتِلونَ عَنْهُ حَتَّی قُتِلَ مِنْهُمْ سَبْعونَ رَجُلاً.

وَثَبَتَ أمِیرُ الْمُؤْمِنِینَ صَلَواتُ اللهِ عَلَیْهِ یَدْفَعُ عَنِ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ. فَفَتَحَ عَیْنَهُ وَکَانَ قَدْ أُغْمِیَ عَلَیْهِ فَنَظَرَ إلَی عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَقالَ: یَا عَلِیُّ، مَا فَعَلَ النَّاسُ؟ فَقالَ: نَقَضُوا العَهْدَ وَوَلَّوُا الدُّبُرَ. فَقالَ: فَاکْفِنِی هَؤلاءِ الَّذینَ قَصَدوا نَحْوی.

فَحَمَلَ عَلَیْهِمْ فَکَشَفَهُمْ. ثُمَّ عَادَ إلَیْهِ وَقَدْ قَصَدُوهُ مِنْ جِهَهٍ أُخْرَی فَکَشَفَهُمْ. وَرَجَعَ مِنَ الْمُنْهَزِمینَ أرْبَعَهَ عَشَرَ رَجُلاً وَصَعَدَ البَاقونَ الْجَبَلَ. وَصاحَ صائِحٌ بِالْمَدِینَهِ: قُتِلَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ. فَانْخَلَعَتِ القُلُوبُ. وَجَعَلَتْ هِنْدُ بِنْتُ عُتْبَهَ لِوَحْشِیٍّ جَعْلاً عَلَی أنْ یَقْتُلَ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ أوْ عَلِیَّاً أوْ حَمْزَهَ. فَقالَ: أمَّا مُحَمَّدُ فَلا حِیلَهَ فِیهِ لأَنَّ أصْحابَهُ یَطُوفونَ بِهِ. وَأمَّا عَلِیٌّ فَإنَّهُ إذَا قَاتَلَ أَحْذَرُ مِنَ الذِّئْبِ. وَأمَّا حَمْزَهُ فَأَطْمَعُ فِیهِ لأَنَّهُ إذَا غَضِبَ لاَ یُبْصِرُ مَا بَیْنَ یَدَیْهِ.

فَقَتَلَهُ وَحْشِیٌّ. وَجاءَتْ هِنْدُ فَأَمَرَتْ بِشَقِّ بَطْنِهِ وَقَطْعِ کَبِدِهِ وَالتَّمْثیلِ بِهِ، فَجَدَعوا أَنْفَهُ وَأُذُنَیْهِ.

In this battle, Gabriel brought the deed of honor of “There is no man more valorous than ‘Ali and there is no sword sharper than Dhu’l-Fiqar” for the great man, ‘Ali and read it with a loud voice to people so that they heard it all.(1)

At this time, Gabriel said: O Messenger of Allah, the angels are surprised at ‘Ali’s self-sacrifice for you and hailed his great help. The Messenger of Allah said: Why they should not be when ‘Ali is from

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1- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 2, chap. 22, pp. 78

me and I am from him. Gabriel took pride in this and said: I am from you too.(1)

The atheists of Quraysh who were killed in the battle of Uhud by ‘Ali’s sword were a great number. Muslims’ final victory and their returning to the Messenger of Allah was due to ‘Ali’s steadfastness and courage in the battlefield.(2)

وَقالَ جِبْریلُ: لاَ سَیْفَ إلاَّ ذُو الفِقارِ وَلا فَتَی إلاَّ عَلِیٌّ.

وَسَمِعَ النَّاسُ کُلُّهُمْ ذَلِکَ. وَقالَ جِبْرِیلُ: یَا رَسولَ اللهِ، قَدْ عَجِبَتِ الْمَلائِکَهُ مِنْ حُسْنِ مُواسَاهِ عَلِیٍّ لَکَ بِنَفْسِهِ. فقَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَا یَمْنَعُهُ مِنْ ذَلِکَ وَهُوَ مِنّی وَأَنا مِنْهُ. فَقالَ جِبْریلُ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: وَأنَا مِنْکُما. وَکَانَ جُمْهورُ قَتْلَی أُحُدٍ مَقْتولِینَ بِسَیْفِ أمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. وَکَانَ الفَتْحُ وَرُجُوعُ النَّاسِ إلَی النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ بِثَباتِ أمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ.

‘Ali’s Courage in the Battle of Khandaq (The Ditch)

In this battle, Quraysh and its collaborators from the family of Kinanah, the inhabitants of Tihamah with ten thousands men as well as the tribe of Ghatafan from Najd rushed to help Quraysh putting Muslims in a corner. The Messenger of Allah who knew their decision beforehand, ordered Muslims to dig a ditch around the city of Medina. Following this act, the sworn enemies of Islam surrounded the city from every side.

In this connection, the Holy Qur’an states:

“…When they came upon you from above you and from below you…” (33:10).

To fight the enemy, the Messenger of Allah rose for defense with three thousand Muslims behind the ditch and within the city. Amid this, the Jews inside the city were

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1- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 2, chap. 22, pp. 76
2- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 2, chap. 23, pp. 81

allied with the atheists so as to defeat the Holy Prophet and Muslims. Hence, the enemy pressured the people of Medina from inside and outside, adding to their worries.

The horse-riders of Quraysh, including Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl and Amr ibn Abd-Wudd who, in their wishful thinking, dreamt of a quick victory stood in the front line, asking for a challenger and declared a hand to hand fighting. Among Muslims, the first man who responded him was ‘Ali, saying: O Messenger of Allah, I am prepared to fight him! The Messenger of Allah said, “He is Amr,” and kept silent. Asking for a challenger for the second time, Amr said: Where is the paradise you promise with martyrdom? Why don’t you come to the field to be martyred and to go to paradise, is there no one to fight me? ‘Ali said: I will fight him. The Holy Prophet, at this time too due to an exigency and to prevent others from saying ‘Ali does not give others any chance and that he acts hastily, said: He is Amr and kept silent.

وَفی غَزاهِ الخَنْدَقِ:

لَمَّا فَرِغَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ مِنْ حَفْرِ الْخَنْدَقِ أَقْبَلَتْ قُرَیْشٌ وَأَتْباعُها مِنْ کِنانَهَ وَأَهْلِ تِهامَهَ فِی عَشَرَهِ آلافٍ وَأَقْبَلَتْ غَطَفانُ وَمَنْ یَتْبَعُها مِنْ أهْلِ نَجْدٍ فَنَزَلوا مِنْ فَوْقِ الْمُسْلِمینَ وَمِنْ أَسْفَلَ مِنْهُمْ. کَمَا قَالَ تَعالَی: ?إِذْ جَاءُوکُمْ مِنْ فَوْقِکُمْ وَمِنْ أَسْفَلَ مِنْکُمْ.? فَخَرَجَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ بالْمُسْلِمینَ وَهُمْ ثَلاثَهُ آلافٍ وَجَعَلوا الْخَنْدَقَ بَیْنَهُمْ. وَاتَّفَقَ الْمُشْرِکُونَ مَعَ الیَهودِ وَاشْتَدَّ الأَمْرُ عَلَی الْمُسْلِمینَ. وَرَکِبَ فَوارِسُ

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مِنْ قُرَیْشٍ مِنْهُمْ عَمْرُو بْنُ عَبْدِ وُدٍّ وَعِکْرِمَهُ بْنُ أَبِی جَهْلٍ. فَقالَ عَمْرٌو: مَنْ یُبارِزُ؟ فَقالَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: أنَا. فَقالَ لَهُ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: إنَّهُ عَمْرٌو. فَسَکَتَ. فَقالَ عَمْرٌو: هَلْ مِنْ مُبارِزٍ؟ أیْنَ جَنَّتُکُمُ الَّتِی تَزْعُمونَ أنَّهُ مَنْ قُتِلَ مِنْکُمْ دَخَلَهَا؟ أَفَلا یَبْرُزُ إلَیَّ رَجُلٌ؟ فَقالَ عَلِیٌّ: أنَا لَهُ یَا رَسولَ

On the third time when Amr boldly cried out: Who is your fighter? Again ‘Ali said: O Messenger of Allah, I will fight him though he is Amr! At this time, the Holy Prophet gave ‘Ali permission to fight, saying: Now Islam in its entirety is standing against atheism in its entirely implying that if ‘Ali achieves victory, Islam will be victorious and if Amr overcomes, then there will be no name of Islam. Addressing Amr after going to the battlefield, ‘Ali said: You have pledged that if a man of Quraysh calls you to two things, you will accept.

Amr said: It is so. ‘Ali said: I invite you first to God, His messenger and Islam. Amr said: Forget it, I will never accept Islam! ‘Ali said: I am on foot, you better dismount your horse so as to fight hand to hand. Amr who was feeling death, out of pity said: O son of my brother! I do not desire to kill you, for you are an honorable man and your father was an old friend of me! ‘Ali said: But by God, I desire to kill you.

Amr was disturbed by these words and

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dismounted his horse. ‘Ali threw him on the ground after an hour of hand to hand fighting ‘Ali killed him and his son too. Seeing this fatal scene, Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl and other atheist took to their heels, leaving the battlefield. God returned their anger back to them, so the enemies found no benefit in continuing the fighting and thus were defeated.(1)

Seeing Amr killed, Umar ibn Khattab said to ‘Ali: He had a good coat of mail, why didn’t you take it off his body for there is no cuirass like it? ‘Ali said: It was not fair to leave him naked on the ground.(2) Abdullah ibn Mas’ud used to recite the verse

“…and Allah sufficed the believers in fighting; and Allah is Strong Mighty” (33:25)

about ‘Ali.(3) Rabi’ah al-Sa’di reports: I went to Hudhayfah ibn Yaman, saying: Whenever I relate a Hadith on the excellence of ‘Ali, the people of Basrah reject us, saying: You are exaggerating and going to extremes about ‘Ali. Is there any Hadith which I can relate and the enemies cannot deny? Hudhayfah said: O Rabi’ah! Which merits of ‘Ali should I recount?

اللهِ. فَقالَ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: إنَّهُ عَمْرٌو. فَسَکَتَ.

فَنَادَی ثالِثَهً. فَقالَ لَهُ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: أنَا لَهُ یَا رَسولَ اللهِ. فَقالَ: إنَّهُ عَمْرٌو. فَقالَ: وَإنْ کَانَ. فَأَذِنَ لَهُ وَقالَ: خَرَجَ الإسْلامُ کُلُّهُ إلَی الشِّرْکِ کُلِّهِ. فَخَرَجَ إلَیْهِ. ثُمَّ قَالَ: یَا عَمْرُو إنَّکَ قَدْ عَاهَدْتَ اللهَ تَعالَی أَلاَّ یَدْعُوَکَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ قُرَیْشٍ إلَی إحْدَی خِصْلَتَیْنِ إلا إخْتَرْتَها مِنْهُ. فَقالَ لَهُ: أَجَلْ. فَقالَ لَهُ

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1- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 197
2- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 205
3- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 206

عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: فَإنِّی أَدْعُوکَ إلَی اللهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَالإسْلامِ. فَقالَ: لاَ حَاجَهَ لِی بِذَلِکَ. فَقالَ: إنِّی أَدْعُوکَ إلَی النِّزَالِ. فَقالَ لَهُ: یَا ابْنَ أَخی، فَوَاللهِ إنِّی لاَ أُحِبُّ أَنْ أَقْتُلَکَ وَأَنْتَ کَرِیمٌ وَأَبوکَ لِی نَدیمٌ. فَقالَ لَهُ عَلِیٌّ: وَلَکِنِّی وَاللهِ أُحِبُّ أَنْ أَقْتُلَکَ. فَحَمَی عَمْرٌو وَنَزَلَ عَنْ فَرَسِهِ ثُمَّ تَجَاوَلا ساعَهً. فَضَرَبَهُ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَقَتَلَهُ وَقَتَلَ وَلَدَهُ أیْضاً. وَانْهَزَمَ عِکْرِمَهُ بْنُ أَبِی جَهْلٍ وَباقِی المُشْرِکِینَ وَرَدَّهُمُ اللهُ بِغَیْظِهِمْ لَمْ یَنَالوا خَیْراً وَکَفَی اللهُ الْمُؤْمِنِینَ الْقِتالَ.

وَقالَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الخَطَّابِ لِعَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: هَلاّ سَلَبْتَهُ دِرْعَهُ، فَمَا لأَحَدٍ دِرْعٌ مِثْلُهَا. فَقالَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: إنِّی إسْتَحْیَیْتُ أَنْ أَکْشِفَ عَنْ سَوْءَهِ ابْنِ عَمِّی. وَکَانَ ابْنُ مَسْعُودٍ یَقْرَأُ: وَکَفَی اللهُ الْمُؤْمِنِینَ الْقِتَالَ بِعَلِیٍّ وَکَانَ اللهُ قَوِیَّاً عَزِیزاً. قَالَ رَبِیعَهُ السَّعْدِیُّ: أَتَیْتُ حُذَیْفَهَ بْنَ الیَمانِ فَقُلْتُ: یَا أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ، إنَّا لَنُحَدِّثُ عَنْ عَلِیٍّ وَمَناقِبِهِ فَیَقُولُ لَنا أهْلُ البَصْرَهِ إنَّکُمْ لَتُفَرِّطونَ فِی عَلِیٍّ، فَهَلْ أَنْتَ مُحَدِّثُنِی فِیهِ بِحَدِیثٍ؟ فَقالَ حُذَیْفَهُ: یَا رَبِیعَهُ، وَما تَسْأَلُنِی عَنْ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. وَالَّذِی نَفْسِی بِیَدِهِ لَوْ وُضِعَ

By Lord in whose hand my life rests, if the deeds of the aides of Muhammad from the day he was ordained as prophet till the Day of Judgment are put on a pan of a scale and ‘Ali’s deeds are put on the other pan of scale, beyond doubt, ‘Ali’s deeds are heavier. Rabi’ah said: This is a Hadith for which one cannot sit or stand, implying that it is hard to accept and more hard to recount.

Hudhayfah said: O fool! How can you say that this Hadith is hard

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to accept when the Messenger of Allah said the same thing on the day of the battle of the Ditch! Then he added: Where were Abu-Bakr, Umar, Hudhayfah, and all the companions of the Holy Prophet on the day when Amr ibn Abd-Wudd was yelling and challenging a fighter?

All the crowds on that day were at a loss, creeping in a corner. It was only ‘Ali who responded to him, went to fight and killed him. By God in whose power my life is, the reward of ‘Ali’s deed on that day is more than the reward of the deeds of Muhammad’s companions till the Day of Judgment.(1)

Following the defeat of allies on the day of the battle of Ditch, the Messenger of Allah decided to suppress the Jews of Banu-Qurayzah who had allied with Quraysh, so gave ‘Ali the mission to inspect their situation from close with thirty men of Khazraj tribe, saying: O ‘Ali, see what state Banu-Qurayzah are in? Have they left their forts on not?

Going on his mission, ‘Ali accompanied by his aides reached near the enemy’s position, seeing that they were stationed in their forts and had blocked entrances and exits, swearing at the Holy Prophet (S). ‘Ali immediately went to the Holy Prophet informing him of the situation and went directly to carry out his mission. Seeing ‘Ali, one of them said: The killer of Amr has come and the others confirmed it. Hearing the name of ‘Ali, Banu-Qurayzah took to his

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1- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 205

heels, leaving his position. By advancing into the big fort, ‘Ali installed the standard of Islam.

The running Jews were swearing at the Holy Prophet and speaking ill of him. The Messenger of Allah said: O the brothers of pigs and monkeys, where are you fleeing? When we confront our enemies, we will ruin their life and make the bright day dark for them. They said: O Abu-al-Qasim! You were not tyrant or foulmouthed. Hearing this, the Messenger of Allah turned back, ashamed and kept them under siege for twenty five nights. Since they could not resist, they suggested to surrender and bowed to Sa’d ibn Mu’adh’s arbitration. The Messenger of Allah too accepted it. Sa’d ibn Mu’adh ruled their men to be killed, their women and children to be taken captive and their property to be divided among Muslims.

At this time, the Holy Prophet (S) ordered the men of Banu-Qurayzah amounting to nine hundred to be put under watch in the houses of Banu’l-Najjar tribe. Then, he ordered the watchmen to bring them one by one near the ditch through the exit way of the neighborhood and ordered ‘Ali to behead them one after the other and to throw their bodies in the ditch. ‘Ali carried out the instructions, beheaded them all and threw them in the ditch.(1)

جَمِیعُ أَعْمالِ أَصْحَابِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ السَّلامُ فِی کَفَّهِ الْمِیزَانِ مُنْذُ بَعَثَ اللهُ مُحَمَّداً إلَی یَوْمِ القِیامَهِ وَوُضِعَ عَمَلُ عَلِیٍّ فِی الکَفَّهِ الأُخْری لَرَجَحَ عَمَلُ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ عَلَی جَمیعِ أعْمالِهِمْ.

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1- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 197

فَقالَ رَبیعَهُ: هَذَا الَّذِی لاَ یُقامُ لَهُ وَلا یُقْعَدُ.

فَقالَ حُذَیْفَهُ: یَا لُکَعُ، وَکَیْفَ لاَ یُحْمَلُ وَأَیْنَ کَانَ أَبُو بَکْرٍ وَعُمَرُ وَحُذَیْفَهُ وَجَمیعُ أَصْحَابِ مُحَمَّدٍ یَوْمَ عَمْرِو بْنِ عَبْدِ وُدٍّ، وَقَدْ دَعا إلَی البِرازِ فَأَحْجَمَ النَّاسُ کُلُّهُمْ مَا خَلا عَلِیَّاً، فَإنَّهُ بَرَزَ إلَیْهِ فَقَتَلَهُ؟ وَالَّذِی نَفْسُ حُذَیْفَهَ بِیَدِهِ، لَعَمَلُهُ ذَلِکَ الیَوْمِ أَعْظَمُ أَجْراً مِنْ عَمَلِ أَصْحَابِ مُحَمَّدٍ إلَی یَوْمِ القِیامَهِ.

وَلَمَّا إنْهَزَمَ الأَحْزابُ قَصَدَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ بَنِی قُرَیْظَهَ وَأَنْفَذَ عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فِی ثَلاثِینَ مِنَ الخَزْرَجِ وَقالَ: أُنْظُرْ بَنِی قُرَیْظَهَ هَلْ نَزَلوا حُصونَهُمْ؟ فَلَمَّا شَارَفَها سَمِعَ مِنْهُمْ الهَجْرَ. فَرَجِعَ إلَی النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَأَخْبَرَهُ. وَسارَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ حَتَّی دَنا مِنْ سُورِهِمْ، فَأَبْصَرَهُ شَخْصٌ فَنادَی: قَدْ جَاءَکُمْ قَاتِلُ عَمْرٍو. وَقالَ آخَرُ کَذَلِکَ فَانْهَزَمُوا. وَرَکَزَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ الرَّایَهَ فِی أَصْلِ الْحِصْنِ وَاسْتَقْبَلُوهُ یَسُبُّونَ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ. فَنَادَاهُمْ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: یَا إخْوَهَ القِرَدَهِ وَالْخَنازِیرِ، إنَّا إذَا نَزَلْنا بِسَاحَهِ قَوْمٍ فَساءَ صَبَاحُ الْمُنْذَرِینَ. فَقَالُوا: یَا أَبَا القَاسِمِ مَا کُنْتَ جَهُولاً وَلا سَبَّاباً. فَاسْتَحْیَی صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَرَجَعَ القَهْقَرَی، وَحَاصَرَهُمْ خَمْس

In the battle of Banu’l-Mustalaq in which ‘Ali was a pioneer, Muslims eventually gained the victory. In this battle, Malik and his son who were among the enemy leaders were killed by ‘Ali, and Juwayriyyah, the daughter of Harith ibn Abi-Dirar was taken captive and brought to the presence of the Messenger of Allah, who chose her for himself. After the battle, the father of Juwayriyyah came to the Holy Prophet, saying: O Messenger of Allah! My daughter must not be

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taken captive, for she is dignified and brought up in a respectable family!

The Holy Prophet said: Go to your daughter and ask her if she wishes to be with us or she will be free to return with you. Harith hailed the Holy Prophet’s magnanimity and greatness, and conveyed the Holy Prophet’s message to his daughter but Juwayriyyah opted for God and His messenger, saying: God and His messenger are better than everyone and everything else! After this event, the Holy Prophet set her free, then married her and she became one the wives of the Messenger of Allah.(1)

In the battle of Hudaybiyah which led to peace treaty, the one who drew up and wrote the peace treaty between the Messenger of Allah and Suhayl ibn Amr was ‘Ali. In this connection, two merits were added to his virtues no one shared with him.(2)

One of those two merits is that when the Messenger of Allah decided to perform minor Hajj of Hudaybiyah, he, along with a group of his companions, went to Juhfah to become Muhrim but there was no water in that area. So, the Messenger of Allah ordered Sa’d ibn Malik to take water skins and water-carrying camels to search for water. After a short time, Sa’d returned, saying: Since this region is under the enemy’s control, I fear to fetch water! The Holy Prophet assigned another person to fetch water.

وَعِشْرینَ لَیْلَهً حَتَّی سَأَلُوهُ النُّزُولَ عَلَی حُکْمِ سَعْدِ بْنِ مُعاذٍ. فَحَکَمَ سَعْدٌ بِقَتْلِ الرِّجَالِ وَسَبْیِ

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1- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 209
2- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 210

الذَّرارِی وَالنِّسَاءِ وَقِسْمَهِ الأَمْوالِ. فَأَمَرَ النَّبِیُّ بِإنْزالِ الرِّجالِ فِی الْمَدِینَهِ فِی بَعْضِ دُورِ بَنِی النَّجَّارِ وَکَانوا تِسْعَمِائَهٍ، وَخَرَجَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ مِنْ بَعْضِ الدُّرُوبِ وَأَمَرَ بِإخْراجِهِمْ وَتَقَدَّمَ إلَی أمِیرِ الْمُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ بِقَتْلِهِمْ فِی الْخَنْدَقِ فَفَعَلَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ مَا أُمِرَ بِهِ.

وَفِی غَزاهِ بَنِی الْمُصْطَلَقِ کَانَ الفَتْحُ لَهُ. وَقَتَلَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ مَالِکاً وَابْنَهُ وَسَبَی جُوَیْرِیَّهَ بِنْتَ الْحَارِثِ بْنِ أَبِی ضِرارٍ فَاصْطَفَاها النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ لِنَفْسِهِ. فَجَاءَ أَبُوها بَعْدَ ذَلِکَ وَقالَ: یَا رَسولَ اللهِ، إن ابْنَتِی لاَ تُسْبَی، إنَّها إمْرَأَهٌ کَریمَهٌ. قَالَ: إذْهَبْ وَخَیِّرْها. قَالَ: لَقَدْ أَحْسَنَتْ وَأَجْمَلَتْ فَاخْتارَتِ اللهَ وَرَسُولَهُ. فَأَعْتَقَها رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَجَعَلَها فِی جُمْلَهِ أَزْواجِهِ.

وَفی غَزاهِ الْحُدَیْبِیَهِ: کَانَ أمِیرُ الْمُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ هُوَ الَّذِی کَتَبَ بَیْنَ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَبَیْنَ سُهَیْلِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو حینَ طَلَبَ الصُّلْحَ عِنْدَما رَأی تَوَجُّهَ الأَمْرِ عَلَیْهِمْ. وَلَهُ فِی هَذِهِ الغَزاهِ فَضیلَتانِ: إحْداهُما: إنَّهُ لَمَّا خَرَجَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ إلَی غَزاهِ الحُدَیْبِیَهِ نَزَلَ الْجُحْفَهَ فَلَمْ یَجِدْ بِهَا مَاءً، فَبَعَثَ سَعْدَ بْنَ مَالِکٍ بِالرَّوَایا فَغَابَ قَریباً وَعَادَ وَقالَ: لَمْ أَقْدِرْ عَلَی الْمُضِیِّ خَوْفاً مِنَ القَوْمِ. فَبَعَثَ آخَرَ فَفَعَلَ کَذَلِکَ. فَبَعَثَ عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ

Like Sa’d, he too returned quickly and repeated what Sa’d had said. At this time, the Messenger of Allah ordered ‘Ali to do the work. After searching, ‘Ali found out that water was in a spot controlled by the enemy. Hence, without fearing the enemy, ‘Ali went to the same spot, filled the water skins, fastened them unto camels and brought them for the Holy Prophet (S) who praised his valuable

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deed and prayed for him.(1)

‘Ali’s second merit is that when the peace treaty was being concluded, Suhayl ibn Amr turned to the Holy Prophet, saying: O Muhammad, give back to us these slaves of ours who have joined you. The Holy Prophet was so annoyed with this request, that too, with bold tone that signs of anger could be seen in his face, for it is not right to entrust Muslims to atheists. Besides, his impolite tone implied domineering.

Hence, the Holy Prophet said: O group of Quraysh! Stop your hostile attitude otherwise God will send to punish and behead you for the promotion of religion a person whose heart He has tried with faith. Those who were present said: O Messenger of Allah, who is he? The Holy Prophet said: The one who is mending my shoes in the room. To know the man with such a merit, people rushed to the room and found that it was ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib.(2)

At a time one of the pair of shoes of the Holy Prophet was torn and had to be mended, he called ‘Ali to mend it. Then while walking a short space in his odd shoe, he turned to his companions, saying: One of you will fight for the interpretation of the Holy Qur’an in the same way that he fights along with me for its revelation. Abu-Bakr said: Is it me?

The Holy Prophet said: No. The companions kept silent, looking at one another, asking themselves whom the

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1- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 210
2- Manaqib, Kalabi, Hadith 24

Holy Prophet meant. Breaking the silence and pointing to ‘Ali, the Messenger of Allah said: He is the one who is presently mending my shoe, for he is the only person who stands against deviators and fight for the interpretation of the Holy Qur’an and those Sunnahs of me which will be abandoned. This is at a time when the book of Allah will be distorted and wrongdoers will interfere in religion. It is with ‘Ali’s fighting that God’s religion will gain a new life and he will cut their hands off religion.(1)

السَّلامُ بِالرَّوایَا فَوَرَدَ وَاسْتَسْقَی وَجَاءَ بِهَا إلَی النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ، فَدَعا لَهُ بِخَیْرٍ.

وَالثَّانِیَهُ: أَقْبَلَ سُهَیْلُ بْنُ عَمْرٍو فَقالَ: یَا مُحَمَّدُ إنَّ أَرِقَّاءَنا لَحِقُوا بِکَ فَارْدُدْهُمْ عَلَیْنا. فَغَضِبَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ حَتَّی ظَهَرَ الْغَضَبُ عَلَی وَجْهِهِ، ثُمَّ قَالَ: لَتَنْتَهُنَّ یَا مَعْشَرَ قُرَیْشٍ أَوْ لَیَبْعَثُنَّ اللهُ عَلَیْکُمْ رَجُلاً إمْتَحَنَ اللهُ قَلْبَهُ بِالإیمَانِ یَضْرِبُ رِقابَکُمْ عَلَی الدِّینِ. فَقالَ بَعْضُ الحَاضِرینَ: مَنْ هُوَ یَا رَسولَ اللهِ؟ قَالَ: خَاصِفُ النَّعْلِ فِی الحُجْرَهِ. فَتَبادَروا إلَیْها لِیَعْرِفوا مَنْ هُوَ، فَإذَا هُوَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَکَانَ قَدِ إنْقَطَعَ شِسْعُ نَعْلِ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَدَفَعَها إلَی عَلِیٍّ یُصْلِحُها. ثُمَّ مَشَی فِی نَعْلٍ وَاحِدٍ غُلْوَهَ سَهْمٍ. ثُمَّ أَقْبَلَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ عَلَی أَصْحابِهِ فَقالَ: إنَّ بَیْنَکُمْ مَنْ یُقاتِلُ عَلَی التَّأْویلِ کَمَا قَاتَلْتُ عَلَی التَّنْزِیلِ. فَقالَ أَبُو بَکْرٍ: أنَا یَا رَسولَ اللهِ؟ فَقالَ: لاَ. فَقالَ عُمَرُ: فَأَنَا؟ فَقالَ: لاَ. فَأَمْسَکُوا وَنَظَرَ بَعْضُهُمْ إلَی بَعْضٍ. فقَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: لَکِنَّهُ خَاصِفُ النَّعْلِ، وَأَوْمَأَ إلَی عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ

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1- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, chap. 30, pp. 110

السَّلامُ، فَإنَّهُ یُقاتِلُ عَلَی التَّأْوِیلِ إذَا تُرِکَتْ سُنَّتِی وَنُبِذَتْ وَحُرِّفَ کِتابُ اللهِ وَتَکَلَّمَ فِی الدِّینِ مَنْ لَیْسَ لَهُ ذَلِکَ، فَیُقاتِلُهُمْ عَلَی إحْیاءِ دِینِ اللهِ.

In the battle of Khaybar, which took place in the seventh year A.H., it was ‘Ali who achieved victory for Islam. The Holy Prophet besieged for twenty and odd nights the Jews of Khaybar who had dug a huge ditch round their fort, taking sanctuary in it. Eventually, one day the Jews opened the gate of the fort. Marhab and his aides came out of the fort, declaring their combat readiness. At this time, the Messenger of Allah called Abu-Bakr and gave the standard of Islam to him, placing a group of immigrants (Muhajir) under his command. Abu-Bakr who was facing defeat soon returned along with those accompanying him.

On the second day, the Messenger of Allah gave the standard of Islam to Umar, appointing him the commander of the army. He went a few steps forward but not being able to advance and facing defeat, he too returned. Seeing the defeat of the two, the Holy Prophet said: Where is ‘Ali? Tell him to come to me. It was said he had sore eye. The Holy Prophet said for a second time: Tell ‘Ali to come here, for he is a man who loves God and His messenger and God and His messenger too love him. He has never abandoned the battlefield and has defeated his enemy with his successive attacks. He is the one who carries

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the banner of Islam and adds to its glory.

The companions rushed to ‘Ali conveying the Holy Prophet’s message. Unable to see before him, ‘Ali in compliance with the Holy Prophet’s order was brought to the Messenger of Allah who asked: What is the problem? ‘Ali said: I have sore eye and a bad headache. The Holy Prophet said: Sit down and put your head on my lap. Then, putting his saliva on the head and eyes of ‘Ali the Holy Prophet prayed for him. ‘Ali immediately opened his eyes and there was no sign of headache in him.

Giving then the white banner to ‘Ali, the Holy Prophet said: By carrying this banner, victory will be yours, for Gabriel will accompany you and victory awaits you. You will cast such a horror in hearts that they will have no option other than surrender. In their book, Torah they have read that the one who will overcome them and will destroy their fort is a man by the name of Ilya. Once you get near to their fort, tell them: I am the son of Abu-Talib and my name is ‘Ali. This word is the sign of their humiliation. With Allah’s Grace, you will achieve victory soon. To carry out the Holy Prophet’s order, ‘Ali set out for the Jews’ fort. Wearing a cuirass, having a helmet with a stone in it on his head and prepared for fighting, Marhab came out of the fort. After a short while and in

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a hand to hand fighting ‘Ali with a strike of a sword, cut his helmet into two, cleaving the stone and his head to his teeth. Marhab fell on the ground and went to the hell.(1)

وَفی غَزاهِ خَیْبَرَ:

وَکانَتْ فِی سَنَهِ سَبْعٍ مِنَ الهِجْرَهِ، کَانَ الفَتْحُ فِیهَا لأَمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. حَاصَرَهُمْ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ بِضْعاً وَعِشْرینَ لَیْلَهً. فَفی بَعْضِ الأَیَّامِ فَتَحوا البَابَ وَکانوا قَدْ خَنْدَقُوا عَلَی أَنْفُسِهِمْ خَنْدَقاً وَخَرَجَ مَرْحَبُ بِأَصْحابِهِ یَتَعَرَّضُ لِلْحَرْبِ. فَدَعا النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ أَبَا بَکْرٍ وَأَعْطاهُ الرَّایَهَ فِی جَمْعٍ مِنَ المُهَاجِرِینَ فَانْهَزَمَ. فَلَمَّا کَانَ مِنَ الغَدِ أَعْطاهَا عُمَرَ، فَسَارَ غَیْرَ بَعیدٍ ثُمَّ انْهَزَمَ. فَقالَ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: إئْتُونِی بِعَلِیٍّ. فَقیلَ: إنَّهُ أرْمَدُ. فَقالَ لأُوتَیَنَّهُ تَرَوْنِی رَجُلاً یُحِبُّ اللهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَیُحِبُّهُ اللهُ وَرَسُولُهُ، کَرَّارٌ غَیْرُ فَرَّارٍ یَأْخُذُها بِحَقِّهَا. فَجاؤوا بِعَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ یَقُودُونَهُ إلَیْهِ. فَقالَ: یَا عَلِیُّ مَا تَشْتَکِی؟ قَالَ: رَمَداً مَا أُبْصِرُ مَعَهُ وَصُدَاعاً بِرَأْسِی. فَقالَ: إجْلِسْ وَضَعْ رَأْسَکَ عَلَی فَخِذِی. ثُمَّ تَفَلَ فِی یَدِهِ وَمَسَح بِهَا عَلَی عَیْنَیْهِ وَرَأْسِهِ وَدَعَا لَهُ، فَانْفَتَحَتْ عَیْناهُ وَسَکَنَ الصُّدَاعُ. وَأَعْطاهُ الرَّایَهَ وَکَانَتْ بَیْضاءَ وَقالَ: إمْضِ بِهَا، فَجَبْرَئیلُ مَعَکَ وَالنَّصْرُ أَمامَکَ، وَالرُّعْبُ مَبْثوثٌ فِی صُدُورِ القَوْمِ، وَاعْلَمْ یَا عَلِیُّ أَنَّهُمْ یَجِدونَ فِی کِتابِهِمْ أنَّ الَّذِی یُدَمِّرُ عَلَیْهِمْ رَجُلٌ اسْمُهُ إلْیا، فَإذا لَقِیتَهُمْ فَقُلْ: أنَا عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طَالِبٍ. فَإنَّهُمْ یُخْذَلونَ إنْ شَاءَ اللهُ. فَمَضی عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ حَتَّی أتَی الْحِصْنَ، فَخَرَجَ مَرْحَبٌ وَعَلَیْهِ دِرْعٌ وَمَغْفَرَهٌ

A Jewish rabbi reports: When ‘Ali said: I am ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib, a heavy horror fell on the hearts of the Jews and whoever accompanied Marhab escaped into the fort,

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1- Al-Isabah, vol. 2, pp. 508-509

closing its gate tightly. With the divine power, ‘Ali took off the gate of the fort, making it a bridge for the Muslims to cross it and to enter the fort. Muslims gained huge booties in this way. When the Muslims gave up taking the booties, ‘Ali threw the gate a few meters away. The gate was so heavy that forty men helped one another to close it. It also required seventy men to take it off its place. At this time, a man asked ‘Ali: How did you take off a gate like this? ‘Ali said: The gate was not as heavy as the shield I wield in my hand. Then, he said: By God, I did not take it off with my physical power. Rather, it was a divine force which helped me to take it off and to place it as a bridge for Muslims to cross over.(1)

In the conquest of Mecca when God promised the Holy Prophet victory, stating:

“When there comes the help of Allah and victory” (110:1),

the banner of Islam was in ‘Ali’s hand.(2)

When entering Mecca, the Messenger of Allah took a pledge from the pride-taking army of Islam not to fight anyone unless they start to fight. Only a few people who had harassed the Holy Prophet had been made exceptions to this command. One of them was Huwayrith ibn Nufayl ibn Ka’b who harassed the Holy Prophet in Mecca and was punished and killed by ‘Ali on the order of the

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1- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 215
2- Tarikh Tabari, vol. 3, pp. 56

Holy Prophet.(1)

When the Messenger of Allah entered the sacred mosque, there were three hundred and sixty idols chained together with a rope. The Holy Prophet ordered ‘Ali to bring him a handful of small sands. ‘Ali too complied with the Holy Prophet’s order and prepared the small sands. Aiming at all the idols, the Messenger of Allah recited:

“Say: the truth has come and the falsehood has vanished; surely falsehood is a vanishing thing” (17:81)

and ordered all the idols to be toppled, thrown away from the mosque and be broken.(2)

وَحَجَرٌ قَدْ ثَقَبَهُ مِثْلَ البَیْضَهِ عَلَی رَأْسِهِ، فَاخْتَلَفا بِضَرْبَتَیْنِ فَبَدَرَ بِهِ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ بِضَرْبَهٍ هاشِمِیَّهٍ فَقَدَّ الْحَجرَ وَالْمَغْفَرَ وَرَأْسَهُ حَتَّی وَقَعَ السَّیْفُ عَلَی أَضْراسِهِ وَخَرَّ صَریعاً.

وَقالَ حَبْرٌ مِنْهُمْ: لَمَّا قَالَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ أنَا عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طالِبٍ خَامَرَهُمْ رُعْبٌ شَدیدٌ وَانْهَزَمَ مَنْ کَانَ تَبِعَ مَرْحَباً وَأَغْلَقُوا بَابَ الحِصْنِ. فَعَالَجَهُ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَفَتَحَهُ وَأَخَذَ البابَ وَجَعَلَهُ جِسْراً عَلَی الْخَنْدَقِ حَتَّی عَبَرَ عَلَیْهِ المُسْلِمونَ فَظَفَروا بِالحِصْنِ وَأَخَذوا الغَنائِمَ. وَلَمَّا انْصَرَفُوا رَمَی بِهِ بِیُمْناهُ أَذْرُعاً، وَکَانَ یُغْلِقُهُ عِشْرونَ رَجُلاً. وَرَامَ الْمُسْلِمونَ حَمْلَ ذَلِکَ البَابِ فَلَمْ یَنْقُلْهُ إلاَّ سَبْعونَ رَجُلاً.

وَقالَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: وَمَا قَلَعْتُ بَابَ خَیْبَرَ بِقُوَّهٍ جِسْمَانِیَّهٍ وَلَکِنْ بِقُوَّهٍ رَبَّانِیَّهٍ.

وَفی غَزاهِ الفَتْحِ:

الَّتِی وَعَدَ اللهُ تَعالَی نَبِیَّهُ بِنَصْرِهِ فَقالَ: ?إِذَا جَاءَ نَصْرُ اللهِ وَالْفَتْحُ? کَانَتِ الرَّایَهُ مَعَ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَکَانَ عَهِدَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ أنْ لاَ یُقَاتِلوا بِمَکَّهَ إلاَّ مَنْ قَاتَلَهَمْ سِوَی نَفَرٍ کَانُوا یُؤْذُونَهُ. فَقَتَلَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ الحَارِثَ بْنَ نُفَیْلِ بْنِ کَعْبٍ وَکَانَ یُؤْذِی رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ بِمَکَّهَ. وَلَمَّا دَخَلَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی

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1- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 128
2- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 219

اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ مَکَّهَ، دَخَلَ المَسْجِدَ فَوَجَدَ فِیهِ ثَلاثَمِائَهٍ وَسِتِّینَ صَنَماً بَعْضُها مَشْدودٌ بِبَعْضٍ بِالرَّصَاصِ فَقالَ: یَا عَلِیُّ أَعْطِنِی کَفَّاً مِنَ الحَصَا فَنَاوَلَهُ کَفَّاً مِنَ الحَصَی فَرَماهَا بِهِ وَهُوَ یَقولُ: ?قُلْ جَاءَ الْحَقُّ وَزَهَقَ الْبَاطِلُ إِنَّ الْبَاطِلَ کَانَ زَهُوقاً? فَلَمْ یَبْقَ فِیهَا صَنَمٌ إلاَّ خَرَّ لِوَجْهِهِ وَأُخْرِجَتْ مِنَ الْمَسْجِدِ وَکُسِرَتْ.

In the battle of Hunayn, the Messenger of Allah supported by ten thousand Muslims left Medina for Hunayn. At that time, Abu-Bakr self-admiringly said: We will never be defeated in this battle because of shortage in human force, but in the climax of conflict, they all fled save nine persons from Banu-Hashim and the tenth person was Ayman ibn Ummi-Ayman who was martyred and the verse

“then you turned back retreating; Then Allah sent down His tranquility upon His apostle and upon the believers” (9:25-26)

was revealed about those who retreated. Believers in this verse include ‘Ali and those who remained steadfast with him.

At a time when ‘Ali was defending with his unsheathed sword in front of the Holy Prophet, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib was on the right side, Fadl Ibn Abbas on the left side, Abu-Sufyan ibn Harith holding the reins of his horse, Nawfal and Rabi’ah, the two sons of Harith, Abdullah ibn Zubayr ibn Abd al-Muttalib, Utbah ibn Mu’it, two sons of Abi- Lahab had circled round the Messenger of Allah and were protecting him.(1)

The Messenger of Allah said to his uncle, Abbas who had an audible voice to call with loud voice those who were fleeing and to

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1- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 2, chap. 38, pp. 74

remind them of the divine pledge they had with the Holy Prophet. Therefore, Abbas cried loudly: O followers of the Messenger of Allah who expressed your allegiance with him under the tree, O companions of Surah Baqarah, where are you fleeing? Why have you forgotten the pledge you have given to God and His messenger? Come back and be steadfast! The people who had fled in the dark of the night leaving the Messenger of Allah alone among the enemy, by hearing his voice and considering that he was watching them flee and knew them, came down from the adjacent hills, while being encouraged gathered around the Holy Prophet and bravely broke the siege of the enemy.(1)

In the thick of the fight, a man from the tribe of Hawazin, names Abu-Jarwal, carrying a black banner with the intention to kill the Holy Prophet was killed by ‘Ali. With his killing the atheists took to their heels. While they were fleeing, ‘Ali killed forty others of them. Thereafter, the army of atheism was defeated and a number of them were taken captive by Muslims.(2)

وَفی غَزاهِ حُنَیْنٍ:

إسْتَظْهَرَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ بِکَثْرَهِ الْجَمْعِ فَخَرَجَ فِی عَشَرَهِ آلافٍ مِنَ المُسْلِمینَ فَأَعْجَبَ أَبَا بَکْرٍ الکَثْرَهُ وَقالَ: لَنْ نُغْلَبَ الیَوْمَ مِنْ قِلَّهِ فِعالِهِمْ. فَلَمَّا التَقَوْا إنْهَزَموا جَمِیعاً وَلَمْ یَبْقَ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمینَ سِوَی تِسْعَهِ نَفَرٍ مِنْ بَنِی هَاشِمٍ وَعَاشِرُهُمْ أیْمَنُ بْنُ أُمِّ أَیْمَنَ فَقُتِلَ وَبَقِیَتِ التِّسْعَهُ. فَأَنْزَلَ اللهُ تَعالَی ?ثُمَّ وَلَّیْتُمْ مُدْبِرِینَ ثُمَّ أَنْزَلَ اللهُ سَکِینَتَهُ عَلَی

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1- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 2, chap. 38, pp. 128
2- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 2, chap. 16, pp. 129

رَسُولِهِ وَعَلَی الْمُؤْمِنِینَ.? یُرِیدُ عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَمَنْ ثَبَتَ مَعَهُ. وَکَانَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ قَائِماً بِالسَّیْفِ بَیْنَ یَدَیْهِ وَالعَبَّاسُ عَنْ یَمینِهِ وَالفَضْلُ بْنُ العَبَّاسِ عَنْ یَسارِهِ، وَأَبو سُفْیانَ بْنُ الحَارِثِ مُمْسِکٌ بِسَرْجِهِ وَنَوْفَلُ وَرَبِیعَهُ ابْنا الحَارِثِ وَعَبْدُ اللهِ بْنُ الزُّبَیْرِ بْنِ عَبْدِالمُطَّلِبِ وَعُتْبَهُ وَمُعَتَّبُ ابْنا أَبِی لَهَبٍ حَوْلَهُ. فَقالَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ لِلْعَبَّاسِ وَکَانَ جَهُورِیَّ الصَّوْتِ: نَادِ فِی النَّاسِ وَذَکِّرْهُمُ العَهْدَ. فَنادَی: یَا أَهْلَ بَیْعَهِ الشَّجَرَهِ! یَا أصْحَابَ سُورَهِ البَقَرَهِ! إلَی أَیْنَ تَفُرُّونَ؟ إذْکُروا العَهْدَ الَّذِی عَاهَدْتُمْ عَلَیْهِ رَسُولَ اللهِ! وَالقَوْمُ قَدْ وَلَّوْا مُدْبِریِنَ وَکَانَتْ لَیْلَهً ظَلْماءَ وَرَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فِی الوَادِی وَالمُشْرِکُونَ قَدْ خَرَجُوا عَلَیْهِ مِنْ شِعابِ الوَادِی بِسُیُوفِهِمْ فَنَظَرَ إلَی النَّاسِ بِبَعْضِ وَجْهِهِ فَأَضاءَ کَأَنَّهُ القَمَرُ ثُمَّ نَادَی: أَیْنَ مَا عَاهَدْتُمُ اللهَ عَلَیْهِ؟ فَأَسْمَعَ أَوَّلَهُمْ وَآخِرَهُمْ فَلَمْ یَسْمَعْها رَجُلٌ إلاَّ رَمَی نَفْسَهُ إلَی الأرْضِ فَانْحَدَروا حَتَّی لَحِقُوا العَدُوَّ. وَجَاءَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ هَوازِنَ اسْمُهُ أَبُو جَزْوَلَ وَمَعَهُ رَایَهٌ سَوْداءُ فَقَتَلَهُ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَکَانَتْ هَزیمَهُ المُشْرِکینَ بِقَتْلِ أَبِی جَزْوَلَ. وَقَتَلَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ صَلَواتُ اللهِ عَلَیْهِ بَعْدَ ذَلِکَ أَرْبَعینَ رَجُلاً فَکَمُلَتِ الْهَزِیمَهُ وَحَصَلَ الأَسْرُ.

In the battle of Tabuk, God revealed to the Holy Prophet there was no need for fighting, and that the only duty of him and Muslims aimed at intimidating the enemy was to move towards Rome, as it was the time of gathering the fruits of palm trees, and people feared confrontation with the powerful enemy, most people refused to take part in the battle. The Messenger of Allah who had taken march towards Tabuk seriously, to carry out God’s order,

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departed with a group of believers toward Tabuk, appointing ‘Ali as his successor to protect Medina and to act as guardians of families, saying to him: The security of this city will not be guarded by anyone except you and me.

The Messenger of Allah knew that the Arabs residing around Mecca and those who had suffered life losses in the battles were looking for a chance to invade Mecca when the Holy Prophet was not in that city.

It was due to this reason that he vigilantly endeavored to safeguard it. Now that the Holy Prophet was in the battle, he appointed ‘Ali to safeguard Medina which was feared to face chaos in the absence of the Messenger of Allah. Hearing this, the blind-hearted hypocrites and gossipmongers inside Medina were extremely worried and jealous of ‘Ali, for they knew that with the presence of ‘Ali no danger could threaten Medina and in this way their plot was foiled.

Hence, they started the so-called cold war, spreading the rumor by saying: As the presence of ‘Ali in this battle is heavy for the prophet, he does not wish to take him with himself. Therefore, he leaves ‘Ali in Medina which means he does not honor ‘Ali, though they knew how much the Holy Prophet was interested in ‘Ali!

This kind of rumors was heavy for ‘Ali. So he immediately left Medina for meeting the Messenger of Allah. He informed the Holy Prophet of the rumors, saying: Hypocrites have this impression that appointing

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me as your successor in Medina is not aimed at honoring me but it is because you don’t like me to accompany you!

Fondling ‘Ali, the Messenger of Allah said: O my brother, go back to Medina, for Medina has no security without me and you. Your position to me is like that of Aaron to Moses except that there will come no prophet after me. In my absence, you will be caliph and successor for my kinsmen.(1)

وَفی غَزاهِ تَبُوکٍ:

أَوْحَی اللهُ تَعالَی إلَی نَبِیِّهِ أنَّهُ لاَ یَحْتاجُ إلَی القِتالِ وَکَلَّفَهُ المَسِیرَ بِنَفْسِهِ وَاسْتِنْفَارَ النَّاسِ مَعَهُ. فَاسْتَنْفَرَهُمُ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ إلَی بِلادِ الرُّومِ وَقَدْ أَیْنَعَتْ ثِمارُهُمْ وَاشْتَدَّ الحَرُّ، فَأَبْطَأَ أَکْثَرُهُمْ عَنْ طاعَتِهِ حِرْصاً عَلَی الْمَعیشَهِ وَخَوْفاً مِنَ الحَرِّ وَلِقاءِ العَدُوِّ وَنَهَضَ بَعْضُهُمْ. وَاسْتَخْلَفَ أمِیرَ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ عَلَی الْمَدِینَهِ وَعَلَی أهْلِهِ بِهَا وَحَریمِهِ. وَقالَ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: إنَّ الْمَدِینَهَ لاَ تَصْلُحُ إلاَّ بِی أَوْ بِکَ، لأنَّهُ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ عَلِمَ مَا عَلَیْهِ الأَعْرَابُ الَّذینَ حَوْلَ مَکَّهَ وَغَزاهُمْ وَسَفَکَ دِمَاءَهُمْ، فَأَشْفَقَ أنْ یَطَأُوا عَلَی الْمَدِینَهِ عِنْدَ نَأْیِهِ عَنْها فَمَتَی لَمْ یُقِمْ فِیهَا مَنْ یُماثِلُهُ وَقَعَ الفَسَادُ فِیهَا. وَلَمَّا عَلِمَ الْمُنَافِقُونَ إسْتِخْلافَهُ لَهُ حَسَدُوهُ وَعَلِمُوا أنَّ الْمَدِینَهَ تَتَحَفَّظُ بِهِ وَیَنْقَطِعُ طَمَعُهُمْ وَطَمَعُ العَدُوِّ فِیهَا، وَغَبَطُوهُ عَلَی الدَّعَهِ عِنْدَ أَهْلِهِ فَأَرْجَفُوا بِهِ وَقَالوا: إنَّهُ لَمْ یَسْتَخْلِفْهُ إِکْراماً لَهُ وَإجْلالاً، بَلْ إسْتِقْلالاً بِهِ وَاسْتِثْقالاً بِهِ، مَعَ عِلْمِهِمْ بِأَنَّهُ أَحَبُّ النَّاسِ إلَیْهِ. فَلَحِقَ بالنَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَقالَ: إنَّ الْمُنافِقِینَ زَعَمُوا أَنَّکَ خَلَّفْتَنِی إسْتِثْقالاً بِی. فَقالَ: إِرْجِعْ یَا أَخِی إلَی مَکَانِکَ، فَإنَّ الْمَدینَهَ لاَ تَصْلُحُ إلاَّ بِی أوْ بِکَ. فَأَنْتَ خَلِیفَتِی فِی أَهْلِی وَدَارِ

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1- Tarikh Tabari, vol. 3, pp. 103

هِجْرَتِی وَقَوْمِی. أَمَا تَرْضَی أَنْ تَکُونَ مِنِّی بِمَنْزِلَهِ هَارُونَ مِنْ مُوسَی إلاَّ أَنَّهُ لاَ نَبِیَّ بَعْدِی؟

When the Messenger of Allah returned to Medina from Tabuk, Amr ibn Ma’dyakrib Zubaydi came to him. The Holy Prophet spoke to him about belief in God and His messenger, and he too along with his tribe accepted Islam. At this time the man’s eye fell on Ubay ibn Athath Khathami who had killed his father. Taking him by the neck, Amr brought him to the Holy Prophet, saying: This is the killer of my father. Let me punish him with retribution.

The Messenger of Allah said: Bloodshed in the time of ignorance has no value in Islam. Amr who took pride in his belief and had the impression that the Holy Prophet would issue the order of retribution because of his belief, gave up Islam and became an apostate, for his demand had not been met.

The Messenger of Allah sent ‘Ali to the tribe of Amr (Banu-Zubayd) to either arrest or kill him. As soon as the tribesmen saw ‘Ali with his special anger said to Amr: O Bathur, what would you feel if this youth of Quraysh defeats you and you have to pay heavily for your act implying that you will be disgraced among your tribesmen. Amr proudly said: It is in fighting that he will understand who I am and who he is! Saying this, Amr asked for challenger, ‘Ali stood opposite him and made a loud cry.

Hearing ‘Ali’s loud

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cry, Amr left the scene and took to his heels! In the thick of the fight ‘Ali killed Amr’s brother, his nephews, and took his wife and the women of Banu-Zubayd captives. After achieving victory at the end of fighting, ‘Ali returned to Medina, appointing Khalid ibn Sa’id over them to give amnesty to those who embrace Islam and to collect their alms. When peace prevailed, Amr resorted to Khalid, embraced Islam once again and spoke to him about his wife and children, asking for their freedom. Khalid too freed Amr’s wife and children.

When taking the girls of Bani-Zubayd, ‘Ali chose one of those girls for himself but Khalid ibn Walid who was among the army of Islam, because of his rancor against ‘Ali, told Buraydah Aslami to rush to Medina to inform the Messenger of Allah before the arrival Islam’s army. Reaching the house of the Holy Prophet, Khalid saw Umar and informed him of the affair to know his opinion. Umar who was looking for such a chance confirmed his opinion and asked him to go to the Messenger of Allah as soon as possible, thinking that the Holy Prophet would get angry with ‘Ali’s act because of his daughter, Fatimah. Buraydah went to the presence of the Holy Prophet and read Khalid’s letter hoping that he will be angry with ‘Ali’s act.

وَلَمَّا رَجِعَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ مِنْ تَبُوکٍ إلَی المَدِینَهِ وَرَدَ عَلَیْهِ عَمْرُو بْنُ مَعْدِیَکْرُبَ الزُّبَیْدِیُّ فَوَعَظَهُ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَأَسْلَمَ هُوَ

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وَقَوْمُهُ. وَنَظَرَ إلَی ابْنِ عَثْعَثَ الخَثْعَمِیِّ فَأَخَذَ بِرَقَبَتِهِ ثُمَّ جَاءَ بِهِ إلَی النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَقالَ: هَذَا قَتَلَ وَالِدِی. فَقالَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: أَهْدَرَ الإسْلامُ مَا کَانَ فِی الجَاهِلِیَّهِ. فَارْتَدَّ عَمْرٌو فَأَنْفَذَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ أمِیرَ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ إلَی بَنِی زُبَیْدٍ فَلَمَّا رَأَوْهُ قَالوا لِعَمْرٍو: کَیْفَ أَنْتَ یَا أَبَا ثَوْرٍ إذَا لَقِیَکَ هَذَا الغُلامُ القُرَشِیُّ فَأَخَذَ مِنْکَ الإتَاوَهَ؟ فَقالَ: سَیَعْلَمُ أنّی إنْ لَقِینَی. وَخَرَجَ عَمْرٌو وَقالَ: مَنْ یُبَارِزُ؟ فَخَرَجَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَصَاحَ بِهِ فَانْهَزَمَ فَقَتَلَ أَخاهُ وَابْنَ أَخِیهِ وَأَخَذَ امْرَأَتَهُ وَسَبَی مِنْهُمْ نِسْوانٌ کَثیرَهٌ. وَانْصَرَفَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَخَلَّفَ عَلَی بَنِی زُبَیْدٍ خَالِدَ بْنَ سَعِیدٍ لِیَقْبِضَ صَدَقَاتِهِمْ وَیُؤْمِنَ مَنْ یَعُودُ إلَیْهِ مُسْلِماً. فَرَجِعَ عَمْرُو بْنُ مَعْدیَکْرُبَ إلَی خَالِدٍ وَأَسْلَمَ وَکَلَّمَهُ فِی إمْرَأَتِهِ وَأَوْلادِهِ فَوَهَبَهُمْ لَهُ. وَکَانَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ قَدِ إصْطَفَی مِنَ السَّبْیِ جَارِیَهً. فَبَعَثَ خَالِدُ بْنُ الوَلیدِ بُرَیْدَهَ الأسْلَمِیَّ إلَی النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ قَبْلَ الجَیْشِ وَقالَ: أَعْلِمْهُ بِالإصْطِفَاءِ. فَلَمَّا وَصَلَ إلَی بَابِ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ لَقِیَهُ عُمَرُ بْنُ الخَطَّابِ فَحَکَی لَهُ فَقالَ لَهُ: إمْضِ لِمَا جِئْتَ لَهُ، فَإنَّ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ سَیَغْضَبُ لإبْنَتِهِ.

But contrary to his expectation, the Holy Prophet was angry with Khalid’s letter. Although Buraydah noticed how angry the Holy Prophet was in order to realize his objective, he corrected Khalid’s writing, saying: O Messenger of Allah, if you give permission to people to choose whomever they want and whatever property they wish, before the division of booties, there will be a chaos in the division of booties and no

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one can attain his right.

Being angry with Khalid’s letter and Buraydah’s saying, the Messenger of Allah said: O Buraydah, woe to you! Has the dark veil of hypocrisy covered your eyes that you are saying this about ‘Ali? Whatever is permissible for me in booties is also permissible for ‘Ali. That is, in the same way that it is permissible for me to devote a female slave or other property to myself before division of booties, so is it for ‘Ali. Then, he added ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib is the best of people whom I will appoint as successor among my Ummah. Admonishing Buraydah with a short sentence, the Holy Prophet said: Beware not to be hostile to ‘Ali, for you will be hostile to God and God will be hostile to you. Being informed of ‘Ali’s supreme position, Buraydah regretted what he had said, repented and asked for forgiveness.(1)

In the battle of Salsalah, a Bedouin came to the Messenger of Allah saying: A group of Arabs in Wadi al-Raml are intent to invade Medina at night. Addressing his companions, the Messenger of Allah said: Are there enough people to defend? A group of the people of Suffah rose up, saying: O Messenger of Allah, we are prepared to fight them. Assign a commander for us. Another group said the same.

The Messenger of Allah decided to draw lots which fell upon eighty persons. The Messenger of Allah assigned Abu-Bakr as their commander, telling them to move towards the tribe

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1- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, part 2, chap. 46, pp. 150

of Banu-Salim (the invaders) in the heart of Wadi al-Raml. It was not long before Abu-Bakr returned to Medina, defeated and with casualties. Then, he assigned Umar as their commander, gave the banner of Islam to him and sent them to Wadi al-Raml.

This time too, Umar returned to Medina while being defeated. These successive defeats saddened the Holy Prophet. Amr ibn al-As expressing his readiness said: O Messenger of Allah, give this mission to me. The Holy Prophet accepted his request assigning him as the commander of the army but it was not long before that he returned to Medina, defeated while two persons were killed and a number of them were injured.

فَدَخَلَ بُرَیْدَهُ إلَی النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ بِکِتابِ خَالِدِ بْنِ الوَلِیدِ فَجَعَلَ بُرَیْدَهُ یَقْرَأُهُ وَوَجْهُ النَّبِیِّ یَتَغَیَّرُ. وَقالَ بُرَیْدَهُ: یَا رَسولَ اللهِ إنْ رَخَّصْتَ لِلنَّاسِ فِی مِثْلِ هَذَا ذَهَبَ فِیهِمْ. فَقالَ لَهُ النَّبِیّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: وَیْحَکَ یَا بُرَیْدَهُ، أَحْدَثْتَ نِفَاقاً. إنَّ عَلِیَّ بْنَ أَبِی طالِبٍ یَحِلُّ لَهُ مِنَ الْفَیْءِ مَا یَحِلُّ لِی. إنَّ عَلِیَّ بْنَ أَبِی طالِبٍ خَیْرُ النَّاسِ لَکَ وَلِقَوْمِکَ وَخَیْرُ مَنْ أُخَلِّفُهُ بَعْدی لِکَافَّهِ أُمَّتِی. یَا بُرَیْدَهُ إحْذَرْ أَنْ تُبْغِضَ عَلِیَّاً فَیُبْغِضُکَ اللهُ. فَاسْتَغْفَرَ بُرَیْدَهُ.

وَفی غَزاهِ السَّلْسَلَهِ:

جَاءَ أَعْرابِیٌّ إلَی النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَقالَ: إنَّ جَماعَهً مِنَ الْعَرَبِ قَدِ إجْتَمَعوا بِوادِی الرَّمْلِ عَلَی أنْ یُبَیِّتُوکَ بِالمَدِینَهِ. فَقالَ النَّبِیُّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ لأَصْحابِهِ: مَنْ لِهَؤلاءِ؟ فَقَامَ جَماعَهٌ مِنْ أهْلِ الصُّفَّهِ وَقَالوا: نَحْنُ، فَوَلِّ عَلَیْنا مَنْ شِئْتَ. فَأَقْرَعَ بَیْنَهُمْ فَخَرَجَتِ القُرْعَهُ عَلَی ثَمانِینَ رَجُلاً مِنْهُمْ وَمِنْ غَیْرِهِمْ. فَأَمَرَ أَبَا بَکْرٍ أنْ یَأْخُذَ اللِّواءَ وَیَمْضِی

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إلَی بَنِی سُلَیْمٍ وَهُمْ بِبَطْنِ الوَادِی فَهَزَمُوهُ وَقَتَلوا جَمْعاً کَثِیراً مِنَ المُسْلِمینَ وَانْهَزَمَ أَبُو بَکْرٍ. فَعَقَدَ لِعُمَرَ وَبَعَثَهُ فَهَزَمُوهُ، فَسَاءَ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ ذَلِکَ. فَقالَ عَمْرُو بْنُ العَاصِ: إبْعَثْنِی یَا رَسولَ اللهِ. فَأَنْفَذَهُ فَهَزَمُوهُ وَقَتَلوا جَماعَهً مِنْ أَصْحابِهِ وَبَقِیَ النَّبِیُّ

Following the defeat of these people, being depressed and cursing the enemies, the Messenger of Allah called for ‘Ali, entrusted the commandership of the army to him, saw him off to the mosque of Ahzab, and prayed for his victory. As ordered by the Holy Prophet, Abu-Bakr, Umar and Amr ibn al-As accompanied ‘Ali.

Enjoying a special vision and knowing the military tactic, ‘Ali and the army moved forward at the nights and hid themselves at the days till they reached the headquarters of the invaders. Blocking the entrance and exit of the headquarters, they encircled the enemy.

Given the plan and the speedy victory of Muslim, Amr ibn al-As spoke to Abu-Bakr and Umar to dissuade ‘Ali from his skillful military act to deprive him of victory. This suggestion was accepted by Abu-Bakr. So he came to ‘Ali saying: This is the land of ferocious animals and it is harder for us to act than in the enemy’s headquarter. Therefore, we would better to transfer this camp further up to be safe from the enemy and ferocious animals.

‘Ali listened but gave no answer. Abu-Bakr went to Umar and Amr ibn al-As informed them of the case. Amr advised Umar with the same words saying: You speak to

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‘Ali; perhaps he will accept what you say. Umar conveyed the same to ‘Ali but ‘Ali gave no answer and kept silent. Putting the army on alert, ‘Ali launched his heroic attack on the enemy at dawn, made them flee within a short space of time and achieved the victory. Concurrent with the victory of the army of Islam under the leadership of ‘Ali, Gabriel appeared to the Messenger of Allah, reciting to the Holy Prophet the Surah

“I swear by the runners breathing pantingly” (100)

as a sign of victory. Being informed of this victory through revelation, the Messenger of Allah rushed to welcome ‘Ali. Seeing the Holy Prophet, ‘Ali dismounted his horse and hugged him. The Holy Prophet who was extremely happy said: If I was not afraid a group of my followers to say about you what the Christians said about Jesus, the son of Mary, I would say something about you that anytime you pass by people they would take the dust under your feet as a blessing and rub it against their eyes. Now, mount your horse with the honor, for God and His Messenger are pleased with you. As ‘Ali, the great man of history, had an active presence in the battlefields on the order of God and His messenger, he went through trials by tolerating a lot of sufferings and calamities to be worthy of his position.

صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ أیَّاماً یَدْعو عَلَیْهِمْ. ثُمَّ دَعَا بِأمِیرِ الْمُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَبَعَثَهُ إِلَیْهِمْ وَدَعا لَهُ وَخَرَجَ

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مَعَهُ مُشَیِّعاٍ إلَی مَسْجِدِ الأَحْزابِ وَأَنْفَذَ جَماعَهً مَعَهُ مِنْهُمْ أَبُو بَکْرٍ وَعُمَرُ وَعَمْرُو بْنُ العَاصِ. فَسَارَ اللَّیْلَ وَکَمِنَ النَّهارَ حَتَّی إسْتَقْبَلَ مِنْ فَمِهِ. فَلَمْ یَشُکَّ عَمْرُو بْنُ العَاصِ فِی الفَتْحِ لَهُ فَقالَ لأَبِی بَکْرٍ: إنَّ هَذِهِ أَرْضٌ ذاتُ ضِباعٍ وَذِئابٍ وَهِیَ أَشَدُّ عَلَیْنا مِنْ بَنِی سُلَیْمٍ وَالمَصْلَحَهُ أنْ نَعْلُوَ الوَادِی. وَأرَادَ إفْسَادَ الحَالِ وَأَمَرَهُ بِأنْ یَقولَ ذَلِکَ لأمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. فَقالَ لَهُ أَبُو بَکْرٍ فَلَمْ یُجِبْهُ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ بِحَرْفٍ وَاحِدٍ. فَرَجِعَ إِلَیْهِمْ وَقالَ: وَاللهِ مَا أَجَابَنِی حَرْفاً واحِداً. فَقالَ عَمْرُو بْنُ العَاصِ لِعُمَرَ بْنِ الخَطَّابِ: إمْضِ أَنْتَ إلَیْهِ فَخَاطِبْهُ. فَفَعَلَ فَلَمْ یُجِبْ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ بِشَیْءٍ. فَلَمَّا طَلَعَ الفَجْرُ کَبَسَ عَلَی القَوْمِ.

وَنَزَلَ جَبْرَئیلُ عَلَی النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ بِالْحَلْفِ بِخَیْلِهِ فَقالَ: ?وَالْعَادِیَاتِ ضَبْحاً?. فَاسْتَبْشَرَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَاسْتَقْبَلَ عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَنَزَلَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ، وَقالَ لَهُ النَّبِیُّ: لَوْلا أنْ أُشْفِقَ أَنْ تَقُولَ فِیکَ طَوائِفُ مِنْ أُمَّتِی مَا قَالَتِ النَّصَارَی فِِی الْمَسِیحِ لَقُلْتُ فِیکَ الیَوْمَ مَقالاً لاَ تَمُرُّ بِمَلأٍ مِنْهُمْ إلاَّ أَخَذوا التُّرابَ مِنْ تَحْتِ قَدَمَیْکَ. إرْکَبْ فَإنَّ اللهَ وَرَسُولَهُ عَنْکَ رَاضِیَانِ.

Following the departure of the Holy Prophet, Imam ‘Ali spent most of his lifetime in wars.(1)

In the battle of camel, Talhah and Zubayr breached their homage to Imam ‘Ali, the Commander of the Faithful.(2) Before people had pledged their allegiance to ‘Ali, A’ishah in Medina repeatedly provoked people to kill Uthman. She is said to be the only person who was severely opposing Uthman’s behavior. She used to rally people to kill Uthman.

Her habitual phrase was: Kill Na’thal!(3) May Allah kill

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1- Imam ‘Ali submitted to the Holy Prophet’s order and tolerated further sufferings in fighting the companions of camel, the companions of Mu’awiyah and those who fought against him in Nahrawan with the difference that at the time of the Holy Prophet, he was considered as a devoted soldier of Islam but after the passing away of the Holy Prophet, he would fight those who were against the interpretation of the Holy Qur’an.
2- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, part 2, chap. 46, pp. 150
3- Na’thal is the name of a notorious Jew man who was known for his evil and infidelity. A’ishah therefore likened Uthman to this evil person.

him. These garments of the Messenger of Allah have not yet grown old; nevertheless, Uthman has rotten the Prophet’s tradition. Following successive warnings, she left Medina for Mecca as a sign of protest. However, after the killing of Uthman, she speedily decided to return to Medina to achieve her goal. On her way to Medina, she was told that following Uthman’s killing, people pledged allegiance with ‘Ali. So she changed her route and went back to Mecca speaking of the unfair killing of Uthman and saying: I will revenge myself on ‘Ali for the unfair killing of Uthman!(1)

Talhah and Zubayr left Medina and asked permission of Imam ‘Ali, the Commander of the Faithful, to go on Umrah. Knowing their true aim(2), Imam ‘Ali addressed them in this way: By God, you are not going on Umrah; rather, you are going on conspiracy.(3) At any rate, Talhah and Zubayr headed for Mecca. Having reached there, they met with A’ishah and persuaded her to leave for Basrah for fighting against Imam ‘Ali.

Imam ‘Ali prepared himself to travel after them and he wrote a letter to A’ishah and the other two, asking them to refrain from doing what God would not accept and to return to their allegiance to him. But they did not accept the Imam’s advice. At this time, ‘Ali raised his hands towards the heaven and cursed them, saying: O Lord! This is Talhah ibn Ubaydullah who put his hand in my hand with his heart’s consent and pledged

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1- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 238
2- Talhah and Zubayr who did not see their objective materialized seeing that ‘Ali was rightfully elected as a caliph, were looking for a chance to create a riot to rise against ‘Ali’s nascent rule in the form of a united group. It was known that ‘ª’ishah had chosen Mecca as a center for her activity aimed at revenging herself on ‘Ali for the so-called wronged caliph. She provoked unaware people against ‘Ali. Talhah and Zubayr too took advantage of people’s respect for ‘ª’ishah, the messenger’s wife, launched poisoned propaganda and set out for Mecca. To justify their politico-religious position, they first came to Imam ‘Ali, to get permission to go on a minor Hajj!
3- The main goal of these two was to hatch a plot and to challenge Imam ‘Ali’s nascent rule.

allegiance to me and then broke it. Take my revenge on him! O Lord! Zubayr ibn Awwam broke his ties of relationship with me, took back his allegiance with me, showed blatant hostility to me and waged war against me while he knows he has been unjust to me. O Lord! Take his evil away from me as You consider proper.(1) The two armies lined up and armed themselves. Wearing a shirt and cloak and having a black turban on his head, ‘Ali stood between the two armies, calling Zubayr with a loud voice.

وَأمَّا بَعْدَ وَفاهِ الرَّسُولِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَإنَّهُ ابْتُلِیَ أَکْثَرَ عُمْرِهِ بِالْحُرُوبِ أیْضاً.

فَفِی وَقْعَهِ الْجَمَلِ نَکَثَ طَلْحَهُ وَالزُّبَیْرُ بَیْعَتَهُما لأمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. وَکَانَتْ عائِشَهُ بِالْمَدِینَهِ تُحَرِّضُ النَّاسَ عَلَی قَتْلِ عُثْمانَ وَتَقُولُ: أُقْتُلُوا نَعْثَلاً! قَتَلَ اللهُ نَعْثَلاً، فَلَقَدْ أَبْلَی سُنَّهَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَهَذِهِ ثِیَابُهُ لَمْ تُبَلَّ. وَخَرَجَتْ إلَی مَکَّهَ وَقُتِلَ عُثْمانُ وَعَادَتْ إلَی بَعْضِ الطَّرِیقِ فَسَمِعَتْ بِقَتْلِهِ وَأنَّهُمْ بَایَعُوا عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. فَرَجِعَتْ وَقَالَتْ: لأَطْلُبَنَّ بِدَمِهِ.

وَخَرَجَ طَلْحَهُ وَالزُّبَیْرُ مِنَ الْمَدِینَهِ فَأَظْهَرا إرَادَهَ العُمْرَهِ وَاسْتَأْذَنا أمِیرَ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. فَقالَ: وَاللهِ مَا تُرِیدانِ العُمْرَهَ بَلِ الغَدْرَهَ. فَلَمَّا وَصَلا مَکَّهَ إلَی عَائِشَهَ أَخْرَجَاهَا إلَی البَصْرَهِ. وَتَرَحَّلَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ بِطَلَبِهِمْ وَکَتَبَ إلَیْهِمَا وَإلَی عَائِشَهَ بِالرُّجُوعِ عَمَّا یَکْرَهُهُ اللهُ تَعالَی وَالدُّخُولِ فِی مَا عَاهَدَاهُ بِهِ فَامْتَنَعُوا. فَرَفَعَ یَدَیْهِ إلَی السَّمَاءِ وَقالَ: اللَّهُمَّ إنَّ طَلْحَهَ بْنَ عُبَیْدِ اللهِ أَعْطانِی صَفْقَهً بِیَمینِهِ طائِعاً ثُمَّ نَکَثَ بَیْعَتِی. اللَّهُمَّ فَعَاجِلْهُ وَلا تُمْهِلْهُ. وإنَّ الزُّبَیْرَ بْنَ العَوَّامِ قَطَعَ قَرابَتِی وَنَکَثَ عَهْدی وَظَاهَرَ عَدُوِّی وَنَصَبَ الْحَرْبَ لِی وَهُوَ یَعْلَمُ أنَّهُ

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1- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 239

ظالِمٌ. اللَّهُمَّ فَاکْفِنِیهِ کَیْفَ شِئْتَ وَأَنَّی شِئْتَ. ثُمَّ تَصَافُّوا وَتَقَارَبُوا لابِسِی الأَسْلِحَهِ وَأمِیرُ الْمُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ بَیْنَ الصَّفَیْنِ عَلَیْهِ

Hearing his name, Zubayr came to ‘Ali who said: What is the reason for your presence in this riot? Why are you drawing sword against me? Zubayr said: To avenge Uthman’s blood! Imam ‘Ali said: You and your aides have killed Uthman. Therefore take revenge on yourself. By the motto “there is no god but Him”, do you remember the day the Holy Prophet (S) said to you: Do you love ‘Ali and you said: Yes, indeed why should I not love him? He is my cousin.

The Messenger of Allah said: It will not be long before you rebel against him while you are unjust and he is just. Zubayr said: I very well remember that! Then Imam ‘Ali said: For the sake of God, do you remember the day the Messenger of Allah and you while your hand was in his hand were coming from the house of Abd al-Rahman ibn Auf, I rushed to welcome the Messenger of Allah and greeted him. He smiled at me and I smiled at him. You said: The son of Abu-Talib does not stop taking pride in himself! The Messenger of Allah said: Zubayr! Calm down. ‘Ali does not take pride in himself. It will not be long when you will rise against him while you are unjust and he is just.

Zubayr said: Yes, it was so. You reminded me of what I

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had forgotten! So it is not late to give up fighting you. I would not take part in this riot if I remembered it. Saying this, Zubayr went to A’ishah. His son Abdullah said: What has happened? Zubayr said: ‘Ali reminded me of what the Messenger of Allah had said about him and I had forgotten. So I do not consider fighting against him fair. Abdullah said: This is not the whole story. You fear the sword of ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib!

Getting angry with his son, Zubayr attacked the army. ‘Ali said: Give him a chance of maneuver, for he does not mean to fight rather he wishes to show his combat capability to his son. Zubayr went out of ‘Ali’s army with a courageous move. Addressing his son, Zubayr said: Did you see what I did? Does a timid person display such a pomp and power? I would not have done so if I had feared. He then went through the lines of his army and joined a group of Banu-Tamim tribe outside the city of Basrah. This act of Zubayr was heavy for Amr ibn Jurmuz Mujashi’i, a member of the tribe who was aware of Basrah riot. So he killed Zubayr in sleep though Zubayr was his guest. Hence, Imam ‘Ali’s prayer about him was answered.(1)

قَمیصٌ وَرِداءٌ وَعَلَی رَأْسِهِ عِمامَهٌ سَوْداءُ. فَلَمَّا رَأی أنَّهُ لاَ بُدَّ مِنَ الحَرْبِ نَادَی بِأَعْلَی صَوْتِهِ: أیْنَ الزُّبَیْرُ بْنُ العَوَّامِ فَلْیَخْرُجْ إلَیَّ؟ فَخَرَجَ إلَیْهِ وَدَنَا مِنْهُ. فَقالَ لَهُ: یَا أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ مَا

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1- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 240

حَمَلَکَ عَلَی مَا صَنَعْتَ؟ فَقالَ: الطَّلَبُ بِدَمِ عُثْمانَ. فَقالَ: أَنْتَ وَأَصْحَابُکَ قَتَلْتُمُوهُ فَیَجِبُ عَلَیْکَ أنْ تَقیدَ مِنْ نَفْسِکَ. وَلَکِنْ أُنْشِدُکَ اللهَ الَّذِی لاَ إلَهَ إلاَّ هُوَ أمَا تَذْکُرُ یَوْماً قَالَ لَکَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: یَا زُبَیْرُ أَتُحِبُّ عَلِیَّاً؟ فَقُلْتُ: وَما یَمْنَعُنِی مِنْ حُبِّهِ وَهُوَ ابْنُ خَالِی؟ فَقالَ لَکَ: أمَا إنَّکَ لَتَخْرُجُ عَلَیْهِ یَوْماً وَأَنْتَ ظَالِمٌ لَهُ. فَقالَ الزُّبَیْرُ: اللَّهُمَّ بَلَی. فَقَدْ کَانَ ذَلِکَ. فَقالَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: فَأُنْشِدُکَ اللهَ أمَا تَذْکُرُ یَوْماً جَاءَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ مِنْ عِنْدِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ عَوْفٍ وَأَنْتَ مَعَهُ وَهُوَ آخِذٌ بِیَدِکَ فَاسْتَقْبَلْتُهُ أنَا فَسَلَّمْتُ فَضَحِکَ فِی وَجْهِی وَضَحِکْتُ أنَا لَهُ فَقُلْتَ أَنْتَ: لاَ یَدَعُ ابْنُ أَبِی طَالِبٍ زَهْوَهُ أَبَداً. فَقالَ لَکَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَهْلاً یَا زُبَیْرُ، فَلَیْسَ بِهِ زَهْوٌ وَلَتَخْرُجَنَّ عَلَیْهِ یَوْماً وَأَنْتَ ظَالِمٌ لَهُ. فَقالَ الزُّبَیْرُ: اللَّهُمَّ بَلَی وَلَکِنّی أُنْسِیتُ، وَأمَّا إذْ ذَکَّرْتَنِی ذَلِکَ فَلأَنْصَرِفَنَّ عَنْکَ، وَلَوْ ذَکَرْتُ هَذَا لَمَا خَرَجْتُ عَلَیْکَ. ثُمَّ رَجِعَ إلَی عَائِشَهَ. فَقالَ لَهُ ابْنُهُ: مَا رَدَّ بِکَ؟ فَقالَ: أَذْکَرَنِی حَدِیثاً مِنْ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فِی حَقِّهِ کُنْتُ أُنْسِیتُهُ. فَقالَ لَهُ: بَلْ جَبُنْتَ وَخِفْتَ مِنْ سُیُوفِ ابْنِ أَبِی طَالِبٍ. فَرَجَعَ مُغْضِباً إلَی صَفِّ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ لِلْقِتَالِ، فَقالَ أَمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: أَفْرِجُوا لَهُ، فَإنَّهُ مُحْرَجٌ. فَدَخَلَ فِی الصَّفِّ وَخَرَجَ، وَقالَ لِوَلَدِهِ: رَأَیْتَ مَا صَنَعْتُ. لَوْ کُنْتُ خَائِفاً مَا فَعَلْتُ ذَلِکَ؟ ثُمَّ شَقَّ الصُّفُوفَ وَخَرَجَ مِنْ بَیْنِهِمْ وَنَزَلَ عَلَی قَوْمٍ مِنْ بَنِی تَمیمٍ، فَقَامَ إلَیْهِ عَمْرُو بْنُ جُرْمُوزٍ الْمُجَاشِعِیُّ فَقَتَلَهُ حینَ نَوْمِهِ، وَکَانَ فِی ضِیافَتِهِ. فَنَفِذَتْ فِیهِ دَعْوَهُ أمِیر المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ.

As for Talhah, the warmonger, when he

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was fighting, suddenly an arrow hit him in the leg and he died immediately. Then the fighting began with intensity.(1)

At this time a man by the name of Abdullah who was one of the rioters of the battle of camel, parading between two armies said: Where is Abul Hasan? Standing in front of him, ‘Ali attacked on him and cut off his shoulder with one blow of sword. Abdullah died immediately. Then another man blocked the way to ‘Ali, challenging him. With a slight attack and the blow ‘Ali struck on his face, half of the man’s head was cut off. He died too immediately.

Thereafter, ibn Abi-Khalaf Khuza’i was prepared for fighting, saying: O ‘Ali, do you like to fight me? ‘Ali said: I do not reject it but woe to you! What comfort do you seek in death though you know who I am? He said: O son of Abu-Talib, put aside this pride of yours in battles and come closer to me to see who will kill who! ‘Ali directed his horse towards him. Abdullah tried to strike a blow but ‘Ali repelled it with his special skill and cut off his right hand with the first blow of sword and cut off his head with the second blow. He too died immediately.

When the fighting intensified, ‘Ali ordered to hamstring the camel of A’ishah and the camel fell down on the earth. In this bloody battle, started by A’ishah, sixteen thousand seven hundred and ninety persons of

p: 176


1- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 241

her thirty thousand strong army were killed and out of ‘Ali’s twenty thousand strong army, only one thousand and seventy persons accompanying Imam ‘Ali were martyred.(1)

In this battle, a man by the name of Mikhraq ibn Abd al-Rahman from Mu’awiyah’s army entered the battle, asking for a challenger. From ‘Ali’s army, a man by the name of Mu’ammal ibn Ubayd Muradi responded and stood before him. The man from Syria martyred him. Then, a youth from the tribe of Azd fought him and he was martyred too. At this time ‘Ali stood before him as a disguised man and killed him. Another rider came to the battlefield but he was killed too. Fighting continued till the seventh man from the army of Mu’awiyah was killed. Seeing the killed persons, the army of Syria left the battlefield but ‘Ali remained in the battlefield unknown.

To boost the morale of his army, Mu’awiyah ordered his slave whose name was Harb and unrivaled in bravery, to prepare himself for fighting against the lone rider of the battlefield and to kill him! The slave who had seen the killing of several men said to Mu’awiyah: Beyond doubt, he will kill me but you can opt for sending me to the battlefield to be killed or keeping me for harder days. Mu’awiyah accepted the slave’s suggestion and said: Stop for the moment. ‘Ali remained in the battlefield, waiting for a challenger. Finding that he had no challenger, ‘Ali returned to his army camp.(2)

وَأمَّا طَلْحَهُ فَجَاءَهُ سَهْمٌ

p: 177


1- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 242
2- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 246

وَهُوَ قَائِمٌ لِلْقِتالِ فَقَتَلَهُ. ثُمَّ إلْتَحَمَ القِتَالُ.

فَتَقَدَّمَ رَجُلٌ یُقالُ لَهُ عَبْدُ اللهِ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ الْجَمَلِ فَجَالَ بَیْنَ الصُّفُوفِ وَقالَ: أیْنَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ؟ فَخَرَجَ إلَیْهِ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَشَدَّ عَلَیْهِ وَضَرَبَهُ بِالسَّیْفِ فَأَسْقَطَ عَاتِقَهُ وَوَقَعَ قَتِیلاً. ثُمَّ خَرَجَ رَجُلٌ وَتَعَرَّضَ لِعَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَخَرَجَ إلَیْهِ وَضَرَبَهُ عَلَی وَجْهِهِ فَسَقَطَ نِصْفُ قُحْفِ رَأْسِهِ. ثُمَّ خَرَجَ ابْنُ أَبِی خَلَفٍ الخُزاعِیُّ وَقالَ: هَلْ لَکَ یَا عَلِیُّ فِی المُبارَزَهِ؟ فَقالَ عَلِیٌّ: مَا أَکْرَهُ ذَلِکَ وَلَکِنْ وَیْحَکَ یَا بْنَ أَبِی خَلَفٍ، مَا رَاحَتُکَ فِی القَتْلِ وَقَدْ عَلِمْتَ مَنْ أنَا؟ فَقالَ: ذَرْنِی یَا بْنَ أَبِی طَالِبٍ مِنْ کِبَرِکَ وَادْنُ مِنّی لِتَرَی أیَّنَا یَقْتُلُ صَاحِبَهُ. فَثَنَّی عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ عِنَانَ فَرَسِهِ إلَیْهِ فَبَدَرَهُ ابْنُ أَبِی خَلَفٍ بِضَرْبَهٍ فَأَخَذَها أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فِی الجُحْفَهِ ثُمَّ عَطَفَ عَلَیْهِ فَقَطَعَ یَمِینَهُ ثُمَّ ثَنَّی فَأَطارَ قُحْفَ رَأْسِهِ. وَاسْتَعَرَتِ الحَرْبُ حَتَّی عُقِرَ الجَمَلُ وَسَقَطَ. وَکَانَ عِدَّهُ مَنْ قُتِلَ مِنْ جُنْدِ الجَمَلِ سِتَّهَ عَشَرَ ألفاً وَسِتَّمِائَهٍ وَتِسْعِینَ وَکانُوا ثَلاثینَ ألْفاً. وَمِنْ أصْحَابِ أمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ ألَفاً وَسَبْعینَ رَجُلاً وَکَانوا عِشْرینَ ألْفاً.

وَفِی وَقْعَهِ صِفِّینَ خَرَجَ مِنْ عَسْکَرِ مُعاوِیَهَ المِخْرَاقُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ وَطَلَبَ البِرازَ، فَخَرَج إلَیْهِ مِنْ عَسْکَرِ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ المُؤمَّلُ بْنُ عُبَیْدِ اللهِ المُرادِیُّ، فَقَتَلَهُ الشَّامِیُّ. فَخَرَجَ فَتًی مِنَ الأزْدِ، فَقَتَلَهُ الشَّامِیُّ فَتَنَکَّرَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَخَرَجَ، وَالشَّامِیُّ یَطْلُبُ البِرازَ فَقَتَلَهُ. ثُمَّ خَرَجَ فارِسٌ فَقَتَلَهُ وَهَکَذا حَتَّی قَتَلَ سَبْعَهً، فَأَحْجَمَ عَنْهُ النَّاسُ وَلَمْ یَعْرِفوهُ. فَقالَ

Sometime later, another brave man of the army of Syria by the name of Kurayb ibn Sabbah entered the battlefield and asked for challenger. Mubarqa Jawlani, one of ‘Ali’s aides went to fight him but he

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was martyred in this hand to hand fighting. Another struggler faced him but he was martyred too. This time, ‘Ali entered the battlefield for a hand to hand fighting saying: Spare your life and fear God. Kurayb said: Who are you? The answer was: I am ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib. Kurayb said: come closer. ‘Ali stood opposite him. Blows of sword were exchanged between them but it was not long before ‘Ali sent him to hell with a speedy blow of his sword. Another man from the army of Mu’awiyah replaced Kurayb but after a few moments, he was killed too. The third and fourth men came to the battlefield but they were killed by ‘Ali one after the other.

At this time, Amir al-Mu’minin sent a message to Mu’awiyah saying: Let us fight each other and put an end to the battle so no more Arabs are killed from the two sides. Mu’awiyah said: Forget about this request, for I will never fight you. At this time, Urwah ibn Dawud, one the army leaders of Syria, who had a desire to fight ‘Ali entered the battlefield and proudly said: O ‘Ali! If Mu’awiyah is not willing to fight you I am prepared to fight you. He had hardly finished saying these words when ‘Ali struck a blow on him with his sword and killed him. With the coming of evening, the army of Syria left the battlefield.(1)

Being disguised, ‘Ali came to the battlefield the following day and asked for a challenger.

p: 179


1- Waq’at Siffin, pp. 315,458

To obtain an honor in the army of Syria, the tricky Amr ibn al-As accepted the challenge, for he did not know who the challenger was. Knowing him well and in order to keep him away from the army, ‘Ali speedily moved away from before him. Amr chased him but soon found out that it was ‘Ali. So he decided to flee the scene but this time ‘Ali chased him, throwing a spear at him which hit his cuirass. Amr fell off his horse and seeing himself in the claws of death, unveiled his private parts. So ‘Ali turned his face away from him.

مُعَاوِیَهُ لِعَبْدٍ لَهُ یُقالُ لَهُ حَرْباً وَکَانَ شُجاعاً: أُخْرُجْ إلَی هَذَا الفَارِسِ فَاکْفِنِی أمْرَهُ. فَقالَ أنَا أَعْلَمُ أنَّهُ سَیَقْتُلُنِی فَإنْ شِئْتَ خَرَجْتُ إلَیْهِ وَإنْ شِئْتَ فَاسْتَبْقِنِی لِغَیْرِهِ. فَقالَ لَهُ: لاَ تَخْرُجْ. ثُمَّ رَجَعَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ حَیْثُ لَمْ یَخْرُجْ إلَیْهِ أَحَدٌ إلَی عَسْکَرِهِ فَخَرَجَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ أبْطالِ الشَّامِ اسْمُهُ کُرَیْبُ بْنُ الصَّبَّاحِ یَطْلُبُ البِرازَ فَخَرَجَ إلَیْهِ المُبَرْقَعُ الجَوْلانِیُّ فَقَتَلَهُ الشَّامِیُّ. وَخَرَجَ إلَیْهِ آخَرُ فَقَتَلَهُ أیْضاً. فَخَرَجَ إلَیْهِ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَقالَ لَهُ: إتَّقِ اللهَ وَاحْفَظْ نَفْسَکَ. قَالَ: مَنْ أَنْتَ؟ قَالَ: أنَا عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طالِبٍ. قَالَ: ادْنُ مِنّی. فَمَشَی إلَیْهِ فَاخْتَلَفا بِضَرْبَتَیْنِ فَبَدَرَهُ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَقَتَلَهُ. فَخَرَجَ إلَیْهِ آخَرُ فَقَتَلَهُ حَتَّی قَتَلَ أرْبَعَهً مِنَ الأبْطالِ.

ثُمَّ قَالَ: یَا مُعَاوِیَهُ هَلُمَّ إلَی مُبارَزَتِی وَلا تَقْتُلِ العَرَبَ بَیْنَنا. فَقالَ مُعَاوِیَهُ: لاَ حَاجَهَ لِی فِی ذَلِکَ. فَخَرَجَ عُرْوَهُ بْنُ دَاوُدَ فَقالَ: یَا عَلِیُّ إنْ کَانَ مُعَاوِیَهُ قَدْ کَرِهَ مُبارَزَتَکَ فَهَلُمَّ إلَی مُبارَزَتِی. فَضَرَبَهُ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَوَقَعَ قَتیلاً.

ثُمَّ جَاءَ

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اللَّیْلُ وَخَرَجَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ یَوْماً آخَرَ مُتَنَکِّراً وَطَلَبَ البِرازَ فَخَرَجَ إلَیْهِ عَمْرُو بْنُ العَاصِ وَهُوَ لاَ یَعْلَمُ أنَّهُ عَلِیٌّ. وَعَرَفَهُ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَاطَّرَدَ بَیْنَ یَدَیْهِ لِیُبْعِدَهُ عَنْ عَسْکَرِهِ فَتَبِعَهُ عَمْرٌو ثُمَّ عَرِفَهُ فَوَلّی رَاکِضاً فَلَحِقَهُ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَطَعَنَهُ فَوَقَعَ الرُّمْحُ فِی فُضُولِ دِرْعِهِ فَسَقَطَ وَخَشِیَ أنْ یَقْتُلَهُ فَرَفَعَ رِجْلَیْهِ فَبَدَتْ سَوْءَتُهُ فَصَرَفَ

Taking the opportunity, Amr rose up immediately and took to his heels. ‘Ali too returned to his army camp. Amr who had escaped death, rejoicingly went back to Mu’awiyah finding him laughing. Amr said: By God, if what happened to me had happened to you, you would have been struck with ‘Ali’s sword, your children would have been made orphans and your property would have been looted! Mu’awiyah said: What you are saying is right but your shameless act will remain in history forever.(1)

Busr ibn Arta’ah was one of the most evil men in the army of Mu’awiyah and he had a rancor against ‘Ali. He was impudent in committing sin and in disobeying God. Hearing that ‘Ali had challenged Mu’awiyah, Busr said: I will fight him. Coming to the battlefield, he stood opposite ‘Ali who attacked him immediately making Busr fall from his horse.

Seeing himself in the claws of death, like Amr ibn al-As, Busr too raised his legs, unveiling his private parts. ‘Ali turned his face away from him. Taking the opportunity, Busr fled from the battlefield. Mu’awiyah who was closely watching this scene burst into laughter. Amid this, a brave youth

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1- Waq’at Siffin, pp. 407,424

of Kufah cried loudly: Shame on you O shameless people who instead of fighting in the battlefield unveil your private parts like what Amr ibn As did.(1)

In Laylat al-Harir when the army men of Mu’awiyah were howling like dogs from the intensity of war, ‘Ali was present in the battlefield and every time he killed an army man of Mu’awiyah, he would loudly say: Allah is the Greatest. At that night the number of Takbir amounted to five hundred and twenty three. At that night six thousand men were killed till dawn.(2)

Following that historic night, ‘Ali’s companions saw victory of their army before their eyes. To conclude the affairs, Malik Ashtar together with ‘Ali’s army launched a lightning attack, chasing Mu’awiyah’s army and pushed them back to their army camp. Seeing this scene, Amr ibn As was sure that the war would end in favor of ‘Ali. For this reason, he went to Mu’awiyah to think of a solution, saying: We would better put up the books of Qur’an and invite them to arbitration! Praising this suggestion, Mu’awiyah immediately ordered the army to put up the books of Qur’an on the spears. The reciters of the Qur’an gave up fighting saying: We will not fight the Qur’an. We should give in to the verdict of the Qur’an.

أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ عَنْهُ وَجْهَهُ وَانْصَرَفَ إلَی عَسْکَرِهِ. وَجاءَ عَمْرٌو إلَی مُعَاوِیَهَ فَضَحِکَ مِنْهُ. قَالَ: مِمَّ تَضْحَکُ؟ وَاللهِ لَوْ بَدا لِعَلِیٍّ مِنْ صَفْحَتِکَ مَا بَدا لَهُ مِنْ صَفْحَتِی إذاً لأَوْجَعَ قِذالَکَ وَأَیْتَمَ عِیالَکَ

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1- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 250
2- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 253

وَانْتَهَبَ مَالَکَ. فَقالَ مُعَاوِیَهُ: لَکِنْ حَصَلَتْ لَکَ فَضیحَهُ الأَبَدِ.

وَکَانَ بُسْرُ بْنُ أرْطَأَهَ مِنْ أصْحَابِ مُعَاوِیَه مِنْ شَرِّ النَّاسِ وَأَقْدَمِهِمْ عَلَی مَعاصِی اللهِ، لَمَّا سَمِعَ طَلَبَ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ مُبارَزَهَ مُعَاوِیَهَ قَالَ: أنَا أَخْرُجُ إلَیْهِ. فَخَرَجَ فَحَمَلَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ عَلَیْهِ فَسَقَطَ بُسْرٌ عَنْ فَرَسِهِ عَلَی قِفَاهُ وَرَفَعَ رِجْلَیْهِ فَانْکَشَفَتْ سَوْءَتُهُ فَرَجَعَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ عَنْهُ وَضَحِکَ مُعَاوِیَهُ وَصَاحَ فَتًی مِنْ أهْلِ الکُوفَهِ: وَیْلَکُمْ یَا أَهْلَ الشَّامِ! أمَا تَسْتَحُونَ؟ لَقَدْ عَلَّمَکُمُ ابْنُ العَاصِ کَشْفَ الأَسْتاهِ الحُرُوبَ. وَفی لَیْلَهِ الهَریرِ بَاشَرَ الْحَرْبَ بِنَفْسِهِ خَاصَّهً وَکَانَ کُلَّما قَتَلَ قَتیلاً کَبَّرَ، فَعُدَّ تَکْبِیرُهُ فَبَلَغَ خَمْسَمِائَهٍ وَثَلاثاً وَعِشْرینَ تَکْبیرَهً وَعُدَّ قَتْلی الفَریقَیْنِ فِی صَبیحَهِ تِلْکَ اللَّیْلَهِ فَبَلَغَتْ سِتَّهً وَثلاثِینَ ألْفَ قَتیلٍ. وَاسْتَظْهَرَ حِینَئِذٍ أصْحَابُ أمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَزَحَفَ مَالِکُ الأَشْتَرُ حَتَّی أَلْجَأَهُمْ إلَی مُعَسْکَرِهِمْ. فَلَمَّا رَأَی عَمْرُو بْنُ العَاصِ الْحَالَ قَالَ لِمُعَاوِیَهَ:

Being aware of Amr’s trick, ‘Ali said: This trick belongs to Amr, for they have never acted according to the Holy Qur’an. Nevertheless, the blind-hearted hypocrites who were among ‘Ali’s army and looking for a chance of sabotage, ignored ‘Ali’s advice, saying: We will not fight anymore. The Qur’an’s verdict should rule between us and this group. They also said: Tell Malik to stop fighting or we will submit you the people of Syria or we will kill you right here! ‘Ali sent one of his companions to inform the case to Malik who was then fighting and witnessing the victory.

Malik too sent a message saying: It is not the right time for me to return, for I wish to bring

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the fighting to a conclusion. ‘Ali sent a message again saying: They will either kill me or surrender me to Mu’awiyah if you do not return. So Malik sorrowfully came back to ‘Ali, swearing at ignorant reciters but the die was cast and the war had not come to a conclusion.(1)

Saddened by this unexpected event, ‘Ali turned to the army of Syria, saying: Why have you put Books of Qur’an on the spears? They said: To invite you to the verdict of the Qur’an, to choose a man from among us and a man from among you to sit and exchange views on caliphate and make a decision on choosing a rightful caliph. Being aware of this trick, ‘Ali informed his aides of the plot and the intention of the deviators of Syria under the guise of acting according to the Holy Qur’an. But this time too, they ignored ‘Ali, forcing him to accept arbitration.

Mu’awiyah appointed Amr ibn As as arbitrator who represented the people of Syria. Imam ‘Ali too appointed Abdullah Ibn Abbas but regretfully the people of Kufah rejected him. Imam ‘Ali said: Choose Abul Aswad Du’’Ali then! They said: No, we will choose Abu-Musa Ash’ari as our representative! Imam ‘Ali said: But this man is naïve and ignorant. Besides, he has no inclination towards us. They said: We do not accept anyone but Abu-Musa! So they chose him as their representative.

نَرْفَعُ الْمَصَاحِفَ وَنَدْعُوهُمْ إلَی کِتابِ اللهِ تَعالَی. فَقالَ مُعَاوِیَهُ: أَصَبْتَ. وَرَفَعُوهَا فَرَجَعَ القُرَّاءُ عَنِ القِتالِ. فَقالَ أمِیرُ

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1- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 253

المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: إنَّها خَدِیعَهُ عَمْرِو بْنِ العَاصِ، لَیْسوا مِنْ رِجالِ القُرْآنِ. فَلَمْ یَقْبَلوا وَقَالوا: لاَ بُدَّ أنْ تَرُدَّ الأَشْتَرَ وإلاّ قَتَلْناکَ أَوْ سَلَّمْناکَ إِلَیْهِمْ. فَأَنْفَذَ یَطْلُبُ الأَشْتَرَ فَقالَ: قَدْ أَشْرَفْتُ عَلَی الفَتْحِ وَلَیْسَ وَقْتَ طَلَبِی. فَعَرَّفَهُ اخْتِلالَ أصْحابِهِ وَأنَّهُ إنْ لَمْ یَرْجِعْ قَتَلُوهُ أوْ سَلَّمُوهُ إلَی مُعَاوِیَه. فَرَجَعَ وَعَنَّفَ القُرَّاءَ وَضَرَبَ وَجْهَ دَوَابِّهِمْ فَلَمْ یَرْجِعوا. فَوَضَعَتِ الحَرْبُ أوْزارَهَا.

فَقالَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: لِماذَا رَفَعْتُمُ المَصَاحِفَ؟ فَقَالُوا: لِلدُّعاءِ إلَی العَمَلِ بِمَضْمُونِهَا وَأَنْ نُقیمَ حَکَماً وَتُقِیمُوا حَکَماً یَنْظُرانِ فِی هَذَا الأَمْرِ وَیُقِرَّانِ الحَقَّ مَقَرَّهُ. فَعَرَّفَهُمْ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ مَا اشْتَمَلَ طَلَبُهُمْ مِنَ الخِداعِ فَلَمْ یَسْمَعوا وَأَلْزَمُوهُ بِالتَّحْکیمِ. فَعَیَّنَ مُعَاوِیَهُ عَمْرَو بْنَ العَاصِ وَعَیَّنَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ عَبْدَ اللهِ بْنَ العَبَّاسِ فَلَمْ یُوافِقُوا. قَالَ: فَأَبُو الأسْوَدِ. فَأَبَوْا وَاخْتَارُوا أَبَا مُوسَی الأَشْعَرِیَّ. فَقالَ: أَبُو مُوسَی مُسْتَضْعَفٌ وَهَواهُ مَعَ غَیْرِنا. فَقَالُوا: لاَ بُدَّ مِنْهُ. وَحَکَّمُوهُ فَخَدَعَ عَمْرُو بْنُ العَاصِ أَبَا مُوسَی وحَمَلَهُ عَلَی خَلْعِ

Amr ibn As instigated another plot, suggesting to Abu-Musa: What has afflicted the people of Kufah and Syria come from ‘Ali and Mu’awiyah. We, the representatives of these people should now oust these two from caliphate and choose a trustworthy person as caliph. The ignorant Abu-Musa accepted this trick and praised his decision!

Being sure of what Abu-Musa had said, Amr ibn As said: As you are a respectable old man and your knowledge of Islam is more, you oust ‘Ali first and then I will oust Mu’awiyah. Abu-Musa complied with what Amr ibn al-As suggested, saying: Now it is your turn to oust Mu’awiyah! Amr ibn al-As rose up

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and said: O people, you are witnessing that Abu-Musa ousted ‘Ali from caliphate and that is what I desire. But I establish Mu’awiyah in the seat of caliphate. The ignorant Abu-Musa found out that he had been tricked. Se he started swearing at him. Amr too swore at Abu-Musa. They cursed each other but the die was cast.(1)

In this battle, Abul Yaqzan Ammar ibn Yasir was martyred. He is the one about whom, the Messenger of Allah had said: Ammar is the apple of my eye and he will be killed by a rebellious group.(2) The killer of Ammar is Abu-Ariyah Muzani who cast down his spear with humiliation and ibn Juni Saksaki beheaded him. Ammar was 94 years old then.(3)

Speaking about Ammar’s merit, Abu-Sa’id Khidri reports: When Masjid al-Nabi was being built in Medina, we, the companions of the Messenger of Allah, would carry one mud brick each but Ammar carried two mud bricks. Once messenger of Allah passed by him and removed the dust from his hand and face, saying to him: O Ammar, like others carry one mud brick. Ammar said: O Messenger of Allah! I am seeking nearness to Allah with it. Once again, he was faced with the Messenger of Allah who removed dust from his head and face, saying: A rebellious group will kill you, while you are inviting them to paradise and they are inviting you to fire.(4)

Alqamah and Aswad report: To probe the presence of Abu-Ayyub Ansari alongside ‘Ali and his

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1- Tarikh Tabari, vol. 5, pp. 51,70
2- Sahih Muslim, vol. 4, No. 2916
3- Tabaqat, ibn Sa’d, vol. 3, pp. 258,561
4- Tarikh Tabari, vol. 5, pp. 41

participation in the battles of camel and Siffin, we went to his house. After entering the house, we said: God Almighty blessed you when the Holy Prophet first entered your house upon arrival in Medina and in this connection you are privileged, for God revealed to his camel to stop at the door of your house and you had the honor to host the Messenger of Allah. Now, given this merit, what is the reason for your accompanying Imam ‘Ali?

أمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ وَأنَّهُ یَخْلَعُ مُعَاوِیَه وَأَمَرَهُ بِالتَّقَدُّمِ حَیْثُ هُوَ أکْبَرُ سِنَّاً فَفَعَلَ أَبُو مُوسَی ذَلِکَ. ثُمَّ قَالَ: یَا عَمْرُو قُمْ فَافْعَلْ کَذَلِکَ. فَقَامَ وَأَقَرَّها فِی مُعَاوِیَه فَشَتَمَهُ أَبُو مُوسَی وَتَلاعَنَا.

وَفِی هَذِهِ الحَرْبِ قَتَلَ أَبُو الیَقْظانِ عَمَّارَ بْنَ یَاسِرٍ. وَقَدْ قَالَ النَّبِیّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: عَمَّارٌ جِلْدَهُ بَیْنَ عَیْنَیَّ، تَقْتُلُهُ الفِئَهُ البَاغِیَهُ. قَتَلَهُ أَبُو عَادِیَهَ المُزَنِیُّ، طَعَنَهُ بِرُمْحٍ فَسَقَطَ وَاحْتَزَّ رَأْسَهُ ابْنُ جَوْنِیٍّ السَّکْسَکِیُّ، وَکَانَ لِعَمَّارٍ یَوْمَئِذٍ أرْبَعٌ وَتِسعُونَ سَنَهً.

قَالَ أَبُو سَعیدٍ الخِدْرِیُّ: کُنَّا نَعْمُرُ المَسْجِدَ فَنَحْمِلُ لِبْنَهً وَعَمَّارٌ لِبْنَتَیْنِ لِبْنَتَیْنِ فَرَآهُ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَجَعَلَ یَنْفُضُ التُّرابَ عَنْ رَأْسِ عَمَّارٍ وَیَقولُ: یَا عَمَّارُ ألا تَحْمِلُ کَما یَحْمِلُ أَصْحابُکَ؟ قَالَ: إنِّی أُریدُ الأَجْرَ مِنَ اللهِ تَعالَی. فَجَعَلَ یَنْفُضُ التُّرابَ عَنْهُ وَیَقُولُ: وَیْحَکَ، تَقْتُلُکَ الفِئَهُ البَاغِیَهُ؛ تَدْعُوهُمْ إلَی الجَنَّهِ وَیَدْعُونَکَ إلَی النَّارِ. قَالَ عَلْقَمَهُ وَالأسْوَدُ: أتَیْنا أَبَا أَیُّوبٍ الأنْصَارِیَّ فَقُلْنا: یَا أَبَا أیُّوبٍ إنَّ اللهَ أَکْرَمَکَ بِنَبِیِّهِ إذْ

Abu-Ayyub said: I swear by God, we were sitting in this room and there was no one except the Messenger of Allah and Imam ‘Ali on the right side and me on the

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left side and Anas who was standing opposite ‘Ali. All of a sudden, someone knocked at the door. The Messenger of Allah said to me: Go and see who is behind the door. Anas answered the door, saying: It is Ammar. The Messenger of Allah said: Open the door for that purified person. He opened the door. Ammar entered the house and greeted the Messenger of Allah who welcomed him. Fondling him, the Holy Prophet said: In a not too distant future after my departure, there will be a great difference Among my Ummah in a way they will draw sword against each other. Follow the man sitting on my right side at that time even if all the people go one way and ‘Ali alone will go another way. Opt for the way of ‘Ali and leave others, for ‘Ali will never mislead you. O Ammar, know that to obey ‘Ali is to obey me and to obey me is to obey God.(1)

We now deal with Khawarij. It was a group who hastily seceded from religion and was deviated. Following the issue of arbitration in the battle of Siffin when ‘Ali returned to Kufah to wait for the period fixed between him and Mu’awiyah to come to an end so that he will fight Mu’awiyah later, four thousand of army men who were pious withdrew from the army of ‘Ali as dissidents leaving Kufah saying: Verdict belongs solely to God and obeying Mu’awiyah who had rebelled against God was

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 16, pp. 124

not right. They said: Since ‘Ali has accepted arbitration, he must repent it. Over eight thousand others too joined them leaving Kufah for Harawa, choosing Abdullah ibn al-Kawa as their commander and getting ready to fight ‘Ali.

Imam ‘Ali gave Abdullah Ibn Abbas the mission to tell them the truth and guide them. Abdullah went to them, bewared them of disobeying the instructions of Amir al-Mu’minin but they did not listen to him and remained in their deviation. Then, ‘Ali personally went to speak to them while ibn Kawa and a group of his followers, riding on horses were ready to fight. Turning to ibn Kawa, Imam ‘Ali said: Let me speak to you. Ibn Kawwa said: Am I safe from your sword? Imam ‘Ali said: Be sure I will not harm you.

أوْحَی إلَی رَاحِلَتِهِ فَنَزَلَتْ عَلَی بَابِکَ فَکَانَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ ضَیْفاً لَکَ، فَضِیلَهً فَضَّلَکَ اللهُ بِهَا. أخْبِرْنا عَنْ مَخْرَجِکَ مَعَ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. قَالَ: فَإنِّی أُقْسِمُ لَکُما أنَّهُ کَانَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فِی هَذَا البَیْتِ الَّذِی أَنْتَما فِیهِ وَلَیْسَ فِی البَیْتِ غَیْرُ رَسُولِ اللهِ وَعَلِیٌّ جَالِسٌ عَنْ یَمِینِهِ وَأنَا عَنْ یَسارِهِ وَأَنَسٌ قَائِمٌ بَیْنَ یَدَیْهِ إذْ تَحَرَّکَ البَابُ فَقالَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: أُنْظُرْ مَنْ بِالبَابِ. فَخَرَجَ أَنَسٌ فَقَالَ: هَذَا عَمَّارُ بْنُ یَاسِرٍ. فَقالَ: إفْتَحْ لِعَمَّارٍ الطَّیِّبِ المُطَیَّبِ. فَفَتَحَ أَنَسٌ لِعَمَّارٍ وَدَخَلَ عَمَّارٌ فَسَلَّمَ عَلَی رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ. فَرَحَّبَ بِهِ وَقالَ: إنَّهُ سَیَکُونُ مِنْ بَعْدِی فِی أُمَّتِی هَناتٌ حَتَّی یَخْتَلِفَ السَّیْفُ فِیما بَیْنَهُمْ وَحَتَّی یَقْتُلَ بَعْضُهُمْ بَعْضاً وَقَدْ تَبَرَّأَ بَعْضُهُمْ مِنْ بَعْضٍ.

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فَإذَا رَأَیْتَ ذَلِکَ فَعَلَیْکَ بِهذا الأَصْلَعِ عَنْ یَمِینِی عَلِیَّ بْنَ أَبِی طالِبٍ. فَإنْ سَلَکَ النَّاسُ کُلُّهُمْ وَادِیاً وَسَلَکَ عَلِیٌّ وَادِیاً فَاسْلُکْ وَادِیَ عَلِیٍّ وَخَلِّ عَنِ النَّاسِ. إنَّ عَلِیَّاً لاَ یَرُدُّکَ عَنْ هُدًیً وَلا یَدُلُّکَ عَلَی رَدیً. یَا عَمَّارُ طَاعَهُ عَلِیٍّ طَاعَتِی وَطَاعَتِی طَاعَهُ اللهِ.

وَأمَّا الخَوَارِجُ فَإنَّهُمْ مَرَقوا مِنَ الدِّینِ مَرْقَ السِّهامِ. فَإنَّهُ لَمَّا عَادَ أَمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ مِنْ صِفِّینَ وَإقَامَهِ الحَکَمَیْنِ إلَی الکُوفَهِ أَقَامَ یَنْتَظِرُ إنْقِضَاءَ المُدَّهِ الَّتی بَیْنَهُ وَبَیْنَ مُعَاوِیَه لِیَرْجِعَ إلَی المُقاتَلَهِ. فَانْعَزَلَ أرْبَعَهُ آلافِ فَارِسٍ مِنْ أصْحابِهِ وَهُمُ العُبَّادُ وَخَرَجوا مِنَ الکُوفَهِ وَخَالَفوا عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَقَالوا: لاَ حُکْمَ إلاَّ للهِ وَلا طَاعَهَ لِمَنْ عَصَی اللهَ. وَانْحازَ إِلَیْهِمْ نَیِّفٌ وَثَمانِیَهُ آلافٍ وَسَاروا إلَی أنْ نَزَلوا بِحَرَوْرَاءَ وَأَمَّرُوا عَلَیْهِمْ عَبْدَ اللهِ بْنَ الکَوَّاءِ. فَأَرْسَلَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ إِلَیْهِمْ عَبْدَ اللهِ بْنَ عَبَّاسٍ یَرُدُّهُمْ عَنْ مَعْصِیَتِهِمْ فَلَمْ یَرْجِعُوا. فَرَکِبَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَمَضَی إِلَیْهِمْ فَرَکِبَ ابْنُ الکَوَّاءِ فِی جَماعَهٍ مِنْهُمْ. فَقالَ لَهُ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: یَا بْنَ الکَوَّاءِ ابْرُزْ إلَیَّ مِنْ أصْحَابِکَ لأُکَلِّمَکَ. فَقالَ: وَأنا آمِنٌ مِنْ سَیْفِکَ؟ قَالَ: نَعَمْ.

Ibn Kawwa with ten of his companions went to Imam ‘Ali to discuss the issue. Imam ‘Ali said: Did I not warn you that the people of Syria had chosen the verdict of Qur’an as a trick to deceive you, for they were exhausted with war and I said: Let us finish the war but you did not accept? Ibn Kawwa said: Yes, it was as you say. Imam ‘Ali said: Did I not tell you now that you insist on arbitration let me assign my cousin, Abdullah Ibn

p: 190

Abbas as the representative of Iraq’s army, for they could not deceive him but you did not accept insisting on Abu-Musa Ash’ari and I reluctantly accepted it. I would never accept their offer if there were people other than you alongside me. Apart from this, in that session, I made a condition that the arbitrators should obey and observe God’s verdict and implement the tradition of the Messenger of Allah and in case of violation of God’s verdict, I did not have to observe it. Is the truth anything other than this?

Ibn Kawwa said: What you say is justified but there is one question unanswered. Why did you not continue the war given that the arbitration was illegal? Imam ‘Ali said: The continuation of war depended on the expiry of the period set between the two parties which had to be observed. Ibn Kawwa asked: What is your decision after the expiry of the period? Imam ‘Ali said: There is no option but war. Hearing this, ibn Kawa and ten of those accompanying him joined Imam ‘Ali’s companions and withdrew from Khawarij but the rest of them remained Khawarij following the motto of “there is no verdict but that of Allah.”

This group chose Abdullah ibn Wahah Rasibi and Hurqus ibn Zuhayr Bujali known as Dhu’l-Thadyah as their commanders, gathered in Nahrawan where they made their camp.

Imam ‘Ali set out to chase them and stopped within two farsangs of their gathering place, wrote them a letter giving them advice but

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they insisted on their position and refused to accept what was just. To guide and give them ultimatum, Imam ‘Ali sent Ibn Abbas, saying: Ask them what objections you have to my acts? Imam ‘Ali assured Ibn Abbas that they could not harm him, for he was closely watching the situation. Ibn Abbas conveyed the message to them. The Khawarij said that some of ‘Ali’s acts deserved criticism and were somehow unclear. Receiving the report of Ibn Abbas, Imam ‘Ali personally, went to see them, saying to them: O people, I am ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib. What are your objections?

فَخَرَجَ فِی عَشَرَهٍ مِنْ أصْحَابِهِ. فَقالَ لَهُ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: أَلَمْ أَقُلْ لَکُمْ إنَّ أهْلَ الشَّامِ یَخْدَعُونَکُمْ بِرَفْعِ المَصاحِفِ وَأَمْرِ الحَکَمَیْنِ وَأنَّ الحَرْبَ قَدْ عَضَّتْهُمْ فَذَرُونِی أُناجِزُهُمْ فَأَبَیْتُمْ؟ أَلَمْ أُرِدْ أَنْ أُنَصِّبَ ابْنَ عَمِّی حَکَماً وَقُلْتُ إنَّهُ لاَ یَنْخَدِعُ فَأَبَیْتُمْ إلاَّ أَبَا مُوسَی وَقُلْتُم رَضِینَا بِهِ حَکَماً فَأَجَبْتُکُمْ کارِهاً؟ وَلَوْ وَجَدْتُ فِی ذَلِکَ الوَقْتِ أَعْوَاناً غَیْرَکُمْ لَمَا أَجَبْتُکُمْ. وَشَرَطْتُ عَلَی الحَکَمَیْنِ بِحُضُورِکُمْ أنْ یَحْکُما بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللهُ مِنْ فَاتِحَتِهِ إلَی خَاتِمَتِهِ وَالسُّنَّهِ الجَامِعَهِ وَأَنَّهُما لَمْ یَفْعَلا فَلا طَاعَهَ لَهُمَا عَلَیَّ؟ قَالَ ابْنُ الکَوَّاءِ: صَدَقْتَ! فَلِمَ لاَ تَرْجِعُ إلَی حَرْبِ القَوْمِ؟ قَالَ: حَتَّی تَنْقَضِیَ المُدَّهُ الَّتِی بَیْنَنا وَبَیْنَهُمْ. قَالَ ابْنُ الکَوَّاءِ وَالعَشَرَهُ الَّذِینَ مَعَهُ: وَأَنْتَ مُجْمِعٌ عَلَی ذَلِکَ؟ قَالَ: نَعَمْ، وَلا یَسَعُنِی غَیْرُهُ. فَعَادَ ابْنُ الکَوَّاءِ وَالعَشَرَهُ الَّذینَ مَعَهُ إلَی أصْحَابِ عَلِیٍّ رَاجِعِینَ عَنْ دِینِ الخَوَارِجِ وَتَفَرَّقَ البَاقُونَ وَهُمْ یَقُولُونَ: لاَ حُکْمَ إلاَّ للهِ وَلا طَاعَهَ لِمَنْ عَصَاهُ. وَأَمَّرُوا عَلَیْهِمْ عَبْدَ اللهِ بْنَ وَهَبٍ الرَّاسِبِیَّ وَحُرْقُوصَ بْنَ زُهَیْرٍ البُجَلِیَّ المَعْرُوفَ بِذِی الثَّدیَهِ وَعَسْکَروا

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بِالنَّهْرَوانِ. فَسارَ إِلَیْهِمْ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ حَتَّی بَقِیَ عَلَی فَرْسَخَیْنِ مِنْهُمْ فَکاتَبَهُمْ فَلَمْ یَقْبَلُوا. فَأَرْسَلَ إِلَیْهِمُ ابْنَ عَبَّاسٍ وَقالَ: سَلْهُمْ مَا الَّذِی نَقِمُوا؟ وَأَنا رِدْفُکَ فَلا تَخَفْ مِنْهُمْ. قَالُوا: نَقِمْنا أشْیَاءَ. فَقالَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: أَیُّهَا النَّاسُ أنَا عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طَالِبٍ، مَا تِلْکَ الأَشْیَاءُ؟

They said: The first objection is that we were with you in the battle of camel, fighting them on your order but after the victory you made only their property permissible for us but did not permit us to take their women and children captive! Imam ‘Ali said: The question is that their men fought us and after victory, what was left of their property in the front was lawful to you whereas their women had not fought us, hence we were not permitted to take them captive. As for the children, I should say that they were born maturely Muslims and had not committed any sin so their captivity was not lawful to us. I saw with my own eyes how gracious the Messenger of Allah was to the women and children of the atheists and never did he take them captive. So it is not strange if I was gracious to Muslims and did not take them captive.

They said: Our second objection to you is that in the battle of Siffin while drawing up the treaty between you and Mu’awiyah, you removed your title of commander and leader of believers. Imam ‘Ali said: The reason is that in the peace treaty of Hudaybiyah

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and the one between messenger of Allah and Suhayl ibn Amr in which the Holy Prophet had mentioned his name as prophet, Suhayl objected to the word “prophet” in it, for they said: If we believed in your prophetic mission, there would be no meaning in concluding a peace treaty. Hence the Messenger of Allah removed the word “prophet” from the peace treaty. I too followed the Holy Prophet’s act and removed the word “commander of believers (Amir al-Mu’minin)” from my title.

They said: Our third objection to you is that in relation to arbitration, you said: O people, look at the book of Allah. Confirm me if you accept my superiority over Mu’awiyah. This does not mean anything save doubt in your rightfulness! Answering it, Imam ‘Ali said: What I said then was not based on doubt, rather I wished to act fairly, for concerning mutual curse (Mubahalah) with the Christians of Najran, God states:

“and pray for the curse of Allah on the liars” (3:60)

though they were surely lying and if instead of the aforesaid verse, God would state: “and pray for the curse of Allah on you”, they would not be pleased nor accepted it.

They said: our fourth objection to you is this: Why did you give in to arbitration regarding your indisputable right while arbitration has meaning when a right is recognized with it?

قَالُوا: أَوَّلاً إنَّا قَاتَلْنا بَیْنَ یَدَیْکَ بِالبَصْرَهِ فَأَبَحْتَنا الأَمْوالَ دُونَ النِّسَاءِ وَالذُّرِّیَّهِ. فَقالَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: بَدَؤُونا بِالقِتالِ فَلَمَّا ظَفَرْتُمُ اقْتَسَمْتُمْ سِلْبَ مَنْ قَاتَلَکُمْ وَالنِّسَاءُ

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لَمْ یُقَاتِلْنَ وَالذِّرِّیَّهُ وُلِدوا عَلَی الفِطْرَهِ وَلَمْ یَنْکُثُوا وَلا ذَنْبَ لَهُمْ. وَقَدْ رَأَیْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ مَنَّ عَلَی المُشْرِکِینَ فَلا تَعْجَبوا لَوْ مَنَنْتُ عَلَی المُسْلِمینَ.

قَالُوا: وَنَقِمْنا یَوْمَ صِفِّینَ کَوْنَکَ مَحَوْتَ اسْمَکَ مِنْ إمْرَهِ المُؤْمِنِینَ. فَقالَ: إقْتَدَیْتُ بِرَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ حینَ صَالَحَ سُهَیْلَ بْنَ عَمْرٍو وَلَمْ یَرْضَ حَتَّی مَحا رِسَالَهَ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ. قَالُوا: وَنَقِمْنَا قَوْلَکَ لِلْحَکَمَیْنِ: أُنْظُرُوا کِتابَ اللهِ فَإنْ کُنْتُ أَفْضَلَ مِنْ مُعَاوِیَهَ فَأَثْبِتَانِی فِی الخِلافَهِ، وَهَذا شَکٌّ؟ فَقالَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: إنَّهُ لَیْسَ بِشَکٍّ بَلْ نِصْفَهً، کَمَا قَالَ تَعالَی: ?فَنَجْعَلْ لَعْنَهَ اللهِ عَلَی الْکَاذِبِینَ.? وَلَوْ قَالَ: عَلَیْکُمْ، لَمْ یَرْضَوْا.

قَالُوا: وَنَقِمْنَا أنَّکَ حَکَّمْتَ حَکَماً فِی حَقٍّ هُوَ لَکَ. قَالَ: أُسْوَهً بِرَسُولِ اللهِ حَیْثُ حَکَّمَ سَعْدَ

Your decision on your indisputable right was not justified. The Imam said: I followed the Messenger of Allah in this connection, when he entrusted arbitration to Sa’d ibn Mu’adh in relation to the Jews of Banu-Qurayzah though the Messenger of Allah himself was the best arbitrator. Then Imam ‘Ali (a.s) said: Is there any other objection? They all kept silent. At this time, a large group of them loudly cried: We repent! We repent. Imam ‘Ali too accepted their repentance and pardoned them. Those who repented were eight thousand but the other four thousand remained in their rebellion, and declared war.(1)

The commanders of Khawarij, Abdullah ibn Wahab Rasibi and Dhu’l-Thadyah would say: We consider fighting against ‘Ali as an act of seeking nearness to God and His pleasure as well as salvation in the Day of Judgment. Hence,

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1- Tarikh Tabari, vol. 5, pp. 73

addressing ‘Ali, they would say: We do not see fighting against you anything but happiness of Allah and the hereafter. Answering them, Imam ‘Ali recited the verse:

“say: shall we inform you of the greatest losers in their deed” (18:103).

Then the war reached its climax and attacks started. The first man, who entered the battlefield, was Akhfash Ta’i who had fought alongside ‘Ali in the battle of Siffin. He cleft the army line and asked to fight ‘Ali who rushed to the battlefield and killed him. Then, Dhu’l-Thadyah stood opposite ‘Ali to kill the Imam but ‘Ali did not give him any respite and with a blow of sword on his head killed him. His horse threw him down on the back of the Euphrates river.

Later Malik ibn Waddah, the cousin of Dhu’l-Thadyah prepared himself for fighting, attacking ‘Ali first. He too was killed by ‘Ali within short space of time.(1)

After this event, Wahab ibn Abdullah, a leader of rioters, raised his voice, saying: O Son of Abu-Talib, by God, I will not leave the battlefield unless either I am killed or will kill you! Let us fight each other and let the people watch us from afar! Hearing this, ‘Ali started smiling and said: May Allah kill him. How impudent and shameless he is, given that I have sword in one hand and spear in the other. This ill-fated and unlucky man has either washed his hands off life or is nurturing a false hope in his mind by

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1- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 266

saying so. Wahab attacked ‘Ali first but it was not long before he was killed by Imam ‘Ali.(1)

بْنَ مُعاذٍ فِی بَنِی قُرَیْظَهَ وَلَوْ شَاءَ لَمْ یَفْعَلْ. فَهَلْ بَقِیَ شَیْءٌ؟ فَسَکَتُوا، فَصاحَ جَماعَهٌ مِنْ کُلِّ نَاحِیَهٍ: التَّوْبَهَ التَّوْبَهَ. وَاسْتَأْمَنَ إلَیْهِ ثَمانِیَهُ آلافٍ وَبَقِیَ عَلَی حَرْبِهِ أرْبَعَهُ آلافٍ.

وَتَقَدَّمَ عَبْدُ اللهِ بْنُ وَهَبٍ وَذُو الثَّدْیَهِ وَقَالا: مَا نُرِیدُ بِقِتَالِکَ إلاَّ وَجْهَ اللهِ وَالدَّارَ الآخِرَهَ. فَقالَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: ?قُلْ هَلْ نُنَبِّئُکُمْ بِالأَخْسَرِینَ أَعْمَالاً? ثُمَّ الْتَحَمَ القِتَالُ. فَحَمَلَ الأَخْفَشُ الطَّائِیُّ وَکَانَ شَهِدَ صِفِّینَ مَعَ أمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَشَقَّ الصُّفُوفَ یَطْلُبُ عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ، فَبَدَرَهُ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَقَتَلَهُ. فَحَمَلَ ذُو الثَّدْیَهِ لِیَقْتُلَ عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَسَبَقَهُ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَضَرَبَهُ فَفَلَقَ البَیْضَهَ وَرَأْسَهُ، فَحَمَلَهُ فَرَسُهُ فَأَلْقاهُ فِی آخِرِ المَعْرَکَهِ فِی جُرْفٍ دَالِیَهٍ عَلَی شَطِّ النَّهْرَوَانِ. وَخَرَجَ مَالِکُ بْنُ الوَضَّاحِ ابْنُ عَمِّ ذِی الثَّدْیَهِ وَحَمَلَ عَلَی عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَقَتَلَهُ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. وَتَقَدَّمَ عَبْدُ اللهِ بْنُ وَهَبٍ الرَّاسِبِیُّ فَصَاحَ: یَا بْنَ أَبِی طَالِبٍ، وَاللهِ لاَ نَبْرَحُ مِنْ هَذِهِ المَعْرَکَهِ أَوْ تَأْتِیَ عَلَی أَنْفُسِنَا أَوْ نَأْتِیَ عَلَی نَفْسِکَ، فَابْرُزْ إلَیَّ وَأَبْرُزُ إلَیْکَ وَذَرِ النَّاسَ جَانِباً. فَلَمَّا سَمِعَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ تَبَسَّمَ وَقَالَ: قَاتَلَهُ اللهُ مَا أَقَلَّ حَیاءَهُ! أمَا إنَّهُ لَیَعْلَمُ أنّی حَلِیفُ السَّیْفِ وَخَدِینُ الرُّمْحِ، وَلَکِنَّهُ قَدْ یَئِسَ مِنَ الحَیَاهِ، وَإنَّهُ لَیَطْمَعُ طَمَعاً کَاذِباً. ثُمَّ حَمَلَ عَلَی عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَقَتَلَهُ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ.

With the passage of an hour, out of four thousand people, only nine survived and the rest were killed. Out of those nine men, two fled to Sistan. The Khawarij in Sistan are the progeny of these two men. Two others went

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1- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 267

to Oman. Abaziah are their progeny. The other two went to Yemen where they produced the generation of Abaziah. The other two fled to Bawazij and the last one of them took refuge to Mozan hills.(1)

In this battle, based on ‘Ali’s prophecy only nine of his aides were martyred and only nine of men survived the Khawarij.(2) Although Imam ‘Ali had taken part in many battles and had an active part in them, he was not heavily hurt in any one of them. He was not blamed by the Messenger of Allah even on one occasion. He never turned his back on war, nor did he fear brave fighters, nor did he flee from the enemies.(3)

Imam ‘Ali’s Precedence to Believing in the Holy Prophet

The great Shafi’ite scholar and jurisprudent, ibn Mughazili in his book “Manaqib” in a commentary on the verse

“and the foremost are the foremost” (56:10)

writes: Yusha ibn Nun (Joshua) was the foremost in believing on Moses (a.s), the man of Al-Yasin was the foremost in believing in Jesus (a.s) and ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib was the foremost in believing in Muhammad the son of Abdullah, the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon them all.(4) Abdullah ibn Abbas had been quoted by Ahmad ibn Hanbal in Musnad as saying: I heard from ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib saying: I am servant of Allah and brother to His messenger. I am also the great accepter. Anyone who makes such a claim after me he is certainly liar who has slandered Allah

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1- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 267
2- Nur al-Absar, pp. 102
3- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 269
4- al-Bidayah wa’l-Nihayah, vol. 1, pp. 231

and His messenger! The evidence of the truthfulness of what I say is that I have worshiped Allah and have performed prayer seven years before all people.(1)

Ahmad ibn Hanbal in “Musnad” had quoted ibn Abi-Layla as reporting: The Messenger of Allah said: The foremost or the pioneers who accepted divine mission were three persons, namely, Habib the carpenter, and Ilyas the believer who said:

“O my people! Follow the messengers” (36:20)

and Ezekiel the believer of the family of Pharaoh who said:

“What! Will you slay a man because he says: My lord is Allah” (40:28),

and the third of them who is superior to the other two is ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib who accepted the Holy Prophet’s mission before other people.(2)

وَلَمْ تَبْقَ إلاَّ سَاعَهٌ حَتَّی قُتِلُوا عَنْ أَجْمَعِهِمْ إلاَّ تِسْعَهَ أَنْفُسٍ؛ رَجُلانِ هَرَبا إلَی سَجِسْتانَ وَبِها نَسْلُهُمَا وَرَجُلانِ هَرَبا إلَی کِرْمَانَ وَرَجُلانِ صَارا إلَی عُمَانَ وَبِها نَسْلُهُمَا وَرَجُلانِ صَارا إلَی الیَمَنِ وَبِها نَسْلُهُمَا وَهُمُ الأَبَاضِیَّهُ وَرَجُلانِ صَارا إلَی البَوازِیجِ وَصَارَ آخَرُ إلَی تَلِّ موزَنَ. وَقُتِلَ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ تِسْعَهٌ عَدَدَ مَنْ سَلِمَ مِنَ الخَوارِجِ، وَکَانَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ: نَقْتُلُهُمْ وَلا یُقْتَلُ مِنَّا عَشَرَهٌ وَلا یَسْلَمُ مِنْهُمْ عَشَرَهٌ.

ثُمَّ مَعَ کَثْرَهِ حُرُوبِهِ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَشِدَّهِ بَلائِهِ فِی الجِهَادِ وَدُخُولِهِ فِی صُفُوفِ المُشْرِکِینَ لَمْ یُصِبْهُ جُرْحٌ شَانَهُ وَلا عَابَهُ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ، وَلَمْ یُوَلِّ ظَهْرَهُ قَطُّ وَلا انْهَزَمَ وَلا تَزَحْزَحَ مِنْ مَکانِهِ وَلا هَابَ أَحَداً مِنْ أَقْرانِهِ. فِی سِبْقِهِ إلَی التَّصْدِیقِ:

قَالَ الفَقیهُ ابْنُ المُغازِلِیِّ الشَّافِعِیُّ فِی مَنَاقِبه عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ فِی قَوْلِهِ تَعالَی: ?وَالسَّابِقُونَ السَّابِقُونَ? قَالَ: سَبَقَ یُوشَعُ بْنُ نُونٍ إلَی مُوسَی وَسَبَقَ

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1- Al-Fada’il, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, pp. 586
2- Al-Fada’il, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, pp. 239

صَاحِبُ آلِ یَاسِینَ إلَی عِیسَی وَسَبَقَ عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طَالِبٍ إلَی مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَعَلَیْهِمْ أجْمَعِینَ.

وَمِنْ کِتابِ مُسْنَدُ أحْمَدَ بْنِ حَنْبَلٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ عَلِیَّ بْنَ أَبِی طالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ یَقولُ: أنَا عَبْدُ اللهِ وَأخُو رَسُولِهِ، وَأنَا الصِّدِّیقُ الأَکْبَرُ، لاَ یَقُولُهَا غَیْرِی إلاَّ کَاذِبٌ مُفْتَرٍ، وَلَقَدْ صَلَّیْتُ قَبْلَ النَّاسِ بِسَبْعِ سِنِینَ. وَمِنْ مُسْنَدِ أحْمَدَ: عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِی لَیْلَی قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: الصِّدِّیقُونَ ثَلاثَهٌ: حَبِیبٌ النَّجَّارُ مُؤْمِنُ آلِ یَاسِینَ الَّذِی قَالَ: ?یَا قَوْمِ اتَّبِعُوا الْمُرْسَلِینَ? وَحَزْقِیلُ مُؤْمِنُ آلِ فِرْعَوْنَ الَّذِی قَالَ: ?أَتَقْتُلُونَ رَجُلاً أَنْ یَقُولَ رَبِّیَ اللهُ? وَعَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی

The Messenger of Allah has been reported by Imam al-Rida (a.s) as saying: All people will enter the plain of resurrection on foot except we four who will enter it while riding. I will ride the heavenly horse, Buraq, my brother, Salih will ride the she-camel which was hamstrung, my uncle, Hamzah, will ride the she-camel, Adba, and my brother, ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib will ride a heavenly camel while carrying the banner of “Hamd” in his hand before Allah, saying: There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is His messenger. Then, people will say: This is an archangel, a messenger, or bearer of the throne of the Lord of the worlds. At that time, an angel from within the throne will respond: O group of men! This is neither an archangel, nor a messenger, nor the bearer of the throne, rather, he is the greater Accepter, ‘Ali

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ibn Abi-Talib, with the banner of “Hamd” in hand and testifying to the unity of God of the world and the mission of the last prophet.(1)

‘Ali and Surah Bara’ah

The Messenger of Allah gave Abu-Bakr the mission to convey Surah Bara’ah (al-Tawbah, No. 9)) to the Meccans to the effect that the atheists are not allowed to perform Hajj rituals from now on, no one can circumambulate Ka’bah being nude and that not any non-Muslim will enter paradise. Furthermore, anyone having a time agreement of non-violation between him and the Messenger of Allah, it will be valid for that period of time, for this is a declaration of immunity by Allah and His messenger towards the atheists.

To fulfill this mission, Abu-Bakr walked three successive days to reach Mecca, but all of a sudden, Gabriel appeared to the Holy Prophet, saying: O Messenger of Allah! God Almighty is sending you greetings and state: This important mission will not be carried out by anyone but you or a man from your household! The Messenger of Allah called ‘Ali, saying: Ride on my she-camel, rush towards Mecca, meet Abu-Bakr on the way, take the Surah Bara’ah from him, convey it to the people personally, and give him option to either accompany you or to return to me. ‘Ali rode on the Holy Prophet’s Adba she-camel and headed for Mecca.

Seeing ‘Ali rushing towards him, Abu-Bakr was full of fear, asking: What is this rush for? Are you here to accompany me or you have another mission?

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1- Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 11, pp. 112

‘Ali said: The Holy Prophet (S) has ordered me to take the Surah Bara’ah from you, to read it for the atheists and give you the option to either accompany me or return to the Messenger of Allah. Abu-Bakr said: I will go back to the Holy Prophet.

Coming to the presence of the Holy Prophet, Abu-Bakr said: O Messenger of Allah! You chose me to convey what the others were interested in but you took back the mission from me and gave it to another person! Has any verse been revealed to you about me? The Holy Prophet (S) said: No, but Gabriel came down to me saying: This mission cannot be carried out by anyone other than you or someone who is from you! Since ‘Ali is from me and no one but he can act on my behalf, I entrusted the mission to him.(1)

طَالِبٍ، وَهُوَ أَفْضَلُهُمْ.

وَعَنِ الرِّضَا عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: یَا عَلِیُّ، لَیْسَ فِی القِیَامَهِ رَاکِبٌ غَیْرُنا وَنَحْنُ أرْبَعَهٌ. فَقامَ إلَیْهِ رَجُلٌ مِنَ الأنْصارِ فَقالَ: فِداکَ أَبِی وَأُمّی أَنْتَ وَمَنْ؟ قَالَ: أنَا عَلَی البُراقِ وَأخِی صَالِحٌ عَلَی نَاقَهِ اللهِ الَّتی عُقِرَتْ وَعَمّی حَمْزَهُ عَلَی نَاقَتِی العَضْباءِ وَأخِی عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طالِبٍ عَلَی نَاقَهٍ مِنْ نُوقِ الجَنَّهِ وَبِیَدِهِ لِواءُ الحَمْدِ بَیْنَ یَدَیِ العَرْشِ یَقولُ: لاَ إلَهَ إلاَّ اللهُ مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللهِ. قَالَ: فَیَقُولُ الآدَمِیُّونَ: مَا هَذَا إلاَّ مَلَکٌ مُقَرَّبٌ أوْ نَبِیٌّ مُرْسَلٌ أوْ حَامِلُ عَرْشِ رَبِّ العَالَمِینَ. قَالَ: فَیُجِیبُهُمْ مَلَکٌ مِنْ بِطْنانِ العَرْشِ: مَعَاشِرَ الآدَمِیِّینَ، مَا هَذَا مَلَکٌ مُقَرَّبٌ وَلا نَبِیٌّ

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1- Sahih, Bukhari, vol. 6, pp. 81

مُرْسَلٌ وَلا حَامِلُ العَرْشِ، بَلْ هَذَا الصِّدِّیقُ الأَکْبَرُ عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طالِبٍ. فِی حَمْلِ بَراءَهَ إلَی مَکَّهَ:

کَانَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ بَعَثَ أَبَا بَکْرٍ بِبَراءَهَ إلَی مَکَّهَ ألاّ یَحُجَّ بَعْدَ العَامِ مُشْرِکٌ وَیَطُوفَ بِالبَیْتِ عُرْیانٌ وَلا یَدْخُلَ الجَنَّهَ إلاَّ نَفْسٌ مُسْلِمَهٌ، وَمَنْ کَانَ بَیْنَهُ وَبَیْنَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ مُدَّهٌ فَأَجَلُهُ مُدَّتُهُ، وَاللهُ بَرِیءٌ مِنَ المُشْرِکِینَ وَرَسُولُهُ. فَسَارَ بِهَا ثَلاثَهَ أیَّامٍ فَنَزَلَ جِبْرِیلُ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَقالَ: إنَّ اللهَ یُقْرِئُکَ السَّلامَ وَیَقُولُ لَکَ: لاَ یُؤَدِّی عَنْکَ إلاَّ أَنْتَ أَوْ رَجُلٌ مِنْکَ. فَاسْتَدْعَی رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَقالَ لَهُ: إرْکَبْ نَاقَتِیَ العَضْبَاءَ وَالْحَقْ أَبَا بَکْرٍ فَخُذْ بَرَاءَهَ مِنْ یَدِهِ وَامْضِ بِهَا إلَی مَکَّهَ فَانْبُذْ عَهْدَ المُشْرِکِینَ إِلَیْهِمْ وَخَیِّرْ أَبَا بَکْرٍ بَیْنَ أنْ یَسیرَ مَعَ رِکَابِکَ أوْ یَرْجِعَ. فَرَکِبَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ نَاقَهَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ العَضْباءَ وَسَارَ حَتَّی لَحِقَ أَبَا بَکْرٍ. فَلَمَّا رَآهُ جَزِعَ مِنْ لُحُوقِهِ وَاسْتَقْبَلَهُ وَقالَ: فِیمَا جِئْتَ یَا أَبَ

Ibn Abbas has been reported by Zubayr ibn Bakkar ibn Zubayr ibn Awwam, a supporter of Umayyad, as saying: I was passing through an alley in Medina along with Umar ibn Khattab. Umar said: O son of Abbas, I believe that your friend, that is your cousin, ‘Ali, has been treated unjustly. I said: But what will happen if you treat him justly?

Pulling back his hand from my hand immediately and walking a few steps forward speedily, Umar stopped till I caught up with him. Turning to me, Umar said: O son of Abbas, I know why

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he has been treated unjustly. First of all, ‘Ali was young and the old men of Arabs could not tolerate him as a commander or leader. Hence, they belittled him and denied his right. Ibn Abbas reports: I said to him: By God, God Almighty did not belittled him on his mission to convey Surah “Bara’-at.” Hearing this, Umar turned his face away from me and went his way.(1)

‘Ali’s Contradictory Virtues (Polarization)

It is unanimously agreed that ‘Ali was the most pious man of his time in a way he had divorced the world three times (he had completely renounced the world). He was fasting during days and worshipping during nights. He would break his fast with dried barley bread which he kept out of the reach of others putting a seal on it so that his sons, Hasan and Husayn, would not add fat or olive to it. A man who is detached from the worldly pleasures as such must be weak naturally and unable to tolerate the difficulties of life.

الحَسَنِ؟أَسَائِرٌ أَنْتَ مَعِیَ أوْ لِغَیْرِ ذَلِکَ؟ فَقالَ لَهُ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: إنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ أَمَرَنِی أَنْ أَلْحَقَکَ وَأَقْبِضَ مِنْکَ الآیَاتِ مِنْ بَراءَهَ وَأُنْبِذُ بِهَا عَهْدَ المُشْرِکِینَ إِلَیْهِمْ وَأَمَرَنِی أنْ أُخَیِّرَکَ بَیْنَ أَنْ تَسیرَ مَعِی أوْ تَرْجِعَ إلَیْهِ. فَقالَ: بَلْ أَرْجِعُ إلَیْهِ. وَعَادَ إلَی النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ، فَلَمَّا دَخَلَ عَلَیْهِ قَالَ: یَا رَسولَ اللهِ إنَّکَ أَهَّلْتَنِی لأَِمْرٍ طَالَتِ الأَعْنَاقُ فِیهِ إلَیَّ فَلَمَّا تَوَجَّهْتُ إلَیْهِ رَدَدْتَنِی عَنْهُ؛ أَنَزَلَ فِیَّ القُرْآنُ؟ فَقالَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: لاَ،

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1- Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 2, pp. 387

وَلِکَنَّ الأَمِینَ هَبَطَ إلَیَّ عَنِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجلَّ بِأَنَّهُ لاَ یُؤَدّی عَنْکَ إلاَّ أَنْتَ أَوْ رَجُلٌ مِنْکَ، وَعَلِیٌّ مِنِّی وَلا یُؤَدِّی عَنِّی إلاَّ عَلِیٌّ.

حَدَّثَ الزُّبَیْرُ بْنُ بَکَّارِ بْنِ الزُّبَیْرِ بْنِ العَوَّامِ وَکَانَ مِنْ بَنِی أُمَیَّهَ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: إنِّی لأُمَاشِی عُمَرَ بْنَ الخَطَّابِ فِی سِکَّهٍ مِنْ سِکَکِ المَدِینَهِ إذ قَالَ لِی: یَا بْنَ عَبَّاسٍ مَا أَظُنُّ صَاحِبَکَ إلاَّ مَظْلوماً. قُلتُ: فَارْدُدْ ظُلامَتَهُ. فَانْتَزَعَ یَدَهُ مِنْ یَدِی وَمَضَی وَهُوَ یُهَمْهِمُ سَاعَهً ثُمَّ وَقَفَ فَلَحِقْتُهُ فَقالَ: یَا بْنَ عَبَّاسٍ مَا أَظُنُّهُمْ مَنَعُوها مِنْهُ إلاَّ لأَنَّهُمُ اسْتَصْغَرُوهُ. فَقُلْتُ: واللهِ مَا اسْتَصْغَرَهُ اللهُ حِینَ أَمَرَهُ أنْ یَأْخُذَ سُورَهَ بَراءَهٍ مِنْ صَاحِبِکَ. قَالَ: فَأَعْرَضَ عَنِّی.

جَمْعُهُ بَیْنَ الفَضائِلِ المُتَضَادَّاتِ:

لاَ خِلافَ بَیْنَ النَّاسِ أنَّ أمِیرَ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ کَانَ أزْهَدَ أهْلِ زَمانِهِ، طَلَّقَ الدُّنْیَا ثَلاثاً. وَکَانَ یَصُومُ النَّهَارَ وَیَقُومُ اللَّیْلَ وَیُفْطِرُ عَلَی جَرِیشِ الشَّعیرِ مِنْ غَیْرِ إِدامٍ وَخَتْمِهِ لِئَلاَّ یَأدُمَهُ الْحَسَنانِ بِسَمْنٍ أوْ زَیْتٍ. وَمَنْ یَکُونُ بِهَذِهِ الْحَالِ یَکُونُ ضَعیفَ القُوَّهِ فِی أَغْلَبِ

However, thanks to the piety and detachment from world, he was so powerful that in the conquest of Khaybar, he took off the gate of the fort which seventy men could not hold up, threw it as far as a few meters away and made it a bridge for the Muslims to cross. Imam ‘Ali (a.s) used most of his time in the battlefields putting the enemies of Islam under his sword. A person like this must be stone-hearted as a rule but Amir al-Mu’minin was not as such. On the contrary, he was tender-hearted, kind and good-tempered. For this reason, the hypocrites considered

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this characteristic of him as witticism and used to say: He is full of witticism.(1)

‘Ali’s Maxims

Imam ‘Ali (a.s) was the master of the eloquent writers and speakers so much so that on his mastery of words, it is said: His elocution is above that of all creatures and below that of the Creator. The masters of eloquence have learnt from his school.

Imam ‘Ali (a.s) has said: O people! Certainly this world is a passage while the next world is a place of permanent abode. So, take from the passage (all that you can) for the permanent abode. Do not tear away your curtain before Him who is aware of your secrets. Take away from this world your hearts before your bodies go out of it, because herein you have been put on trial, and you have been created for the other world. When a man dies people ask what (property) he has left while the angels ask what (good deeds) he has sent forward. May Allah bless you, send forward something, it will be a loan for you, and do not leave everything behind, for that would be a burden on you.(2)

The parable of the world is like a fatal poison drunk by an unconscious man.

Imam ‘Ali (a.s) had said: O people! Break the stormy waves of mischief with the life boats. Take the illusory crown of honor off your head. Abandon the path of discord and walk on the path of happiness. If you wish to take your

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1- Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 41, chap. 107, pp. 138
2- Nahj al-Balaghah, sermon 203

right, rise up powerfully to reach your goal, for a bird which has no strong wing can hardly fly. If you have no power to defend your right, calm down and submit yourself to fate so as to receive what is destined for you.

الأَحْوالِ وَأَمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ کَانَ أَشَدَّ النَّاسِ قُوَّهً فَإنَّهُ قَلَعَ بَابَ خَیْبَرَ وَقَدْ عَجِزَ عَنْهَا سَبْعُونَ نَفَراً مِنَ المُسْلِمینَ وَدَحَا بِهَا أَذْرُعاً کَثِیرَهً ثُمَّ أَعَادَها إلَی مَکَانِهَا بَعْدَ أَنْ وَضَعَها جِسْراً عَلَی الخَنْدَقِ. وَکَانَ أکْثَرَ وَقْتِهِ فِی الحُروبِ یُباشِرُ قَتْلَ النُّفُوسِ، وَمَنْ هَذِهِ حَالَتُهُ یَکُونُ شَدِیدَ القَلْبِ عَبُوسَ الْوَجْهِ وأمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ کَانَ رَحِیماً رَقیقَ القَلْبِ حَسَنَ الخُلُقِ وَلِهَذا نَسَبَهُ المُنافِقُونَ إلَی الدُّعَابَهِ لِشَرَفِ أَخْلاقِهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ.

فِی نُبَذٍ یَسیرَهٍ مِنْ کَلامِهِ: کَانَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ سَیِّدَ الفُصَحاءِ وَإمَامَ البُلَغاءِ حَتَّی قِیلَ فِی کَلامِهِ: إنَّهُ فَوْقَ کَلامِ المَخْلُوقِ وَدُونَ کَلامِ الخَالِقِ وَمِنْهُ تَعَلَّمَ الخُطَباءُ. قَالَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: خُذُوا رَحِمَکُمُ اللهُ مِنْ مَمَرِّکُمْ لِمَقَرِّکُمْ، وَلاَ تَهْتِکُوا أَسْتَارَکُمْ عِنْدَ مَنْ لاَ تَخْفَی عَلَیْهِ أَسْرَارُکُمْ، وَأَخْرِجُوا مِنَ الدُّنْیَا قُلُوبَکُمْ قَبْلَ أَنْ تَخْرُجَ مِنْهَا أَبْدَانُکُمْ، فَلِلآخِرَهِ خُلِقْتُمْ وَفِی الدُّنْیَا حُبِسْتُمْ. إنَّ الْمَرْءَ إِذَا هَلَکَ قَالَتِ المَلاَئِکَهُ: مَا قَدَّمَ؟ وَقالَ النَّاسُ: مَا خَلَّفَ؟ فَلِلَّهِ إیَّاکُمْ قَدِّمُوا بَعْضاً یَکُنْ لَکُمْ، وَلا تَخَلَّفُوا کُلاًَّ فَیَکُونُ عَلَیْکُمْ، فَإِنَّمَا مَثَلُ الدُّنْیَا مَثَلُ السُّمِّ یَأْکُلُهُ مَنْ لاَ یَعْرِفُهُ.

وَقالَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: أَیُّهَا النَّاسُ شُقُّوا أَمْوَاجَ الْفِتَنِ بِسُفُنِ النَّجَاهِ، وَضَعُوا تِیجَانَ الْمُفَاخَرَهِ، وَنَکِّبُوا عَنْ طَرِیقِ الْمُنَافَرَهِ. أَفْلَحَ مَنْ نَهَضَ بِجَنَاحٍ أَوِ اسْتَسْلَمَ فَأَرَاحَ.

This world is fetid water which does not taste good for man’s healthy nature. The parable of unripe fruit for the gardener is the parable of

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a farmer who has farmed in the land belonging to others. Should I say caliphate is my right, the ignorant people will say: ‘Ali is trying to gain power and rule. If I keep silent, they will say: ‘Ali is afraid of death. How difficult it is for this ignorant mass of people to understand the truth!

By God, the son of Abu-Talib is more fond of death than a child of his mother’s breast. Hence, my silence in relation to caliphate is not motivated by fear of death. Rather, my silence is due to what I know about future. I know, if I say something and act accordingly, what will happen to Islam! If what I have buried in my bosom will come out of my throat like the lava of a volcano, you will be shaken with worries.(1)

No graceful life is possible save in the light of religion. There is no death more fatal than denial of truth. Therefore, on the path to destination, you must drink the wholesome water of certainty so as to rid you from the fatal slumber of uncertainty. Avoid toxic words which poison the spirit of certainty in you, ruin your firm belief and prevent you from useful deed.(2)

In response to a man who disparaged the world, Imam ‘Ali said: This world is the abode of honesty for one who accepts its honesty, replete with blessings for those who comprehend this truth well, and a profitable market for one who prepares a provision

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1- Tadhkirat al-Huffa¨, Sebt ibn Jowzi, pp. 121
2- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 3, chap. 53

from it. It is the prostration-place of God’s prophets, the destination of His revelations, the prayer-place of His angels, and the profitable business of His saints, wherein they gained mercy and won Paradise.

Who can now disparage it after it has warned its inhabitants, declared departure, and mourned itself and its inhabitants? So, it urges to give up its pleasure for the sake of the pleasure of the Hereafter and to accept its tribulation for the sake of escaping the tribulation of the Hereafter by means of frightening, warning, desiring, and terrifying. So, O you who swear at the world with your tongue but you are attached to its vanity, say: When did the world deceive you? Did the rotten bones of your fathers deceive you? Did the resting-places of your mothers make you feel arrogant?

Were you deceived by their taking care of you and a medicine which might cure you but with the coming of death they were all useless? Did the world not show you their resting-place in the same way that it will show your resting-place to others? Were all these not a lesson for you to learn? After death, neither weeping of mourners nor your friends and relatives will benefit you.(1)

مَاءٌ آجِنٌ وَلُقْمَهٌ یَغُصُّ بِهَا آکِلُهَا. وَمُجْتَنِی الثَّمَرَهِ لِغَیْرِ وَقْتِ إینَاعِهَا کَالزَّارِعِ بِغَیْرِ أَرْضِهِ. فَإِنْ أَقُلْ یَقُولُوا: حَرَصَ عَلَی الْمُلْکِ. وَإِنْ أَسْکُتْ یَقُولُوا: جَزَعَ مِنَ الْمَوْتِ! هَیْهَاتَ بَعْدَ اللَّتَیَّا وَاللَّتِی! وَاللهِ لاَبْنُ أَبِی طَالِبٍ آنَسُ بِالْمَوْتِ مِنَ الطِّفْلِ بِثَدْیِ أُمِّهِ، لَکِنِ انْدَمَجْتُ عَلَی مَکْنُونِ عِلْمٍ

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1- Muruj al-Dhahab, vol. 2, pp. 419

لَوْ بُحْتُ بِهِ لاَضْطَرَبْتُمُ اضْطِرَابَ الأَرْشِیَهِ فِی الطِّوَی الْبَعِیدَهِ.

وَقالَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: لاَ حَیَاهَ إِلاَّ بِالدِّینِ وَلاَ مَوْتَ إِلاَّ بِجُحُودِ الْیَقِینِ. فَاشْرَبُوا الْعَذْبَ الْفُرَاتَ یُنَبِّهْکُمْ مِنْ یَوْمِ السُّبَاتِ، وَإِیَّاکُمْ وَالسَّمَائِمَ الْمُهْلِکَاتِ.

وَقالَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَقَدْ سَمِعَ رَجُلاً یَذُمُّ الدُّنْیَا: إِنَّ الدُّنْیَا دَارُ صِدْقٍ لِمَنْ صَدَّقَهَا وَدَارُ عَافِیَهٍ لِمَنْ فَهِمَ عَنْهَا وَدَارُ غِنًی لِمَنْ تَزَوَّدَ مِنْهَا. مَسْجِدُ أَنْبِیَاءِ اللهِ وَمَهْبِطُ وَحْیِهِ وَمُصَلَّی مَلاَئِکَتِهِ وَمَتْجَرُ أَوْلِیَائِهِ. إِکْتَسَبُوا فِیهَا الرَّحْمَهَ وَرَبِحُوا فِیهَا الْجَنَّهَ. فَمَنْ ذَا یَذُمُّهَا وَقَدْ آذَنَتْ بِبَنِیهَا وَنَادَتْ بِفِرَاقِهَا وَنَعَتْ نَفْسَهَا وَأَهْلَهَا فَشَوَّقَتْ بِسُرُورِهَا إِلَی السُّرُورِ وَبِبَلاَئِهَا إلَی الْبَلاَءِ تَخْوِیفاً وَتَحْذِیراً وَتَرْغِیباً وَتَرْهِیباً. فَیَا أَیُّهَا الذَّامُّ لِلدُّنْیَا وَالْمُعْتَلُّ بِتَغْرِیرِهَا مَتَی غَرَّتْکَ؟ أَبِمَصَارِعِ آبَائِک فِی الْبِلَی؟ أَمْ بِمَضَاجِعِ أُمَّهَاتِکَ تَحْتَ الثَّرَی؟ کَمْ عَلَّلَتْ بِکَفَّیْکَ وَمَرِضَتْ بِیَدَیْکَ! تَبْتَغِی لَهُمُ الشِّفَاءَ وَتَسْتَوْصِفُ لَهُمُ الأَطِبَّاءَ وَتَلْتَمِسُ لَهُمُ

Imam ‘Ali (a.s) has said: Do not set your hope on anyone but God Almighty. Do not fear anyone but your sin. A scholar who does not know a matter, if asked question, must not be ashamed of saying: God knows better. The importance of patience for faith is like the importance of head for body. Therefore, one who is not patient in tribulations and hardships had no faith.(1) Every speech in which there is no name or remembrance of God is abortive and every silence not based on pondering is forgetfulness and every vision which is not admonitory is idle.(2)

One who has redeemed himself and then set free is never like one who sells himself and then sets himself free, that is, one who with praiseworthy deeds, has redeemed himself

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1- Tarikh Ya’qubi, vol. 2, pp. 206
2- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 296

from hell is never like one who with sins and blameworthy acts, has surrendered his soul to hell.(1) Courtesy will replace what is counted for.(2)

An abstemious man in world is one who the more abstemiousness manifests itself in him, the more he turns away from the world and takes distance from it.(3)

Love for one’s relatives makes kinship stronger. Nevertheless, knowledge is superior to family and tribal dignity.(4) One who is fond of magnanimity never goes after sin!(5) The ultimate degree of generosity is to give away what is in one’s power.(6) Man’s ignorance of his faults is his biggest sin.(7) Man reaches the ultimate degree of piety when he is content with what he has and does not overreach himself.(8) Ignore your friend’s mistake so that if the enemy ever attacks you and you are in need of his support, he will defend you.(9)

الدَّوَاءَ لَمْ تَنْفَعْهُمْ بِطَلِبَتِکَ وَلَمْ تُشْفِهِمْ بِشَفَاعَتِکَ. مَثَّلَتْ لَکَ الدُّنْیَا بِهِمْ مَصْرَعَکَ وَمَضْجَعَکَ حَیْثُ لاَ یَنْفَعُکَ بُکَاؤُکَ وَلاَ تُغْنِی عَنْکَ أَحِبَّاؤُکَ.

وَقالَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: لاَ یَرْجُوَنَّ أَحَدٌ إِلاَّ رَبَّهُ، وَلاَ یَخَافَنَّ إِلاَّ ذَنْبَهُ، وَلاَ یَسْتَحِیَنَّ الْعَالِمُ إِذَا سُئِلَ عَمَّا لاَ یَعْلَمُ أَنْ یَقُولَ: اللهُ أَعْلَمُ.

وَالصَّبْرُ مِنَ الإِیمَانِ بِمَنْزِلَهِ الرَّأْسِ مِنَ الْجَسَدِ، وَلاَ إِیمَانَ لِمَنْ لاَ صَبْرَ لَهُ. کُلُّ قَوْلٍ لَیْسَ فِیهِ ذِکْرٌ فَلَغْوٌ، وَکُلُّ صَمْتٍ لَیْسَ فِیهِ فِکْرٌ فَسَهْوٌ، وَکُلُّ نَظَرٍ لَیْسَ فِیهِ إعْتِبَارٌ فَلَهْوٌ. لَیْسَ مَنِ ابْتَاعَ نَفْسَهُ فَأَعْتَقَهَا کَمَنْ بَاعَ نَفْسَهُ فَأَوْبَقَهَا. حُسْنُ الأَدَبِ یَنُوبُ الْحَسَبَ.

الزَّاهِدُ فِی الدُّنْیَا کُلَّمَا ازْدَادَتْ لَهُ تَحَلِّیاً إزْدَادَ عَنْهَا تَوَلِّیاً. الْمَوَدَّهُ أَشْبَکُ الأَنْسَابِ وَالْعِلْمُ أَشْرَفُ الأَحْسَابِ. مَنْ أَحَبَّ الْمَکَارِمَ إجْتَنَبَ الْمَحَارِمَ.

غَایَهُ

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1- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 296
2- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 296
3- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 297
4- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 297
5- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 297
6- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 297
7- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 297
8- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 297
9- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 298

الْجُودِ أَنْ تُعْطِیَ مِنْ نَفْسِکَ الْمَجْهُودَ. جَهْلُ الْمَرْءِ بِعُیُوبِهِ مِنْ أَکْبَرِ ذُنُوبِهِ. تَمَامُ الْعَفَافِ الرِّضَا بِالْکَفَافِ. إِحْتَمِلْ زَلَّهَ وَلِیِّکَ لِوَقْتِ وَثْبَهِ عَدُوِّکَ.

Timely confession ruins the foundation of sin.(1) The worst provision for the Day of Judgment is to oppress the servants of God.(2) Man’s life is divided into two days, or better to say two parts: One day the world turns to man and another day it turns its back on him. Therefore, be careful not to be arrogant when the world turns to you and to be patient when the world turns its back on you. If man knew when his life came to an end, he would not extend his desires.(3)

On many occasions, an esteemed person is humiliated because of his bad temper and behavior and a humble person is honored because of his good temper and behavior.(4) A man’s worth is to the extent of his comprehension, knowledge and his praiseworthy deeds.(5) People are the offspring of their own deeds, for they are attributed to their father, family and ancestors for their identity but praiseworthy deeds make them independent of being attributed to their ancestors.(6) Whoever counsels with the wise men will be guided to the right path.(7) One who is content with a little thing is in no need of extra and one who is always thinking of extra is in need of every worthless and little things.(8)

All matters are subject to destiny, so much so that sometimes death results from effort.(9) A believer makes himself

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1- This is because, in order to cover his sins, man refuses to make confession and this will make him keep on committing sins. Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 299
2- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 299
3- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 299
4- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 299
5- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 299
6- Nahj al-Balaghah, Sayyid Radi, maxim 203
7- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 299
8- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 300
9- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 300

suffer but people are at ease with him.(1) The best worship is patience against hardships and silence for being immune from harms of what one says and hoping for solution in hard times.(2) Forbearance is a believer’s supporter, knowledge his friend, tolerance his brother, benefaction his father, and patience in hardships his commander.(3)

حُسْنُ الإعْتِرَافِ یَهْدِمُ الإقْتِرَافَ.

شَرُّ الزَّادِ إِلَی الْمَعَادِ إحْتِقَابُ ظُلْمِ الْعِبَادِ.

الدَّهْرُ یَوْمَانِ: یَوْمٌ لَکَ وَیَوْمٌ عَلَیْکَ. فَإِنْ کَانَ لَکَ فَلاَ تَبْطُرْ، وَإِنْ کَانَ عَلَیْک فَاصْبِرْ.

لَوْ عُرِفَ الأَجَلُ لَقَصُرَ الأَمَلُ.

رُبَّ عَزِیزٍ أَذَلَّهُ خُلُقُهُ وَذَلِیلٍ أَعَزَّهُ خُلُقُهُ. قِیمَهُ کُلُّ امْرِئٍ مَا یُحْسِنُ. النَّاسُ أَبْنَاءُ مَا یُحْسِنُونَ. مَنْ شَاوَرَ ذَوِی الأَلْبَابِ دَلَّ عَلَی الصَّوَابِ.

مَنْ قَنِعَ بِالْیَسِیرِ إسْتَغْنَی عَنِ الْکَثِیرِ، وَمَنْ یَسْتَغْنِ بِالْکَثِیرِ إفْتَقَرَ إِلَی الْحَقِیرِ. تَذِلُّ الأُمُورُ لِلْمَقَادِیِر حَتَّی یَکُونَ الْحَتْفُ فِی التَّدْبِیرِ. الْمُؤْمِنُ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ فِی تَعَبٍ وَالنَّاسُ مِنْهُ فِی رَاحَهٍ. أَفْضَلُ الْعِبَادَهِ الصَّبْرُ وَالصَّمْتُ وَانْتِظَارُ الْفَرَجِ. الْحِلْمُ وَزِیرُ الْمُؤْمِنِ، وَالْعِلْمُ خَلِیلُهُ، وَالرِّفْقُ أَخُوهُ، وَالْبِرُّ وَالِدُهُ، وَالصَّبْرُ أَمِیرُ جُنُودِهِ.

Three things are heavenly treasures for man: Hiding the charity he gives, hiding the calamity which befalls him and hiding his illness.(4) O man, if you extend your hand in need towards a person, you will become certainly his captive. If you show independence from others, you will be his equal and if you give away something to a person, you will be his commander and ruler.(5)

Independence cannot be achieved with evil deeds, that is, a man has to refuse to commit sin, oppression, or treason to be independent. Ease and peace of mind will never come to a jealous person. Friendship and

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1- Nahj al-Balaghah, Sayyid Radi, maxim 15
2- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 301
3- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 302
4- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 302
5- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 302

kindness must never be expected from kings, for tyrant rulers to establish their position have no mercy on even their closest friends.(1)

Generosity has its roots in man’s dignity. Hence, to hold others under obligation against generosity is contrary to man’s greatness.(2) Abandoning friends and not socializing with people is a strong motivation for cutting off of friendship. Hence, it is said: It is easy to find friends but difficult to keep them.(3)

There are three groups of people whose prayers are never rejected: 1. A fair-minded leader who treats his servants with justice. 2. A benefactor son who treats his father fairly. 3. A wronged person who complains to God from an act of oppression. God Almighty will say: By my honor, it is incumbent on me to help you and I will take your right from the oppressor, even after a long time.(4)

A sinner who has a smile on his lips but confesses to his sins is better than an obedient weeper who flaunts God.(5) Whoever sets his hope on others, the latter’s awe and glory is in his heart and whoever fails to know something, he is deprived of its knowledge, finds fault with it and speaks ill of it.(6) The most wonderful organ of human body is his heart. In this organ, phenomena of wisdom and its opposite are manifest.

If it is hopeful of anything, then the hardship of greed overtakes it and if it is incited by greed, it will be ruined. If despair overtakes it,

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1- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 302
2- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 302
3- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 302
4- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 303
5- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 303
6- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, pp. 300

successive regrets will kill it and its anger will be intensified. If it is self-satisfied, it will forget its own preservation. If it is overtaken by fear, it is preoccupied with its avoidance. If it gains security and tranquility, it is overtaken by vanity. If it abounds in blessings, it will face megalomania. If hardship afflicts it, complaints will make it disgraced. If it is afflicted with property, it will be obsessed with distress. If hunger bothers it, feebleness will overpower it. If it is indulged in overeating, it will be deprived of breathing. Therefore, every failure or shortage will harm it and every excess will corrupt it.(1)

ثَلاَثَهٌ مِنْ کُنُوزِ الْجَنَّهِ: کِتْمَانُ الصَّدَقَهِ وَکِتْمَانُ الْمُصِیبَهِ وَکِتْمَانُ الْمَرَضِ. إِحْتَجْ إِلَی مَنْ شِئْتَ تَکُنْ أَسِیرَهُ، وَاسْتَغْنِ عَمَّنْ شِئْتَ تَکُنْ نَظِیرَهُ، وَأَفْضِلْ عَلَی مَنْ شِئْتَ تَکُنْ أَمِیرَهُ. لاَ غِنَی مَعَ فُجُورٍ وَلاَ رَاحَهَ لِحَسُودٍ وَلاَ مَوَدَّهَ لِمَلُولٍ.

الْجُودُ مِنْ کَرَمِ الطَّبِیعَهِ، وَالْمَنُّ مَفْسَدَهٌ لِلصَّنِیعَهِ، وَتَرْکُ التَّعَاهُدِ لِلصَّدِیقِ دَاعِیَهٌ لِلْقَطِیعَهِ. أَرْبَعَهٌ لاَ تُرَدُّ لَهُمْ دَعْوَهٌ: الإِماَمُ الْعَادِلُ لِرَعِیَّتِهِ وَالْوَالِدُ الْبَارُّ بِوَلَدِهِ وَالْوَلَدُ الْبَارُّ بِوَالِدِهِ وَالْمَظْلُومُ. یَقُولُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: وَعِزَّتِی وَجَلاَلِی لأَنْتَصِرَنَّ لَکَ وَلَوْ بَعْدَ حِینٍ. ضَاحِکٌ مُعْتَرِفٌ بِذَنْبِهِ أَفْضَلُ مِنْ بَاکٍ مُدِلٍّ عَلَی رَبِّهِ.

مَنْ أَمِلَ إِنْسَاناً هَابَهُ وَمَنْ قَصُرَ عَنْ مَعْرِفَهِ شَیْءٍ عَابَهُ. أَعْجَبُ مَا فِی الإِنْسَانِ قَلْبُهُ، وَلَهُ مَوَادُّ الْحِکْمَهِ وَأَضْدَادُهَا. فَإِنْ سَنَحَ لَهُ الرَّجَاءُ، أَذَلَّهُ الطَّمَعُ؛ وَإِنْ هَاجَ بِهِ الطَّمَعُ، أَهْلَکَهُ الْحِرْصُ؛ وَإِنْ مَلَکَهُ الْیَأْسُ، قَتَلَهُ الأَسَفُ؛ وَإِنْ عَرَضَ لَهُ الْغَضَبُ، إِشْتَدَّ بِهِ الْغَیْظُ؛ وَإِنْ أُسْعِفَ بِالرِّضَا، نَسِیَ التَّحَفُّظَ؛ وَإِنْ نَالَهُ الْخَوْفُ، شَغَلَهُ الْحَذَرُ؛ وَإِنْ إتَّسَعَ لَهُ الأَمْنُ، إسْتَوْلَتْ عَلَیْهِ الْعِزَّهُ،

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1- Muruj al-Dhahab, Mas’udi, vol. 2, pp. 421

وَإِنْ جُدِّدَتْ نِعَمُهُ، أَخَذَتْهُ الْعِزَّهُ؛ وَإِن

Imam ‘Ali (a.s) holding Kumayl ibn Ziyad’s hand in his hand, said: O Kumayl, these hearts are containers. The best of them is that which preserves its contents. So, preserve what I say to you. People are three types: One is the scholar and divine. Then, is the seeker of knowledge who is also on the way to deliverance. Then (lastly), is the common rot who runs after every caller and bend in the direction of every wind. They seek no light from the effluence of knowledge and do not take protection of any reliable support.

O Kumayl, knowledge is better than wealth. Knowledge guards you, while you have to guard the wealth. Wealth decreases by spending, while knowledge multiplies by spending.

O Kumayl, knowledge is belief which is acted upon. With it man acquires obedience during his life and a good name after his death. Knowledge is the ruler while wealth is ruled upon.

O Kumayl, those who amass wealth are dead even though they may be living while those endowed with knowledge will remain as long as the world lives. Their bodies are not available but their figures exists in the hearts. Look, here is a heap of knowledge (and Imam ‘Ali pointed to his bosom). I wish I could get someone to bear it. Yes, I did find (such a one); but either he was one who could not be relied upon.

He would exploit the religion for worldly gains, and by virtue of Allah’s favors

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on him he would domineer over the people and through Allah’s pleasure he would lord over His devotees. Or he was one who was obedient to the hearers of truth but there was no intelligence in his bosom. At the first appearance of doubt, he would entertain misgivings in his heart.

So, neither this nor that was good enough. Either the man is eager for pleasures, easily led away by passions, or is covetous for collecting and hoarding wealth. Neither of them has any regard for religion in any matter. The nearest example of these is the loose cattle. This is the way that knowledge dies away with the death of its bearers. However, the earth is never devoid of those who maintain Allah’s pleas either openly and reputedly or, being afraid as hidden in order that Allah’s pleas and proofs should not be rebutted.

أَصَابَتْهُ مُصِیبَهٌ، فَضَحَهُ الْجَزَعُ؛ وَإِنْ أَفَادَ مَالاً، أَطْغَاهُ الْغِنَی؛ وَإِنْ عَضَّتْهُ فَاقَهٌ، شَغَلَهُ الْبَلاَءُ؛ وَإِنْ أَجْهَدَهُ الْجُوعُ، قَعَدَ بِهِ الضَّعْفُ؛ وَإِنْ أَفْرَطَ بِهِ الشَّبَعُ، کَظَّتْهُ الْبِطْنَهُ. فَکُلُّ تَقْصِیرٍ بِهِ مُضِرٌّ وَکُلُّ إْفَرَاطٍ مُفْسِدٌ. الْمَعْرُوفُ عَصَمَهُ مِنَ الْبَوَارِ وَالرِّفْقُ تُنَقِّیهِ مِنَ الْعَثَارِ.

وَقالَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ لِکُمَیْلِ بْنِ زِیادٍ: یَا کُمَیْلُ، إِنَّ هَذِهِ الْقُلُوبَ أَوْعِیَهٌ، فَخَیْرُهَا أَوْعَاهَا. إِحْفَظْ عَنِّی مَا أَقُولُ لَکَ: النَّاسُ ثَلاَثَهٌ: عَالِمٌ رَبَّانِیٌّ وَمُتَعَلِّمٌ عَلَی سَبِیلِ نَجَاهٍ وَهَمَجٌ رِعَاعٌ أَتْبَاعُ کُلِّ نَاعِقٍ یَمِیلُونَ مَعَ کُلِّ رِیحٍ، لَمْ یَسْتَضِیئُوا بِنُورِ الْعِلْمِ وَلَمْ یَلْجَأُوا إِلَی رُکْنٍ وَثِیقٍ. یَا کُمَیْلُ: مَحَبَّهُ الْعَالِمِ دِینٌ یُدَانِ بِهِ، وَبِهِ یَکْسِبُ الْعَالِمُ الطَّاعَهَ لِرَبِّهِ فِی حَیَاتِهِ وَجَمِیلَ الأُحْدُوثَهِ بَعْدَ وَفَاتِهِ.

یَا کُمَیْلُ بْنَ زِیادٍ:

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الْعِلْمُ خَیْرٌ مِنَ الْمَالِ؛ الْعِلْمُ یَحْرُسُکَ وَأَنْتَ تَحْرُسُ الْمَالَ؛ وَالْمَالُ تُنْقِصُهُ النَّفَقَهُ، وَالْعِلْمُ یَزْکُو بِالإِنْفَاقِ، وَالْعِلْمُ حَاکِمٌ وَالْمَالُ مَحْکُومٌ عَلَیْهِ. یَا کُمَیْلُ: مَاتَ خُزَّانُ الأَمْوَالِ وَهُمْ أَحْیَاءٌ. وَالْعُلَمَاءُ بَاقُوَن مَا بَقِیَ الدَّهْرُ؛ أَعْیَانُهُمْ مَفْقُودَهٌ وَأَمْثَالُهُمْ فِی الْقُلُوبِ مَوْجُودَهٌ. هَاهٍ هَاهٍ! إنَّ هَهُنَا لَعِلْماً جَمَّا - وَأَشارَ بِیَدِهِ الشَّریفَهِ إلَی صَدْرِهِ المُکَرَّمِ - لَوْ أَصَبْتُ لَهُ حَمَلَهً! بَلَی، أَصَبْتُ لَقِناً غَیْرَ مَأْمُونٍ عَلَیْهِ یَسْتَعْمِلُ آلَهَ الدِّینِ لِلدُّنْیَا وَیَسْتَظْهِرُ بِحُجَجِ اللهِ عَلَی أَوْلِیَاءِهِ وَبِنِعَمِهِ عَلَی عِبَادِهِ أَوْ مُنْقاداً لِحَمْلَهِ الْحَقِّ لاَ بَصِیرَهِ لَهُ فِی أَحْنَائِهِ، یَقْدَحُ الشَّکُّ فِی قَلْبِهِ بِأَوَّلِ عَارِضِ شُبْهَهٍ. إلاَّ لاَ ذَا وَلاَ ذَاکَ! أَوْ مَنْهُوماً بِاللَّذَّاتِ سَلِسَ الْقِیَادِ لِلشَّهَوَاتِ أَوْ مُغْرَماً بِالْجَمْعِ وَالإدِّخَارِ لَیْسَا مِنْ رُعَاهِ الدِّینِ،

How many are they and where are they? By Allah, they are few in number, but they are great in esteem before Allah. Through them Allah guards His pleas and proofs till they entrust them to others like themselves and sow the seeds thereof in the hearts of those who are similar to them. Knowledge has led them to real understanding and so they have associated themselves with the spirit of conviction. They take easy what the easygoing regard as hard. They endear what the ignorant take as strange. They live in this world with their bodies here but their spirits resting in the high above. They are the vicegerents of Allah on His earth and callers to His religion. Oh, oh, how I yearn to see them! Go from here now, O Kumayl Wherever you wish.(1)

Imam ‘Ali has preached a sermon

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1- Tadhkirat al-Huffa¨, Zahabi, vol. 1, pp. 11

about those who sit for dispensation of justice among people but are not fit for it, as follows: Among all the people the most detested before Allah are two persons. One is he who is devoted to his self. So he is deviated from the true path and loves speaking (foul) innovations inviting towards wrong path. He is therefore a nuisance for those who are enamored of him, is himself misled from the guidance of those preceding him, mislead those who follow him, in his life or after his death, carries the weight of others’ sins and is entangled in his own misdeeds.

The other man is he who has picked up ignorance. He moves among the ignorant, is senseless in the thick of mischief and is blind to the advantages of peace. Those resembling men have named him scholar but he is not so. He goes out early morning to collect things whose deficiency is better than plenty, till when he has quenched his thirst from polluted water and acquired meaningless things. He sits among the people as a judge responsible for solving whatever is confusing to others. If an ambiguous problem is presented before him, he manages shabby argument about it of his own accord and passes judgment on its basis. In this way, he is entangled in the confusion of doubts as in the spider’s web, not knowing whether he was right of wrong. If he is right he fears lest he erred, while if he is wrong

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he hopes he is right. He is ignorant, wandering astray in ignorance and riding on carriages aimlessly moving in darkness. He did not try to find reality of knowledge.

أَقْرَبُ شَیْءٍ شُبْهاً بِهِمَا الأَنْعَامُ السَّائِمَهُ! کَذَلِکَ یَمُوتُ الْعِلْمُ بِمَوْتِ حَامِلِیهِ. اللَّهُمَّ بَلَی! لاَ یُخْلِی اللهُ الأَرْضَ مِنْ حُجَّهٍ لَهُ عَلَی خَلْقِهِ؛ إِمَّا ظَاهِرٌ مَشْهُورٌ أَوْ خَائِفٌ مَغْمُورٌ لِئَلاَّ تَبْطُلَ حُجَجُ اللهِ وَبَیِّنَاتُهُ. وَأَیْنَ أُولَئِکَ؟ أُولَئِکَ وَاللهِ الأَقَلُّونَ عَدَداً وَالأَعْظَمُونَ قَدْراً. بِهِمْ یَحْفَظُ اللهُ حُجَجَهُ حَتَّی یُودِعُوهَا نُظَرَاءَهُمْ وَیَزْرَعُوهَا فِی قُلُوبِ أَشْبَاهِهِمْ. هَجَمَ بِهِمُ الْعِلْمُ عَلَی حَقَائِقِ الإِیمَانِ فَاسْتَأْذَنُوا رُوحَ الْیَقِینِ وَاسْتَسْهَلُوا مَا اسْتَوْعَرَهُ الْمُتْرَفُونَ وَآنَسُوا بِمَا اسْتَوْحَشَ مِنْهُ الْجَاهِلُونَ. صَحِبُوا الدُّنْیَا بِأَبْدَانٍ أَرْوَاحُهَا مُعَلَّقَهٌ بِالْمَحَلِّ الأَعْلَی. أُولَئِکَ أُمَنَاءُ اللهِ فِی أَرْضِهِ وَحُجَجُهُ عَلَی عِبَادِهِ. ثُمَّ تَنَفَّسَ الصُّعَداءَ وَقالَ: آهٍ آهٍ! وَاشَوْقَاهُ إِلَی رُؤْیَتِهِمْ. ونَزَعَ یَدَهُ مِنْ یَدی وَقالَ: إنْصَرِفْ إِذَا شِئْتَ.

وَقالَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: ذِمَّتِی بِمَا أَقُولُ رَهِینَهٌ، وَأَنَا بِهِ زَعِیمٌ. إِنَّ الْخَیْرَ کُلَّهُ فِی مَنْ عَرَفَ قَدْرَهُ، وَکَفَی بِالْمَرْءِ جَهْلاً أَلاَّ یَعْرِفَ قَدْرَهُ. وَإِنَّ أَبْغَضَ الْخَلاَئِقِ إلَی اللهِ تَعالَی رَجُلاَنِ: رَجُلٌ وَکَلَهُ اللهُ إلَی نَفْسِهِ فَهُوَ جَائِرٌ عَنْ قَصْدِ السَّبِیلِ مَشْغُوفٌ بِکَلاَمِ بِدْعَهٍ وَدُعَاءِ ضَلاَلَهٍ، فَهُوَ فِتْنَهٌ لِمَنِ افْتَتَنَ بِهِ ضَالٌّ عَنْ هَدْیِ مَنْ کَانَ قَبْلَهُ مُضِلٌّ لِمَنِ اقْتَدَی بِهِ فِی حَیَاتِهِ وَبَعْدَ وَفَاتِه حَمَّالُ خَطَایَا غَیْرِهِ رَهْنٌ بِخَطِیئَتِهِ. وَرَجُلٌ قَمَشَ جَهْلاً مَوْضِعٌ فِی جُهَّالِ الأُمَّهِ عَادٍ فِی أَغْبَاشِ الْفِتْنَهِ عَمٍ عَنِ الْهُدَی قَدْ سَمَّاهُ أَشْبَاهُ النَّاسِ عَالِماً وَلَیْسَ بِهِ بِکْرٌ فَاسْتَکْثَرَ مِنْ جَمْعِ مَا قَلَّ مِنْهُ خَیْراً مِمَّا کَثُرَ حَتَّی إِذَا ارْتَوَی مِنْ آجِنٍ وَاسْتَکْثَرَ مِنْ غَیْرِ طَائِلٍ جَلَسَ بَیْنَ النَّاسِ قَاضِیاً ضَامِناً لِتَخْلِیصِ مَا الْتَبَسَ عَلَی غَیْرِهِ. وَإِنْ

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نَزَلَتْ بِهِ إِحْدَی الْمُبْهَمَاتِ هَیَّأَ لَهَا حَشْواً رَثَّاً مِنْ رَأْیِهِ ثُمَّ قَطَعَ عَلَیْهِ فَهُوَ مِنْ لَبْسِ الشُّبُهَاتِ فِی مِثْلِ نَسْجِ

He scatters the traditions as the wind scatters the dry leaves. By Allah, he is not capable of solving the problems that come to him nor is fit for the position assigned to him. Whatever he does not know he does not regard it worth knowing. He does not realize that what is beyond his reach is within the reach of others. If anything is not clear to him, he keeps quiet over it because he knows his own ignorance. Lost lives are crying against his unjust verdicts, and properties (that have been wrongly disposed of) are grumbling against him.

O people, you must never disobey your leaders on the ground that you do not know them, for no excuse will be accepted from you in this connection. This is because the knowledge with which Adam came down on the earth and what all the prophets from Adam to the seal of prophets are privileged with, are gathered in the family of your prophet. O you who from the companions of Noah’s Ark have walked onto this earth with the divine will know that there is the same flood and ark in our time. Hence, the only way for salvation is to seek refuge in Ahl al-Bayt. If the people at that time embarked on Noah’s Ark and were safeguarded from drowning, you too will be safe from superstitions and deviations at

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this time by resorting to Ahl al-Bayt. I pledge my obligation to what I say and I undertake to be accountable for it on the Day of Judgment.

Verily, I say woe is to one who is deviating from this path. Have you not heard what the Messenger of Allah said about Ahl al-Bayt when he returned from his last pilgrimage and communicating his divine mission: Verily I am leaving among you two valuable things; you will not go astray after me as long as you adhere to them. One is greater than the other. They are the book of Allah, and my household. They will never separate from one another until the come to me at the Pond.

Be aware that following the Holy Qur’an and the school of Ahl al-Bayt is like sweet and wholesome water which quenches your spiritual thirst whereas following people of innovation is like bitter and salty water which should be avoided.(1)

الْعَنْکَبُوتِ وَلاَ یَدْرِی أَصَابَ أَمْ أَخْطَأَ وَلاَ یَرَی إِنَّ مِنْ وَرَاءِ مَا بَلَغَ مِنْهُ مَذْهَباً لِغَیْرِهِ. إِنْ قَاسَ شَیْئاً بِشَیْءٍ لَمْ یُکَذِّبْ رَأْیَهُ وَإِنْ أَظْلَمَ عَلَیْهِ أَمْرٌ إکْتَتَمَ بِهِ لِمَا یَعْلَمُ مِنْ جَهْلِ نَفْسِهِ کَیْ لاَ یُقَالَ: إِنَّهُ لاَ یَعْلَمُ. ثُمَّ أَقْدَمَ بِغَیْرِ عِلْمٍ فَهُوَ خَائِضُ عَشَوَاتٍ، رَکَّابُ شَهَوَاتٍ، خَبَّاطُ جَهَالاَتٍ. لاَ یَعْتَذِرُ مِمَّا لاَ یَعْلَمُ فَیَسْلَمُ، وَلاَ یَعَضُّ فِی العِلْمِ بِضِرْسٍ قَاطِعٍ فَیَغْنَمُ. یَذْرُو الرِّوَایَاتِ ذَرْوَ الرِّیحِ الْهَشِیمِ، تَبْکِی مِنْهُ الْمَوَارِیثُ وَتَصْرُخُ مِنْهُ الدِّمَاءُ وَیُسْتَحَلُّ بِقَضَائِهِ الْفَرْجُ الْحَرَامُ وَیُحَرَّمُ بِهِ الحَلاَلُ، لاَ یُسَلِّمُ بِإِصْدَارِ مَا عَلَیْهِ وَرَدَ وَلاَ یَنْدَمُ عَلَی مَا مِنْهُ فَرُطَ. أَیُّهَا

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1- Tarikh Ya’qubi, vol. 2, pp. 211

النَّاسُ عَلَیْکُمْ بِالطَّاعَهِ وَالْمَعْرِفَهِ بِمَنْ لاَ تُعْذَرُونَ بِجَهَالَتِهِ. فَإِنَّ الْعِلْمَ الَّذِی هَبَطَ بِهِ آدَمُ وَجَمِیعَ مَا فُضِّلَتْ بِهِ النَّبِیُّونَ إِلَی مُحَمَّدٍ خَاتَمِ النَّبِیِّینَ فِی عِتْرَهِ نَبِیِّکُمْ مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ. فَأَیْنَ یُتَاهُ بِکُمْ بَلْ أَیْنَ تَذْهَبُونَ؟ یَا مَنْ نَجَا مِنْ أَصْلاَبِ أَصْحَابِ السَّفِینَهِ، هَذِهِ مِثْلُهَا فِیکُمْ فَارْکَبُوهَا، فَکَمَا نَجَا فِی هَاتِیکَ مَنْ نِجَا فَکَذَلِکَ یَنْجُو فِی هَذِهِ مَنْ دَخَلَهَا. أَنَا رَهِینٌ بِذَلِکَ قَسَماً حَقَّاً وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُتَکَلِّفِینَ. وَالْوَیْلُ لِمَنْ تَخَلَّفَ ثُمَّ الْوَیْلُ لِمَنْ تَخَلَّفَ. أَمَا بَلَغَکُمْ مَا قَالَ فِیهِمْ نَبِیُّکُمْ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ حَیْثُ یَقُولُ فِی حِجَّهِ الْوَدَاعِ: إِنِّی تَارِکٌ فِیکُمُ الثَّقَلَیْنِ مَا إِنْ تَمَسَّکْتُمْ بِهِمَا لَنْ تَضِلُّوا؛ کِتَابَ اللهِ وَعِتْرَتِی أَهْلَ بَیْتِی. وَإِنَّهُمَا لَنْ یَفْتَرِقَا حَتَّی یَرِدَا عَلَیَّ الْحَوْضَ، فَانْظُرُوا کَیْفَ تُخَلِّفُونِی فِیهِمَا. أَلاَ هَذَا عَذْبٌ فُرَاتٌ فَاشْرَبُوا وَهَذا مِلْحٌ أُجَاجٌ فَاجْتَنِبُوا.

Imam ‘Ali (a.s) has preached a sermon about differences of view among the theologians as follows: When a problem is put before anyone of them, he passes judgment on it from his imagination. When exactly the same problem is placed before another of them he passes an opposite verdict. Then those judges go to the chief who had appointed them and he confirms all the verdicts, although their God is one (and the same), their prophet is one (and the same), their book (the Qur’an) is one (and the same).

Is it that Allah ordered them to differ and they obeyed Him? Or He prohibited them from it but they disobeyed Him? Or Allah sent an incomplete faith and sought their help to complete it?

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Or they are His partners in the affairs, so that it is their share of duty to pronounce and He has to agree? Or is it that Allah the Glorified sent a perfect faith but the prophet fell short of conveying it and handing it over (to the people)? The fact is that Allah, the Glorified, says:

“We have not neglected anything in the Book” (6:38).

And says that one part of the Qur’an verifies another part and that there is no divergence in it as He says:

“…and if it had been from any other than Allah, they would surely have found in it much discrepancy” (4:82).

Verily, the Holy Qur’an has a wonderful outward and a profound inward. Its wonders are imperishable and its strange points are infinite. The darkness of ignorance and the insufficiency of human thoughts are illuminated by it.(1) Imam ‘Ali (a.s) has said: O son of Adam, do not devote your utmost effort to a day which is not the last day of your life, for, God will provide you with daily food throughout the days of your life. If you gain what is in excess of your daily food, you have saved it for someone else. So the pain is yours and the gain is the heir’s.

The result of what you do is a hard reckoning on the Day of Judgment. Therefore, o man! Benefit from your property while living, be happy with it and prepare a provision you need for the Day of

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1- Nahj al-Balaghah, Sayyid Radi, sermon 18

Judgment, for the journey is long, and the meeting place is the Day of Judgment when paradise and hell await you!(1)

Imam ‘Ali’s sermons and maxims cannot be counted within the short space of this book. To avoid prolongation and boredom, only some of the sermons and maxims have been mentioned.

وَقالَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: تَرِدُ عَلَی أَحَدِهِمُ الْقَضِیَّهُ فِی حُکْمٍ مِنَ الأَحْکَامِ فَیَحْکُمُ فِیهَا بِرَأْیِهِ، ثُمَّ تَرِدُ تِلْکَ الْقَضِیَّهُ بِعَیْنِهَا عَلَی غَیْرِهِ فَیَحْکُمُ فِیهَا بِخِلاَفِ قَوْلِهِ. ثُمَّ یَجْتَمِعُ الْقُضَاهُ بِذَلِکَ عِنْدَ الإِمَامِ الَّذِی اسْتَقْضَاهُمْ فَیُصَوِّبُ آرَاءَهُمْ جَمِیعاً، وَإِلَهُهُمْ وَاحِدٌ وَنَبِیُّهُمْ وَاحِدٌ وَکِتَابُهُمْ وَاحِدٌ. أَفَأَمَرَهُمُ اللهُ سُبْحَانَهُ بِالإخْتِلاَفِ فَأَطَاعُوُهُ؟ أَمْ نَهَاهُمْ عَنْهُ فَعَصَوْهُ؟ أَمْ أَنْزَلَ اللهُ دِیناً نَاقِصاً فَاسْتَعَانَ بِهِمْ عَلَی إِتْمَامِهِ؟ أَمْ کَانُوا شُرَکَاءَ لَهُ فَلَهُمْ أَنْ یَقُولُوا وَعَلَیْهِ أَنْ یَرْضَی؟ أَمْ أَنْزَلَ اللهُ دِیناً تَامَّاً فَقَصَّرَ الرَّسُولُ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَنْ تَبْلِیغِهِ وَأَدَائِهِ؟ وَاللهُ سُبْحَانَهُ یَقُولُ: ?مَا فَرَّطْنَا فِی الْکِتَابِ مِنْ شَیْءٍ? وَفِیهِ تِبْیَانُ کُلِّ شَیْءٍ، وَذَکَرَ أَنَّ الْکِتَابَ یُصَدِّقُ بَعْضُهُ بَعْضاً وَأَنَّهُ لاَ اخْتِلاَفَ فِیهِ فَقالَ سُبْحَانَهُ: ?وَلَوْ کَانَ مِنْ عِنْدِ غَیْرِ اللهِ لَوَجَدُوا فِیهِ إخْتِلاَفاً کَثِیراً.? وَإِنَّ الْقُرْآنَ ظَاهِرُهُ أَنِیقٌ وَبَاطِنُهُ عَمِیقٌ، لاَ تَفْنَی عَجَائِبُهُ، وَلاَ تَنْقَضِی غَرَائِبُهُ، وَلاَ تُکْشَفُ الظُّلُمَاتُ إِلاَّ بِهِ.

وَقالَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: یَا ابْنَ آدَمَ، لاَ یَکُنْ أَکْثَرَ هَمِّکَ یَوْمُکَ الَّذِی إِنْ فَاتَکَ لَمْ یَکُنْ مِنْ أَجَلِکَ، فَإِنْ کَانَ یَوْماً تَحْضُرُهُ یَأْتِی اللهُ فِیهِ بِرِزْقِکَ. وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّکَ لَنْ تَکْسِبَ شَیْئاً فَوْقَ قُوتِکَ إِلاَّ کُنْتَ فِیهِ خَازِناً لِغَیْرِکَ، یَکْثُرُ فِی الدُّنْیَا بِهِ نَصِیبُکَ وَیَحْظَی بِهِ وَارِثُکَ وَیَطُولُ مَعَهُ یَوْمَ الْقِیَامَهِ حِسَابُکَ. فَاسْعَدْ بِمَا لَکَ فِی حَیَاتِکَ، وَقَدِّمْ لِیَوْمِ مَعَادِکَ زَاداً یَکُونُ أَمَامَکَ، فَإِنَّ السَّفَرُ بَعِیدٌ

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1- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 3, chap. 7, pp. 228

وَالْمَوْعِدَ الْقِیَامَهُ وَالْمَوْرِدَ الْجَنَّهُ أَوِ النَّارُ. وَکَلامُهُ وَمَواعِظُهُ وَحِکَمُهُ أکْثَرُ مِنْ أنْ تُحْصَی فلا نُطَوِّلُ الکِتابَ حَذَراً مِن الإضْجارِ إذْ هُوَ مَوضوعٌ لِغَیرِ ذَلِکَ.

Imam ‘Ali’s External Virtues and Merits

‘Ali’s Genealogy

Beyond doubt, kinship with the Messenger of Allah is both a unique privilege and superiority over others. Hence, God considers the honor of kinship with the Holy Prophet (S) as part of the honor of nearest relations when we read in the Holy Qur’an:

“and warn your nearest relations” (26:214).

Elsewhere, God says:

“and most surely it is a reminder for you and your people” (43:44).

It is for this reason that God Almighty has prohibited giving charity to them due to their honor and dignity. Hence, the closer a person is to the Messenger of Allah, the more honorable and dignified he or she is.(1)

Imam ‘Ali (a.s) has said: We are a family beyond comparison.(2) Abu-Uthman Jahiz who was an ardent enemy of Imam ‘Ali says: ‘Ali was truthful in what he said! How can we compare anyone with this family when the Messenger of Allah, two purified persons, ‘Ali and Fatimah, their two sons, Hasan and Husayn, two martyrs of Islam, Hamzah and Jafar who flies in paradise with two wings, the great chief of Hijaz, Abd al-Muttalib, the provider of water to the Hajj pilgrims, Abbas, the wise man of Batha' and Najdah, Abu-Taib are from this family in which all the merits and virtues are gathered.

Ansar are their helpers and Muhajir are those who immigrated towards them. Accepter is one who

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1- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 30
2- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 30

has accepted them and Faruq, that is, the distinguisher between justice and injustice is among them. True disciples are their disciples and if Dhu’l-Shahadatayn (the man of double testimony) was honored with this title, it is because his testimony is about them.

A proof of their dignity is that the Messenger of Allah said: Verily, I am leaving among you two valuable things. You will not go astray after me as long as you adhere to them. One is greater than the other. They are the Book of Allah, which is a rope stretched from the heavens to the earth, and my Household. They will never separate from one another until they come to me at the Pond. Verily, if the household of the Holy Prophet (S) was like other people, Umar would not ask ‘Ali to be his father-in-law to obtain the honor of kinship.

فِی الفَضائِلِ الحاصِلَهِ لَهُ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ مِن خارِجٍ: فِی نَسَبِهِ:

لاَ شَکَّ أنَّ النَّسَبَ وَالقُرْبَ مِنْ رَسُول اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ مَزِیَّهٌ وَفَضیلَهٌ عَلی غَیْرِهِمْ، وَلِهذا شَرَّفَهُمُ اللهُ تَعالَی بِسَهْمِ ذَوی القُرْبَی فَقالَ تَعالَی: ?وَأَنْذِرْ عَشِیرَتَکَ الأَقْرَبِینَ.? وَقالَ تَعالَی: ?وَإِنَّهُ لَذِکْرٌ لَکَ وَلِقَوْمِکَ.? وَحَرَّمَ عَلَیهِمُ الصَّدَقاتِ تَشْریفاً وَتَعْظیماً. وَکُلُّ مَنْ کَانَ مِنَ الرَّسُولِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ أَقْرَبَ کَانَ أَرْفَعَ. وَقالَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: نَحْنُ أهْلُ بَیْتٍ لاَ یُقاسُ بِنا أَحَدٌ.

قَالَ الجَاحِظُ وَهُوَ عَدُوُّ أمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: صَدَقَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ، کَیْفَ یُقاسُ بِقَوْمٍ مِنْهُمْ رَسُولُ اللهِ وَالأَطْیَبانِ عَلِیٌّ وَفاطِمَهُ وَالسِّبْطانِ الْحَسَنُ وَالْحُسَیْنُ وَالشَّهیدانِ أسَدُ اللهِ حَمْزَهُ وَذو الْجَناحَینِ جَعْفَرُ وَسَیِّدُ الوادِی عَبْدُ الْمُطَّلِبِ

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وَساقِی الْحَجیجِ العَبَّاسُ وَحَکیمُ البَطْحاءِ وَالنَّجْدَهِ أَبُو طالِبٍ، وَالخَیرُ فِیهِم وَالأنْصارُ أَنصارُهُمْ وَالمُهاجِرُ مَنْ هاجَرَ إِلَیْهِمْ وَمَعَهُمْ وَالصِّدّیقُ مَنْ صَدَّقَهُمْ وَالفارُوقُ مَنْ فَرَّقَ بَینَ الحَقِّ وَالباطِلِ فیهِمْ وَالحَوارِیُّ حَوارِیُّهُمْ وَذو الشَّهادَتَینِ لأَنَّهُ شَهِدَ لَهُمْ وَلا خَیْرَ إلاَّ فِیهِمْ وَلَهُمْ ومِنْهُمْ وَمَعَهُمْ؟ وَأَبَانَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ أهْلَ بَیْتِهِ بِقَوْلِهِ: إنِّی تارِکٌ فِیکُمُ الخَلیفَتَینِ أحَدُهُما أکْبَرُ مِنَ الآخَرِ؛ کِتابُ اللهِ حَبْلٌ مَمْدودٌ مِنَ السَّماءِ إلَی الأَرْضِ وَعِتْرتِی أهْلَ بَیْتِی. نَبَّأَنِیَ اللَّطیفُ الخَبیرُ أنَّهُما لَنْ یَفْتَرِقا حَتَّی یَرِدا عَلَیَّ الحَوْضَ. وَلَوْ کَانُوا کَغَیْرِهِمْ لَما قَالَ عُمَرُ لَمَّا طَلَبَ مُصاهَرَهَ عَلیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: إنِّی سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ

Umar reported the Holy Prophet (S) as saying: Every relation through blood or marriage on the Day of Judgment will be cut off except relation with me, which will never be cut off. These were good traits of all members of the Holy Prophet’s household. Nevertheless, Imam ‘Ali (a.s) has special privileges for the blessed days of his life and his excellent qualities the description of which requires voluminous books to cover.

Imam ‘Ali is a man of noble birth, supreme position, abundant knowledge, wonderful rhetoric, eloquent speech, and broadmindedness. Based on this, his morality is an example of his pure and genuine character. ‘Ali’s personality testifies to the former honors of his family. This is ‘Ali’s description by an enemy let alone by his devotee in whose veins the love for ‘Ali runs.(1) Imam ‘Ali’s dignified mother was Fatimah bint Asad ibn Hashim ibn Abd-Manaf, a lady who undertook to rear the

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1- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 21

Messenger of Allah in his childhood, fondling him on her lap. She was among the first women who believed in Allah and His messenger and immigrated to Medina with the Holy Prophet (S).(1)

The day this lady passed away, the Messenger of Allah personally undertook to perform her funeral rites, shrouding her in his own garment and when the digging of grave was knee-deep, removed the earth from the grave, lay down in the grave for moments and said: O Lord, who are living forever, you make the living die and the dead to become alive, through Your messenger, Muhammad and the messengers before me, forgive my mother, Fatimah bint Asad, instill the profession of faith into her ear and widen her grave, for you are the Most Merciful. At this time, the Holy Prophet (S) instilled the right words in her ear, repeatedly saying: Your son, your son! Not Jafar or Aqil! Those attending the funeral service said: O Messenger of Allah! What you did for ‘Ali’s mother, Fatimah, you did not for others. You shrouded her in your own garment, lay down in her grave before burial, and instilled into her ear, you said: Your son, your son; Not Jafar or Aqil. What is the meaning of all this? The Messenger of Allah said: One of the days I was speaking about how people were naked and bare-footed when they will be on the Resurrection Day.

وَآلِهِ یَقولُ: کُلُّ سَبَبٍ وَنَسَبٍ مُنْقَطِعٌ یَوْمَ القِیامَهِ إلاَّ سَبِبِی وَنَسَبِی. فَأَمَّا عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ

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1- Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 1, pp. 21

السَّلامُ فَلَوْ أفْرَدْنا لآِیاتِهِ الشَّریفَهِ وَمَقاماتِهِ الکَریمَهِ وَمَناقِبِهِ السَّنِیَّهِ کِتاباً لأَفْنَیْنا فِی ذَلِکَ الطَّوامیرَ الطِّوالَ. العِرْقُ صَحیحٌ، وَالمَنْشَأُ کَریمٌ، وَالشَّأنُ عَظیمٌ، وَالعَمَلُ جَسیمٌ، وَالعِلْمُ کَثیرٌ، وَالبَیانُ عَجیبٌ، وَاللِّسانُ خَطیبٌ، وَالصَّدْرُ رَحیبٌ، وَأخْلاقُهُ وِفْقَ أعْراقِهِ، وَحَدیثُهُ یَشْهَدُ بِقَدیِمهِ. هَذَا قَوْلُ عَدُوِّهِ مِنْهُ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ.

وَأُمُّهُ: فَاطِمَه بِنْتُ أسَدِ بْنِ هاشِمِ بْنِ عَبْدِ مَنافٍ. رَبَّتْ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فِی حُجْرِها وَکَانَتْ کَالأُمِّ لَهُ، وَسَبَقَتْ إلَی الإیمَانِ وَهاجَرَتْ مَعَهُ إلَی المَدینَهِ، وَلَمَّا ماتَتْ تَوَلّی رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ أمْرَها وَکَفَّنَها بِقَمیصِهِ. وَلَمَّا بَلَغَ الحَفْرُ إلَی اللَّحْدِ حَفَرَهُ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ بِیَدِهِ وَأخْرَجَ تُرابَهُ بِیَدِهِ وَنامَ فِی قَبْرِها ثُمَّ قَالَ: اللهُ الَّذِی یُحْیی وَیُمیتُ وَهُوَ حَیٌّ لاَ یَمُوتُ إغْفِرْ لأُِمّی فَاطِمَهَ بِنْتِ أسَدٍ وَلَقِّنْها حُجَّتَها وَوَسِّعْ عَلَیْها قَبْرَها وَمَدْخَلها بِحَقِّ نَبِیِّکَ مُحَمَّدٍ وَالأنْبِیاءِ الَّذینَ مِنْ قَبْلی فَإنَّکَ أرْحَمُ الرَّاحِمینَ.

وَلَقَّنَها فَسُمِعَ مِنْهُ: ابْنُکِ ابْنُکِ لاَ جَعْفَرُ وَلا عَقیلُ. فَقیلَ لَهُ: یَا رَسولَ اللهِ رَأَیْناکَ قَدْ صَنَعْتَ مَعَ أُمِّ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ صُنْعاً لَمْ تَصْنَعْهُ بِغَیْرِها؛ کَفَّنْتَها فِی قَمیصِکَ وَتَوَسَّدْتَ لَحْدَها وَقُلْتُ لَهَا: ابْنُکِ ابْنُکِ لاَ جَعْفَرُ وَلا عقیلُ؛ فَما سَبَبُ ذَلِکَ؟ فَقالَ: إنِّی ذَکَرْتُ لَهَا یَوْماً أنَّ النَّاسَ یُحْشَرونَ یَوْمَ القِیامَهِ عُراهً حُفاهً فَقَالَتْ: وَاسَوْأَتَاهُ یَوْمَئِذٍ! فَقُلْتُ: إنِّی

Hearing this, Fatimah bint Asad became very sad, saying: woe to the humiliation of that day! I promised her that I would shroud her in my own garment so that she would not come to the Resurrection Day naked. I lay down in her grave to make her safe from tightness of grave. The reason I said: Your son, your

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son, Not Jafar or Aqil, was that the examining angels entered her grave, asking her: Who is your Lord? She said: God Almighty is my Lord. She was asked: Who is your prophet.

She said: Muhammad. She was asked: Who is your Imam? She kept silent, not knowing what to answer. I said to her: Your son, your son, meaning that your Imam and leader is your son, ‘Ali, not Aqil or Ja’far.(1) Imam ‘Ali was the first Hashemite of two Hashemite lineage. He was born a Hashemite, both on the mother and father sides.(2) Imam ‘Ali’s dignified father was Abu-Talib, Abd-Manaf ibn Abd al-Muttalib Known as Shaybat al-Hamd, literally meaning a model of thanksgiving or the thanksgiving old man.

‘Ali and the Holy Prophet’s lineage gather together in Abd al-Muttalib, the son of Hashim ibn Abd-Manaf, the son of Qasi ibn Kilab ibn Murrah ibn Ka’b ibn Lu’ay ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr ibn Malik ibn Nadr ibn Kinanah ibn Khuzaymah ibn Mudrikah ibn Ilyas ibn Mudar ibn Nizar ibn Ma’d ibn ‘Andan ibn Mubdi’ ibn Mani’ ibn Adad ibn Ka’b ibn Yashjub ibn Ya’rub ibn Humaysa’ ibn Qaydar ibn Isma’il ibn Ibrahim, the Friend of God. ‘Ali was the Holy Prophet’s full blood cousin on both sides. His uncles were Abbas, Hamzah ibn Abd al-Muttalib, his brothers, Aqil and Ja’far, his sons, Hasan and Husayn, and his wife, lady Fatimah, the princess of the world women. Due to Allah’s Grace, Imam ‘Ali has been honored by God Almighty with all

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1- Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 35, pp. 179-180
2- Kafi, vol. 1, pp. 452

the excellent qualities of this family. These blessings are tied to all members of the Holy Prophet’s household.(1)

‘Ali’s Marriage with Lady Fatimah

Ibn Abbas reports: When Fatimah, the honorable daughter of the Holy Prophet (S) reached maturity, prominent suitors came to the Messenger of Allah, asking her hand in marriage, having the impression that their requests would be accepted but the Holy Prophet (S) rejected their requests, saying: I am waiting for Allah’s decree, for Fatimah’s marriage is on His decree.

أُکَفِّنُکِ بِقَمیصی لِیَسْتُرَکِ فِی ذَلِکَ الیَوْمِ، فَفَعَلْتُ. وَتَوَسَّدْتُ قَبْرَها لِتأْمَنَ مِنْ ضَغْطَهِ القَبْرِ. وَنَزَلَ عَلَیْها المَلَکانِ فَقالا لَهَا: مَنْ رَبُّکِ؟ فَقَالَتْ: اللهُ رَبِّی. فقالا لَهَا: مَنْ نَبِیُّکِ؟ فَقَالَتْ: مُحَمَّدٌ نَبِیِّی. فقالا: مَنْ إمَامُکِ؟ فَارْتَجَّ عَلَیْها، فَقُلْتُ: ابْنُکِ ابْنُکِ لاَ جَعْفَرُ وَلا عَقیلُ.

وَهُوَ أَوَّلُ هاشِمِیٍّ مِنْ هاشِمِیَّیْنِ، وَأَوَّلُ مَنْ وَلَدَهُ هاشِمٌ مَرَّتَیْنِ. وَأَبوهُ: أَبُو طالِبٍ عَبْدُ مَنافِ بْنِ عَبْدِ المُطَّلِبِ شَیْبَهِ الحَمْدِ، وَعِنْدَهُ یَجْتَمِعُ نَسَبُهُ وَنَسَبُ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ بْنِ هاشِمِ بْنِ عَبْدِ مَنافِ بْنِ قُصَیِّ بْنِ کِلابِ بْنِ مُرَّهَ بْنِ کَعْبِ بْنِ لُؤَیِّ بْنِ غالِبِ بْنِ فِهْرِ بْنِ مَالِکِ بْنِ النَّضْرِ بْنِ کِنانَهَ بْنِ خُزَیمَهَ بْنِ مُدْرِکَهَ بْنِ إلْیاسَ بْنِ مُضَرَ بْنِ نَزارِ بْنِ مَعْدِ بْنِ عَدْنانَ بْنِ مُبْدِعِ بْنِ مَنیعِ بْنِ أَدَدَ بْنِ کَعْبِ بْنِ یَشْجُبَ بْنِ یَعْرُبَ بْنِ الهُمَیْسَعِ بْنِ قَیْدارَ بْنِ إسْماعیلَ بْنِ إبْراهیمَ الخَلیلِ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. وَهُوَ ابْنُ عَمِّ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ لأَِبِیهِ وَأُمِّهِ، وَعَمَّاهُ حَمْزَهُ وَالعَبَّاسُ وَإخْوَتُهُ جَعْفَرٌ وَعَقیلٌ وَابْناهُ الحَسَنُ وَالحُسَینُ وَزَوْجَتُهُ سَیِّدَهُ نِساءِ العَالَمِینَ. فَهُوَ وَاسِطَهُ عَقْدِ الکَمالِ المَخْصوصِ عِنْدَ اللهِ بِالکَمالِ وَالإفْضالِ.

فِی تَزْویجِهِ بِفاطِمَهَ عَلَیْها السَّلامُ:

قَالَ ابنُ عَبَّاسٍ:

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1- Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 1, pp. 20

کَانَتْ فَاطِمَهُ بِنْتُ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ تُذْکَرُ فَلا یَذْکُرُها أحَدٌ لرَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ إلاَّ أعْرَضَ عَنْهُ وَقالَ: أتَوَقَّعُ الأَمْرَ مِن السَّماءِ. إنَّ أمْرَها إلَی اللهِ تَعالَی.

Sa’d ibn Mu’adh Ansari who knew this, said to ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib: By God, the Messenger of Allah has no one in mind save you. ‘Ali answered: Marriage needs wealth which I have not! The Messenger of Allah too knows that I have no wealth! Sa’d said: I put you under an obligation to do so. ‘Ali said: What should I say to the Holy Prophet?

Sa’d said: Say: I have come here to ask the hand of Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad in marriage. To this end, ‘Ali came to the presence of the Messenger of Allah but due to modesty, he had lowered his head and did not say anything. The Messenger of Allah said: O ‘Ali, I see a sign of request in your face. What is your request? ‘Ali said: Asking your daughter’s hand in marriage! The Holy Prophet (S) who looked happy and had a smile on his lips, said: I will accept it eagerly. On his return, ‘Ali told Sa’d the whole story. Sa’d said: The Messenger of Allah had accepted your request, for he keeps his promise and never breaks it.

On that night, the Messenger of Allah called Bilal, saying: I married my daughter to my cousin. I wish to hold a marriage banquet to set it as a tradition among my

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Ummah. Now, go to sheep-selling market, buy a sheep and five mudd of barley, and make a pot ready for cooking them. I will invite Muhajir and Ansar to this banquet.

Bilal carried out what the Holy Prophet had ordered. A large group of people gathered in the Holy Prophet’s house, ate from the food yet no shortage was seen in it. Then, the Holy Prophet ordered Bilal to take the food to the houses of his wives and to say to them: Eat of this food, you and any woman who comes to you. Bilal carried out this order.(1)

Then, the Messenger of Allah attended the gathering of his wives, saying: I have married my daughter, Fatimah to my cousin. I intend to send her to him. She is your daughter, do whatever you can for her nuptial ceremony. The Holy Prophet’s wives who were overjoyed, perfumed and adorned Fatimah with their Jewels and took to her house the dowry which Salman and Bilal had prepared on the order of the Holy Prophet. A cloak of Khaybar, a jug, a ewer, a tub, curtain, a mattress of date fiber and a pillow were all that made up the dowry. Then, they informed the Holy Prophet to come. Seeing this scene and having tears on his cheeks, the Holy Prophet raised his hands in prayer and said: O Lord! Make this marriage auspicious to a couple most of whose vessels are made of clay.(2)

فَقالَ سَعدُ بنُ مُعاذٍ الأنصَارِیُّ لعَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 10, pp. 243
2- Khasa’is Nisaee, pp. 231

طالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: إنِّی وَاللهِ مَا أرَی النَّبِیَّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ یُریدُ بِهَا غَیْرَکَ. فَقالَ لَهُ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: مَا أنَا بِذِی دُنْیاً یُلْتَمَسُ مَا عِنْدِی، وَقَدْ عَلِمَ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ إنَّهُ مَا لی حَمْراءُ وَلا بَیْضاءُ. فَقالَ لَهُ سَعدٌ: أعْزِمُ عَلَیْکَ لَتَفْعَلُنَّ. فَقالَ لَهُ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: مَاذا أَقولُ؟ قَالَ لَهُ: تَقولُ لَهُ: جِئْتُکَ خَاطِباً إلَی اللهِ تَعالَی وَإلَی رَسولِهِ فَاطِمَهَ بِنْتَ مُحَمَّدٍ. فَانْطَلَقَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَتَعَرَّضَ لِلنَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ، فَقالَ لَهُ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: کَأَنَّ لَکَ حاجَهً؟ قَالَ: أجَلْ. فَقالَ: هاتِ. فَقالَ: جِئْتُکَ خاطِباً إلَی اللهِ وَإلَی رَسُولِهِ فَاطِمَهَ بِنْتَ مُحَمَّدٍ. فقَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَرْحباً وَحُبَّاً. فَقالَ ذَلِکَ لِسَعْدٍ، فَقالَ: لَقَدْ أَنْکَحَکَ ابْنَتَهُ، إنَّهُ لاَ یُخْلفُ ولا یَکْذِبُ. فَدَعا رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ تِلکَ اللَّیْلَهِ بِلالاً فَقالَ: إنِّی قَدْ زَوَّجْتُ فَاطِمَهَ ابْنَتِی بِابْنِ عَمِّی وَأنا أُحِبُّ أَنْ یَکُونَ مِنْ أَخْلاقِ أُمَّتِی الطَّعامُ عِنْدَ النِّکاحِ. إِذْهَبْ یَا بِلالُ إلَی الغَنَمِ فَخُذْ شَاهً وَخَمْسَهَ أمْدادِ شَعیرٍ فَاجْعَلْ قَصْعَهً فَلَعَلِّی أجْمَعُ عَلَیْها المُهاجِرِینَ وَالأنْصارِ. فَفَعَلَ ثُمَّ دَعا النَّاسَ فَأَکَلَ الجَمیعُ. ثُمَّ قَالَ: یَا بِلالُ احْمِلْها إلَی أُمَّهاتِکَ. فَقُلْ لَهُنَّ کُلْنَ وَأَطْعِمْنَ مِنْ عَیْشِکُنَّ، فَفَعَلَ. ثُمَّ إنَّ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ دَخَلَ عَلَی النِّساءِ وَقالَ: إنِّی قَدْ زَوَّجْتُ ابْنَتِی بِابْنِ عَمِّی، وَإنّی دافِعُها إلَیْهِ فَدُونَکُنَّ ابْنَتُکُنَّ. فَقُمْنَ إلَی الفَتاهِ فَعَلَّقْنَ عَلَیْها مِنْ حِلِیِّهِنَّ وَطَیَّبْنَها وَجَعَلْنَ فِی بَیْتِها فِراشاً حَشْوُهُ لِیفٌ وَوِسادَهً وَکِساءً خَیْبَریَّاً وَمَرْکناً وَجِراراً وَمُطَهِّرهً لِلْماءِ وَسِتْرَ صوفٍ رَقیقٍ.

وَکَانَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ قَدْ بَعَثَ سَلْمانَ وَبِلالاً لِیَشْتَرِیا لَهَا ذَلِکَ کُلَّهُ. فَلَمَّا وُضِعَ بَینَ یَدَیْهِ بَکَی وَجَرَتْ دُموعُهُ ثُمَّ رَفَعَ

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رَأْسَهُ إلَی السَّماءِ وَقالَ: اللَّهُمَّ بارِکْ لِقَوْمٍ جُلُّ آنِیَتِهِمُ الخَزَفُ.

The wives of the Messenger of Allah chose Ummu-Ayman as housekeeper to meet the needs of the bride.(1) Then, the Messenger of Allah called Fatimah to come to his presence. When Fatimah’s eyes fell on her husband, ‘Ali, who was sitting beside her father, she started weeping. The Messenger of Allah who intended to put her hand in ‘Ali’s hand, while weeping said: My daughter, Fatimah! I did not marry you to ‘Ali on my own, rather, God on your behalf and Gabriel on ‘Ali’s behalf, arranged this marriage in heaven between you two.(2)

At that time, God Almighty commissioned the tree of Tuba to give away ornaments, robes, pearls and rubies and ordered the Paradisiacal women to get together and pick up heavenly ornaments, pearls and rubies. They obeyed Allah’s order, take pride in it till the Day of Judgment and offer those ornaments to one another, saying: These are all from the blessings of Fatimah.(3)

Verily, my daughter, I have married you to the best of my kinship. I married you to one who is a master in this world and will be a righteous man on the Day of Judgment. Putting Fatimah’s hand in ‘Ali’s hand, the Messenger of Allah said: Now, go to your house. May God Almighty brings about love between you and improve your affairs till I come to see you again. The bride and the bridegroom sat beside each other for a few moments while the

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1- Kifayat al-Talib, Ganji, part 82, pp. 305
2- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 20, pp. 244
3- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 20, pp. 244

Holy Prophet’s wives too were with them. Of course, there was a curtain between ‘Ali and them and Fatimah was sitting next to women.(1)

After the passage of a short time, the Messenger of Allah entered the bridal chamber. Seeing that the Holy Prophet had come, the women hurriedly left the house except Asma bint Umays. As for the reason she stayed there, she said: When Khadijah was in the bed of death, she was weeping. I said to her: Why are you weeping at this time while you are one of the greatest women in world, the wife of the Messenger of Allah, and you were given the good tiding that you will go to paradise? Khadijah said: The reason I am weeping is that my daughter, Fatimah is very young and she will need someone to help her on her wedding night. I am afraid there will be no woman to help her! I said: O my lady, don’t worry, I promise to meet her needs on that night if I live long enough till then. So, when all women left the house, I stayed there. The Messenger of Allah who had ordered all women to leave the house, seeing my shadow said: Who are you? I said: I am Asma bint Umays.

He said: Did I not tell you to leave the house? I said: Yes, O Messenger of Allah, but my staying here is not meant to disobey you, rather, I promised to Khadijah to stay with

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1- Majma’ al-Zawa’id, vol. 9, pp. 208

Fatimah on such a night and told him the whole story. Hearing this, the Messenger of Allah started weeping, prayed for me and said: I pray to God to safeguard you from Satan from four sides. Then, he said to me: Fill a tub of water and bring it here. I carried out his order. The Messenger of Allah filled his mouth with water and poured it back to the tub, raised his hands in prayer and said: O Lord! This bride and groom are from me and I am from them. Cleanse them of impurity in the same way you cleansed me of impurity.

وَاتَّخَذْنَ أمّ أیْمَنَ بَوَّابَهُ. ثُمَّ إنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ هَتَفَ بِفاطِمَهَ فَلَمَّا رَأَتْ زَوْجَها مَعَ رَسُول اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ بَکَتْ، فَأخَذَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ بِیَدِها وَیَدِ عَلِیٍّ، فَلَمَّا أرادَ أنْ یَجْعَلَ کَفَّها فِی کَفِّ عَلِیٍّ بَکَتْ. فَقالَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَا زَوَّجْتُکِ مِنْ نَفسِی، بَلِ اللهُ تَوَلَّی تَزْویجَکِ فِی السَّماءِ؛ کَانَ جَبْرَئیلُ خاطِباً وَاللهُ تَعالَی الوِلِیَّ، وَأَمَرَ شَجَرَهَ طوبَی فَحَمَلَتِ الحُلِیَّ وَالحُلَلَ وَالدُّرَّ وَالیاقوتَ، ثُمَّ نَثَرَتْهُ، وَأَمَرَ الحورَ العِینَ فَاجْتَمَعْنَ فَلَقَطْنَ فَهُنَّ یَتَهادَیْنَهُ إلَی یَوْمِ القِیامَهِ وَیَقُلْنَ: هَذَا نِثارُ فَاطِمَهَ. وَقَدْ زَوَّجْتُکِ خَیْرَ أهْلی؛ لَقَدْ زَوَّجْتُکِ سَیِّداً فِی الدُّنْیَا وَسَیِّداً فِی الآخِرَهِ وَمِنَ الصَّالِحِینَ. وَأمْکَنَهُ مِنْ کَفِّها وَقالَ لَهُما: إذْهَبا إلَی بَیْتِکُما، جَمَعَ اللهُ بَیْنَکُما وَأصْلَحَ بالَکُما وَلا تُهیجَا شَیْئاً حَتَّی آتِیَکُما. فَامْتَثَلا حَتَّی جَلَسا مَجْلِسَهُما وَعِنْدَهُما أُمَّهاتُ المُؤْمِنینَ، وَبَیْنَهُنَّ وَبَیْنَ عَلِیٍّ حِجابٌ وَفاطِمَهُ مَعَ النِّساءِ. ثُمَّ أَقْبَلَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَدَخَلَ وَخَرَجَ النِّساءُ

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مُسْرِعاتٍ سِوی أسْماءَ بِنْتِ عُمَیْسٍ، وَکانَتْ قَدْ حَضَرَتْ وَفاهَ خَدیجَهَ عَلَیْها السَّلامُ فَبَکَتْ فَقَالَتْ: أتَبْکینَ وَأَنْتِ سَیِّدَهُ نِساءِ العَالَمینَ وَأَنْتِ زَوْجَهُ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَمُبَشَّرَهٌ عَلی لِسانِهِ بِالجَنَّهِ. فَقَالَتْ: مَا لِهَذا بَکِیتُ، وَلَکِنَّ المَرْأَهَ لَیْلَهَ زَفافِها لاَ بُدَّ لَهَا مِنِ امْرَأَهٍ تُفْضی إلَیْها بِسِرِّها وَتَسْتَعینُ بِهَا عَلَی حَوائِجِهَا، وَفاطِمَهُ حَدیثَهُ عَهْدٍ بِصِبا وَأَخافُ ألاّ یَکونَ لَهَا مَنْ یَتَوَلّی أُمورَها حینَئِذٍ. فَقُلْتُ: یَا سَیِّدتِی، لَکِ عَهْدُ اللهِ أنّی إنْ بَقیتُ إلَی ذَلِکَ الوَقْتِ أنْ أقُومَ مَقامَکِ فِی هَذَا الأَمْرِ. فَلَمَّا کَانَ تِلْکَ اللَّیْلَهُ وَأمَرَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ النِّساءَ بِالخُروجِ فَخَرَجْنَ وَبَقِیَتْ. فَلَمَّا أرادَ الخُروجَ

Then, he called Fatimah, took a handful of water and sprinkled it on her face and breast. He took two handfuls of water and sprinkled them on her side and head! Then, he sprinkled some water on her body, repeated the same prayer and told Fatimah to drink a few draughts of it, to rinse her mouth with it and to perform ablution with it. The Messenger of Allah then asked for another tub and did the same with ‘Ali. After doing so, he left Fatimah’s house and on his way home, he repeatedly prayed for them not for anyone else.(1) Ibn Abbas reports: On the night Fatimah was sent to ‘Ali’s house, to honor this honorable Lady, the Messenger of Allah was in front of her, Gabriel on the right side, Michael on the left side, and seventy thousand angels were following her, glorifying the Lord till dawn. There are many Hadiths in

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1- Hilyat al-Awliya’, vol. 2, pp. 75

this relation but this one is above all.(1)

‘Ali, the Holy Prophet’s Brother

Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Musnad has quoted Zayd ibn Awfi as saying: I went to the presence of the Holy Prophet (S) where ‘Ali was speaking about covenant of brotherhood among the companions. He said: O Messenger of Allah, when I saw that you made covenants of brotherhood among your companions but I was ignored, my soul was going out of my body! If this is because I have done something wrong and you are angry with me, here I am for any punishment you deem proper! Seeing ‘Ali’s sad face, the Messenger of Allah said: By God Almighty Who appointed me as prophet, the reason I forsook to speak to you was nothing but to reserve you as a brother for myself. As for your position to me is like Aaron’s to Moses except that there will be no prophet after me.

رَأی سَوادِی فَقالَ: مَنْ أَنْتِ؟ فَقُلْتُ: أسْماءُ بِنْتُ عُمْیسٍ. فَقالَ: أَلَمْ آمُرُکِ أنْ تَخْرُجی؟ فَقُلْتُ: بَلی یَا رَسولَ اللهِ، وَما قَصَدْتُ بِذَلِکَ خِلافَکَ، وَلکِنّی أَعْطَیْتُ خَدیجَهَ عَهْداً. فَحَدَّثْتُهُ فَبَکی وَقالَ فَأَسْأَلُ اللهَ أنْ یَحْرُسَکِ مِنْ فَوْقِکِ وَمِنْ تَحْتِکِ وَمِنْ بَیْنِ یَدَیْکِ وَمِنْ خَلْفِکِ وَعَنْ یَمینِکِ وَعَنْ شِمالِکِ مِنَ الشَّیْطانِ الرَّجیمِ، ناوِلینِی المَرْکَنَ وَامْلَئیهِ ماءً. فَمَلأْتُهُ، فَمَلأَ فاهُ ثُمَّ مَجَّهُ فِیهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ: اللَّهُمَّ إنَّهُما مِنّی وَأنا مِنْهُمْا. اللَّهُمَّ کَما أَذْهَبْتَ عَنِّیَ الرِّجْسَ وَطَهَّرْتَنی تَطْهیراً فَأَذْهِبْ عَنْهُما الرِّجْسَ وَطَهِّرْهُما تَطْهیراً. ثُمَّ دَعا فَاطِمَهَ فَضَرَبَ کَفَّاً بَیْنَ یَدَیْها وَأُخْری بَیْنَ عاتِقَیْها وَأُخْری عَلَی هامَتِها ثُمَّ نَفَخَ جِلْدَها وَخَدَّیْها ثُمَّ الْتَزَمَها وَقالَ: اللَّهُمَّ

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 20, pp. 246

إنَّهُما مِنِّی وَأنا مِنْهُمْا. اللَّهُمَّ فَکَما أَذْهَبتَ عَنِّیَ الرِّجْسَ وَطَهَّرتَنِی تَطْهیراً فَطَهِّرْهُما. ثُمَّ أَمَرَها أنْ تَشْرَبَ مِنْهُ وَتَتَمَضْمَضَ وَتَسْتَنْشِقَ وَتَتَوَضَّأَ، ثُمَّ دَعا بِمرْکَنٍ آخَرَ فَصَنَعَ بِهِ کالأَوَّلِ. ثُمَّ أَغْلَقَ عَلَیْهِمَا البابَ وَانْطَلَقَ، وَلَمْ یَزَلْ یَدْعو لَهُما حَتَّی تَوارَی فِی حُجْرَتِهِ لَمْ یُشْرِکْ أَحَداً مَعَهُما فِی الدُّعاءِ. قَالَ ابن عَبَّاسٍ: لَمَّا أنْ کَانَتْ لَیْلَهَ زُفَّتْ فِیهَا فَاطِمَهُ إلَی عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِمَا السَّلامُ کَانَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ قُدَّامَها وَجِبْریلُ عَنْ یَمینِها وَمِیکائیلُ عَنْ یَسارِها وَسَبْعونَ ألْفَ مَلَکٍ مِنْ وَرائِها یُسَبِّحُونَ اللهَ وَیُقَدِّسونَهُ حَتَّی طَلَعَ الفَجْرُ.

وَالأخْبارُ شائِعَهٌ بِهذا وَنَحْوِهِ وَهُوَ مِنْ أعْظَمِ الفَضائِلِ. الحَمْدُ للهِ عَلَی وِلایَهِ أهْلِ البَیْتِ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. فِی مُؤاخاتِهِ لِلنِّبِیِّ عَلَیْهِمَا السَّلامُ:

مِنْ کِتابِ مُسْنَدُ أحْمَدَ بْنِ حَنْبَلٍ: عَنْ زَیدِ بْنِ آدَمِیٍّ قَالَ: دَخَلْتُ عَلَی رَسُول اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَذَکَرَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ قِصَّهَ مُؤاخاهِ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ بَیْنَ الصَّحابَهِ. فَقالَ: قَالَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: لَقَدْ ذَهَبَتْ رُوحی وَانْقَطَعَ ظَهْری حِینَ رَأَیْتُکَ فَعَلْتَ بِأَصْحَابِکَ مَا فَعَلْتَ. فَإِنْ کَانَ هَذَا مِنْ سَخَطِکَ عَلَیَّ فَلَکَ العُتْبَی وَالکَرامَهُ. فقَالَ

O ‘Ali, you are my brother and heir. I said: What will I inherit from you? He said: What the former prophets have left behind among their followers and that is the book of Allah, and the tradition of His messengers. You will be with me in paradise while my daughter is with you. You are my brother and friend. Then, the Messenger of Allah, as a sign of happiness for this great occasion recited the verse

“They shall as be brethren, on raised couches, face to face” (15:47).(1)

Ibn

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1- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Hadiths 207,259

Mughazili, the Shafi’ite jurisprudent has reported Anas as saying: On the day of Mubahalah (mutual curse), the Messenger of Allah made a covenant of brotherhood among his companions. At this time, ‘Ali was standing in a place the Holy Prophet could see him and knew his position but did not say a word about brotherhood with him. He left the place for home with tearful eyes. The Messenger of Allah asked for ‘Ali.

Those present in that place said ‘Ali had gone home weeping. The Messenger of Allah said to Bilal: Go quickly and bring ‘Ali here. When Bilal arrived in ‘Ali’s house, he found ‘Ali weeping. Lady Fatimah asked ‘Ali for his weeping, saying: May Allah never make you weep! ‘Ali said: the Messenger of Allah made covenant of brotherhood between Muhajir and Ansar, but he did not say a word about me though he saw me standing there!

Lady Fatimah said: Don’t worry. Perhaps my father has reserved you for himself! Bilal reports: I said: O ‘Ali, go and see the Messenger of Allah. ‘Ali went to the presence of the Holy Prophet (S) who asked ‘Ali about the reason for his weeping. ‘Ali said: O Messenger of Allah! You made the covenant of brotherhood among the companions, but you did not say a word about my brotherhood with anyone, though you were seeing me!

The Messenger of Allah said: O ‘Ali, I reserved you for myself. Are you not happy for being the brother of the prophet?

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‘Ali said: Yes indeed, O Messenger of Allah! I am really happy but how did I obtain such an honor? The Holy Prophet took ‘Ali’s hand in his hand, took him up the pulpit, raised his hands in prayer and said: O Lord! ‘Ali is from me and I am from ‘Ali. His position to me is as Aaron’s to Moses. Then he said: Whomever I am the master, ‘Ali is his master too. Following this event, ‘Ali happily set out for his house. Following him, Umar ibn Khattab said: congratulations for this position. Now, you are my master and that of every Muslim!(1)

رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: وَالَّذی بَعَثَنِی بِالحَقِّ نَبِیَّاً مَا أَخَّرْتُکَ إلاَّ لِنَفْسِی. فَأَنْتَ مِنّی بِمَنْزِلَهِ هارُونَ مِنْ مُوسَی إلاَّ أنَّهُ لاَ نَبِیَّ بَعْدِی، وَأَنْتَ أخِی وَوَارِثی. قَالَ: قَالَ: وَما أَرِثُ مِنْکَ یَا رَسولَ اللهِ؟ قَالَ: مَا وَرَّثَ الأَنْبِیاءُ مِنْ قَبْلی. قَالَ: وَما وَرَّثَ الأَنْبِیاءُ مِنْ قَبْلِکَ؟ قَالَ: کِتابَ اللهِ وَسُنَّتَهُمْ. وَأَنْتَ مَعی فِی قَصْری فِی الجَنَّهِ مَعَ ابْنَتی فَاطِمَهَ. وأَنْتَ أخِی وَرَفیقی. ثُمَّ تَلا رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: ?إِخْوَاناً عَلَی سُرُرٍ مُتَقَابِلِینَ.? المُتَحَابُّونَ فِی اللهِ یَنْظُرُ بَعْضُهُمْ إلَی بَعْضٍ.

وَرَوی الفَقیهُ ابْنُ المُغازِلِیِّ الشَّافِعِیُّ عَنْ أنَسٍ قَالَ: لَمَّا کَانَ یَوْمُ المُباهَلَهِ وَآخَی النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ بَینَ المُهاجِرِینَ وَالأنْصارِ وَعَلِیٌّ واقِفٌ یَراهُ وَیَعْرِفُ مَکانَهُ وَلَمْ یُؤاخِ بَیْنَهُ وَبَینَ أحَدٍ، فَانْصَرَفَ عَلِیٌّ باکِیَ الْعَیْنَیْنِ. فَافْتَقَدَهُ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَقالَ: مَا فَعَلَ أَبُو الحَسَنِ؟ قَالوا: إنْصَرَفَ باکِیَ الْعَیْنَیْنِ یَا رَسولَ اللهِ. قَالَ: یَا بِلالُ إذْهَبْ فَأْتِنِی بِهِ. فَمَضی بِلالٌ إلَی عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ،

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1- Manaqib, ibn Maghazili, pp. 38, Hadith 6; Ihqaq al-Haqq, vol. 5, pp. 79

وَقَدْ دَخَلَ مَنْزِلَهُ باکِیَ العَیْنَیْنِ. فَقَالَتْ فَاطِمَه: مَا یُبْکیکَ؟ لاَ أَبْکی اللهُ عَیْنَیْکَ. قَالَ: یَا فَاطِمَهُ آخَی النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ بَینَ المُهاجِرینَ وَالأَنْصارِ وَأنا واقِفٌ یَرانِی وَیَعْرِفُ مَکانِی لَمْ یُؤاخِ بَینِی وَبَینَ أحَدٍ. قَالَتْ: لاَ یُحْزِنُکَ اللهُ، لَعَلَّهُ إنَّما أخَّرَکَ لِنَفْسهِ.

فَقالَ بِلالُ: یَا عَلِیُّ أَجِبِ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ. فَأَتی عَلِیٌّ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَقالَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَا یُبْکیکَ یَا أَبَا الحَسَنِ؟ فَقالَ: آخَیْتَ بَیْنَ المُهاجِرِینَ وَالأَنْصارِ یَا رَسولَ اللهِ وَأنَا واقِفٌ تَرانِی وَتَعْرِفُ مَکانِی وَلَمْ تُؤاخِ بَینِی وَبَینَ أَحَدٍ. قَالَ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: إنَّما إدَّخَرْتُکَ لِنَفْسی، ألا یَسُرُّکَ أنْ تَکونَ أَخا نَبِیِّکَ؟ قَالَ: بَلی، یَا رَسولَ اللهِ، أنَّی لی بِذَلِکَ؟ فَأَخَذَ بِیَدِهِ وَأرْقاهُ المِنْبَرَ فَقالَ: اللَّهُمَّ إنَّ هَذَا مِنّی وَأنا مِنْهُ. ألا إنَّهُ بِمَنْزِلَهِ هارونَ مِنْ مُوسَی إلاَّ أنَّهُ لاَ نِبِیَّ بَعْدی. ألا مَنْ کُنتُ مَوْلاهُ فَهذا عَلِیٌّ مَوْلاهُ. فَانْصَرَفَ عَلِیٌّ قَریرَ العَیْنِ فَاتَّبَعَهُ عُمَرُ بْنُ الخَطَّابِ فَقالَ: بَخٍ بَخٍ یَا أَبَا الحَسَنِ، أَصْبَحْتَ مَوْلایَ وَمَوْلی کُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ.

Hudhayfah ibn Al-Yaman reports: the Messenger of Allah made covenant of brotherhood between Muhajir and Ansar in a way he made each the brother of his peer. Then, he took ‘Ali’s hand in his hand, saying: ‘Ali is my brother. Hudhayfah further reports: Beyond doubt, the Messenger of Allah is the master of all prophets and leader of the pious ones as well as the messenger of the lord of the universe, who is peerless, and ‘Ali, his brother too is peerless in universe.(1)

Only Door of ‘Ali’s House Open to the Masjid

The fact that the doors of the companions’ house open

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1- Manaqib, ibn Maghazili, pp. 38, Hadith 6

to the Masjid were closed except that of ‘Ali proves ‘Ali’s unique position. Ahmad ibn Hanbal in Musnad has quoted Zayd ibn Arqam as saying: The doors of houses belonging to some of the Holy Prophet’s companions opened to Masjid which they frequented at will.

One of the days, the Messenger of Allah ordered all the doors to be closed, saying: You have to close the doors opening to Masjid and there is no exception in this regard save the door of ‘Ali’s house which will never be closed. With this order, some of the companions started to speak to one another about the reason behind it and envy ‘Ali. They would say: What is this privilege that the Holy Prophet has given to ‘Ali? Zayd reports: The Messenger of Allah rose up and after praising Allah said: It is not me who has issued the order to close all the doors to Masjid except that of ‘Ali, to which some of you have protested. By God, I have neither closed nor opened the door of any house. This decree has been issued by God Almighty and I am the one to convey it. Hence, in conveying this decree, I will obey God and will carry out His decree.(1)

Ibn Mughazili in Manaqib has quoted Adi ibn Thabit as saying: The Messenger of Allah after entering the mosque said to the companions: God Almighty revealed to prophet Moses (a.s): Build for me a pure mosque in which no one but Moses, Aaron,

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1- Musnad, vol. 4, pp. 369

and the children of Aaron will reside. He also revealed to me to build a pure mosque in which no one but me, ‘Ali, and his children will reside.(1)

Hudhayfah ibn Usayd Ghifari has been reported as saying: When the companions of the Holy Prophet came to Medina, they had no house to live in.

قَالَ حُذَیفَهُ بْنُ الیَمانِ آخَی رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ بَیْنَ المُهاجِرینَ وَالأَنْصارِ وَکَانَ یُؤاخی بَیْنَ الرَّجُلِ وَنَظیرِهِ. ثُمَّ أَخَذَ بِیَدِ عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَقالَ: هَذَا أخِی. قَالَ حُذَیفَهُ: فرَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ سَیِّدُ المُرْسَلینَ وَإمام ُالمُتَّقینَ وَرَسُولُ رَبِّ العَالَمینَ الَّذِی لَیْسَ لَهُ فِی الأَنامِ شَبیهٌ وَلا نَظیرٌ وَعَلِیٌّ أَخوهُ.

والأخْبارُ فِی ذَلِکَ کَثیرَهٌ، وَهذِهِ مَنْزِلَهٌ شَریفَهٌ وَمَقامٌ عَظیمُ لَمْ یَحْصَلْ لأَِحَدٍ مِثْلُهُ. فِی سَدِّ الأبْوابِ:

خَصَّصَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ أمِیرَ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ بِفَضیلَهٍ لَمْ یَشْرِکْهُ فِیهَا سِواهُ. رَوَی أحْمَدُ بْنُ حَنْبل ٍفِی مُسْنَدِهِ عَنْ زَیدِ بْنِ أرْقَمَ قَالَ: کَانَ لِنَفَرٍ مِنْ أصْحَابِ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ أبْوابٌ شارِعَهٌ فِی المَسْجِدِ. فَقالَ یَوْماً: سُدُّوا هَذِهِ الأَبْوابَ إلاَّ بابَ عَلِیٍّ. فَتَکَلَّمَ فِی ذَلِکَ أُناسٌ. قَالَ: فَقامَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَحَمَدَ اللهَ وَأثْنَی عَلَیْهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ: أمَّا بَعْدَ، فَإنِّی أَمَرْتُ بِسَدِّ هَذِهِ الأَبْوابِ غَیْرَ بابِ عَلِیٍّ فَقالَ فِیهِ قائِلُکُمْ. وَاللهِ مَا سَدَدْتُ شَیْئاً وَلا فَتَحْتُهُ وَلکِنِّی أُمِرْتُ بِشَیْءٍ فَاتَّبَعْتُهُ.

وَمِنْ کِتابِ مَناقِبِ ابْنِ المُغازِلِیِّ الشَّافِعِیِّ: عَنْ عَدِیِّ بْنِ ثابِتٍ قَالَ: خَرَجَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ إلَی المَسْجِدِ فَقالَ: إنَّ اللهَ أَوْحی إلَی نَبِیِّهِ مُوسَی أنِ ابْنِ لی مَسْجِداً طاهِراً لاَ یَسْکُنُهُ إلاَّ مُوسَی وَهَارونُ وَابْنا

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1- Manaqib, pp. 252, Hadith 301

هارُونَ. وَإنَّ الله أَوْحی إِلَیَّ أنِ ابْنِ مَسْجِداً طاهِراً لاَ یَسْکُنُهُ إلاَّ أنَا وَعَلِیٌّ وَابْنا عَلِیٍّ. وَعَنْ حُذَیفَهَ بْنِ الأسْیَدِ الغِفارِیِّ قَالَ: لَمَّا قَدِمَ أصْحَابُ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ المَدینَهَ

Hence, they had made their resting-place in the mosque but the Messenger of Allah barred them from doing so, saying: Mosque is the place of worship. So you must not use it as a place for rest or sleeping, for you may have nocturnal pollution which will undermine its sanctity. Following this order, the companions moved from the mosque and built houses around it based on their need and ability and opened a door to the mosque. The Messenger of Allah in another order, gave Muadh ibn Jabal the mission to close the doors opening to the mosque. To this end, Muadh went to Abu-Bakr first to convey the message, saying: The Holy Prophet has ordered you to move from the mosque and block the door of your house to the mosque. Abu-Bakr said: I will eagerly accept the Holy Prophet’s order. He immediately blocked the entrance to the mosque and left that place.

Then Muadh conveyed the Holy Prophet’s message to Umar, saying: Block the door of your house opening to the mosque and leave the place. Umar said: I will obey the Holy Prophet’s order but I wish one of the windows of my house would open to the mosque. Muadh conveyed to the Messenger of Allah what Umar had wished. Then, Muadh went to Uthman when the Holy

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Prophet’s daughter was in his house and conveyed the message. Uthman too complied with the Holy Prophet’s order and left the mosque. Muadh’ last message was conveyed to Hamzah who obeyed the Holy Prophet’s message, left the mosque and blocked the door of his house to the mosque. Amid this, ‘Ali was thinking about whether this order would include him too though the Messenger of Allah had built a house for him among his own houses in the mosque.

But the Messenger of Allah removed any doubt about it by saying: O ‘Ali, you stay where you are, for you are purified and this order does not include you and your family. When this news reached Hamzah, he said: O Messenger of Allah! I was surprised that you sent all of us out of mosque but you kept only a youth of Bani Abd al-Muttalib in it. The Holy Prophet said: This was not a decision of my own, for I would not give privilege to anyone if I had to decide. By God, this is a grace God Almighty has bestowed upon ‘Ali. As for you, I have good news about you. God and His messenger are pleased with you. So be happy. This good news became manifest in the battle of Uhud when Hamzah was martyred.

لَمْ یَکُنْ لَهُمْ بُیوتٌ فَکانوا یَبِیتونَ فِی المَسْجِدِ. فَقالَ لَهُمُ النَّبِیُّ: لاَ تَبِیتوا فِی المَسْجِدِ فَتَحْتَلِموا. ثُمَّ إنَّ القَوْمَ بَنَوْا بُیوتاً حَوْلَ المَسْجِدِ وَجَعَلوا أبْوابَها إلَی المَسْجِدِ وَإنَّ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ بَعَثَ

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إِلَیْهِمْ مُعاذَ بْنَ جَبَلٍ فَنادَی أَبَا بَکْرٍ فَقالَ: إنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَأْمُرُکَ أنْ تَخْرُجَ مِنَ المَسْجِدِ وَتَسُدَّ بابَکَ. فَقالَ: سَمْعاً وَطاعَهً. فَسَدَّ بابَهُ وَخَرَجَ مِنَ المَسْجِدِ. ثُمَّ أرْسَلَ إلَی عُمَرَ فَقالَ: إنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَأْمُرُکَ أنْ تَسُدَّ بابَکَ الَّذِی فِی المَسْجِدِ وَتَخْرُجَ مِنْهُ

. فَقالَ: سَمْعاً وَطاعَهً للهِ وَلِرَسُولِهِ غَیْرَ أنّی أرْغَبُ إلَی اللهِ فِی خَوْخَهٍ فِی المَسْجِدِ. فَأَبْلَغَهُ مُعاذٌ مَا قَالَ عُمَرُ. ثُمَّ أَرْسَلَ إلَی عُثْمانَ وَعِنْدَهُ رُقَیَّهُ فَقالَ: سَمْعاً وَطاعَهً. فَسَدَّ بابَهُ وَخَرَجَ مِنَ المَسْجِدِ. ثُمَّ أَرْسَلَ إلَی حَمْزَهَ فَسَدَّ بابَهُ وَقالَ: سَمْعاً وَطاعَهً للهِ وَلِرَسُولِهِ. وَعَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فِی ذَلِکَ مُتَرَدِّدٌ لاَ یَدْرِی أهُوَ فِی مَنْ یُقیمُ أوْ فِی مَنْ یَخْرُجُ. وَکَانَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ قَدْ بَنَی لَهُ فِی المَسْجِدِ بَیْتاً بَینَ أبْیاتِهِ فَقالَ لَهُ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: أُسْکُنْ طاهِراً مُطَهَّراً. فَبَلَغَ حَمْزَهَ قَوْلُ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ لِعَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَقالَ: یَا مُحَمَّدُ تُخْرِجُنا وَتُمْسِکُ غِلْمانَ بَنِی عَبْدِ المُطَّلِبِ؟ فَقالَ لَهُ نِبِیُّ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: لَوْ کَانَ الأَمْرُ لِی مَا جَعَلْتُ دُونَکُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ. وَاللهِ مَا أَعْطاهُ إیَّاهُ إلاَّ اللهُ، وَإنَّکَ لَعَلَی خَیْرٍ مِنَ اللهِ وَرَسُولِهِ، أَبْشِرْ. فَبَشَّرَهُ

This privilege of ‘Ali was heavy for some of the companions. So in their gathering, they started to complain and tried to know the reason. Hearing this, the Messenger of Allah rose up among the companions and said: It is heavy for some men to see that I have allowed ‘Ali to stay in the mosque, and have started to complain about it. By

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God, sending out some people from mosque and allowing ‘Ali to remain in the mosque was not on my order. God Almighty revealed to Moses (a.s) and his brother: Build houses for your close relatives, making them Kiblah for them, perform prayer in them.

Following this decree, God ordered Moses again not to allow anyone to reside or have sexual intercourse with his wife in that place of worship except Aaron and his progeny. Since ‘Ali’s position to me is like that of Aaron to Moses, and he is my brother, no one has the right to have sexual intercourse with his wife in this place except ‘Ali and his progeny. The Messenger of Allah further said: If anyone is displeased with this, the way is open for him. Let him go from here to there, pointing with his holy hand toward Syria.(1)

Mutual Curse (Mubahalah)

The story of mutual curse indicates one of the other merits of Imam ‘Ali, his children and his dignified wife, for the Messenger of Allah sought their help so that his prayer be answered by their saying Amen.

Following the conquest of Mecca when Islam and its rule spread in Hijaz, delegations from every direction came to the Holy Prophet (S) either to embrace Islam or to seek life security. One of these delegations was the Christians of Najran consisting of thirty people headed by Abu-Harithah who was their bishop (chief priest). Some of the members of this delegation were: Al-Aqib, al-Sayyid, and Abd al-Masih who came to

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1- Ibn Maghazili, pp. 235, Hadith 303

Medina in fine silk robes while wearing a cross on their necks.

The Holy Prophet too was performing his afternoon prayer. At this time, a group of the Jews of Medina met the Christians, started discussing their differences with one group rejecting the other. At any rate, Najran delegation came to the presence of the Holy Prophet (S), saying: O Muhammad! What is your opinion about Jesus, the son of Mary? The Messenger of Allah said: Jesus is the servant of Allah who appointed him as a prophet.

النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَقُتِلَ یَوْمَ أُحُدٍ شَهیداً. وَنَفَسَ ذَلِکَ رِجالٌ عَلی عَلِیٍّ فَوَجَدوا أنْفُسَهُمْ وَتَبَیَّنَ فَضْلُهُ عَلَیْهِمْ وَعَلَی غَیْرِهِمْ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ. فَبَلَغَ ذَلِکَ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَقامَ خَطِیباً فَقالَ: إنَّ رِجالاً یَجِدُونَ فِی أَنْفُسُهِمْ مِنْ أنْ أُسْکِنَ عَلِیَّاً فِی المَسْجِدِ. وَاللهِ مَا أَخْرَجْتُهُمْ وَلا أَسْکَنْتُهُ. إنَّ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجلَّ أَوْحَی إلَی مُوسَی وَأَخیهِ: أنْ تَبَوَّءا لِقَوْمِکُمَا بِمِصْرَ بُیُوتاً وَاجْعَلُوا بُیُوتَکُمْ قِبْلَهً وَأَقِیمُوا الصَّلاَهَ. وَأَمَرَ مُوسَی أنْ لاَ یَسْکُنَ مَسْجِدَهُ وَلا یَنْکَحَ فِیهِ وَلا یَدْخُلَهُ إلاَّ هارُونُ وَذُرِّیَّتُهُ. وَإنَّ عَلِیَّاً مِنّی بِمَنْزِلَهِ هارُونَ مِنْ مُوسَی وَهُوَ أَخِی دونَ أَهْلِی وَلا یَحِلُّ مَسْجِدی لأَِحَدٍ یَنْکِحُ فِیهِ النِّساءَ إلاَّ عَلِیٌّ وَذُرِّیَّتُهُ. فَمَنْ ساءَهُ ذَلِکَ فَهاهُنَا، وَأَوْمَأَ بِیَدِهِ نَحْوَ الشَّامِ.

فِی المُباهَلَهِ:

قَضِیَّهُ المُباهَلَهِ تَدُلُّ عَلَی فَضْلٍ تامٍّ وَوَرَعٍ کامِلٍ لِمَوْلانا أمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَأفْضَلُ الصَّلَواتِ وَأکْمَلُ التَّحِیَّاتِ وَلِوَلَدَیْهِ وَزَوْجَتِهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِمْ، حَیْثُ اسْتَعانَ بِهِمْ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فِی الدُّعاءِ إلَی اللهِ وَالتَّأْمینِ عَلَی دُعائِهِ لِتَحْصَلَ لَهُ الإجابَهُ فِیهِ. وَلَمَّا انْتَشَرَ الإسلامُ بَعْدَ الفَتْحِ

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وَقَوِیَ سُلْطانُهُ وَفِدَ إلَی النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ الوُفودُ. مِنْهُمْ مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنِ اسْتَأْمَنَ لِیَعودَ إلَی قَوْمِهِ بِرَأْیِهِ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فِیهِمْ. وَکَانَ مِمَّنْ وَفِدَ عَلَیْهِ أَبُو حارِثَهَ أُسْقُفُّ نَجْرانَ فِی ثَلاثینَ رَجُلاً مِنَ النَّصَاری مِنْهُمُْ العاقِبُ وَالسَّیِّدُ وَعبْدُ المَسِیحِ، فَقَدِموا المَدینَهَ عِنْدَ صَلاهِ العَصْرِ وَعَلَیْهِمْ لِباسُ الدِّیباجِ وَالصُّلُبُ فَصارَ إِلَیْهِمُ الیَهودُ وَتَساءَلوا بَیْنَهُمْ. فَقَالَتِ النَّصارَی لَهُمْ: لَسْتُمْ عَلَی شَیْءٍ. وَقَالَتْ لَهُمُ الیَهودُ: لَسْتُمْ عَلَی شَیْءٍ کَما حَکی اللهُ تَعالَی عَنْهُمْ. فَلَمَّا صَلَّی النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ العَصْرَ تَوَجَّهُوا إلَیْهِ یَقْدِمُهُمُ الأُسْقُفُّ فَقالَ: یَا مُحَمَّدُ، مَا تَقُولُ فِی السِّیِّدِ الْمَسِیحِ؟ فَقالَ: عَبْدُ اللهِ، إصْطَفاهُ وَانْتَجَبَهُ. فَقالَ الأُسْقُفُّ:

أَتَعْرِفُ لَهُ أَباً؟ فَقالَ

The chief priest said: Do you know any father for him? The Holy Prophet said: No, because his creation was not through marriage so that he would have a father. The bishop said: Was he not created? The Holy Prophet said: Yes, he was created! They said: How can a person be created with no father? At this time, God Almighty revealed the following verse:

“surely the likeness of Jesus is with Allah as the likeness of Adam, …, then let us be earnest in prayer, and pray for the curse of Allah on the liars” (3:59-61).

Reciting these verses, the Messenger of Allah added: If you do not accept what I say, prepare yourself for mutual cursing and know that punishment will come down on those who are unjust! The chief priest and his companions started exchanging views and decided to be given a deadline till the next

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morning so that they would announce the result of their decision. The Holy Prophet (S) agreed. Returning home, the chief priest said to his aides: If tomorrow Muhammad and his household come for mutual cursing, we will never give in to it but if he comes with his companions, we will take part in it and know that he is not right.

Turning to Christians, an outstanding person said: O Christian community, you certainly know that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, for he spoke truthfully about Jesus Christ. By God, if a group carry out mutual cursing with a prophet, life will become bitter to the elderly people and they will perish soon and no children will be found among them. If you go for mutual cursing, you will all perish! If you are fond of your religion and adhere to it, the only solution will be to compromise with this man, to put an end to hostility and to return to your land.

The following day when Christians came to see the Holy Prophet (S), they found the Messenger of Allah taking the hand of ‘Ali in his hand, Hasan and Husayn being in front of him and Fatimah behind him. The chief priest asked people about them. They said: This man whose hand is in the hand of the Messenger of Allah is his cousin, son-in-law and the most beloved man to him, that is ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib, these two children are his grandchildren and the most beloved to

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him, and that woman too is his daughter, the dearest and most honorable and the closest to his heart, whom he calls his own spirit!

Looking at Aqib, Sayyid and Abd al-Masih who enjoyed high positions with him, the chief priest said: Think well about your affair, for those who accompany him are his endeared ones like whom there is no one on the earth. He has brought them for mutual cursing, a sign that he is sure about what he says! By God, if he were not right, he would not expose his endeared ones to mutual cursing. By God, if the position of Caesar of Rome who follows us was not involved, we would certainly embrace Islam. But this great obstacle on our way, there is no option other than compromise or accepting what he wants.

النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: لَمْ یَکُنْ عَنْ نِکاحٍ فَیَکُونَ لَهُ أَبٌ. قَالَ: فَکَیْفَ قُلتَ إنَّهُ عُبْدٌ مَخْلوقٌ، وَأَنْتَ لَمْ تَرَ عَبْداً مَخْلوقاً إلاَّ عَنْ نِکاحٍ وَلَهُ وَالِدٌ؟ فَأَنْزَلَ اللهُ تَعالَی الآیَاتِ مَنْ قَوْلِهِ تَعالَی: ?إِنَّ مَثَلَ عِیسَی عِنْدَ اللهِ کَمَثَلِ آدَمَ… فَنَجْعَلْ لَعْنَهَ اللهِ عَلَی الْکَاذِبِینَ.? فَتَلاهَا عَلَی النَّصَارَی وَدَعاهُمْ إلَی المُبَاهَلَهِ وَقالَ: إنَّ اللهَ أَخْبَرَنِی أنَّ العَذابَ یُنَزَّلُ عَلَی المُبْطِلِ عُقَیْبَ المُبَاهَلَهِ وَیَتَبَیَّنُ الحَقُّ مِنَ البَاطِلِ. فَاجْتَمَعَ الأُسْقُفُّ وَأَصْحابُهُ وَتَشَاوَروا فَاتَّفَقَ رَأْیُهُمْ عَلَی اسْتِنْظَارِهِ إلَی صَبِیحَهِ غَدٍ. فَلَمَّا رَجَعوا إلَی رِحَالِهِمْ قَالَ الأُسْقُفُّ: أُنْظُروا مُحَمَّداً فَإِنْ غَدا بِأَهْلِهِ وَوِلْدِهِ فَاحْذَرُوا مُباهَلَتَهُ، وَإِنْ غَدا بِأَصْحابِهِ فَبَاهِلُوهُ فَإنَّهُ عَلَی غَیْرِ شَیْءٍ. وَقالَ العَاقِبُ: وَاللهِ لَقَدْ عَلِمْتُمْ یَا مَعْشَرَ النَّصَارَی إنَّ مُحَمَّداً نَبِیٌّ مُرْسَلٌ

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وَلَقَدْ جاءَکُمْ بِالفَصْلِ مِنْ أمْرِ صَاحِبِکُمْ. وَاللهِ مَا بَاهَلَ قَوْمٌ نَبِیَّاً قَطُّ فَعاشَ کَبیرُهُمْ وَلا نَبُتَ صَغیرُهُمْ، وَلَئِنْ فَعَلْتُمْ لَتُهْلَکُنَّ. فَإنْ أَبَیْتُمْ إلاَّ ألْفَ دِینِکُمْ وَالإقامَهَ عَلَی مَا أَنْتَم عَلَیْهِ فَوادِعوا الرَّجُلَ وَانْصَرِفوا إلَی بِلادِکُمْ. فَأَتَوْا رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ مِنَ الغَدِ وَقَدْ جَاءَ آخِذاً بِیَدِ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَالحَسَنِ وَالحُسَیْنِ یَمْشِیانِ بَینَ یَدَیْهِ وَفاطِمَهُ عَلَیْها السَّلامُ تَمْشی خَلْفَهُ، فَسَأَلَ الأُسْقُفُّ عَنْهُمْ. فَقَالُوا: هَذَا ابْنُ عَمِّهِ وَصِهْرُهُ وَأبُو وِلْدِهِ وَأَحَبُّ الخَلْقِ إلَیْهِ عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طالِبٍ. وَهذَانِ الطِّفْلانِ ابْنا ابْنَتِهِ مِنْ عَلِیٍّ وَهُما مِنْ أَحَبِّ الخَلْقِ إلَیْهِ. وَهَذِهِ الجَارِیَهُ فَاطِمَهُ ابْنَتُهُ وَهِیَ أَعَزُّ النَّاسِ عَنْدَهُ وَأَقْرَبُهُمْ إلَی قَلْبِهِ.

فَنَظَرَ الأُسْقُفُّ إلَی العَاقِبِ وَالسَّیِّدِ وَعَبْدِ المَسیحِ وَقالَ لَهُمْ: أُنْظُروا قَدْ جَاءَ بِخاصَّتِهِ مِنْ

Now, try to get out of this dangerous situation and save your future with cleverness. O Christian people, I can see illuminated faces to whom everyone resorts for the removing of mountains, God will remove that mountain from one place to another. If you are ready for mutual cursing with them, you will certainly perish and there will be no Christian on the earth till the Day of Judgment!

Hearing the words of their chief priest, the delegation of Najran Christians came to the conclusion that they should end the matter peacefully. Hence, they said: O Abu-al-Qasim! We have decided not to have mutual cursing with you. So you shall have your religion and we shall have our religion. The Messenger of Allah said: You have to embrace Islam so that you will share profit and loss with Muslims.

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They disagreed.

The Holy Prophet (S) said: Therefore, be prepared for fighting. They said: We are not able to fight Arabs. Nevertheless, we will compromise with you in a way that you will not attack us, nor will you stop us from practicing our religion. In return, we will promise to pay two thousand garments, each garment being equal to forty Dirhams, each year and if it is less than it a year, we will make it up the following year, that is, one thousand garments in the month of Safar and one thousand in the month of Rajab. In addition to this, we will offer you thirty armors each year.

The Messenger of Allah accepted their request, saying: By God in whose Hand my life is, if the Christians of Najran embarked on mutual cursing, they would certainly perish; they would be transformed into pigs and monkeys; a blazing fire would engulf them so much so that it would burn the birds on branches and in the sky; all the Christians of Najran would perish and all the Christians on the earth would be annihilated.

The reason the aforementioned verse was recited is that God Almighty has considered Muhammad’s life as ‘Ali’s life and ‘Ali’s life as Muhammad’s life.(1)

وُلْدِهِ وَأَهْلِهِ لِیُباهِلَ بِهِمْ وَاثِقاً بِحَقِّهِ. وَاللهِ مَا جَاءَ بِهِمْ وَهُوَ یَتَخَوَّفُ الحُجَّهَ عَلَیْهِ فَاحْذَرُوا مُباهَلَتَهُ. وَاللهِ لَوْلا مَکانَهُ قَیْصَرَ لأَسْلَمْتُ لَهُ، وَلکِنْ صَالِحُوهُ عَلَی مَا یَتَّفِقُ بَیْنَکُمْ وَارْجِعُوا إلَی بِلادِکُمْ وَارْتَؤُوا لأَنْفُسِکُمْ. یَا مَعْشَرَ النَّصَارَی إنِّی لأَرَی وُجُوهاً لَوْ شَاءَ اللهُ

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1- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, part 2, chap. 48, pp. 154

أنْ یُزیلَ جَبَلاً مِنْ مَکانِهِ لأَزالَهُ بِهَا فَلا تُباهِلُوهُ فَتَهْلَکوا وَلا یَبْقَی عَلَی وَجْهِ الأَرْضِ نَصْرانِیٌّ إلَی یَوْمِ القِیامَهِ. فَقَالُوا: یَا أَبَا القَاسِمِ رَأَیْنا أنْ لاَ نُباهِلَکَ وَأَنْ نُقِرَّکَ عَلَی دِینِکَ وَنَثْبُتَ عَلَی دِینِنا. قَالَ: فَإذْ أَبَیْتُمُ المُباهَلَهَ فَأَسْلِموا یَکُنْ لَکُمْ مَا لِلْمُسْلِمینَ وَعَلَیْکُمْ مَا عَلَیْهِمْ. فَأَبَوْا. قَالَ: فَإنِّی أُناجِزُکُمْ. فَقَالُوا: مَا لَنا بِحَرْبِ العَرَبِ طاقَهٌ، وَلَکِنْ نُصالِحُکَ عَلَی أنْ لاَ تَغْزُوَنا وَلا تُخیفَنا وَلا تَرُدَّنا عَنْ دِینِنا عَلَی أنْ نُؤَدِّیَ إلَیْکَ کُلَّ عامٍ ألْفَیْ حُلَّهٍ قِیمَهُ کُلِّ حُلَّهٍ أرْبَعونَ دِرهَماً، فَما زَادَ أوْ نَقُصَ فَبِالحِسَابِ، ألْفٌ فِی صَفَرَ وَألْفٌ فِی رَجَبٍ، وَثَلاثینَ دِرْعاً عارِیَهً مِنْ حَدیدٍ. فَصالَحَهُمْ عَلَی ذَلِکَ وَقالَ: وَالَّذِی نَفْسِی بِیَدِهِ، الهَلاکُ قَدْ بَدا عَلَی أهْلِ نَجْرانَ وَلَوْ لاعَنوا لَمُسِخوا قِرَدَهً وَخَنازِیرَ وَلاضْطَرَمَ الوادِی عَلَیْهِمْ نَاراً، وَلاسْتَأْصَلَ اللهُ نَجْرانَ وَأَهْلَهُ حَتَّی الطَّیْرَ عَلَی رُؤوسِ الشَّجَرِ وَلمَا حالَ الحَوْلُ عَلَی النَّصارَی کُلِّهِمْ حَتَّی هَلَکوا. وَقَدْ جَعَلَ اللهُ تَعالَی فِی هَذِهِ الآیَهِ نَفْسَ مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ هِیَ نَفْسَ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ حَیْثُ قَالَ: ?وَأَنْفُسَنَا وَأَنْفُسَکُمْ?.

Love for ‘Ali, a Must

God Almighty states:

“say: I do not ask of you any reward for it but love for my near relatives” (42:24).

Beyond doubt, Imam ‘Ali (a.s) is the master of the Household of the Holy Prophet (S) and a near relative.(1) Ahmad ibn Hanbal in a narration recounts that the Messenger of Allah having the hands of Hasan and Husayn in his hand said: Whoever has the love for me, for my two sons, and for their parents in heart, will be near me in paradise on the Day of Judgment.(2) Ahmad ibn Hanbal has

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1- Manaqib, ibn Maghazili, pp. 307, Hadith 352
2- Musnad, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol. 1, pp. 77

quoted Zarr ibn Habish as saying: ‘Ali said: By God, the Messenger of Allah informed me of the divine covenant to the effect that hypocrisy is the sign of enmity with you and faith is the sign of love for you. Hence no one is my enemy unless he is hypocrite, and no one loves me unless he is a believer.(1)

Ahmad ibn Hanbal has reported Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi-Layla as saying: On the day of Khaybar, the Messenger of Allah said: I will give the banner of Islam to a man who loves Allah and His messenger, and Allah and His messenger too love him. He is a champion who has never turned his back on war and kills the ill-fated enemies of Islam with his sword.

The Holy Prophet’s companions, who were longing for this honor, looked at the face of the Messenger of Allah but soon they became desperate, for this honor was given to ‘Ali.(2) The Holy Prophet (S) has been quoted by Hudhayfah as saying: Whoever wishes to resort to a ruby God created and said “be” and it “was”, has to accept the imamate of ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib after me and to obey him.(3)

Abdullah ibn Masud has been reported as saying: the Messenger of Allah had come to the house of Ummu-Salamah from the house of Zaynab bint Jahsh when someone knocked the door. The Messenger of Allah said: Ummu-Salamah, go and open the door. Ummu-Salamah said: O Messenger of Allah! Who is at the

p: 258


1- Musnad, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol. 1, pp. 84
2- Musnad, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol. 1, pp. 99
3- Ihqaq al-Haqq, vol. 7, pp. 153

door and how high is his position that I should welcome him without Hijab (veil) given that verses were revealed about me yesterday? The Messenger of Allah said: Obey my order, for to obey me is to obey Allah and to disobey me is to disobey Allah. The man who is asking for permission to come in, is not a man of feeble will or reckless. He will not enter the house unless he knows no woman is on his way. He loves Allah and His messenger and Allah and His messenger too love him.

فِی وُجوبِ مَحَبَّتِهِ وَمَوَدَّتِهِ:

قَالَ اللهُ تَعالَی: ?قُلْ لاَ أَسْأَلُکُمْ عَلَیْهِ أَجْراً إِلاَّ الْمَوَدَّهَ فِی الْقُرْبَی.? وَأمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ سَیِّدُ ذَوی القُرْبَی. وَرَوی أحْمَدُ فِی مُسْنَدِهِ أنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ أخَذَ بِیَدِ الحَسَنِ وَالحُسَیْنِ وَقالَ: مَنْ أَحَبَّنِی وَأَحَبَّ هَذَیْنِ وَأَبَاهُما وَأُمَّهُمَا کَانَ مَعِیَ فِی دَرَجَتِی یَوْمَ القِیَامَهِ. وَمِنَ المُسْنَدِ: عَنْ زَیْدِ بْنِ حُبَیْشٍ قَالَ: قَالَ عَلِیٌّ: وَاللهِ إنَّهُ مِمَّا عَهِدَ إِلَیَّ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ لاَ یُبْغِضُنِی إلاَّ مُنَافِقٌ وَلا یُحِبُّنِی إلاَّ مُؤْمِنٌ.

وَفیهِ: عَنْ عَبْدِ الرّحمنِ بْنِ أَبِی لَیْلی قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: لأُعْطِیَنَّ الرَّایَهَ غَداً رَجُلاً یُحِبُّ اللهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَیُحِبُّهُ اللهُ وَرَسُولُهُ کَرَّاراً لَیْسَ بِفَرَّارٍ. فَتَشَرَّفَ لَهَا أصْحَابُ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَأَعْطاها عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. وَعَنْ حُذَیْفَهَ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَنْ أَحَبَّ أَنْ یَتَمَسَّکَ بِقَصَبَهِ الْیَاقُوتِ الَّتِی خَلَقَهَا اللهُ تَعَالَی بِیَدِهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهَا کُونِی فَکَانَتْ، فَلْیَتَوَلَّ عَلِیَّ بْنَ أَبِی طَالِبٍ مِنْ بَعْدِی.

وَمِنْ کِتابِ ابْنِ خالَوَیْهَ وَکِتابِ مَناقِبِ الخَوارِزْمِیِّ: عَنْ عَبْدِ

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اللهِ بْنِ مَسْعودٍ قَالَ: خَرَجَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ مِنْ بَیْتِ زَیْنَبَ بِنْتِ جَحْشٍ حَتَّی أَتی بَیتَ أُمِّ سَلَمَهَ فَجاءَ داقٌّ فَدَقَّ البابَ. فَقالَ: یَا أُمَّ سَلَمَهَ قُومِی وَافْتَحِی لَهُ. قَالَتْ: فَقُلْتُ: وَمَنْ هَذَا یَا رَسولَ اللهِ الَّذِی بَلَغَ مِنْ خَطَرِهِ أَنْ أَفْتَحَ البَابَ وَأتَلَقَّاهُ بِمَعاصِمِی وَقَدْ نَزَلَتْ فِیَّ بِالأَمْسِ آیَاتُ کِتَابِ اللهِ تَعالَی؟ فَقَالَ: یَا أُمَّ سَلَمَهَ إنَّ طَاعَهَ الرَّسُولِ طَاعَهُ اللهِ وَإنَّ مَعْصِیَهَ الرَّسُولِ

Ummu-Salamah says: I opened the door but he held the door post and stopped where he was. I went inside the room and behind curtain. Being sure there was no one on his way, he came to the presence of the Holy Prophet and greeted him. The Messenger of Allah said: O Ummu-Salamah, did you know him. I said: Yes, he is ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib. Then, he said: His temperament is my temperament, his flesh, his blood, and all the dimensions of his existence come from my existence. He is the one who will act to what I have promised. Listen to this and be a witness of it. O Ummu-Salamah, he is the treasure of my knowledge and the leader of the believers after me.

Then, he said: Listen to me and be a witness. He will fight the deviators, Muawiyah and his followers, and Khawarij after me. By God, he will enliven my tradition. Again listen to me and be a witness. Then, the Messenger of Allah said: If a servant worships Allah between Rukn and Maqam for thousands of thousands

p: 260

years, and then passes away while being an enemy of ‘Ali, God will throw him into hell on face and he will be in the abyss of hell forever.(1)

The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Muadh as saying: Love for ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib is a good deed with which a sin is forgivable and enmity with him is a sin unforgivable. (2) Ibn Masud has been quoted as saying: Love for Ahl al-Bayt for one day is better than a year of worship and one who passes away with this one-day-love will certainly enter paradise.(3)

The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Abu-Dharr as saying: ‘Ali is the gate of my knowledge and guidance which is opened to its devotees. He will express to my Ummah what I have been commissioned to convey. Love for him is faith, enmity with him is hypocrisy and friendship with him is worship.(4) The Holy Prophet (S) has been quoted by Jabir as saying: Gabriel came down to me while he was holding a green tablet in hand with an inscription in white reading: I have made the love for ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib incumbent upon all creatures. Therefore, o prophet, convey it to the whole people.(5)

مَعْصِیَهُ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجلَّ، وَإِنَّ بِالبَابِ لَرَجُلاً لَیْسَ بِنَزِقٍ وَ لاَ خَرِقٍ، وَمَا کَانَ لِیَدْخُلَ مِنْزِلاً حَتَّی لاَ یَسْمَعَ حِسَّاً، وَهُوَ یُحِبُّ اللهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَیُحِبُّهُ اللهُ وَرَسُولُهُ.

قَالَتْ: فَفَتَحْتُ البَابَ فَأَخَذَ بِعُضادَتَیِ البَابِ ثُمَّ جِئْتُ حَتَّی دَخَلْتُ الخِدْرَ. فَلَمَّا لَمْ یَسْمَعْ وِطْئاً دَخَلَ ثُمَّ سَلَّمَ عَلَی رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی

p: 261


1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 7, pp. 42
2- Firdaws al-Akhbar, vol. 2, pp. 277
3- Firdaws al-Akhbar, vol. 2, pp. 226
4- Firdaws al-Akhbar, vol. 3, pp. 91
5- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 6, pp. 27

اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ: یَا أُمَّ سَلَمَهَ، أَتَعْرِفِینَ هَذَا؟ قُلتُ: نَعَمْ، هَذَا عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طَالِبٍ. قَالَ: هُوَ أَخِی، مَحَبَّتُهُ مَحَبَّتِی وَلَحْمُهُ لَحْمِی وَدَمُهُ دَمِی. یَا أُمَّ سَلَمَهَ، هَذَا قَاضِی عِدَاتِی بَعْدِی فَاسْمَعِی وَاشْهَدِی. یَا أُمَّ سَلَمَهَ، هَذَا عَیْبَهُ عِلْمِی وَوَلِیِّی مِنْ بَعْدِی فَاسْمَعِی وَاشْهَدِی. هُوَ قَاتِلُ النَّاکِثِینَ وَالْقَاسِطِینَ وَالْمَارِقِینَ مِنْ بَعْدِی فَاسْمَعِی وَاشْهَدِی. هُوَ وَاللهِ مُحْیِی سُنَّتِی فَاسْمَعِی وَاشْهَدِی. لَوْ أَنَّ عَبْداً عَبَدَ اللهَ أَلْفَ عَامٍ مِنْ بَعْدَ أَلْفِ عَامٍ بَیْنَ الرُّکْنِ وَالْمَقَامِ ثُمَّ لَقِیَ اللهَ مُبْغِضاً لِعَلِیٍّ لَکَبَّهُ اللهُ عَلَی مِنْخَرَیْهِ فِی نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ.

وَمِنْ کِتابِ الفِرْدَوْسِ عَنْ مُعاذٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: حُبُّ عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ حَسَنَهٌ لاَ تَضُرُّ مَعَها سَیِّئَهٌ وَبُغْضُهُ سَیِّئَهٌ لاَ تَنْفَعُ مَعَهَا حَسَنَهٌ.

وَمِنْهُ: عَنِ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ: حُبُّ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ یَوْماً خَیْرٌ مِنْ عِبادَهِ سَنَهٍ، وَمَنْ مَاتَ عَلَیْهِ دَخَلَ الجَنَّهَ. وَمِنْهُ: عَنْ أَبِی ذَرٍّ عَنِ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: عَلِیٌّ بابُ عِلْمِی وَهَدْیِی وَمُبَیِّنُ لأُمَّتِی مَا أُرْسِلْتُ بِهِ مِنْ بَعْدِی. حُبُّهُ إیمَانٌ وَبُغْضُهُ نِفاقٌ، وَالنَّظَرُ إلَیْهِ رَأْفَهٌ، وَمَوَدَّتُهُ عِبادَهٌ. وَمِنْ کِتابِ المَناقِبِ لِلخَوارِزْمِیِّ: عَنْ جَابِرٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: جَاءَنِی جِبْریلُ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ مِنْ عِنْدِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجلَّ بِوَرَقَهِ آسٍ خَضْراءَ مَکْتُوبٌ فِیهَا بِبَیاضٍ: إنِّی إفْتَرَضْتُ مَحَبَّهَ عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ عَلَی خَلْقِی عَامَّهً؛ فَبَلِّغْهُمْ ذَلِکَ عَنِّی.

The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Ibn Abbas as saying: God would have never created Hell if all people had had love for ‘Ali.(1) The Holy Prophet (S) has been reported as saying: O ‘Ali, if a servant worship God like Noah, gives away gold as

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 6, pp. 28

heavy as Mount Uhud, lives so long as to go on Hajj pilgrimage on foot a thousand times, and is killed innocent between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah but does not accept your imamate and leadership, he will not deserve to go to paradise.(1) A man said to Salman: Your extreme friendship with ‘Ali is amazing! Salman said: I heard the Messenger of Allah saying: Whoever loves ‘Ali loves me and whoever is hostile to ‘Ali is hostile to me too.(2)

The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Abdullah ibn Umar as saying: Whoever loves ‘Ali God Almighty will accept his prayer, fast and good deeds and will answer his prayer. Whoever loves ‘Ali he will be given cities in paradise as many as the number of his veins. Whoever has love for the family of Muhammad will be safe from hard reckoning, the Balance and the Discriminating Bridge on the Day of Judgment. Whoever passes away with the love for the family of Muhammad will join prophets in paradise with my intercession. Then he said: Let it be known to you that whoever is the enemy of the family of prophet, there will be an inscription between his eyes reading: This person is deprived of God’s mercy.(3)

The Holy Prophet (S) has been reported by Abdullah ibn Masud as saying: Whoever believes in me and what has been revealed to me but is the enemy of ‘Ali, he is lying and has no faith.(4)

The Messenger of Allah has been quoted

p: 263


1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 6, pp. 28
2- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 6, pp. 30
3- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 6, pp. 40
4- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 6, pp. 35

by Abi- Barza as saying: By God in whose Hand my life is, no one can move on the Day of Judgment unless he is asked about four things: How his life was spent, what his body was worn out for, where his wealth was gained from, and what his wealth was spent on as well as the love for Ahl al-Bayt. At this time Umar rose up saying: What is the sign of your love? Putting his hand on ‘Ali’s head, the Holy Prophet said: Love for this great man after my passing away, for to obey him is to obey me and to oppose him is to oppose me.(1)

وَمِنْهُ: عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: لَوِ اجْتَمَعَ النَّاسُ عَلَی حُبِّ عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ لَمَا خَلَقَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ النَّارَ.

وَمِنْهُ: قَالَ قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: یَا عَلِیُّ لَوْ أَنَّ عَبْداً عَبَدَ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجلَّ مِثْلَ مَا أَقامَ نُوحٌ فِی قَوْمِهِ وَکَانَ لَهُ مِثْلُ جَبَلِ أُحُدٍ ذَهَبٌ فَأَنْفَقَهُ فِی سَبیلِ اللهِ وَمُدَّ فِی عُمْرِهِ حَتَّی حَجَّ أَلْفَ عامٍ عَلَی قَدَمَیْهِ ثُمَّ قُتِلَ بَیْنَ الصَّفَا وَالْمَرْوَهَ مَظْلوماً ثُمَّ لَمْ یُوَالِکَ یَا عَلِیُّ لَمْ یَشُمَّ رَائِحَهَ الجَنَّهِ وَلَمْ یَدْخُلْها. وَقالَ رَجُلٌ لِسَلْمانَ: مَا أَشَدَّ حُبَّکَ لِعَلِیٍّ! قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَقولُ: مَنْ أَحَبَّ عَلِیَّاً فَقَدْ أَحَبَّنِی، وَمَنْ أَبْغَضَ عَلِیَّاً فَقَدْ أَبْغَضَنِی.

وَمِنْهُ: عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَنْ أَحَبَّ عَلِیَّاً قَبِلَ اللهُ عَنْهُ صَلاتَهُ وَصِیَامَهُ وَقِیَامَهُ وَاسْتَجَابَ دُعَاءَهُ. أَلاَ وَمَنْ أَحَبَّ عَلِیَّاً أَعْطَاهُ اللهُ

p: 264


1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 6, pp. 25

بِکُلِّ عِرْقٍ فِی بَدَنِهِ مَدِینَهً فِی الجَنَّهِ. أَلا وَمَنْ أَحَبَّ آلَ مُحَمَّدٍ أَمِنَ مِنَ الحِسَابِ وَالْمِیزَانِ وَالصِّراطِ. أَلاَ وَمَنْ مَاتَ عَلَی حُبِّ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ فَأَنا کَفِیلُهُ بِالجَنَّهِ مَعَ الأَنْبِیاءِ. أَلاَ وَمَنْ أَبْغَضَ آلَ مُحَمَّدٍ جَاءَ یَوْمَ الْقِیَامَهِ مَکْتُوباً بَیْنَ عَیْنَیْهِ: آیِسٌ مِنْ رَحْمَهِ اللهِ. وَعَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَقولُ: مَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّهُ آمَنَ بِی وَبِمَا جِئْتُ بِهِ وَهُوَ یُبْغِضُ عَلِیَّاً فَهُوَ کَاذِبٌ لَیْسَ بِمُؤْمِنٍ.

وَعَنْ أَبِی بُرْدَهَ قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَقُولُ وَنَحْنُ جُلُوسٌ ذَاتَ یَوْمٍ: وَالَّذِی نَفْسِی بِیَدِهِ لاَ یَزُولُ قَدَمُ عَبْدٍ یَوْمَ القِیامَهِ حَتَّی یَسْأَلَهُ اللهُ تَبَارَکَ وَتَعالَی عَنْ أَرْبَعٍ: عَنْ عُمْرِهِ فِیمَ أَفْنَاهُ وَعَنْ جَسَدِهِ فِیمَ أَبْلاَهُ وَعَنْ مَالِهِ مِمَّ اکْتَسَبَهُ وَفِیمَ أَنْفَقَهُ وَعَنْ حُبِّنَا أَهْلَ الْبَیْتِ. فَقالَ لَهُ عُمَرُ بْنُ الخَطَّابِ: فَمَا آیَهُ حُبِّکُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِکُمْ؟ قَالَ: فَوَضَعَ یَدَهُ عَلَی رَأْسِ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَهُوَ إلَی جَانِبِهِ فَقالَ: إنَّ حُبِّی مِنْ بَعْدِی حُبُّ هَذَا.

Abdullah ibn Umar has reported: The Messenger of Allah was asked: In what tone did the Almighty God speak to you on the night of ascension (Mi’raj)? The Holy Prophet said: He addressed me in the tone of ‘Ali! At that time, I was inspired to ask: O Lord, are you speaking to me or it is ‘Ali who is speaking to me? God said: O Ahmad! My truth is different from that of other things! I can neither be compared with people nor am I described with similar things! I created you from my light and ‘Ali from your light.

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Thereafter, I became aware of the secret of your heart, finding out there was no one closer and more beloved to your heart than ‘Ali. Hence, I addressed you in the tone of ‘Ali so that your heart will be put at rest in this assembly of friendship.(1)

The Messenger of Allah has been reported by Abi- Baraza and Hafiz Abu-Abdullah Shafi’i as saying: God Almighty took a solemn pledge from me about the position of ‘Ali in fulfilling my mission. I said: O Lord, what is that important mission? God said: Listen! I said: I am prepared. God said: ‘Ali is the standard-bearer of guidance, the leader of the saints and the light of the devoted ones. He is the word rendered necessary for the pious. Whoever loves ‘Ali loves me and whoever is his enemy is my enemy! O prophet! Give these good tidings to him. At this time ‘Ali came to me and I conveyed this good news to him.

‘Ali said: O Messenger of Allah! I am the servant of Allah and under His power. If God punishes me, it is but for sin and disobedience, and if He has given the good news about me, He has honored me with His Grace. At this time, I raised my hand in prayer, saying: O Lord! Illuminate his heart with belief. God Almighty answered my prayer about him, saying: I will fulfill what you have wished for him. Then God informed me about the trials which will not

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 6, pp. 37

befall my companions except him. Then I said: O Lord! Is he my brother and helper? God said: This position had been foreseen before you knew about it, for he has been a subject of my test and I will test people with his position.(1)

The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Ammar ibn Yasir as saying: I advise to believe in the imamate of ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib one who believes in me and accepts my prophethood, for whoever accepts his imamate, has accepted my imamate and prophethood. Whoever believes in my Wilayah will enter the Wilayah of Allah, and Allah is pleased with him.(2)

وَعَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَقَدْ سُئِلَ بِأَیِّ لُغَهٍ خَاطَبَکَ رَبُّکَ لَیْلَهَ الْمِعْرَاجِ؟ فَقالَ: خَاطَبَنِی بِلُغَهِ عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ، فَأَلْهَمَنِی أَنْ قُلتُ: یَا رَبِّ، خَاطَبْتَنِی أَنْتَ أَمْ عَلِیٌّ؟ فَقالَ: یَا أَحْمَدُ أَنَا شَیْءٌ لاَ کَالأَشْیَاءِ، لاَ أُقَاسُ بِالنَّاسِ وَلاَ أُوصَفُ بِالأَشْبَاهِ. خَلَقْتُکَ مِنْ نُورِی وَخَلَقْتُ عَلِیَّاً مِنْ نُورِکَ، فَاطَّلَعْتُ عَلَی سَرَائِرِ قَلْبِکَ فَلَمْ أَجِدْ إلَی قَلْبِکَ أَحَبَّ مِنْ عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ، فَخَاطَبْتُکَ بِلِسَانِهِ کَیْمَا یَطْمَئِنَّ قَلْبُکَ.

وَمِنْ کِتابِ کِفایَهُ الطَّالِبِ لِلْحَافِظِ أَبِی عَبْدِ اللهِ الشَّافِعِیِّ بِإسْنادِهِ عَنْ أَبِی بُرْدَهَ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: إنَّ اللهَ عَهِدَ إِلَیَّ عَهْداً فِی عَلِیٍّ، فَقُلْتُ: یَا رَبِّ بَیِّنْهُ لِی؟ فَقالَ: إسْمَعْ. فَقُلْتُ: سَمِعْتُ. فَقالَ: إنَّ عَلِیَّاً رَایَهُ الْهُدَی وَإمَامُ الأَوْلِیَاءِ وَنُورُ مَنْ أَطَاعَنِی، وَهُوَ الکَلِمَهُ الَّتِی أَلْزَمْتُهَا الْمُتَّقِینَ. مَنْ أَحَبَّهُ أَحَبَّنِی وَمَنْ أَبْغَضَهُ أَبْغَضَنِی، فَبَشِّرْهُ بِذَلِکَ.

فَجَاءَ عَلِیٌّ فَبَشَّرْتُهُ. فَقالَ: یَا رَسولَ اللهِ، أنَا عَبْدُ اللهِ وَفِی قَبْضَتِهِ.

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1- Kifayat al-Talib, part 4 , pp. 72
2- Kifayat al-Talib, part 5, pp. 74

فَإِنْ یُعَذِّبْنِی فَبِذُنُوبِی، وَإنْ یُتِمَّ الَّذِی بَشَّرْتَنِی بِهِ فَاللهُ أَوْلَی بِی. قَالَ: فَقُلْتُ: اللَّهُمَّ إجْلُ قَلْبَهُ وَاجْعَلْ رَبِیعَهُ الإیمَانَ. فَقالَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجلَّ: قَدْ فَعَلْتُ بِهِ ذَلِکَ. ثُمَّ إنَّهُ رَفَعَ إِلَیَّ أنَّهُ سَیَخُصُّهُ مِنَ البَلاَءِ بِشَیْءٍ لَمْ یَخُصَّ بِهِ أَحَداً مِنْ أَصْحَابِی. فَقُلْتُ: یَا رَبِّ، أَخِی وَصَاحِبِی. فَقالَ: إنَّ هَذَا شَیْءٌ قَدْ سَبَقَ. إنَّهُ مُبْتَلیً وَمُبْتَلیً بِهِ. وَعَنْ عَمَّارِ بْنِ یاسِرٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: أُوصِی مَنْ آمَنَ بِی وَصَدَّقَنِی بِوِلاَیَهِ عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. مَنْ تَوَلاَّهُ فَقَدْ تَوَلاَّنِی وَمَنْ تَوَلاَّنِی فَقَدْ تَوَلَّی اللهَ عَزَّ وَجلَّ.

Abu-Alqamah has reported: The Messenger of Allah performed his morning prayer in the gathering of his companions and turning to them, said: O companions! Last night, I dreamt of my uncle, Hamzah, and my brother, Jafar, with a big tray of fruits before them. They were eating the fruits which were from the tree “Sadr.” Then the fruits turned into grapes and after some moments into dates. I went near them, saying: May my father be ransom for you. Which good deed did you find better? They said: May our parents be ransom for you. Among good deeds we did not find but three deeds, namely, sending greeting upon you, quenching a thirsty person and keeping the love of ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib in our hearts.(1)

The Messenger of Allah has been reported as saying: God Almighty takes pride in my followers as compared to followers of other prophets, forgives you all and has a special favor towards ‘Ali. Surely, I

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 6, pp. 33

am the Messenger of Allah to you all. I neither intimidate people about my tribe nor support them unduly. What I say comes from my Lord who has given me this mission and I have to convey it. Gabriel, the Messenger of Allah says to me: Happy is one who loves ‘Ali both during his life and after his passing away. Ill-fated is one who is the enemy of ‘Ali both during his life and after his passing away, and has his rancor in his heart.(1)

Abdullah Ibn Abbas who had lost his sight, accompanied by Said ibn Jubayr, passed by the well of Zamzam where a group of people from Syria were cursing ‘Ali. Hearing this, Abdullah said: Take me back to those people. Being among them, Abdullah said: Which one of you curses God? They said: God forbid. None of us curses God! Then, he asked: Which one of you curses the Messenger of Allah? They said: God forbid! We never curse our prophet.

Then, he asked: Which one of you curses ‘Ali? They said: Yes, we curse ‘Ali! Ibn Abbas said: I bear witness that I heard the Messenger of Allah saying to ‘Ali: O ‘Ali! Whoever curses you, has cursed me and whoever curses me, has cursed Allah! Whoever curses Allah, He will throw him into hell on face! Said reports: Ibn Abbas said this to them, turned his back from them and left the place.(2)

The Messenger of Allah has been reported by Anas as saying: On

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 6, pp. 37
2- Kifayat al-Talib, part 10, pp. 92

the night journey, I saw an angel sitting on a pulpit of light with other angels gathering round him. I said to Gabriel: Who is this angel?

Gabriel said: see him from close and greet him. I went close and greeted him. I found out that he was my brother and cousin, ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib. I asked amazingly: Has ‘Ali come to the fourth heaven before me? Gabriel said: No, but since angels were fond of seeing ‘Ali, God created an angel of light in the form of ‘Ali. While glorifying Allah, angels go to visit him seventy thousand times every Friday night and day and the reward is offered to those who love ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib.(1)

وَمِنَ المَناقِبِ: عَنْ أَبِی عَلْقَمَهَ قَالَ: صَلَّی بِنا النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ الصُّبْحَ. ثُمَّ الْتَفَتَ إلَیْنَا فَقالَ: مَعاشِرَ أَصْحَابِی، رَأَیْتُ البَارِحَهَ عَمِّی حَمْزَهَ بْنَ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ وَأَخِی جَعْفَرَ بْنَ أَبِی طَالِبٍ وَبَیْنَ أَیْدِیهِمَا طَبَقٌ مِنْ تِینٍ، فَأَکَلا سَاعَهً ثُمَّ تَحَوَّلَ التِّینُ عِنَباً، فَأَکَلا سَاعَهً، ثُمَّ تَحَوَّلَ العِنَبُ رُطَباً، فَأَکَلا سَاعَهً. فَدَنَوْتُ مِنْهُمْا وَقُلْتُ: بِأَبِی أَنْتُمَا! أَیُّ الأَعْمَالِ وَجَدْتُمَا أَفْضَلَ؟ قَالاَ: فَدَیْنَاکَ بِالآبَاءِ وَالأُمَّهَاتِ! وَجَدْنَا أَفْضَلَ الأَعْمَالِ الصَّلاَهَ عَلَیْکَ وَسَقْیَ الْمَاءِ وَحُبَّ عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طَالِبٍ. قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: إنَّ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بَاهَی بِکُمْ وَغَفَرَ لَکُمْ عَامَّهً وَلِعَلِیٍّ خَاصَّهً. وَإنِّی رَسُولُ اللهِ إلَیْکُمْ غَیْرَ هَائِبٍ لِقَوْمِی وَلا مُحَابٍ لِقَرَابَتِی. هَذَا جِبْرِیلُ یُخْبِرُنِّی أَنَّ السَّعِیدَ کُلَّ السَّعِیدِ مَنْ أَحَبَّ عَلِیَّاً فِی حِیَاتِهِ وَبَعْدَ مَوْتِهِ، وَأَنَّ الشَّقِیَّ کُلَّ الشَّقِیِّ مَنْ أَبْغَضَ عَلِیَّاً فِی حَیَاتِهِ وَبَعْدَ مَوْتِهِ.

وَمِنْ کِتابِ کِفایَهُ الطَّالِبِ لِلْحافِظِ

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1- Kifayat al-Talib, part 26, pp. 132

الشَّافِعِیِّ: عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ عَبَّاسٍ وَکَانَ سَعِیدُ بْنُ جُبَیْرٍ یَقُودُهُ، فَمَرَّ عَلَی صُفَّهِ زَمْزَمَ فَإذَا قَوْمٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الشَّامِ یَشْتِمُونَ عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. فَقالَ لِسَعیدِ بْنِ جُبَیْرٍ: رُدَّنِی إِلَیْهِمْ. فَوَقَفَ عَلَیْهِمْ فَقالَ: أَیُّکُمُ السَّابُّ للهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ ؟ فَقَالُوا: سُبْحَانَ اللهِ! مَا فِینَا أَحَدٌ سَبَّ اللهَ. قَالَ: فَأَیُّکُمُ السَّابُّ لِرَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ؟ قَالُوا: سُبْحَانَ اللهِ! مَا فِینَا أَحَدٌ سَبَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ. قَالَ: فَأَیُّکُمُ السَّابُّ لِعَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طَالِبٍ؟ قَالُوا: أَمَّا هَذَا فَقَدْ کَانَ. قَالَ: فَأَشْهَدُ عَلَی رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ سَمِعَتْهُ أُذُنَایَ وَوَعَاهُ قَلْبِی یَقُولُ لِعَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طَالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: یَا عَلِیُّ، مَنْ سَبَّکَ فَقَدْ سَبَّنِی، وَمَنْ سَبَّنِی فَقَدْ سَبَّ اللهَ، وَمَنْ سَبَّ اللهَ أَکَبَّهُ اللهُ عَلَی مِنْخَرَیْهِ فِی النَّارِ. ثُمَّ تَوَلَّی عَنْهُمْ.

وَمِنْهُ عَنْ أَنَسٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَرِرْتُ لَیْلَهَ أُسْرِیَ بِی إلَی السَّمَاءِ فَإِذَا أنَا بِمَلَکٍ جَالِسٍ عَلَی مِنْبَرٍ مِنْ نُورٍ وَالْمَلاَئِکَهُ تُحْدِقُ بِهِ.

فَقُلْتُ: یَا جِبْرِیلُ، مَنْ هَذَا الْمَلَکُ؟ قَالَ: أُدْنُ مِنْهُ وَسَلِّمْ عَلَیْهِ. فَدَنَوْتُ وَسَلَّمْتُ عَلَیْهِ فَإِذا أنَا بِأَخِی وَابْنِ عَمِّی عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طَالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. فَقُلْتُ: یَا جَبْرَئِیلُ، سَبَقَنِی عَلِیٌّ إلَی السَّمَاءِ الرَّابِعَهِ؟ فَقالَ لِی: یَا مُحَمَّدُ، لاَ وَلَکِنَّ الْمَلاَئِکَهَ شَکَتْ حُبَّهَا لِعَلِیٍّ فَخَلَقَ اللهُ هَذَا الْمَلَکَ مِنْ نُورٍ عَلَی صُورَهِ عَلِیٍّ. فَالْمَلاَئِکَهُ تَزُورُهُ فِی کُلِّ لَیْلَهِ جُمُعَهٍ وَیَوْمِ جُمُعَهٍ سَبْعینَ ألْفَ مَرَّهً یُسَبِّحُونَ اللهَ وَیُقَدِّسُونَهُ وَیُهْدُونَ ثَوابَهُ لِمُحِبِّ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ.

‘Ali, the Holy Qur’an, and the Truth are Inseparable

The Messenger of Allah has been reported by Abi-Layla as saying: Soon after my passing away, mischief and sedition will occur among you people from every direction! At that time, do not

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leave ‘Ali alone if you look for salvation, for he will distinguish between what is just and what is unjust. He will remove the dust of injustice from justice.(1)

The Holy Prophet (S) has been quoted by Ibn Umar as saying: One who is deviated from the path of ‘Ali, is deviated from my path. Such a person is deprived of guidance and the leadership of God Almighty.(2)

Abu-Ayyub Ansari reports: I heard the Messenger of Allah saying to Ammar ibn Yasir: The rebellious group will kill you while you are with the truth and truth is with you! O Ammar! Should you see ‘Ali has chosen a path but all people have chosen another path, leave the people to themselves and opt for the path of ‘Ali, for ‘Ali’s path is not worrisome. He will not mislead you nor will he obstruct the path of truth to you. O Ammar! If a person carries a sword on his shoulder to help ‘Ali and strikes it on the head of enemy, God Almighty will honor him with a sword of pearl as a sign of pleasure and if a person carries a sword on his shoulder to help ‘Ali’s enemies or fights him, God Almighty will hang a sword of fire on his shoulders as a sign of wrath.(3)

The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by A’ishah as saying: Truth always accompanies ‘Ali and keeps pace with ‘Ali whatever path he walks on.(4) Ummu-Salamah reports: I heard from the Messenger of Allah

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 8, pp. 57
2- Manaqib, ibn Maghazili, pp. 240, Hadith 278
3- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 8, pp. 57
4- Ihqaq al-Haqq, vol. 5, pp. 389

saying: Truth is with ‘Ali and ‘Ali is with truth. These two are not separable till the Day of Judgment when they come to me at the Pond.(1)

فِی أَنَّ الحَقَّ وَالْقُرْآنَ مُلازِمانِ لَهُ: مِنْ کِتابِ المَناقِبِ: عَنْ أَبِی لَیْلَی قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: سَتَکُونُ مِنْ بَعْدِی فِتْنَهٌ، فَإذَا کَانَ ذَلِکَ فَالْتَزِمُوا عَلِیَّ بْنَ أَبِی طَالِبٍ؛ فَإنَّهُ الفَارُوقُ بَیْنَ الْحَقِّ وَالْبَاطِلِ. وَعَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَنْ فَارَقَ عَلِیَّاً فَارَقَنِی، وَمَنْ فَارَقَنِی فَارَقَ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ.

وَعَنْ أَبِی أیُّوبٍ الأَنْصارِیِّ قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَقُولُ لِعَمَّارِ بْنِ یاسِرٍ: تَقْتُلُکَ الفِئَهُ البَاغِیَهُ، وَأَنْتَ مَعَ الْحَقِّ وَالْحَقُّ مَعَکَ. یَا عَمَّارُ إذَا رَأَیْتَ عَلِیَّاً سَلَکَ وَادِیاً وَسَلَکَ النَّاسُ وَادِیاً غَیْرَهُ فَاسْلُکْ مَعَ عَلِیٍّ وَدَعِ النَّاسَ، فَإنَّهُ لَنْ یَدُلَّکَ عَلَی رَدیً وَلَنْ یُخْرِجَکَ مِنْ هُدیً. یَا عَمَّارُ، إنَّهُ مَنْ تَقَلَّدَ سَیْفاً أَعانَ بِهِ عَلِیَّاً عَلَی عَدُوِّهِ قَلَّدَهُ اللهُ یَوْمَ الْقِیَامَهِ وِشَاحاً مِنْ دُرٍّ، وَمَنْ تَقَلَّدَ سَیْفاً أَعَانَ بِهِ عَدُوَّ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ قَلَّدَهُ اللهُ تَعالَی یَوْمَ الْقِیَامَهِ وِشَاحاً مِنْ نَارٍ.

The Holy Prophet (S) has been reported by A’ishah as saying: Truth is with ‘Ali and ‘Ali is with truth. These two are inseparable. There is no separation between them till they come to me at the Pond.(2) Ummah Salamah reports: I heard from the Messenger of Allah saying: ‘Ali and his followers will come to me at the Pond while truth is with them and they are inseparable.(3)

Abi- Rafi reports: the Messenger of Allah said to me: O Abu-Rafi! What will be your position

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1- Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 14, pp. 320
2- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 146
3- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 146

if you see a group of injustice are fighting ‘Ali given that he is right and they are not right? Should a person desire God’s pleasure, he must fight the enemies of ‘Ali, for fighting ‘Ali’s enemies is God’s order and His pleasure. Therefore, whoever is able to fight must do so and attend the battlefield immediately. If he is not physically able to do so, he must rise up against ‘Ali’s enemies verbally to undermine their success and to disgrace them. Even if he is not able to do so, he must fight them with his heart. This is the last stage of Jihad in the path of truth against his enemies.

Abu-Rafi reports: After hearing this advice, I said: O Messenger of Allah! Pray to God for me that if I live till then, I will have the honor of fighting them. Eventually when people pledged their allegiance with Imam ‘Ali, Muawiyah challenged him, and Talhah and Zubayr went to Basrah, I said to myself: They are the same people about whom the Holy Prophet spoke.

Abu-Rafi decided to fight them. Hence, he sold the land he had in Khaybar and his house in Medina to spend on fighting the enemies of ‘Ali. When ‘Ali left Medina for Basrah to put an end to the battle of Jamal (camel), Abu-Rafi’ and his family accompanied ‘Ali to Basrah. He was in Kufah until the martyrdom of Amir al-Mu’minin. Thereafter, he returned to Medina with Imam Hasan and since he had neither

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land nor house in that city, Imam Hasan gave him a piece of land in Yanba from ‘Ali’s endowment for farming as well as a house.(1)

In the battle of Jamal when Zayd ibn Sawhan was wounded, ‘Ali went to see him in the last moments of his life, saying: O Zayd! May God bless you. By God, as far as I know you, you are an altruist, that is, you ignore yourself but help others.

وَعَنْ عَائِشَهَ أنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ قَالَ: الْحَقُّ مَعَ عَلِیٍّ وَعَلِیٌّ مَعَ الْحَقِّ یَزُولُ مَعَهُ حَیْثُ زَالَ. وَعَنْ أُمِّ سَلَمَهَ قَالَتْ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَقُولُ: إنَّ الْحَقَّ مَعَ عَلِیٍّ وَعَلِیَّاً مَعَ الْحَقِّ لَنْ یَزُولاَ حَتَّی یَرِدَا عَلَیَّ الْحَوْضَ. وَعَنْ عَائِشَهَ: أنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ قَالَ: الْحَقُّ مَعَ عَلِیٍّ وَعَلِیٌّ مَعَ الْحَقِّ وَلَنْ یَفْتَرِقَا حَتَّی یَرِدَا عَلَیَّ الْحَوْضَ.

وَعَنْ أُمِّ سَلَمَهَ قَالَتْ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَقُولُ: یَرِدُ عَلِیٌّ الْحَوْضَ وَأَشْیَاعُهُ وَالْحَقُّ مَعَهُمْ لاَ یُفَارِقُونَهُ.

وَعَنْ أَبِی رَافِعٍ أنَّ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ قَالَ: یَا أَبَا رَافِعٍ کَیْفَ أَنْتَ وَقَوْمٌ یُقَاتِلُونَ عَلِیَّاً وَهُوَ عَلَی الْحَقِّ وَهُمْ عَلَی الْبَاطِلِ؟ یَکُونُ حَقَّاً فِی اللهِ جِهَادُهُمْ، فَمَنْ لَمْ یَسْتَطِعْ جِهَادَهُمْ بِیَدِهِ فَیُجَاهِدُهُمْ بِلِسَانِهِ، وَمَنْ لَمْ یَسْتَطِعْ بِلِسَانِهِ فَیُجَاهِدُهُمْ بِقَلْبِهِ لَیْسَ وَرَاءَ ذَلِکَ شَیْءٌ. قَالَ: فَقُلْتُ لَهُ: أُدْعُ اللهَ لِی إنْ أَدْرَکْتُهُمْ أَنْ یُعِینَنِی وَیُقَوِّیَنِی عَلَی قِتَالِهِمْ. فَلَمَّا بَایَعَ النَّاسُ عَلِیَّ بْنَ أَبِی طَالِبٍ وَخَالَفَهُ مُعَاوِیَهُ وَسَارَ طَلْحَهُ وَالزُّبَیْرُ إلَی الْبَصْرَهِ قُلتُ: هَؤُلاَءِ الْقَوْمُ الَّذِینَ قَالَ فِیهِمْ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ. فَبَاعَ أَرْضَهُ بِخَیْبَرَ وَدَارَهُ بِالْمَدِینَهِ

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1- Arjah al-Matalib, pp. 600

یَقْوَی بِهَا هُوَ وَوَلَدُهُ ثُمَّ خَرَجَ مَعَ عَلِیٍّ بِجَمِیعِ أَهْلِهِ وَوِلْدِهِ فَکَانَ مَعَهُ حَتَّی اسْتُشْهِدَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. فَرَجِعَ إلَی الْمَدِینَهِ مَعَ الحَسَنِ وَلاَ أَرْضَ لَهُ بِالْمَدِینَهِ وَلا دَارَ، فَأَقْطَعَهُ الحَسَنُ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ أَرْضاً بِیَنْبُعَ مِنْ صَدَقَهِ عَلِیٍّ وَأَعْطَاهُ دَاراً.

وَلَمَّا أُصِیبَ زَیْدُ بْنُ صَوْحَانَ یَوْمَ الْجَمَلِ أَتَاهُ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَبِهِ رَمَقٌ، فَوَقَفَ عَلَیْهِ وَهُوَ لِمَا بِهِ فَقالَ: رَحِمَکَ اللهُ یَا زَیْدُ، فَوَاللهِ مَا عَرَفْتُکَ إلاَّ خَفِیفَ الْمَؤُنَهِ کَثِیرَ الْمَعُونَهِ.

Zayd raised his head, saying: O my master! May God bless you, too. By God, I have a feeling that you know God truthfully and are fully aware of the divine verses and decrees. I swear by God that I did not rise up against your enemies out of ignorance and bewilderment. The reason I am fighting along with you is the words I heard from Hudhayfah ibn Yaman who reported the Messenger of Allah as saying: ‘Ali is the leader of the benefactors and the killer of wrongdoers. God will help those who help him and abase those who abase him. Beyond doubt, truth is always with ‘Ali. O you who follow truth! Never leave him alone. Follow him in words and actions.(1)

Ummu-Salamah also reports: I heard the Messenger of Allah saying: ‘Ali is with the Qur’an and the Qur’an is with ‘Ali. These two are inseparable till they come to me at the Pond.(2)

Whoever I Am the Master, ‘Ali Is His Master

The Messenger of Allah sent ‘Ali to Yemen to collect compromise money including cash, expensive cloth, one fifth levies, and alms from the Christians of

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, part 2, chap. 16, pp. 111
2- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, part 2, chap. 16, pp. 110

Najran and he himself left Medina for Mecca to perform Hajj while Muslims too had announced their readiness for performing Hajj rituals from every part with a notice in advance.

The departure time of the Holy Prophet was 25th of Dhu'l-Qa’dah. Concurrently, the Holy Prophet (S) wrote a letter to ‘Ali to leave Yemen for Mecca but he had not specified the kind of Hajj. The Holy Prophet put on the clothed of Ihram (i.e. putting on the uniform of Hajj) for Qiran (a form of the ritual Hajj) and the companions too put on their clothes of Ihram in the same place. To meet the Holy Prophet, ‘Ali too left Yemen for Mecca and went to the presence of the Messenger of Allah before the arrival of his army men.

Rejoicing at seeing, the Holy Prophet said: With what intention did you put on the clothes of Ihram? ‘Ali said: O Messenger of Allah, you had not specified the type of Hajj in the letter but my intention is the same as yours. While putting on my clothes of Ihram, I said: O Lord, I put on the clothes of Ihram the same as the Holy Prophet has done. I have brought thirty four camels with me. Being happy and saying: Allah is the Greatest, the Holy Prophet said: I have brought sixty six camels with me too. Therefore you will share the Hajj rituals and sacrifice with me. Some of the companions of the Holy Prophet had not

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brought animals for sacrifice with them. Hence, the verse “Complete your Hajj and Umrah for Allah” was revealed to determine their duties.

قَالَ: فَرَفَعَ إلَیْهِ رَأْسَهُ وَقالَ: وَأَنْتَ مَوْلایَ یَرْحَمُکَ اللهُ، فَوَاللهِ مَا عَرَفْتُکَ إلاَّ بِاللهِ عَالِماً وَبِآیَاتِهِ عَارِفاً. وَاللهِ مَا قَاتَلْتُ مَعَکَ مِنْ جَهْلٍ، وَلَکِنَّنِی سَمِعْتُ حُذَیْفَهَ بْنَ الْیَمَانِ رَضیَ اللهُ عنهُ یَقُولُ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَقُولُ: عَلِیٌّ أَمِیرُ الْبَرَرَهِ وَقَاتِلُ الْفَجَرَهِ؛ مَنْصُورٌ مَنْ نَصَرَهُ، مَخْذُولٌ مَنْ خَذَلَهُ. أَلاَ وَإنَّ الْحَقَّ مَعَهُ یَتَّبِعُهُ، أَلاَ فَمِیلُوا مَعَهُ.

وَعَنْ أُمِّ سَلَمَهَ قَالَتْ: سَمِعْتُ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَقُولُ: عَلِیٌّ مَعَ الْقُرْآنِ وَالْقُرْآنُ مَعَهُ لاَ یَفْتَرِقَانِ حَتَّی یَرِدَا عَلَیَّ الْحَوْضَ.

فِی أَنَّ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ نَصَّ بِأَنَّهُ مَوْلَی مَنْ هُوَ مَوْلاَهُ:

بَعَثَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ أمِیرَ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ إلَی الیَمَنِ لِقَبْضِ مَا وَافَقَ عَلَیْهِ نَصَارَی نَجْرَانَ مِنَ الْحُلَلِ وَالْعَیْنِ وَالْخُمْسِ وَزَکَاهِ الْیَمَنِ. وَتَوَجَّهَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ إلَی الْحَجِّ وَنَادَی فِی أَقَاصِی بِلاَدِ الإسْلاَمِ فَتَجَهَّزُوا لِلْخُرُوجِ مِنْ مَوَاضِعِهِمْ. وَخَرَجَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ لِخَمْسٍ بَقِینَ مِنْ ذِی الْقَعْدَهِ وَکَاتَبَ أمِیرَ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ بِالتَّوَجُّهِ إلَی الْحَجِّ مِنَ الْیَمَنِ وَلَمْ یَذْکُرْ لَهُ نَوْعَ الْحَجِّ الَّذِی قَدْ عَزَمَ عَلَیْهِ. فَخَرَجَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ قَارِناً لِلْحَجِّ بِسِیَاقِ الْهَدْیِ وَأَحْرَمَ مِنْ ذِی الْحَلِیفَهِ وَأَحْرَمَ النَّاسُ مَعَهُ، وَخَرَجَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ مِنَ الْیَمَنِ. فَلَمَّا قَارَبَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ مَکَّهَ مِنْ طَرِیقِ الْمَدِینَهِ قَارَبَهَا أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ مِنْ طَرِیقِ الْیَمَنِ. وَتَقَدَّمَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ الْجَیْشَ لِلِقَاءِ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَأَدْرَکَهُ وَقَدْ أَشْرَفَ عَلَی مَکَّهَ، فَسُرَّ بِهِ النَّبِیُّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَقالَ: بِمَ أَهْلَلْتَ؟

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فَقالَ: إنَّکَ لَمْ تَکْتُبْ إِلَیَّ بِإِهْلاَلِکَ فَعَقَدْتُ نِیَّتِی بِنِیَّتِکَ وَقُلْتُ: اللَّهُمَّ إهْلاَلاً کَإهْلاَلِ رَسُولِ اللهِ. وَسُقْتُ مَعِیَ الْبُدْنَ أَرْبَعاً وَثَلاثِینَ بُدْنَهً. فقَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ: اللهُ أَکْبَرُ، قَدْ سُقْتُ أنَا سِتَّاً وَسِتِّینَ بُدْنَهً وَأَنْتَ شَرِیکِی فِی حَجِّی وَمَنَاسِکِی وَهَدْیِی. وَکَانَ قَدْ خَرَجَ مَعَ النَّبِیِّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ جَمَاعَهٌ مِنْ غَیْرِ سِیَاقِ هَدْیٍ فَأَنْزَلَ اللهُ تَعالَی: ?وَأَتِمُّوا الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَهَ للهِ?.

To explain this verse, the Holy Prophet put the fingers of his two hands together and showing them to people said: I merged this type of Umrah with the Hajj and this merger continues till the Day of Judgment. Then he said: I would not bring the animals for sacrifice with me if I had to perform what I have been commissioned to do. Then he ordered a herald to declare that those who have not brought animals for sacrifice with them get out of the state of Ihram and consider their Hajj as Tamattu, but those who have brought animals for sacrifice with them remain in the state of Ihram.

With this order, some people obeyed the Holy Prophet’s instruction and some others disagreed, saying: It is not fair that the Holy Prophet is in the state of Ihram while we can put on our new clothes, have intercourse with our wives and wear perfume. Knowing this, the Holy Prophet said: I would have got out of the state of Ihram, if I had not brought animals of sacrifice with me! At this time, some of the people regretted what they had said

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and obeyed the Holy Prophet’s order.

Yet, a group of them headed by Umar ibn Khattab kept on opposing it. Being informed of their second Ihram, the Holy Prophet sent for Umar, saying to him: Why do you remain in the state of Ihram? Have you brought an animal for sacrifice? He said: No. the Holy Prophet said: Why are you opposing me then? He said: By God, I will not come out of the state of Ihram as long as you are in it. The Holy Prophet said: You will never believe in this order and keep on opposing it till the end of your life. Umar persisted in this so much so that during his caliphate, he would sit in his pulpit, announcing his opposition to this order of the Holy Prophet and would threaten people in giving it up.(1)

After completing Hajj rituals, the Messenger of Allah accompanied by Muslims left Mecca for Medina till they reached a place called Ghadir Khum. At this time, the verse,

“O Messenger of Allah! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people (5:67),”

was revealed to the Holy Prophet (S).

God knew that if the Holy Prophet passed by Ghadir Khum and did not stop there, people would be dispersed and everyone would go to his own city. Although it was very hot, the Holy Prophet ordered people to stop,

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1- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, chap. 50, pp. 158

to take a rest under the trees and to make a pulpit with camels’ saddles. He then ordered people to get ready for congregational prayer.

فقَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: دَخَلْتُ الْعُمْرَهَ فِی الْحَجِّ هَکَذَا - وَشَبَّکَ بَیْنَ أَصَابِعِهِ - إلَی یَوْمِ الْقِیَامَهِ. ثُمَّ قَالَ: لَوِ اسْتَقْبَلْتُ مِنْ أَمْرِی مَا اسْتَدْبَرْتُ مَا سُقْتُ الْهَدْیَ. ثُمَّ أَمَرَ مُنَادِیهِ یُنَادِی: مَنْ لَمْ یَسُقْ مِنْکُمْ هَدْیاً فَلْیُحِلَّ وَلْیَجْعَلْهَا عُمْرَهً. وَمَنْ سَاقَ مِنْکُمْ هَدْیاً فَلْیُقِمْ عَلَی إحْرَامِهِ. فَأَطَاعَ بَعْضٌ وَخَالَفَ بَعْضٌ.

وَقالَ بَعْضُ الْمُخَالِفِینَ: إنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ أَشْعَثُ أَغْبَرُ وَنَحْنُ نَلْبِسُ الثِّیَابَ وَنَقْرُبُ النِّسَاءَ وَنَدَّهِنُ! فَأَنْکَرَ النَّبِیُّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ عَلَی الْمُخَالِفِینَ وَقالَ: لَوْلاَ أَنِّی سُقْتُ الْهَدْیَ لأَحْلَلْتُ وَجَعَلْتُهَا عُمْرَهً. فَمَنْ لَمْ یَسُقْ هَدْیاً فَلْیُحِلَّ. فَرَجَعَ قَوْمٌ وَتَخَلَّفَ آخَرُونَ مِنْهُمْ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ فَاسْتَدْعَاهُ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَقالَ لَهُ: مَا أَرَاکَ یَا عُمَرُ إلاَّ مُحْرِماً! أَسُقْتَ هَدْیاً؟ قَالَ: لَمْ أَسُقْ. قَالَ: فَلِمَ لاَ تُحِلُّ وَقَدْ أَمَرْتُ مَنْ لَمْ یَسُقِ الْهَدْیَ بِالإِحْلاَل؟ِ فَقالَ: وَاللهِ یَا رَسولَ اللهِ لاَ أَحْلَلْتُ وَأَنْتَ مُحْرِمٌ. فَقالَ لَهُ النَّبِیُّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: إنَّکَ لَنْ تُؤْمِنَ بِهَا حَتَّی تَمُوتَ. فَلِهَذا أَقَامَ عَلَی إِنْکَارِ الْمُتْعَهِ حَتَّی جَهَرَ بِذَلِکَ عَلَی الْمِنْبَرِ فِی أَیَّامِ خِلاَفَتِهِ وَتَوَعَّدَ عَلَیْها.

وَلَمَّا قَضَی النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ الْحَجَّ رَحَلَ إلَی الْمَدِینَهِ بِمَنْ مَعَهُ مِنَ المُسْلِمینَ حَتَّی وَصَلَ إلَی غَدِیرِ خُمٍّ وَلَیْسَ مَوْضِعاً یَصْلُحُ لِلنُّزُولِ لِعَدَمِ الْمَاءِ فِیهِ وَالْمَرْعَی، فَنَزَلَ هُوَ وَالْمُسْلِمونَ حَیْثُ نَزَلَ عَلَیْهِ: ?یَا أَیُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَیْکَ مِنْ رَبِّکَ وَإِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ وَاللهُ یَعْصِمُکَ مِنَ النَّاسِ.? لِعِلْمِ اللهِ تَعالَی إنْ تَجَاوَزَ الْغَدِیرَ إنْفَصَلَ عَنْهُ کَثِیرٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ إلَی بِلاَدِهِمْ. فَنَزَلَ

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النَّبِیُّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَکَانَ یَوْماً شَدِیدَ الْحَرِّ فَأَمَرَ بِدَوْحَاتٍ فَقُمَّ مَا تَحْتُهَا وَأَمَرَ بِجَمْعِ الرِّحَالِ فِی ذَلِکَ الْمَکَانِ وَوَضَعَهَا عَلَی شِبْهِ

When the people gathered, the Holy Prophet went up the pulpit, called ‘Ali to come and stand near him, praised the Lord and informed the people about the news of his departure from this world, saying: I have been called by my Lord. Soon I will pass away and you will miss me. I am leaving among you two valuable things: the book of Allah and my Household. If you adhere to them, you will never go astray. They will never separate from one another until they come to me at the Pond.

Then with a loud voice said: Am I not superior to you? They all said: Yes, you are our guardian and you rule on all aspects of our life! At this time, the Holy Prophet (S) raised the two arms of ‘Ali in a way his armpit became manifest, saying: Whomever I am the master, ‘Ali is his master too! Then, raising his hands in prayer, he said: O Lord, support one who supports ‘Ali and be the enemy of one who is his enemy. Help one who helps ‘Ali and abase one who refuses to help him.

After delivering the sermon and conveying the message, the Holy Prophet came down from the pulpit, performed two Rak’ah of prayer and since it was the time of noon prayer, he performed the noon prayer with Muslims. He then sat in

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his camp and ordered to set up a camp for ‘Ali to sit in it. Then, he called on all companions to come to ‘Ali to congratulate and salute him for his position as the successor of the Messenger of Allah. Amid this, one rejoicing more than others was Umar ibn Khattab who said: May this position be blessed to you now that you are my master and the master of all believing men and women!(1)

Buraydah has been quoted as saying: The Messenger of Allah sent a group of the companions headed by ‘Ali on a military expedition and I was among them too. After returning, the Holy Prophet asked us about the behavior of ‘Ali. Among the gathering, the only one who complained of ‘Ali was me. When I raised my head to look at the Holy Prophet’s face, I could see the sign of anger in his face! At this time the Holy Prophet said: Whomever I am the master, ‘Ali is his master too.(2)

الْمِنْبَرِ ثُمَّ نَادَی بِالصَّلاَهِ الْجَامِعَهِ، فَاجْتَمَعُوا وَکَانَ أَکْثَرُهُمْ یَشُدُّ الرِّدَاءَ عَلَی قَدَمَیْهِ مِنْ شِدَّهِ الْحَرِّ. ثُمَّ صَعَدَ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ الْمِنْبَرَ وَدَعَا أَمِیرَ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَحَمِدَ اللهَ وَوَعَظَ وَأَبْلَغَ وَنَعَی نَفْسَهُ إلَی الأُمَّهِ وَقالَ: إنِّی دُعِیتُ وَیُوشِکُ أَنْ أُجِیبَ، وَقَدْ حَانَ مِنِّی خُفُوقٌ مِنْ بَیْنِ أَظْهُرِکُمْ. وَإنِّی مُخَلِّفٌ فِیکُمْ مَا إِنْ تَمَسَّکْتُمْ بِهِ لَنْ تَضِلُّوا: کِتَابَ اللهِ وَعِتْرَتِی أَهْلَ بَیْتِی، وَإنَّهُمَا لَنْ یَفْتَرِقَا حَتَّی یَرِدَا عَلَیَّ الْحَوْضَ. ثُمَّ نَادَی بِأَعْلَی صَوْتِهِ: أَلَسْتُ أَوْلَی مِنْکُمْ بِأَنْفُسِکُمْ؟ قَالُوا: بَلَی. فَقالَ لَهُمْ وَقَدْ أَخَذَ بِضِبْعَیْ

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1- Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, vol. 1, chap. 50, pp. 163
2- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol. 5, pp. 350-358

عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَرَفَعَهُمَا حَتَّی رُئِیَ بَیَاضُ إِبْطَیْهِمَا: فَمَنْ کُنْتُ مَوْلاَهُ فَعَلِیٌّ مَوْلاَهُ. اللَّهُمَّ وَالِ مَنْ وَالاَهُ وَعَادِ مَنْ عَادَاهُ وَانْصُرْ مَنْ نَصَرَهُ وَاخْذُلْ مَنْ خَذَلَهُ. ثُمَّ نَزَلَ فَصَلَّی رَکْعَتَیْنِ. ثُمَّ زَالَتِ الشَّمْسُ فَصَلَّی بِالنَّاسِ وَنَزَلَ فِی خَیْمَهٍ وَأَمَرَ عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ أَنْ یَنْزِلَ بِإِزَائِهِ فِی خَیْمَهٍ. ثُمَّ أَمَرَ المُسْلِمینَ أنْ یَدْخُلُوا عَلَی عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَوْجاً فَوْجاً لِیُهَنُّوهُ وَیُسَلِّمُوا عَلَیْهِ بِإِمْرَهِ الْمُؤْمِنِینَ، وَکَانَ فِی مَنْ أَطْنَبَ فِی التَّهْنِئَهِ عُمَرُ وَقالَ: بَخٍ بَخٍ لَکَ یَا عَلِیُّ أَصْبَحْتَ مَوْلاَیَ وَمَوْلَی کُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ وَمُؤْمِنَهٍ.

وَمِنْ کِتابِ مُسْنَدُ أحْمَدَ بْنِ حَنْبَلَ: عَنِ ابْنِ بُرَیْدَهَ قَالَ: بَعَثَنَا رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فِی سَرِیَّهٍ فَلَمَّا قَدِمْنَا قَالَ: کَیْفَ رَأَیْتُمْ صَاحِبَکُمْ؟ یَعْنِی عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. فَأَنَا شَکَوْتُهُ وَشَکَاهُ غَیْرِی. قَالَ: فَرَفَعْتُ رَأْسِی وَکُنْتُ رَاجِلاً مِکْبَاباً فَرَأَیْتُ النَّبِیَّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ قَدْ إحْمَرَّ وَجْهُهُ وَهُوَ یَقُولُ: مَنْ کُنْتُ وَلِیَّهُ فَعَلِیٌّ وَلِیُّهُ.

Imran ibn Hussayn has been reported as saying: the Messenger of Allah sent an army on a military expedition under the command of ‘Ali. Following victory, ‘Ali chose a female slave for himself. This act was heavy for us, so we disputed with him. We, four companions vowed to report this act of ‘Ali to the Messenger of Allah. As it was usual with Muslims to go and visit the Messenger of Allah first and then go to their houses, we too went directly to the Messenger of Allah and based on a previous agreement, one of the four said: O Messenger of Allah, ‘Ali did such and such in this expedition and told him the whole

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story.

Turning back his face, the Messenger of Allah said nothing. The second one started speaking but the Messenger of Allah turned back his face again. The third and the fourth one too did the same and faced the same scene. While anger could be seen in his face, the Messenger of Allah said: What on earth do you want from ‘Ali?

He repeated it three times and then said: ‘Ali is from me and I am from ‘Ali. He is the leader of every believer after me.(1) The Holy Prophet has been reported as saying: Whomever I am the master, ‘Ali is his master too.(2) The Holy Prophet has also been quoted as saying: May Allah bless ‘Ali. O Lord! Render the truth always with ‘Ali so that wherever he is the truth is with him too.(3)

After reporting the event of Ghadir Khum, the orator of Khawarizm adds: The Messenger of Allah raised ‘Ali’s arms in a way his armpit became manifest. At this time, the verse

“This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed my favor on you” (5:3)

was revealed to the Holy Prophet who rejoiced, said: Allah is the Greatest, and added: Religion has became perfect today, God is pleased that I have conveyed the message and blessed us with the leadership of ‘Ali over universe. He then raised his hands in prayer, saying: O Lord! Love those who love ‘Ali and be the enemy of one who is his enemy. Help one

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1- Jami’ al-Tirmidhi, vol. 5, pp. 632, Hadith 3712
2- Jami’ al-Tirmidhi, vol. 5, pp. 633, Hadith 3713
3- Jami’ al-Tirmidhi, vol. 5, pp. 633, Hadith 3714

who helps him and abase one who leaves him alone.(1)

Jabir has been quoted as saying: On the day of Ta’if, the Messenger of Allah called ‘Ali and spoke

to him privately. As the dialog prolonged, the people who were there said: How long his private words with his cousin is! Rejecting what they said, the Messenger of Allah said: By God, I did not mean to speak to him privately. It was God Almighty who was speaking to him privately, that is to say, God told me to talk to him privately.(2) Traditions supporting this fact are too many to be counted.

وَمِنْ صَحِیحِ التِّرْمِذِیِّ: عَنْ عِمْرانَ بْنِ حُصَیْنٍ قَالَ: بَعَثَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ جَیْشاً وَاسْتَعْمَلَ عَلَیْهِمْ عَلِیَّ بْنَ أَبِی طَالِبٍ فَمَضَی فِی السَّرِیَّهِ فَأَصَابَ جَارِیَهً فَأَنْکَرُو عَلَیْهِ وَتَعَاقَدَ أَرْبَعَهٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَقَالُوا: إذَا لَقِینَا رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ أَخْبَرْنَاهُ بِمَا صَنَعَ عَلِیٌّ. وَکَانَ المُسْلِمونَ إذَا رَجِعُوا مِنْ سَفَرٍ بَدَؤُوا بِرَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَسَلَّمُوا عَلَیْهِ ثُمَّ انْصَرَفُوا إلَی رِحَالِهِمْ. فَلَمَّا قَدِمَتِ السَّرِیَّهُ سَلَّمُوا عَلَی رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ. فَقَامَ أَحَدُ الأَرْبَعَهِ فَقالَ: یَا رَسولَ اللهِ، أَلَمْ تَرَ إلَی عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ صَنَعَ کَذا وَکَذا؟ فَأَعْرَضَ عَنْهُ رَسُولُ اللهِ. فَقَامَ الثَّانِی فَقالَ مِثْلَ مَقَالَتِهِ، فَأَعْرَضَ عَنْهُ. ثُمَّ قَامَ الثَّالِثُ فَقالَ مِثْلَ مَقَالَتِهِمَا، فَأَعْرَضَ عَنْهُ. ثُمَّ قَامَ الرَّابِعُ فَقالَ مِثْلَ مَا قَالُوا، فَأَقْبَلَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَالْغَضَبُ یُعْرَفُ فِی وَجْهِهِ فَقالَ: مَا تُرِیدُونَ مِنْ عَلِیٍّ؟ مَا تُرِیدُونَ مِنْ عَلِیٍّ؟ مَا تُرِیدُونَ مِنْ عَلِیٍّ؟ إنَّ

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 14, pp. 80
2- Jami’ al-Sahih, Tirmidhi, vol. 5, pp. 639

عَلِیَّاً مِنِّی وَأَنَا مِنْهُ، وَهُوَ وَلِیُّ کُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ بَعْدِی.

وَمِنْ صَحِیحِهِ: مَنْ کُنْتُ مَوْلاَهُ فَعَلِیٌّ مَوْلاَهُ. وَمِنْهُ: رَحِمَ اللهُ عَلِیَّاً، اللَّهُمَّ أَدِرِ الْحَقَّ مَعَهُ حَیْثُ دَارَ. وَرَوی الخَطِیبُ فَخْرُ خَوارِزْمَ حَدیثَ غَدِیرٍ خُمٍّ وَأنَّ النَّبِیَّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ أَخَذَ بِضَبْعِ عَلِیٍّ فَرَفَعَها حَتَّی نَظَرَ النَّاسُ إلَی بَیاضِ إبْطِهِ ثُمَّ لَمْ یَفْتَرِقَا حَتَّی نَزَلَ: ?اَلْیَوْمَ أَکْمَلْتُ لَکُمْ دِینَکُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَیْکُمْ نِعْمَتِی.? فقَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: اللهُ أَکْبَرُ عَلَی إِکْمَالِ الدِّینِ وَإِتْمَامِ النِّعْمَهِ وَرِضَا الرَّبِّ بِرِسَالَتِی وَالْوِلاَیَهِ لِعَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طَالِبٍ. ثُمَّ قَالَ: اللَّهُمَّ وَالِ مَنْ وَالاَهُ وَعَادِ مَنْ عَادَاهُ وَانْصُرْ مَنْ نَصَرَهُ وَاخْذُلْ مَنْ خَذَلَهُ.

وَمِنْ صَحِیحِ النَّسَائِیِّ وَالتِّرْمِذِیِّ: عَنْ جَابِرٍ قَالَ: دَعَا رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ عَلِیَّاً یَوْمَ الطَّائِفِ فَانْتَجَاهُ. فَقالَ النَّاسُ: لَقَدْ طَالَ نَجْوَاهُ مَعَ ابْنِ عَمِّهِ. فقَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَا أنَا انْتَجَیْتُهُ وَلَکِنَّ اللهَ انْتَجَاهُ. یَعْنِی أنَّ اللهَ أَمَرَنِی. وَالأخْبَارُ فِی ذَلِکَ کَثِیرَهٌ لاَ تُعَدُّ وَ لاَ تُحْصَی

The Holy Prophet’s Appointment of Imam ‘Ali for the Next Leadership

The Imamiyyah scholars and reporters have uninterruptedly narrated the Holy Prophet’s appointment, due to a Divine command, of Imam ‘Ali being the next leader of Muslims after him. Scholars of other Muslim sects have also mentioned a big deal of such traditions. Seeking briefness, I will hereinafter refer to some of these reports and traditions. The Holy Prophet (S) has been reported by Jabir as saying: When God Almighty created the heavens and the earth, He called them and they too responded to His call. Then he offered to them my prophethood and ‘Ali’s Wilayah (leadership) and they accepted it. Later, he created all the

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beings and entrusted religion to us. So happy is one who will follow us and wretched is one who disobeys us. Then he said: It is we who consider what is permitted by God as Halal (lawful) and what is not permitted by God as Haram (unlawful).(1)

Abu-Said Khidri has quoted Salman as saying: I said to the Messenger of Allah: There is a successor for every prophet, who is your successor? The Messenger of Allah kept silent and did not say anything. After some time, he called me and said: O Salman! I rushed to him saying: yes, O Messenger of Allah. He said: Do you know who was the successor of Moses? I said: Yes, he was Yusha ibn Nun. He said: Why? I said because he was the most knowledgeable of his time. He said: For this reason, my executer, my confidential and the best person who will fulfill my pledges is ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib.(2)

The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Anas ibn Malik as saying in the book Al-Arba’in: I and ‘Ali are two proofs of Allah for His servants.(3) When the verse

“And warn your nearest relations” (26:214)

was revealed, the Messenger of Allah invited his nearest relations, the children of Abd al-Muttalib, amounting to forty, to Abu-Talib’s house, ordered to prepare food for them from leg of mutton, one mudd of wheat and a bowl of milk. Although each of them used to eat one mutton at a meal, and drink a goatskin of water,

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 14, pp. 80
2- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 14, pp. 80
3- Ihqaq al-Haqq, vol. 4, pp. 220

they all ate and drank of what the Messenger of Allah had prepared yet nothing dwindled. With this, the Messenger of Allah showed them his superiority and revealed the first sign of his prophethood.

فِی نَصِّ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ عَلَی عَلِیٍّ أمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ بِالْخِلاَفَهِ بَعْدَهُ: تَوَاتَرَتِ الإمَامِیَّهُ عَلَی ذَلِکَ وَنَقَلَ الْجُمْهُورُ شَیْئاً کَثیراً، نَحْنُ نَذْکُرُ طُرَفاً مِنْهُ عَلَی سَبِیلِ الإخْتِصارِ. رَوَی الخَوارِزْمِیُّ عَنْ جَابِرٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: إنَّ اللهَ لَمَّا خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ دَعَاهُنَّ فَأَجَبْنَهُ، فَعَرَضَ عَلَیْهِنَّ نُبُوَّتِی وَوِلاَیَهَ عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طَالِبٍ، فَقَبِلَتَاهُمَا، ثُمَّ خَلَقَ الْخَلْقَ وَفَوَّضَ إلَیْنَا أَمْرَ الدِّینِ، فَالسَّعِیدُ مَنْ سَعِدَ بِنَا وَالشَّقِیُّ مَنْ شَقِیَ بِنَا. نَحْنُ الْمُحِلُّونَ لِحَلاَلِهِ وَالْمُحَرِّمُونَ لِحَرَامِهِ.

وَمِنْهُ: عَنْ أَبِی سَعِیدٍ الْخِدْرِیِّ عَنْ سَلْمَانَ قَالَ: قُلتُ: یَا رَسولَ اللهِ، لِکُلِّ نَبِیٍّ وَصِیٌّ، فَمَنْ وَصِیُّکَ؟ فَسَکَتَ عَنِّی. فَلَمَّا کَانَ بَعْدُ رَآنِی فَقالَ: یَا سَلْمَانُ! فَأَسْرَعْتُ إلَیْهِ قُلتُ: لَبَّیْکَ. قَالَ: تَعْلَمُ مَنْ وَصِیُّ مُوسَی؟ قُلتُ: نَعَمْ! یُوشَعُ بْنُ نُونٍ. قَالَ: لِمَ؟ قُلتُ: لأَنَّهُ کَانَ أَعْلَمَهُمْ یَوْمَئِذٍ. قَالَ: فَإنَّ وَصِیِّی وَمَوْضِعَ سِرِّی وَخَیْرَ مَنْ أَتْرُکُهُ بَعْدِی یُنْجِزُ عِدَتِی وَیَقْضِی دَیْنِی عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طَالِبٍ.

وَمِنْ کِتابِ الأرْبَعینَ عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِکٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: أنَا وَعَلِیٌّ حُجَّهُ اللهِ عَلَی عِبَادِهِ.

وَلَمَّا نَزَلَ قَوْلُهُ تَعالَی: ?وَأَنْذِرْ عَشِیرَتَکَ الأَقْرَبِینَ? جَمَعَ خَاصَّهَ أَهْلِهِ وَعَشِیرَتِهِ وَهُمْ بَنُو عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ فِی دَارِ أَبِی طَالِبٍ وَکَانُوا أَرْبَعِینَ رَجُلاً وَأَمَرَ أَنْ یُصْنَعَ لَهُمْ فَخِذُ شَاهٍ مَعَ مُدٍّ مِنْ طَعَامِ الْبُرِّ وَیُعَدُّ لَهُمْ صَاعٌ مِنَ اللَّبَنِ، وَقَدْ کَانَ الرَّجُلُ مِنْهُمْ مَعْرُوفاً بِأَکْلٍ الْجِذْعَهِ

When they stopped eating, the Messenger of Allah turned to those present

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and said: O sons of Abd al-Muttalib! God Almighty has appointed me as prophet to all people especially to you by saying “warn your nearest relations.” I now invite you to two words which are easy to say but heavy to act. With these words, you will rule over Arabs and non-Arabs, you will make various nations on the earth to follow you to make them enjoy God’s blessing of entering the paradise and being saved from hell.

Those words are testifying the oneness of God and my prophethood. Whoever, accepts this call and supports me will be my brother, executer, heir and vizier. From among the gathering, even a single person did not respond him positively! Amir al-Mu’minin says: I was present in that gathering. Though I was the youngest, I rose up and responded positively to his call, saying: O Messenger of Allah! I will help you in this great task.

The Messenger of Allah said: O ‘Ali, calm down and take your seat. The Messenger of Allah repeated his call but there was silence again. This time too, I rose up and repeated my words. The Messenger of Allah gave me the same answer. For the third time, the Messenger of Allah repeated his call and faced silence. Again I rose up and gave my positive response.

The Messenger of Allah ordered me to sit down with kindness, saying: ‘Ali, you are my executer, heir, and caliph after me. Those who were present rose up to leave

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and mockingly turned to Abu-Talib and said: May following your nephew and accepting his religion which has made your son your leader be blessed to you!(1)

The Messenger of Allah has been reported by Abi- Buraydah as saying: Every prophet has an heir and executer. ‘Ali too is my heir and executor.(2) Anas reports: The Messenger of Allah said: O Anas! The first person who comes to you is Amir al-Mu’minin, the master of Muslims, the leader of the benefactors and the last executor! Anas reports: By hearing this word, I raised my hands in prayer, saying: O Lord! Choose this man from Ansar and kept it in my heart while looking at the door. All of a sudden, ‘Ali entered.

The Holy Prophet said: O Anas! Who is this person? I said: It is ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib. Rejoicingly, the Messenger of Allah rose up and hugged him. He then mixed the sweat of his own face with that of ‘Ali and rubbed it on his face! ‘Ali said: O Messenger of Allah! Today you did to me what you had not done before! The Holy Prophet said: Why should I not do it when you carry out my pledges, you have my voice heard by people, solve their problem and settle their differences?(3)

فِی مَقْعَدٍ وَاحِدٍ وَبِشُرْبِ الزُّقِّ مِنَ الشَّرَابِ. فَأَکَلَتِ الْجَمَاعَهُ کُلُّهَا مِنْ ذَلِکَ الْیَسِیرِ حَتَّی شَبِعُوا وَلَمْ یَنْقُصِ الطَّعَامُ، فَبَهَرَهُمْ بِذَلِکَ وَبَیَّنَ لَهُمْ آیَهَ نُبُوَّتِهِ. ثُمَّ قَالَ: یَا بَنِی عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ، إنَّ اللهَ بَعَثَنِی إلَی الْخَلْقِ کَافَّهً وَبَعَثَنِی إلَیْکُمْ خَاصَّهً

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1- Khasa’is al-Wahy, chap. 6, pp. 96
2- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 7, pp. 42
3- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 7, pp. 42

فَقالَ ?وَأَنْذِرْ عَشِیرَتَکَ الأَقْرَبِینَ? وَأَنا أَدْعُوکُمْ إلَی کَلِمَتَیْنِ خَفِیفَتَیْنِ عَلَی اللِّسَانِ ثَقِیلَتَیْنِ فِی الْمِیزَانِ تَمْلِکُونَ بِهِمَا الْعَرَبَ وَالْعَجَمَ وَتَنْقَادُ بِهِمَا لَکُمُ الأُمَمُ وَتَدْخُلُونَ بِهِمَا الْجَنَّهَ وَتَنْجَوْنَ بِهِمَا مِنَ النَّارِ: شَهَادَهَ أَنْ لاَ إلَهَ إلاَّ اللهُ وَأَنِّی رَسُولُ اللهِ. فَمَنْ یُجِبْنِی إلَی هَذَا الأَمْرِ وَیُؤَازِرْنِی عَلَی الْقِیَامِ بِهِ یَکُنْ أَخِی وَوَزِیرِی وَوَصِیِّی وَوَارِثِی وَخَلِیفَتِی مِنْ بَعْدِی. فَلَمْ یُجِبْ أَحَدٌ مِنْهُمْ. فَقالَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: فَقُمْتُ بَیْنَ یَدَیْهِ مِنْ بَیْنِهِمْ وَأَنا إذْ ذَاکَ أَصْغَرُهُمْ سِنَّاً فَقُلْتُ: أنَا یَا رَسولَ اللهِ أُؤَازِرُکَ عَلَی هَذَا الأَمْرِ. فَقالَ: إجْلِسْ. ثُمَّ أَعَادَ الْقَوْلَ عَلَی الْقَوْمِ ثَانِیَهً فَصَمَتُوا. فَقُمْتُ وَقُلْتُ مِثْلَ مَقَالَتِیَ الأُولَی. فَقالَ: إجْلِسْ. ثُمَّ أَعَادَ عَلَی الْقَوْمِ مَقَالَتَهُ ثَالِثَهً فَلَمْ یَنْطِقْ أَحَدٌ مِنْهُمْ بِحَرْفٍ، فَقُمْتُ وَقُلْتُ: أنَا أُؤَازِرُکَ یَا رَسولَ اللهِ عَلَی هَذَا الأَمْرِ. فَقالَ: إجْلِسْ فَأَنْتَ أَخِی وَوَصِیِّی وَوَزِیرِی وَوَارِثِی وَخَلِیفَتِی مِنْ بَعْدِی. فَنَهَضَ الْقَوْمُ وَهُمْ یقُولُونَ لأَبِی طَالِبٍ: لِیُهْنِکَ الْیَوْمَ إنْ دَخَلْتَ فِی دِینِ ابْنِ أَخِیکَ، فَقَدْ جَعَلَ ابْنَکَ أَمِیراً عَلَیْک.

وَمِنْ کِتابِ الْمَناقِبِ: عَنِ ابْنِ بُرَیْدَهَ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: لِکُلِّ نَبِیٍّ وَصِیٌّ وَوَارِثٌ، وَإنَّ عَلِیَّاً وَصِیِّی وَوَارِثِی.

وَمِنْهُ: عَنْ أَنَسٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: یَا أَنَسُ، أَوَّلُ مَنْ یَدْخُلُ عَلَیْکَ مِنْ هَذَا الْبَابِ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ وَسَیِّدُ المُسْلِمینَ وَقَائِدُ الْغُرِّ الْمُحَجَّلِینَ وَخَاتَمُ الْوَصِیِّینَ. قَالَ: قُلتُ: اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْهُ رَجُلاً مِنَ الأَنْصَارِ، وَکَتَمْتُهُ، إذْ جَاءَ فَقالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ: مَنْ هَذَا یَا أَنَسُ؟

فَقُلْتُ: عَلِیٌّ. فَقَامَ مُسْتَبْشِراً فَاعْتَنَقَهُ ثُمَّ جَعَلَ یَمْسَحُ عَرَقَ وَجْهِهِ عَلَی وَجْهِ عَلِیٍّ وَیَمْسَحُ عَرَقَ وَجْهِ عَلِیٍّ عَلَی وَجْهِهِ. فَقالَ عَلِیٌّ: یَا رَسولَ اللهِ لَقَدْ صَنَعْتَ بِی شَیْئاً مَا صَنَعْتُهُ بِی مِنْ قَبْلُ. قَالَ: وَمَا یَمْنَعُنِی

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وَأَنْتَ تُؤَدِّی عَنِّی وَتُسْمِعُهُمْ صَوْتِی وَتُبَیِّنُ لَهُمْ مَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِیهِ مِنْ بَعْدِی. وَرَوَی أَبُو نَعیمٍ الحَافِظُ أنَّ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ قَالَ لِعَلِیٍّ یَوْماً: مَرْحَباً بِسَیِّدِ الْمُسْلِمینَ وَإمَامِ الْمُتَّقِینَ.

Abu-Naim reports: One day the Messenger of Allah said to ‘Ali: Hail to you, the master of Muslims and the leader of the pious.(1) The Messenger of Allah has been reported by Salman as saying: Verily, ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib is my brother, vizier, helper, and the best successor I leave behind me.(2)

Abi- Ayyub Ansari reports: When the Messenger of Allah fell sick, Lady Fatimah came to visit her father. She sat near his bed and seeing her father feeble started weeping so much that the Messenger of Allah tried to appease her by saying: O my daughter! One of the blessings of Allah to you is that I married you to one who is the most knowledgeable and the most forbearing. Verily God Almighty with His infinite knowledge did a favor to the people on the earth by appointing me as a prophet and did another favor by choosing your husband. He revealed to me to marry you to ‘Ali and choose him as my executor.(3)

Daraqutni, the author of the book, al-Jarh wal-Tadil too has related the above narration.

Daraqutni, on the authority of his own series of narrators, has quoted Abu-Harun Abdi as saying: I met Abu-Said Khidri asking him: Did you take part in the battle of Badr? He said: Yes, I did. I said: will you not tell me

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1- Hilyat al-Awliya’, vol. 1, pp. 66
2- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 9, pp. 62
3- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 9, pp. 62, Hadith 11

something about what you heard from the Holy Prophet about ‘Ali’s merits and virtues? He said: I will inform you of it. When the Messenger of Allah was improving from illness and Lady Fatimah had come to visit him, I was sitting on the right side o f the Messenger of Allah. Seeing her father feeble, Lady Fatimah started weeping! The Holy Prophet who was deeply impressed asked Fatimah about her weeping. Lady Fatimah said: Dear father, I am afraid of living when I am not near you. The sworn enemies of Islam may reveal their long-lasting cherished rancor!

To appease his daughter, the Prophet of Allah said: Do you not know that God Almighty with His infinite knowledge did a favor to those living on the earth by appointing your father as a prophet and once again did a favor to them by choosing your husband and revealed to me to marry you to him and then I appointed him as my executer? O my daughter! Do you not know that your position with God is so great that I married you to the most knowledgeable, the most forbearing and the foremost in Islam? Hearing this, Lady Fatimah became happy, smiled and received her reward from her father.

وَمِنْ کِتابِ الْمَناقِبِ: عَنْ سَلْمَانَ الفَارِسِیِّ رَضیَ اللهُ عنهُ أنَّهُ سَمِعَ نَبِیَّ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَقُولُ: إنَّ أَخِی وَوَزِیرِی وَخَیْرَ مَنْ أَخْلُفُهُ بَعْدِی عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طَالِبٍ.

وَمِنْهُ: عَنْ أَبِی أَیُّوبَ أنَّ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ مَرِضَ مَرَضَهُ فَأَتَتْهُ فَاطِمَهُ

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تَعُودُهُ. فَلَمَّا رَأَتْ مَا بِرَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ مِنَ الْجَهْدِ وَالضَّعْفِ إسْتَعْبَرَتْ فَبَکَتْ حَتَّی سَالَ الدَّمْعُ عَلَی خَدَّیْهَا. فَقالَ لَهَا رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: یَا فَاطِمَهُ إنَّ لِکَرَامَهِ اللهِ إِیَّاکِ زَوَّجْتُکِ مِنْ أَقْدَمِهِمْ سِلْماً وَأَکْثَرِهِمْ عِلْماً وَأَعْظَمِهِمْ حِلْماً. إنَّ اللهَ تَعالَی إطَّلَعَ إلَی أَهْلِ الأَرْضِ إطِّلاعَهً فَاخْتَارَنِی مِنْهُمْ فَبَعَثَنِی نَبِیَّاً مُرْسَلاً، ثُمَّ إطَّلَعَ إطِّلاَعَهً فَاخْتَارَ مِنْهُمْ بَعْلَکِ فَأَوْحَی اللهُ إلَیَّ أَنْ أُزَوِّجَکِ إیَّاهُ وَأَتَّخِذَهُ وَصِیَّاً وَأَخاً.

وَرَواهُ الدَّارَقُطْنِیُّ صَاحِبُ الجَرْحِ وَالتَّعْدیلِ أیْضاً.

وَعَنِ الدَّارقُطنِیِّ عَنْ رِجالِهِ عَنْ أَبِی هَارُونَ العَبْدِیِّ قَالَ: أَتَیْتُ أَبَا سَعِیدٍ الْخِدْرِیَّ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ: هَلْ شَهِدْتَ بَدْراً؟ فَقالَ: نَعَمْ. فَقُلْتُ: أَلاَ تُحَدِّثُنِی بِشَیْءٍ مِمَّا سَمِعْتَهُ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فِی عَلِیٍّ وَفَضْلِهِ. فَقالَ: بَلی، أُخْبِرُکَ أنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ مَرِضَ مَرْضَهً عُوفِیَ مِنْهَا وَهُوَ فِی عَقِبِ عِلَّتِهِ فَدَخَلَتْ عَلَیْهِ فَاطِمَهُ عَلَیْها السَّلامُ تَعُودُهُ وَأَنا جَالِسٌ عَنْ یَمِینِ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ. فَلَمَّا رَأَتْ مَا بِرَسُولِ اللهِ مِنَ الضَّعْفِ خَنَقَتْهَا الْعَبْرَهُ حَتَّی بَدَتْ دُمُوعُهَا عَلَی خَدِّهَا. فَقالَ لَهَا رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ

At this time, in order to inform Lady Fatimah of the abundant blessing God had given to Muhammad and His household, the Messenger of Allah said: O Fatimah! ‘Ali has eight merits which are unique in universe, namely, his belief in Allah and His messenger, his abundant knowledge, a wife like you, sons like Hasan and Husayn, enjoying the good and forbidding the evil. O Fatimah! We are Ahl al-Bayt endowed with six qualities which were not given to anyone in the former generations nor will

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be given to future generations but to us. Our prophet is the best and he is your father. We have the best executer and he is your husband. Our martyr is the best and he is the uncle of your father. Jafar Tayyar who flies with two wings in paradise belongs to us. Two best sons of this Ummah are your sons. Mahdi behind whom Jesus will perform prayer is from us too.

Then, the Messenger of Allah put his hand on Husayn’s shoulder and said: Mahdi of this Ummah will come from this son of mine.(1) The Holy Prophet has been quoted by Anas as saying: Verily, my friend, my vizier, my helper, my successor and the best man who will survive me and carries out my orders is ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib.(2)

The Messenger of Allah has been reported as saying: Gabriel came to me with his wings wide open. On one wing there was the inscription: There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is His messenger, and the other: There is no God but Allah and ‘Ali is the successor of His messenger.(3)

‘Ali, Amir al-Mu’minin

Ibn Abbas has been quoted as saying: When the Messenger of Allah had put his head on the lap of Dihyah ibn Khalifah Kalbi in the courtyard of his house, ‘Ali entered, greeted him and said: In what state is the Messenger of Allah? He said: He is now in good condition.

وَآلِهِ: مَا یُبْکِیکِ یَا فَاطِمَهُ؟ قَالَتْ: أَخْشَی الضَّیْعَهَ یَا رَسولَ اللهِ. فَقالَ: یَا فَاطِمَهُ أَمَا عَلِمْتِ

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1- al-Fusul al-Muhimmah, ibn Sabbagh, pp. 295
2- Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 157
3- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 14, pp. 90

أنَّ اللهَ إطَّلَعَ إلَی الأَرْضِ إطِّلاَعَهً فَاخْتَارَ مِنْهَا أَبَاک فَبَعَثَهُ نَبِیَّاً، ثُمَّ إطَّلَعَ ثَانِیَهً فَاخْتَارَ مِنْهَا بَعْلَکِ فَأَوْحَی إلَیَّ فَأَنْکَحْتُهُ إیَّاکِ وَاتَّخَذْتُهُ وَصِیَّاً. أَمَا عَلِمْتِ أَنَّکِ لِکَرَامَهِ اللهِ إیَّاکِ زَوَّجَکِ أَعْلَمَهُمْ عِلْماً وَأَکْثَرَهُمْ حِلْماً وَأَقْدَمَهُمْ سِلْماً. فَضَحِکَتْ وَاسْتَبْشَرَتْ. فَأَرَادَ رَسُولُ اللهِ أنْ یَزِیدَهَا مَزِیدَ الْخَیْرِ کُلِّهِ الَّذِی قَسَمَهُ اللهُ لِمُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ فَقالَ لَهَا: یَا فَاطِمَهُ، وَلِعَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ ثَمَانِیَهُ أَضْرَاسٍ یَعْنِی مَنَاقِبَ : إیمَانٌ بِاللهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَحِکْمَتُهُ وَزَوْجَتُهُ وَسِبْطَاهُ الْحَسَنُ وَالْحُسَیْنُ وَأَمْرُهُ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَنَهْیُهُ عَنِ الْمُنْکَرِ. یَا فَاطِمَهُ، إنَّا أَهْلُ بَیْتٍ أُعْطِینَا سِتَّ خِصَالٍ لَمْ یُعْطَهَا أَحَدٌ مِنَ الأَوَّلِینَ وَلَمْ یُدْرِکْهَا أَحَدٌ مِنَ الآخِرِینَ غَیْرُنا: نَبِیُّنَا خَیْرُ الأَنْبِیَاءِ وَهُوَ أَبُوکِ، وَوَصِیُّنَا خَیْرُ الأَوْصِیَاءِ وَهُوَ بَعْلُکِ، وَشَهِیدُنَا خَیْرُ الشُّهَدَاءِ وَهُوَ حَمْزَهُ عَمُّ أَبِیکِ، وَمِنَّا سِبْطَا هَذِهِ الأُمَّهِ وَهُمَا ابْنَاکِ، وَمِنَّا مَهْدِیُّ هَذِهِ الأُمَّهِ الَّذِی یُصَلِّی عِیسَی خَلْفَهُ. ثُمَّ ضَرَبَ عَلَی مَنْکِبِ الْحُسَیْنِ فَقالَ: مِنْ هَذَا مَهْدِیُّ الأُمَّهِ.

وَعَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِکٍ أنَّ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ قَالَ: إنَّ خَلِیلِی وَوَزِیرِی وَخَلِیفَتِی وَخَیْرَ مَنْ أَتْرُکُ بَعْدِی یَقْضِی دَیْنِی وَیُنْجِزُ مَوْعِدِی عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طَالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. وَمِنَ المَناقِبِ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: أَتَانِی جَبْرَئِیلُ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَقَدْ نَشَرَ جَنَاحَیْهِ فَإِذَا فِی أَحَدِهِمَا مَکْتُوبٌ: لاَ إلَهَ إلاَّ اللهُ مُحَمَّدٌ نَبِیٌّ. وَمَکْتُوبٌ عَلَی الآخَرِ: لاَ إلَهَ إلاَّ اللهُ عَلِیٌّ الْوَصِیُّ. فِی مُخاطَبَتِهِ بِأمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ:

مِنَ المَناقِبِ لأَخْطَبِ خَوارِزْمَ: عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: کَانَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فِی صَحْنِ الدَّارِ وَإذَا رَأْسُهُ فِی حِجْرِ دِحْیَهَ بْنِ خَلِیفَهَ الْکَلْبِیِّ فَدَخَلَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَقالَ: السَّلاَمُ عَلَیْک، کَیْفَ أَصْبَحَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ؟ فَقالَ: بِخَیْرٍ یَا أَخَا

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رَسُولِ اللهِ. قَالَ لَهُ عَلِیٌّ: جَزَاکَ اللهُ عَنَّا أَهْلَ الْبَیْتِ خَیْراً. قَالَ لَهُ دِحْیَهُ: إنِّی لأُحِبُّکَ وَإنَّ

Imam ‘Ali answered, “May God reward you with a worthy rewarding on behalf of us, the people of the Prophet’s House.” At this time, addressing ‘Ali, Dihyah Kalbi said: O ‘Ali! I like you and I have brought you a praiseworthy salutation from God which I present to you. You are the commander of the believers, the leader of graceful people and benefactors. You are the master of the sons of Adam except the prophets! On the Day of Judgment, the banner of al-Hamd is in your hand. You and your followers along with Muhammad and his followers will enter paradise with no delay. Salvation is for one who accepts your leadership and the loser is one who disobeys you. The friends of Muhammad are your friends and his enemies are your enemies who will never enjoy Muhammad’s intercession.

Then, he said: O you are chosen by God! Come close to me and put your cousin’s head on your lap. After moment’s the Messenger of Allah took his head off ‘Ali’s lap and said: Whose voice was that? ‘Ali told him the whole story. The Messenger of Allah said: The one speaking to you was not Dihyah Kalbi! He was Gabriel who called you with the name God has chosen for you! It is Gabriel who has placed your love in the hearts of the believers and your awe in the hearts of the

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unbelievers.(1)

Ibn Mardawayh on the authority of Buraydah reports: The Messenger of Allah ordered us to address ‘Ali as the commander of the believers and say: Peace be to you, O Amir al-Mu’minin.(2)

Ibn Mardawayh on the authority of Abdullah reports: Once ‘Ali went to the Messenger of Allah while A’ishah was with him. He took a seat between the Holy Prophet and A’ishah who protested by saying: Did you not find any other place than my seat? Hearing this, the Messenger of Allah who had become angry tapped her on the back and said: A’ishah! Calm down and stop bothering me with your snide remark against my brother, ‘Ali, for he is Amir al-Mu’minin, the master of Muslims, the leader of the graceful people. On the Day of Judgment he will sit on the Discriminating Bridge, will guide his followers to paradise and his enemies to hell.(3)

Ibn Mardawayh on the authority of Rafi, the manumitted slave of A’ishah reports: When I was a young boy, I used to do the chores outside the house for A’ishah and when the Messenger of Allah was at home, in addition to outside chores, I would do chores inside the house too.

لَکَ مِدْحَهً أَزُفُّها إلَیْکَ، أَنْتَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ وَقَائِدُ الْغُرِّ الْمُحَجَّلِینَ. أَنْتَ سَیِّدُ وِلْدِ آدَمَ مَا خَلا النَّبِیِّینَ وَالْمُرْسَلِینَ. لِوَاءُ الْحَمْدِ بِیَدِکَ یَوْمَ الْقِیَامَهِ، تُزَفُّ أَنْتَ وَشِیعَتُکَ مَعَ مُحَمَّدٍ وَحِزْبِهِ إلَی الْجِنَانِ زَفَّاً. قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَنْ تَوَلاَّکَ وَخَسِرَ مَنْ تَخَلاَّکَ، مُحِبُّو مُحَمَّدٍ مُحِبُّوکَ وَمُبْغِضُو مُحَمَّدٍ مُبْغِضُوکَ، لَنْ تَنَالَهُمْ شَفَاعَهُ مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ. أُدْنُ

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 19, pp. 231
2- Manaqib, ibn Mardooyah, part 3, pp. 10
3- Manaqib, ibn Mardooyah, part 15, pp. 11

مِنِّی یَا صَفْوَهَ اللهِ. فَأَخَذَ رَأْسَ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَوَضَعَهُ فِی حِجْرِهِ. فَقالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَا هَذِهِ الْهَمْهَمَهُ؟ فَأَخْبَرَهُ الحَدِیثَ. قَالَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: لَمْ یَکُنْ بِدِحْیَهَ الْکَلْبِیِّ، کَانَ جَبْرَئِیلُ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ، سَمَّاکَ بِاسْمٍ سَمَّاکَ اللهُ بِهِ، وَالَّذِی أَلْقَی مَحَبَّتَکَ فِی صُدُورِ الْمُؤْمِنِینَ وَرَهْبَتَکَ فِی صُدُورِ الکَافِرِینَ.

وَعَنِ ابْنِ مَرْدَوَیْهَ یَرْفَعُهُ، بُرَیْدَهُ قَالَ: أَمَرَنَا رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ أَنْ نُسَلِّمَ عَلَی عَلِیٍّ بِیَا أَمِیرَ المُؤْمِنِینَ.

وَمِنْ مَناقِبِ ابْنِ مَرْدَوَیْهَ: عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: دَخَلَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ عَلَی رَسُول اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَعِنْدَهُ عَائِشَهُ، فَجَلَسَ بَیْنَ النَّبِیِّ وَبَیْنَ عَائِشَهَ. فَقَالَتْ: مَا کَانَ لَکَ مَجْلِسٌ غَیْرَ فَخِذِی؟! فَضَرَبَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ عَلَی ظَهْرِهَا وَقالَ: مَهْ! لاَ تُؤْذِینِی فِی أَخِی، فَإنَّهُ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ وَسَیِّدُ المُسْلِمینَ وَقَائِدُ الْغُرِّ الْمُحَجَّلِینَ یَوْمَ الْقِیَامَهِ یَقْعُدُ عَلَی الصِّرَاطِ فَیُدْخِلُ أَوْلِیَاءَهُ الْجَنَّهَ وَیُدْخِلُ أَعْدَائَهُ النَّارَ.

وَمِنَ المَناقِبِ: عَنْ رَافِعٍ مَوْلَی عَائِشَهَ قَالَ: کُنْتُ غُلاَماً أَخْدِمُهَا فَکُنْتُ إذَا کَانَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ عِنْدَها أَکُونُ قَرِیباً إلَیْها لأُعَاطِیَهَا. قَالَ: فَبَیْنَمَا رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ

One day when the Messenger of Allah was at home, someone knocked at the door. I went quickly to the door and found there was a female slave with a big tray with a cover on it. She asked permission to enter. I went and informed A’ishah. She said: Guide her into the house. Entering the house, the female slave put the tray on the ground before A’ishah, saying: This is a gift offered to you. She took it to the Messenger of

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Allah and removed the cover from it. The female slave left and the Messenger of Allah started eating from the tray, saying: I wish Amir al-Mu’minin, the master of Muslims and the leader of the pious, were here to share the food with us. At this time, someone knocked at the door. When I opened the door, I found ‘Ali behind it. Rushing towards the Messenger of Allah, I said: ‘Ali is behind the door, asking permission to enter. The Holy Prophet’s eyes fell on ‘Ali’s face and said: You are most welcome! Hail to you. I longed for your presence twice. If you were late, I would pray to God to bring you here. Now, take a seat and eat with us.(1)

The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Anas as saying: Paradise longs for four men of my Ummah! I intended to ask him who they were but I feared they might not be those in my mind. Hence, I went to Abu-Bakr, told him of the story, and said: Ask the Messenger of Allah who they are. Abu-Bakr said: I fear that I might not be among the four and to be exposed to the blame of my tribe (Bani Taym). So I went to Umar and asked him to do the same. Umar too brought up the possible blame of his tribe (Banu-Adi). Thereafter, I went to Uthman and told him the story. Like the other two, he said: I fear I may not be among

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1- Manaqib, ibn Mardooyah, part 9, pp. 13

the four and be blamed by Umayyad. Being desperate, I went to ‘Ali who was irrigating his tree and told him the story.

‘Ali said: By God, I will ask the Messenger of Allah and I am not fearful, for if I am one of the four, I will praise Lord for giving me such a blessing and if I am not one of them, I will pray to Lord to make me one of the four and place their love in my heart. So he headed for the Holy Prophet’s house while I was accompanying him. We saw the Messenger of Allah at a time Dihyah Kalbi had his head on his lap. Seeing ‘Ali, Dihyah rose up, hailed him and said: O Amir al-Mu’minin! Come and put the head of your cousin on your lap, for you are more deserving of this act!

عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ عِنْدَها ذَاتَ یَوْمٍ إذْ جَاءَ جَاءٍ فَدَقَّ البَابَ. قَالَ فَخَرَجْتُ إلَیْهِ فَإذَا جَارِیَهٌ مَعَهَا إِنَاءٌ مُغَطّیً. قَالَ: فَرَجَعْتُ إلَی عَائِشَهَ فَأَخْبَرْتُهَا. فَقَالَتْ: أَدْخِلْهَا. فَدَخَلْتُ فَوَضَعْتُهُ بَیْنَ یَدَیْ عَائِشَهَ فَوَضَعَتْهُ عَائِشَهُ بَیْنَ یَدَیْ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ، فَجَعَلَ یَأْکُلُ وَخَرَجَتِ الْجَارِیَهُ. فقَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: لَیْتَ أمِیرَ المُؤْمِنِینَ وَسَیِّدَ المُسْلِمینَ وَإمامَ الْمُتَّقِینَ عِنْدِی یَأْکُلُ مَعِی. فَقَالَتْ عَائِشَهُ: وَمَنْ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ وَسَیِّدُ المُسْلِمینَ؟ فَسَکَتَ، ثُمَّ أَعادَ الْکَلامَ مَرَّهً أُخْرَی. فَقَالَتْ عَائِشَهُ مِثْلَ ذَلِکَ، فَسَکَتَ. فَجَاءَ جَاءٍ فَدَقَّ البَابَ فَخَرَجْتُ إلَیْهِ فَإذَا هُوَ عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طَالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ، قَالَ: فَرَجَعْتُ فَقُلْتُ: هَذَا عَلِیٌّ. فَقالَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: أَدْخِلْهُ. فَلَمَّا دَخَلَ

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قَالَ لَهُ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ: مَرْحَباً وَأَهْلاً، لَقَدْ تَمَنَّیْتُکَ مَرَّتَیْنِ حَتَّی لَوْ أَبْطَأْتَ عَلَیَّ لَسَأَلْتُ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجلَّ أنْ یَأْتِیَ بِکَ. إِجْلِسْ وَکُلْ مَعِی. فَجَلَسَ وَأَکَلَ مَعَهُ. ثُمَّ قَالَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: قَاتَلَ اللهُ مَنْ قَاتَلَکَ وَعَادَی مَنْ عَادَاکَ. فَقَالَتْ عَائِشَهُ: وَمَنْ یُقَاتِلُهُ وَمَنْ یُعَادِیهِ؟ قَالَ: أَنْتِ وَمَنْ مَعَکِ، مَرَّتَیْنِ.

وَعَنْ أَنَسٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: إنَّ الْجَنَّهَ مُشْتَاقَهٌ إلَی أَرْبَعَهٍ مِنْ أُمَّتِی. فَهِبْتُ أنْ أَسْأَلَهُ مَنْ هُمْ. فَأَتَیْتُ أَبَا بَکْرٍ فَقُلْتُ إنَّ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ قَالَ: إنَّ الْجَنَّهَ تَشْتَاقُ إلَی أَرْبَعَهٍ مِنْ أُمَّتِی، فَسْأَلْهُ مَنْ هُمْ. فَقالَ: أَخَافُ ألاَّ أَکُونَ مِنْهُمْ فَتُعَیِّرُنِی بِهِ بَنُو تَیْمٍ. فَأَتَیْتُ عُمَرَ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ مِثْلَ ذَلِکَ. فَقالَ: أَخَافُ ألاَّ أَکُونَ مِنْهُمْ فَتُعَیِّرُنِی بِهِ بَنُو عَدِیٍّ. فَأَتَیْتُ عُثْمَانَ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ مِثْلَ ذَلِکَ. فَقالَ: أَخَافُ ألاَّ أَکُونَ مِنْهُمْ فَتُعَیِّرُنِی بِهِ بَنُو أُمَیَّهَ. فَأَتَیْتُ عَلِیَّاً وَهُوَ فِی نَاضِحٍ لَهُ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ إنَّ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ قَالَ إنَّ الْجَنَّهَ مُشْتَاقَهٌ إلَی أَرْبَعَهٍ مِنْ أُمَّتِی، فَسَلْهُ مَنْ هُمْ. فَقَالَ: وَاللهِ لأَسْأَلَنَّهُ، فَإنْ کُنْتُ مِنْهُمْ لأَحْمِدَنَّ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجلَّ وَإنْ لَمْ أَکُنْ مِنْهُمْ لأَسْأَلَنَّ اللهَ أنْ یَجْعَلَنِی مِنْهُمْ وَأَوَدُّهُمْ. فَجَاءَ وَجِئْتُ مَعَهُ إلَی النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَدَخَلْنَا عَلَیْهِ وَرَأْسُهُ فِی حِجْرِ دِحْیَهَ الْکَلْبِیِّ.

‘Ali sat on the ground and put the head of the Messenger of Allah on his lap. At this time, the Holy Prophet woke up, saying: O Abul Hasan! You are not here without reason. What do you need? ‘Ali said: O Messenger of Allah, may my parents be ransom for you. When I

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came here, your head was on Kalbi’s lap. He rose up, greeted me and said: Put the head of your cousin on your lap, for you are more deserving than me! The Messenger of Allah asked: Did you recognize him? I said: Yes, he was Dihyah Kalbi. The Messenger of Allah said: He was not Dihyah rather, he was Gabriel the trustworthy in the guise of Dihyah. Then ‘Ali said: May my parents be your ransom. Right now, Anas informed me that you have said: Paradise longs for four persons! Who are those four? Pointing his finger at ‘Ali, the Messenger of Allah said: By God, you are the first of them. He repeated this three times. ‘Ali said: O Messenger of Allah! May my parents be your ransom; who are the other three? The Holy Prophet said: The other three are: Miqdad, Salman, and Abu-Dharr.(1)

The Messenger of Allah has said on the authority of Abbas: On the Day of Judgment, no one will enter the plain of the Resurrection Yard riding except four persons. Rising up from his seat, Abbas said: O Messenger of Allah! May my parents be your ransom; who are those four persons?

The Holy Prophet said: I will ride my heavenly horse (Buraq), my brother Salih will ride his she-camel which was hamstrung, my uncle Hamzah will ride my ‘Adba’ she-camel and my brother, my cousin and my son-in-law, ‘Ali, will ride one of the she-camels of paradise with fine silk on it, with emerald

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1- Manaqib, ibn Mardooyah, part 15, pp. 17

legs, red gold body, white camphor head, ambergris tail, glowing with light, musky skeleton, neck of pearls, cupola of divine light whose inward is divine forgiveness and its outward is divine mercy. The banner of al-Hamd is in his hand.

When he passes by a group of angels, they will say: Is he an arch-angel, a prophet or bearer of divine throne? At that time a herald from near or inside the divine throne will say: He is neither arch-angel, nor a prophet or bearer of divine throne. He is ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib, Amir al-Mu’minin, the leader of the pious and the head of the graceful ones. Delivered is one who accepts him and loser is one who denies or disobeys him. If a worshipper prays for thousands of years between Rukn and Maqam of Ka’bah in a way his body languishes and meets God while he is the enemy of the family of Muhammad, God will throw him to hell on face.(1)

فَلَمَّا رَآهُ دِحْیَهُ قَامَ إلَیْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَلَیْهِ وَقالَ: خُذْ بِرَأْسِ ابْنِ عَمِّکَ یَا أمِیرَ المُؤْمِنِینَ، فَأَنْتَ أَحَقُّ بِهِ. فَاسْتَیْقَظَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَرَأْسُهُ فِی حِجْرِ عَلِیٍّ فَقالَ لَهُ: یَا أَبَا الْحَسَنِ، مَا جِئْتَنَا إلاَّ فِی حَاجَهٍ. قَالَ: بِأَبِی أَنْتَ وَأُمِّی یَا رَسولَ اللهِ، دَخَلْتُ وَرَأْسُکَ فِی حِجْرِ دِحْیَهَ الْکَلْبِیِّ فَقَامَ إلَیَّ وَسَلَّمَ عَلَیَّ وَقالَ: خُذْ بِرَأْسِ ابْنِ عَمِّکَ إلَیْکَ فَأَنْتَ أَحَقُّ بِهِ مِنِّی یَا أمِیرَ المُؤْمِنِینَ. فَقالَ لَهُ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: فَهَلْ عَرَفْتَهُ؟ فَقالَ: هُوَ دِحْیَهُ الْکَلْبِیُّ. فَقالَ لَهُ: ذَاکَ جِبْرِیلُ. فَقالَ لَهُ: بِأَبِی

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1- Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 11, No. 5805

وَأُمِّی یَا رَسولَ اللهِ، أَعْلَمَنِی أَنَسٌ أنَّکَ قُلتُ: الْجَنَّهُ مُشْتَاقَهٌ إلَی أَرْبَعَهٍ مِنْ أُمَّتِی، فَمَنْ هُمْ؟ فَأَوْمَأَ إلَیْهِ بِیَدِهِ فَقالَ: أَنْتَ وَاللهِ أَوَّلُهُمْ. أَنْتَ وَاللهِ أَوَّلُهُمْ. أَنْتَ وَاللهِ أَوَّلُهُمْ. فَقالَ: بِأَبِی أَنْتَ وَأُمِّی، فَمَنِ الثَّلاَثَهُ؟ فَقالَ لَهُ: الْمِقْدَادُ وَسَلْمَانُ وَأَبُو ذَرٍّ.

وَمِنْ تَارِیخِ الْخَطِیبِ بِإسْنَادِهِ إلَی ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: لَیْسَ فِی الْقِیَامَهِ رَاکِبٌ غَیْرُنَا وَنَحْنُ أَرْبَعَهٌ. فَقَامَ عَمُّهُ الْعَبَّاسُ فَقالَ: فِدَاکَ أَبِی وَأُمِّی فَأَنْتَ وَمَنْ؟ قَالَ: فَأَمَّا أنَا فَعَلَی دَابَّهِ اللهِ الْبُرَاقِ، وَأمَّا أَخِی صَالِحٌ فَعَلَی نَاقَهِ اللهِ الَّتی عُقِرَتْ. وَعَمِّی حَمْزَهُ أَسَدُ اللهِ وَأَسَدُ رَسُولِهِ عَلَی نَاقَتِیَ الْعَضْبَاءِ. وَأَخِی وَابْنُ عَمِّی عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طَالِبٍ عَلَی نَاقَهٍ مِنْ نُوقِ الْجَنَّهِ مُدَبَّجَهِ الظَّهْرِ، رَحْلُهَا مِنْ زُمُرُّدٍ أَخْضَرَ مُضَبَّبٌ بِالذَّهَبِ الأَحْمَرِ، رَأْسُهَا مِنَ الْکَافُورِ الأَبْیَضِ وَذَنَبُهَا مِنَ الْعَنْبَرِ الأَشْهَبِ، وَقَوَائِمُهَا مِنَ الْمِسْکِ الأَذْفَرِ، وَعُنُقُهَا مِنْ لُؤْلُؤٍ، عَلَیْهَا قُبَّهٌ مِنْ نُورٍ، بَاطِنُهَا عَفْوُ اللهِ وَظَاهِرُهَا رَحْمَهُ اللهِ، بِیَدِهِ لِوَاءُ الْحَمْدِ. فَلا یَمُرُّ بِمَلأٍ مِنَ الْمَلاَئِکَهِ إلاَّ قَالُوا: هَذَا مَلَکٌ مُقَرَّبٌ أَوْ نَبِیٌّ مُرْسَلٌ أَوْ حَامِلُ عَرْشِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِینَ. فَیُنَادِی مُنَادٍ مِنْ لَدُنِ الْعَرْشِ أَوْ قَالَ مِنْ بِطْنَانِ الْعَرْشِ : لَیْسَ هَذَا مَلَکاً مُقَرَّباً وَلاَ نَبِیَّاً مُرْسَلاً وَلاَ حَامِلَ عَرْشِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِینَ؛ هَذَا عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طَالِبٍ أَمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ وَإمَامُ الْمُتَّقِینَ وَقَائِدُ الْغُرِّ الْمُحَجَّلِینَ إلَی جَنَابِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِینَ. أَفْلَحَ مَنْ صَدَّقَهُ وَخَابَ مَنْ کَذَّبَهُ. وَلَوْ أنَّ عَابِداً عَبَدَ اللهَ بَیْنَ الرُّکْنِ وَالْمَقَامِ أَلْفَ عَامٍ وَأَلْفَ عَامٍ حَتَّی یَکُونَ کَالشَّنِّ الْبَالِی ثُمَّ لَقِیَ اللهَ مُبْغِضاً لآِلِ مُحَمَّدٍ أَکَبَّهُ اللهُ عَلَی مِنْخَرَیْهِ فِی جَهَنَّمَ.

The Messenger of Allah has been reported as saying: when on my Night Journey, I

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reached the farthest lote-tree (Sidrat al-Muntaha), I stopped in the presence of Allah who said: O Muhammad! I said: Yes. He said: You have tried my servants. Which of them obeys you? I said: O Lord! I found ‘Ali the most obedient. He said: You said the truth. Have you appointed a successor among your Ummah to guide my servants with my book and to teach them what they do not know? I said: O Lord! You appoint my successor, for you are the Best Appointer! God said: I have appointed ‘Ali. Therefore, appoint him as your vicegerent and executor after yourself, for I have given him my knowledge and forbearance. He is truly the commander of the believers. This is a title I have allocated to him only, for no one has had it before or will have it in future.

O Muhammad! ‘Ali is the standard bearer of guidance, leader of my obedient servants and the light of my The saints. He is the word I made incumbent on the pious. Whoever loves him, has loved me and whoever is hostile to him, has been hostile to me! O Muhammad! Convey this good news to him. The Messenger of Allah said: I conveyed to him this good news. He appreciated it and said: I am a servant of God and under His control. If He blames me, it is because of the sin I have committed and if He forgives me it is because God is my Lord and

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my Aide. God said: Verily I will fulfill the promise I have given him. I said: O Lord! Make belief in You steadfast in him. God said: I did, but O Muhammad! I will try him with tribulations and calamities with which I have not tried anyone of the saints. I said: He is my brother and my long-cherished friend. God said: This is the fate I know about him. He will be afflicted with all these calamities and it is due to his high positions. My party, my devotees and the followers of prophets would not be recognized if there were no ‘Ali.(1)

These traditions have been reported from more than three hundred ways of narration.

وَمِنْ مَناقِبِ الخَوارِزْمِیِّ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: لَمَّا أُسْرِیَ بِی إلَی السَّمَاءِ ثُمَّ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ إلَی سِدْرَهِ الْمُنْتَهَی وَقَفْتُ بَیْنَ یَدَیِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجلَّ، فَقالَ لِی: یَا مُحَمَّدُ. فَقُلْتُ: لَبَّیْکَ وَسَعْدَیْکَ. قَالَ: قَدْ بَلَوْتَ خَلْقِی فَأَیَّهُمْ رَأَیْتَ أَطْوَعَ لَکَ؟ قَالَ: قُلتُ: رَبِّی عَلِیَّاً. قَالَ: صَدَقْتَ یَا مُحَمَّدُ، فَهَلِ اتَّخَذْتَ لِنَفْسِکَ خَلِیفَهً یُؤَدِّی عَنْکَ وَیُعَلِّمُ عِبَادِی مِنْ کِتَابِی مَا لاَ یَعْلَمُونَ؟ قَالَ: قُلتُ: یَا رَبِّ اخْتَرْ لِی، فَإنَّ خِیرَتَکَ خِیرَتِی. قَالَ: قَدِ اخْتَرْتُ لَکَ عَلِیَّاً، فَاتَّخِذْهُ لِنَفْسِکَ خَلِیفَهً وَوَصِیَّاً، وَنَحَلْتُهُ عِلْمِی وَحِلْمِی، وَهُوَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ حَقَّاً، لَمْ یَنَلْهَا أَحَدٌ قَبْلَهُ وَلَیْسَتْ لأَِحَدٍ بَعْدَهُ. یَا مُحَمَّدُ، عَلِیٌّ رَایَهُ الْهُدَی وَإمَامُ مَنْ أَطَاعَنِی وَنُورُ أَوْلِیَائِی، وَهُوَ الْکَلِمَهُ الَّتِی أَلْزَمْتُهَا الْمُتَّقِینَ. مَنْ أَحَبَّهُ فَقَدْ أَحَبَّنِی وَمَنْ أَبْغَضَهُ فَقَدْ أَبْغَضَنِی، فَبَشِّرْهُ بِذَلِکَ یَا مُحَمَّدُ. فَقَالَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: قُلتُ: رَبِّ قَدْ بَشَّرْتُهُ. فَقالَ: أنَا

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 19, pp. 215

عَبْدُ اللهِ وَفِی قَبْضَتِهِ، إنْ یُعَاقِبْنِی فَبِذُنُوبِی لَمْ یَظْلِمْنِی شَیْئاً، وَإنْ أَتْمَمَ لِی وَعْدِی فَاللهُ مَوْلاَیَ. قَالَ: قُلتُ: اللَّهُمَّ إجْلُ قَلْبَهُ وَاجْعَلْ رَبِیعَهُ الإیمَانَ. قَالَ: قَدْ فَعَلْتُ ذَلِکَ یَا مُحَمَّدُ، غَیْرَ أَنِّی مُخْتَصُّهُ بِشَیْءْ مِنَ الْبَلاَءِ لَمْ أَخْتَصَّ بِهِ أَحَداً مِنْ أَوْلِیَائِی. قَالَ: قُلتُ: رَبِّ أَخِی وَصَاحِبِی. قَالَ: قَدْ سَبَقَ فِی عِلْمِی أَنَّهُ مُبْتَلیً، لَوْلا عَلِیٌّ لَمْ یُعْرَفْ حِزْبِی وَلا أَوْلِیَائِی وَلا أَوْلِیَاءُ رَسُلِی.

وَهَذِهِ الأحَادِیثُ وَرَدَتْ مِنْ أَزْیَدَ مِنْ ثَلاثِمِائَهِ طَرِیقٍ.

The Unity of ‘Ali and the Holy Prophet

There is a widely transmitted Hadith in which the Messenger of Allah has said about ‘Ali: You are to me like Aaron to Moses. ‘Ali is the soul of the Holy Prophet, for his blood is from the blood and his flesh is from the flesh of the Messenger of Allah.

فِی خَبَرِ الْمَنْزِلَهِ وَالإتِّحادِ: مِنْ مَشَاهِیرِ الأَحادِیثِ وَمُتَواتِرِها قَوْلُ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ لِعَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: أَنْتَ مِنِّی بِمَنْزِلَهِ هَارُونَ مِنْ مُوسَی، وَأَنَّهُ نَفْسُ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ، دَمُهُ مِنْ دَمِهِ وَلَحْمُهُ مِنْ لَحْمِهِ.

The Holy Prophet (S) has been quoted by Ibn Abbas as saying: ‘Ali’s blood and flesh is from my blood and flesh. His position to me is like that of Aaron to Moses except that there is no prophet after me! Be a witness to what I say. Listen to and remember it. ‘Ali is the commander of the believers (Amir al-Mu’minin), master of Muslims and treasure of my knowledge. His path is my path. Whoever seeks nearness to me has to walk on his path. He is my brother in this world and

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my companion in the hereafter. He will be with me in the zenith of dignity and the most sublime stages.(1)

The Holy Prophet (S) has been quoted by Jabir as saying: I and ‘Ali are one and from the same tree and the other people are from different trees.(2)

The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Ibn Abbas as saying: The likeness of ‘Ali to me is the likeness of my head to my body.(3)

When ‘Ali victoriously came to the Holy Prophet from Khaybar, the Messenger of Allah said: If I did not fear that a group of my Ummah would say about you what the Christians said about Jesus, I would say something about your majesty that whenever you passed by a group of them, they would take the dust of your footsteps as a source of blessing and would use the water dropping from your hands in ablution as a cure!

As for your dignity, I should say that you are from me and I am from you. You are my inheritor and I will inherit you. Your position to me is as Aaron had with Moses, except there will be no prophet after me. You will pay my dept and fight my enemies. You are the nearest to me on the Day of Judgment and the first to join me at the Pond. You are the first who will wear heavenly green garment along with me. You are also the first person of my Ummah to enter paradise

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 14, pp. 86
2- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 14, pp. 87
3- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 14, pp. 91

and your followers will be sitting on the pulpits of light. Truth is always on your tongue, in your heart, and manifest before your eyes.(1)

It has been reported in Manaqib that Mu’awiyah proposed to Sad ibn Abi-Waqqas to curse ‘Ali! Being disturbed, Sad rejected Mu’awiyah’s proposal. Mu’awiyah asked for the reason. Sad said: The Messenger of Allah stated three features about ‘Ali for which I will never curse him. If I had only one of those features it would be more valuable to me than red-haired camels.

Then, he added: One of those features is as follows: when the Messenger of Allah went on a military expedition and appointed ‘Ali as his successor in Medina and ‘Ali complained: Do you leave me in Medina with children and women? The Holy Prophet said: Are you not happy that your position to me is as Aaron had with Moses, except that there will be no prophet after me?

رَوَی ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ مِنْ کِتابِ المَناقِبِ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: هَذَا عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طَالِبٍ لَحْمُهُ مِنْ لَحْمِی وَدَمُهُ مِنْ دَمِی، وَهُوَ مِنِّی بِمَنْزِلَهِ هَارُونَ مِنْ مُوسَی غَیْرَ أَنَّهُ لاَ نَبِیَّ بَعْدِی.

وَقالَ: یَا أُمَّ سَلَمَهَ، إشْهَدِی وَاسْمَعِی، هَذَا عَلِیٌّ، هَذَا أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ وَسَیِّدُ المُسْلِمینَ وَعَیْبَهُ عِلْمِی وَبَابِیَ الَّذِی أُؤْتَی مِنْهُ، أَخِی فِی الدُّنْیَا وَخِدْنِی فِی الآخِرَهِ وَمَعِیَ فِی السَّنَامِ الأَعْلَی. وَعَنْ جَابِرٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: أنَا وَعَلِیٌّ مِنْ شَجَرَهٍ وَاحِدَهٍ، وَالنَّاسُ مِنْ أَشْجَارٍ شَتَّی. وَعَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: عَلِیٌّ

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 13, pp. 76

مِنِّی مِثْلُ رَأْسِی مِنْ بَدَنِی.

وَلَمَّا قَدِمَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ عَلَی رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ بِفَتْحِ خَیْبَرَ قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: لَوْلاَ أَنْ تَقُولَ فِیکَ طَائِفَهٌ مِنْ أُمَّتِی مَا قَالَتِ النَّصَارَی فِی الْمَسِیحِ لَقُلْتُ الْیَوْمَ فِیکَ مَقَالاً لاَ تَمُرُّ بِمَلأٍ إلاَّ أَخَذُوا التُّرَابَ مِنْ تَحْتِ قَدَمَیْکَ وَمِنْ فَضْلِ طَهُورِکَ یَسْتَشْفُونَ بِهِ. وَلَکِنْ حَسْبُکَ أَنْ تَکُونَ مِنِّی وِأَنَا مِنْکَ، تَرِثُنِی وَأَرِثُکَ، وَأَنَّکَ مِنِّی بِمَنْزِلَهِ هَارُونَ مِنْ مُوسَی إلاَّ أَنَّهُ لاَ نَبِیَّ بَعْدِی، وَأَنَّکَ تُبْرِئُ ذِمَّتِی وَتُقَاتِلُ عَلَی سُنَّتِی، وَأَنَّکَ غَداً فِی الآخِرَهِ أَقْرَبُ النَّاسِ مِنِّی، وَأَنَّکَ أَوَّلُ مَنْ یَرِدُ عَلَیَّ الْحَوْضَ وَأَوَّلُ مَنْ یُکْسَی مَعِی وَأَوَّلُ دَاخِلٍ فِی الْجَنَّهِ مِنْ أُمَّتِی، وَأَنَّ شِیعَتَکَ عَلَی مَنَابِرَ مِنْ نُورٍ، وَأَنَّ الْحَقَّ عَلَی لِسَانِکَ وَفِی قَلْبِکَ وَبَیْنَ عَیْنَیْکَ.

وَمِنْ مَنَاقِبِ الخَوارِزْمِیِّ قَالَ: أَمَرَ مُعَاوِیَهُ بْنُ أَبِی سُفْیانَ سَعْدَ بْنَ أَبِی وَقَّاصٍ بِسَبِّ أمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ فَامْتَنَعَ. فَقالَ: مَا مَنَعَکَ؟ قَالَ: ثَلاَثٌ قَالَهُنَّ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَلَنْ

‘Ali’s second feature is that on the day of Khaybar, I heard the Messenger of Allah saying: Tomorrow I will give the banner of Islam to a man who loves Allah and His messenger and Allah and His messenger too love him! On that day a group of companions including myself were waiting for such an honorable position in the hope that we would be honored with it. But the Messenger of Allah said: Call ‘Ali! Having sore eyes, ‘Ali came to the Holy Prophet who rubbed his saliva on ‘Ali’s eyes which cured them immediately. The Holy Prophet gave the banner of Islam

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to ‘Ali who later returned to the Messenger of Allah with full victory.

‘Ali’s third feature is that on the day of mutual cursing (Mubahalah), God Almighty introduced ‘Ali as the soul of the Holy Prophet (S):

“Come let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, and our near people and your near people” (3:61)

and the Messenger of Allah called ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan, and Husayn, saying: O Lord! These are my Ahl al-Bayt.(1)

Jabir ibn Abdullah has been reported as saying: I and a group of the companions of the Holy Prophet (S) were lying down in the mosque. Having a leafless twig of palm in his hand, the Messenger of Allah entered the mosque, complaining of our lying down in Masjid. So we along with ‘Ali had to leave the mosque as quickly as possible. At this time, the Messenger of Allah said: O ‘Ali! Come here, for whatever is permissible for me in the mosque is permissible for you too. Are you not happy that your position to me is as Harun had with Musa except that there will be no prophet after me? By God under whose control my life is, on the Day of Judgment you will drive away a group of people from the Pond with teak rod you have in hand in the same way that a thirsty camel is driven away from water! Even now, I can see your position at the Pond.(2)

‘Ali has reported: I was afflicted with

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 9, pp. 59
2- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 9, pp. 60

a severe disease. To seek the cure, I went to the house of the Holy Prophet (S). Seeing I was sick, the Messenger of Allah made me lie down in his own place, put a covering of his garment on me and started praying. After the passage of a short time in prayer, he said: O son of Abu-Talib, God has healed you. You do not have to worry any more, for whatever I asked God for myself, I asked for you. All my wishes were fulfilled except the question of prophethood, for there will be no prophet after me.(1)

أَسُبَّهُ لأَِنْ یَکُونَ لِی وَاحِدَهٌ مِنْهُنَّ أَحَبُّ إِلَیَّ مِنْ حُمْرِ النِّعَمِ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَقُولُ لِعَلِیٍّ وَقَدْ خَلَّفَهُ فِی بَعْضِ مَغازِیهِ، فَقالَ لَهُ عَلِیٌّ: یَا رَسولَ اللهِ، أَتُخَلِّفُنِی مَعَ النِّسَاءِ وَالصِّبْیَانِ؟ فَقالَ لَهُ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: أَمَا تَرْضَی أَنْ تَکُونَ مِنِّی بِمَنْزِلَهِ هَارُونَ مِنْ مُوسَی إلاَّ أنَّهُ لاَ نَبِیَّ بَعْدِی؟ وَسَمِعْتُهُ یَقُولُ یَوْمَ خَیْبَرَ: لأُعْطِیَنَّ الرَّایَهَ غَداً رَجُلاً یُحِبُّ اللهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَیُحِبُّهُ اللهُ وَرَسُولُهُ. قَالَ: فَتَطَاوَلْنَا لَهَا. فَقالَ: ادْعُوا لِی عَلِیَّاً. فَأَتَاهُ وَبِهِ رَمَدٌ فَبَصَقَ فِی عَیْنَیْهِ وَدَفَعَ الرَّایَهَ فَفَتَحَ اللهُ عَلَیْهِ. وَلَمَّا أُنْزِلَتْ هَذِهِ الآیَهُ: ?نَدْعُ أَبْنَاءَنَا وَأَبْنَاءَکُمْ وَنِسَاءَنَا وَنِسَاءَکُمْ وَأَنْفُسَنَا وَأَنْفُسَکُمْ? دَعَا رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ عَلِیَّاً وَفَاطِمَهَ وَحَسَناً وَحُسَیْناً فَقالَ: اللَّهُمَّ هَؤُلاَءِ أَهْلِی.

وَعَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللهِ قَالَ: جَاءَنا رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَنَحْنُ مُضْطَجِعُونَ فِی الْمَسْجِدِ وَفِی یَدِهِ عُسَیْبُ رُطَبٍ قَالَ: تَرْقُدُونَ فِی الْمَسْجِدِ؟ قُلْنَا: قَدْ أَجْفَلْنَا وَأَجْفَلَ عَلِیٌّ مَعَنَا. فقَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 9, pp. 61

وَآلِهِ: یَا عَلِیُّ إنَّهُ یَحِلُّ لَکَ فِی الْمَسْجِدِ مَا یَحِلُّ لِی. أَلاَ تَرْضَی أَنْ تَکُونَ مِنِّی بِمَنْزِلَهِ هَارُونَ مِنْ مُوسَی إلاَّ النُّبُوَّهَ؟ وَالَّذِی نَفْسِی بِیَدِهِ إنَّکَ لَذَائِدٌ عَنْ حَوْضِی یَوْمَ الْقِیَامَهِ، تَذُودُ عَنْهُ رِجَالاً کَمَا یُذَادُ الْبَعِیرُ الضَّالُّ عَنِ الْمَاءِ، بِعَصاً لَکَ مِنْ عَوْسَجٍ. کَأَنِّی أَنْظُرُ إلَی مَقَامِکَ مِنْ حَوْضِی.

وَعَنْ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ: وَجعْتُ وَجَعاً فَأَتَیْتُ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَأَنَامَنِی فِی مَکَانِهِ وَقَامَ یُصَلِّی، فَأَلْقَی عَلَیَّ طَرَفَ ثَوْبِهِ فَصَلَّی مَا شَاءَ اللهُ. ثُمَّ قَالَ یَا بْنَ أَبِی طَالِبٍ،

The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Muadh ibn Jabal as having said to ‘Ali: You share all the merits and virtues with me except prophethood in which I am superior to all people and no man of Quraysh has such virtues and merits; You are the first to believe in Allah; You are the most faithful to Allah’s covenant; You are the most steadfast in carrying out God’s orders. You are the fairest in division of property; You are the most just among the servants, the most knowledgeable in judgment and the most privileged with God on the Day of Judgment.(1) The Holy Prophet (S) has been reported by ibn Umar as saying: Whoever keeps his distance from ‘Ali’s manners has kept distance from my manners and whoever keeps distance from me has kept distance from God.(2)

The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Abi- Dharr as saying: O ‘Ali, whoever keeps distance from me and forsakes my way, has kept distance from God. Beyond doubt, parting with

p: 315


1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 9, pp. 61
2- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 8, pp. 57

you will be parting with me.(1)

The Story of the Grilled Bird

A narration which has been widely transmitted and it is well-known both to Shi’ite and Sunni Muslims is the story of the grilled bird. Anas ibn Malik reports: A grilled bird was offered to the Messenger of Allah as a gift, for which he raised his hands in prayer, saying: O Lord, send to me Your most beloved creature to eat with me from this bird.

Being sure that the Holy Prophet’s prayer would be answered, Anas reports: I hoped that he would be a man from Ansar (helpers). Hence I said: O Lord, let the man be from Ansar! But concurrent with the Holy Prophet’s prayer ‘Ali was at the door and asked for permission to enter. I said: The Messenger of Allah is busy now. ‘Ali went away and came again after a few moments. Again I said that the Holy Prophet was busy. For the third time ‘Ali came at the door. The Messenger of Allah said: Open the door. I opened the door. ‘Ali came in. The Holy Prophet asked: What happened between you and Anas? ‘Ali said: O Messenger of Allah! This is the third time I come to see you but each time Anas stopped me from entering the house, saying: The Holy Prophet is busy!

قَدْ بَرِئْتَ فَلا بَأْسَ عَلَیْک. مَا سَأَلْتُ اللهَ شَیْئاً إلاَّ وَسَأَلْتُ لَکَ مِثْلَهُ، وَلا سَأَلْتُ اللهَ شَیْئاً إلاَّ أَعْطانِیهِ إلاَّ أنَّهُ لاَ نَبِیَّ بَعْدِی. وَعَنْ مُعاذِ بْنِ جَبَلٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ

p: 316


1- Fara’id al-Simtayn, vol. 1, pp. 299, part 55, Hadith 237

عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: یَا عَلِیُّ أَخْصِمُکَ بِالنُّبُوَّهِ وَلا نُبُوَّهَ بَعْدِی، وَتَخْصِمُ النَّاسَ بِسَبْعٍ وَلا یُحاجُّکَ فِیهِنَّ أَحَدٌ مِنْ قُرَیْشٍ: أَنْتَ أَوَّلُهُمْ إیمَاناً بِاللهِ، وَأَوْفَاهُمْ بِعَهْدِ اللهِ، وَأَقْوَمُهُمْ بِأَمْرِ اللهِ، وَأَقْسَمُهُمْ بِالسَّوِیَّهِ، وَأَعْدَلُهُمْ فِی الرَّعِیَّهِ، وَأَبْصَرُهُمْ فِی الْقَضِیَّهِ، وَأَعْظَمُهُمْ عِنْدَ اللهِ یَوْمَ الْقِیَامَهِ مَزِیَّهً.

وَعَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَنْ فَارَقَ عَلِیَّاً فَارَقَنِی، وَمَنْ فَارَقَنِی فَارَقَ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجلَّ.

وَعَنْ أَبِی ذَرٍّ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: یَا عَلِیُّ، إنَّهُ مَنْ فَارَقَنِی فَقَدْ فَارَقَ اللهَ، وَمَنْ فَارَقَکَ فَقَدْ فَارَقَنِی. فِی خَبَرِ الطَّائِرِ:

مِنَ الأَحادِیثِ الْمَنْقُولَهِ بِالتَّوَاتُرِ عِنْدَ الْخَاصَّهِ وَالْعَامَّهِ خَبَرُ الطَّائِرِ. رَوَی أَنَسُ بْنُ مَالِکٍ قَالَ: أُهْدِیَ لِرَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ طَیْرٌ فَقالَ: اللَّهُمَّ إئْتِنِی بِأَحَبِّ خَلْقِکَ إلَیْکَ یَأْکُلْ مَعِیَ مِنْ هَذَا الطَّیْرِ. فَقُلْتُ: اللَّهُمَّ إجْعَلْهُ رَجُلاً مِنَ الأَنْصَارِ. فَجَاءَ عَلِیٌّ فَقُلْتُ إنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ عَلَی حَاجَهٍ، فَذَهَبَ. ثُمَّ جَاءَ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ مِثْلَ ذَلِکَ، فَذَهَبَ. ثُمَّ جَاءَ فقَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: إفْتَحْ، فَفَتَحْتُ. ثُمَّ دَخَلَ

The Holy Prophet (S) called me and said: Why did you stop ‘Ali from coming in. I said: O Messenger of Allah, when I heard your prayer and I was sure your prayer would be answered, I wished the most beloved man with Allah would be a man from my tribe, Ansar! The Messenger of Allah said: Yes, everyone is interested in his close relations and repeated this sentence for a second time.(1)

‘Ali is the Best Creature

The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by ibn Mardawayh on the authority of Hudhayfah as saying: ‘Ali is the best

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 9, pp. 65

of the human beings. Whoever does not admit this, is an unbeliever who has denied an indisputable fact.(1) The Holy Prophet has been reported by Salman as saying: ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib is the best one I appoint as my successor.(2) Quoting Salman, Ab Said Khidri reports: One day the Messenger of Allah called me. I said: O Messenger of Allah, I am at your service. He said: Today I take you as a witness that ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib is the best of people.(3)

Abu-Rafi has quoted his father and his grandfather as saying: I heard the Messenger of Allah saying to ‘Ali: O ‘Ali, you are the best of my Ummah in the world and hereafter.(4)

The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Habashi ibn Janadah as saying: The best man who walks on the earth after me is ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib.(5) The Holy Prophet (S) has been quoted by Anas ibn Malik as saying: ‘Ali is the best person whom I leave behind after myself.(6) Jabir ibn Abdullah has reported: The Messenger of Allah sent Walid ibn Uqbah to Banu-Wulayah tribe against whom he had a long-cherished rancor in the pre-Islamic era to collect alms from them.

When Banu-Wulay’ah tribe were informed of it, they rushed to welcome him and to know what he wanted from close. But Walid was horrified, having the impression that they were going to fight him. So he returned to Medina from the same spot. He presented a false report to the Messenger of Allah,

p: 318


1- Manaqib, ibn Mardooyah; Ihqaq al-Haqq, vol. 4, pp. 254
2- Manaqib, ibn Mardooyah; Ihqaq al-Haqq, vol. 4, pp. 254
3- Manaqib, ibn Mardooyah; Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 156
4- Manaqib, ibn Mardooyah; Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 157
5- Manaqib, ibn Mardooyah; Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 157
6- Manaqib, ibn Mardooyah; Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, pp. 157

saying: Banu-Wulayah tribe are disobeying you, refusing to pay alms and are intent to kill me. Being aware of Walid’s return to Medina and his report, all of Banu-Wulayah tribe came to Medina without any delay and went to see the Messenger of Allah, saying: Walid’s report is baseless. We neither disobey you nor refuse to pay alms. We only feared that he might take revenge because of his rancor against us!

فَقالَ: مَا أَخَّرَکَ یَا عَلِیُّ؟ قَالَ: هَذِهِ آخِرُ ثَلاثِ کَرَّاتٍ یَرُدُّنِی أَنَسٌ، یَزْعُمُ أَنَّکَ عَلَی حَاجَهٍ. قَالَ: مَا حَمَلَکَ عَلَی مَا صَنَعْتَ یَا أَنَسُ؟ قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ دُعَاءَکَ فَأَحْبَبْتُ أَنْ یَکُونَ فِی رَجُلٍ مِنْ قَوْمِی. فَقالَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: إنَّ الرَّجُلَ یُحِبُّ قَوْمَهُ، إنَّ الرَّجُلَ یُحِبُّ قَوْمَهُ.

فِی النَّصِّ عَلَیْهِ بِأَنَّهُ خَیْرُ الْخَلْقِ: مِنْ مَناقِبِ ابْنِ مَرْدَوَیْهَ عَنْ حُذَیْفَهَ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: عَلِیٌّ خَیْرُ الْبَشَرِ، مَنْ أَبَی فَقَدْ کَفَرَ.

وَعَنْ سَلْمانَ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ، عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طَالِبٍ خَیْرُ مَنْ أُخَلِّفُ بَعْدِی. وَعَنْ أَبِی سَعِیدٍ الْخِدْرِیِّ قَالَ: قَالَ سَلْمَانُ: رَآنِی رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَنَادَانِی. فَقُلْتُ: لَبَّیْکَ. قَالَ: أُشْهِدُکَ الْیَوْمَ أنَّ عَلِیَّ بْنَ أَبِی طَالِبٍ خَیْرُهُمْ وَأَفْضَلُهُمْ.

وَعَنْ أَبِی رَافِعٍ عَنْ أبِیهِ عَنْ جَدِّهِ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ لِعَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: أَنْتَ خَیْرُ أُمَّتِی فِی الدُّنْیَا وَالآخِرَهِ. وَعَنْ حَبَشِیِّ بْنِ جُنادَهَ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ: خَیْرُ مَنْ یَمْشِی عَلَی الأَرْضِ بَعْدِی عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طَالِبٍ.

وَعَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِکٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: عَلِیٌّ خَیْرُ مَنْ تَرَکْتُ

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بَعْدِی. وَعَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللهِ قَالَ: بَعَثَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ الْوَلیدَ بْنَ عَقَبَهَ إلَی بَنِی وُلَیْعَهَ وَکَانَ بَیْنَهُمْ شَحْنَاءُ فِی الْجَاهِلِیَّهِ، فَلَمَّا بَلَغَ بَنِی وُلَیْعَهَ اسْتَقْبَلُوهُ لِیَنْظُرُوا مَا فِی

The Messenger of Allah who was fully informed of the event, in order to punish and give them a lesson said: O Banu-Wulayah! Stop this impudent act, otherwise I will send to you a man who is like me in position to fight you, to take your sons captive and to exterminate you. Pointing to ‘Ali, the Messenger of Allah said: He is the best man walking on the earth. Putting his hand on ‘Ali’s shoulder, he said: He is ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib. Concurrent with this, the verse:

“O you who believe! If an evil-doer comes to you with a report …”

was revealed about Walid.(1)

Warning Against Those Challenging ‘Ali’s Authority

The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Abi- Dharr as saying: Anyone who challenges ‘Ali’s authority in relation to caliphate after me is certainly an unbeliever who has risen to fight Allah, His messenger and has disobeyed the decree of Allah and His messenger. Also anyone who is doubtful of ‘Ali’s right to caliphate is certainly an unbeliever.(2)

The Messenger of Allah has been reported by Imam Sajjad on the authority of his father, Imam Husayn, and his grandfather, Imam ‘Ali, as saying: The wrath of Allah and me is intense on one who sheds my blood and hurts me in relation to my household.(3) Anas has reported: I was in the presence of the

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1- Manaqib, ibn Mardooyah; Ihqaq al-Haqq, vol. 6, pp. 453
2- Manaqib, ibn Maghazili, pp. 45, Hadith 68
3- Maqtal, Khawarizmi, vol. 2, chap. 12, pp. 84

Messenger of Allah when his look fell on ‘Ali who was coming to him. He said: I and the one who is coming are two proofs of Allah to my Ummah on the Day of Judgment.(1) The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Mu’awiyah ibn Haydah Qushayri as having said to ‘Ali: O ‘Ali, one who dies with the rancor against you, he has died as a Jew or Christian!

نَفْسِهِ. قَالَ فَخَشِیَ الْقَوْمَ، فَرَجَعَ إلَی رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَقالَ: إنَّ بَنِی وُلَیْعَهَ أَرَادُوا قَتْلِی وَمَنَعُوا الصَّدَقَهَ. فَلَمَّا بَلَغَ بَنِی وُلَیْعَهَ الَّذِی قَالَ عَنْهُمُ الْوَلِیدُ لِرَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ أَتَوْا رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَقَالُوا: یَا رَسولَ اللهِ، وَاللهِ لَقَدْ کَذِبَ الْوَلِیدُ وَلَکِنَّهُ قَدْ کَانَتْ بَیْنَنا وَبَیْنَهُ شَحْنَاءُ فَخَشِینَا أَنْ یُعَاقِبَنَا بِالَّذِی کَانَ بَیْنَنَا. فقَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: لَتَنْتَهُنَّ یَا بَنِی وُلَیْعَهَ أَوْ لأَبْعَثَنَّ إلَیْکُمْ رَجُلاً عِنْدِی کَنَفْسِی، یَقْتُلُ مُقَاتِلِیکُمْ وَیَسْبِی ذَرَارِیکُمْ، وَهُوَ هَذَا خَیْرُ مَنْ تَرَوْنَ. وَضَرَبَ عَلَی کَتِفِ عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طَالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. وَأَنْزَلَ اللهُ فِی الْوَلِیدِ بْنِ عَقَبَهَ ?یَا أَیُّهَا الَّذِینَ آمَنُوا إِنْ جَاءَکُمْ فَاسِقٌ بِنَبَأٍ…?

فِی التَّوَعُّدِ عَلَی مَنْ نَاصَبَ عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ الْخِلاَفَهَ: مِنْ کِتابِ مِناقِبِ الخَوارِزْمِیِّ: عَنْ أَبِی ذَرٍّ الْغِفَارِیِّ قَالَ قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَنْ نَاصَبَ عَلِیَّاً الْخِلافَهَ بَعْدِی فَهُوَ کَافِرٌ وَقَدْ حَارَبَ اللهَ وَرَسُولَهُ. وَمَنْ شَکَّ فِی عَلِیٍّ فَهُوَ کَافِرٌ. وَمِنْهُ: عَنْ زَیْنِ الْعَابِدِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ عَنْ أَبِیهِ عَنْ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: إشْتَدَّ غَضَبُ اللهِ تَعالَی وَغَضَبِی عَلَی مَنْ أَهْرَقَ

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1- Manaqib, ibn Maghazili, pp. 45, Hadith 67

دَمِی وَآذَانِی فِی عِتْرَتِی.

وَمِنْهُ: عَنْ أَنَسٍ قَالَ: کُنْتُ عِنْدَ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَرَأَی عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ مُقْبِلاً فَقالَ: أَنَا وَهَذَا حُجَّهُ اللهِ عَلَی أُمَّتِی یَوْمَ الْقِیَامَهِ. وَمِنْهُ: عَنْ مُعَاوِیَهَ بْنِ حَیْدَهَ القُشَیْرِیِّ قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَقُولُ لِعَلِیٍّ

Yazid ibn Zuray reports: I said to Bahz ibn Hakim: Have your father and your grandfather narrated this Hadith on the authority of the Messenger of Allah? In response he said: May Allah strike me deaf if I am lying.(1) Anas ibn Malik has reported: Being in the presence of the Holy Prophet, I and a group of people said: O Messenger of Allah, by God we love you more than ourselves and our children. At this time, ‘Ali entered. The Messenger of Allah, looking at ‘Ali, compassionately said: One who says he loves me but has your rancor in heart is lying.(2)

The Holy Prophet (S) has been quoted by Khalid ibn Zayd known as Abu-Ayyub Ansari as saying: O ‘Ali, God Almighty has placed the love for the poor in your heart. You are pleased with their following you and they are pleased with your leadership. Happy is one who follows you and he is truthful in it. Woe to one who has your rancor in heart and tells lies about you.(3)

Ibn Abbas has reported: I was in the presence of the Messenger of Allah when ‘Ali entered with fury. The Holy Prophet asked the reason. ‘Ali said: O Messenger of Allah! I was in the gathering

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1- Manaqib, ibn Maghazili, pp. 50, Hadith 74
2- Manaqib, ibn Maghazili, pp. 51, Hadith 75
3- Manaqib, ibn Maghazili, pp. 121, Hadith 159

of your cousins who were saying things far from your dignity. That made me furious. Being angry, the Messenger of Allah rose up and said: O people! Whoever makes ‘Ali angry has made me angry, for ‘Ali is the first one who believed in Allah and His messenger and adhered to Allah’s covenant. O people, anyone who hurts ‘Ali’s feelings, he will be raised among Jews and Christians. Jabir asked: Even if he accepts the oneness of God and your prophethood?

The Messenger of Allah said: Yes, even if you bear witness that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is Allah’s messenger, the only advantage is that your blood will not be shed, your property will not be confiscated for Muslims and poll tax will not be collected from you.(1)

Abu-Hurayrah has reported: The Messenger of Allah looking at the faces of ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan, and Husayn, said: I am at war with one who is at war with you and at peace with one who is at peace with you.(2)

عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: یَا عَلِیُّ، لاَ یُبَالِی مَنْ مَاتَ وَهُوَ یُبْغِضُکَ مَاتَ یَهُودِیَّاً أَوْ نَصْرَانِیَّاً. قَالَ یَزِیدُ بْنُ زُرَیْعٍ: قُلتُ لِبُهَزِ بْنِ حَکیمٍ: أَحَدَّثَکَ أَبُوکَ عَنْ جَدِّکَ عَنِ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ بِهَذَا؟ قَالَ: إنَّهُ لَحَدَّثَنِی أَبِی عَنْ جَدِّی وَإلاَّ فَصَمَّ اللهُ أُذُنَیَّ بِصَمَّامٍ مِنْ نَارٍ. وَمِنْهُ: عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِکٍ قَالَ: کُنَّا عِنْدَ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَعِنْدَهُ جَمَاعَهٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِهِ فَقَالُوا: وَاللهِ یَا رَسولَ اللهِ إنک لأَحَبُّ إلَیْنَا مِنْ أَنْفُسِنَا وَأَوْلاَدِنَا. قَالَ: فَدَخَلَ حِینَئِذٍ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ

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1- Manaqib, ibn Maghazili, pp. 52, Hadith 76
2- Maqtal, Khawarizmi, chap. 6, pp. 99

السَّلامُ فَنَظَرَ إلَیْهِ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَقالَ لَهُ: کَذِبَ مَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّهُ یُبْغِضُکَ وَیُحِبُّنِی.

وَمِنْهُ: عَنْ أَبِی أَیُّوبَ الأَنْصَارِیِّ وَاسْمُهُ خَالِدُ بْنُ یَزِیدَ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: یَا عَلِیُّ، إنَّ اللهَ جَعَلَکَ تُحِبُّ الْمَساکِینَ وَتَرْضَی بِهِمْ أَتْبَاعاً وَیَرْضَوْنَ بِکَ إِمَاماً. فَطُوبَی لِمَنْ تَبَعَکَ وَصَدَّقَ فِیکَ، وَوَیْلٌ لِمَنْ أَبْغَضَکَ وَکَذَّبَ فِیکَ.

وَمِنْهُ: عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: کُنْتُ عِنْدَ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ إذْ أَقْبَلَ عَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ غَضْبَانَ. فَقالَ لَهُ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَا أَغْضَبَکَ؟ فَقالَ: آذَوْنِی فِیکَ بَنُو عَمِّکَ. فَقَامَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ مُغْضِباً وَقالَ: یَا أَیُّهَا النَّاسُ، مَنْ آذَی عَلِیَّاً فَقَدْ آذَانِی. إنَّ عَلِیَّاً أَوَّلُکُمْ إِیمَاناً وَأَوْفَاکُمْ بِعَهْدِ اللهِ. یَا أَیُّهَا النَّاسُ، مَنْ آذَی عَلِیَّاً بُعِثَ یَوْمَ الْقِیَامَهِ یَهُودِیَّاً أَوْ نَصْرَانِیَّاً. فَقالَ جَابِرُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللهِ الأَنْصَارِیُّ: یَا رَسولَ اللهِ، وَإِنْ شَهِدَ أَلاَّ إلَهَ إلاَّ اللهُ وَأنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللهِ؟ فَقالَ: یَا جَابِرُ، کَلِمَهٌ یَحْتَجِزُونَ بِهَا أَلاَّ تُسْفَکَ دِمَاؤُهُمْ وَأَنْ لاَ تُسْتَبَاحَ أَمْوَالُهُمْ وَأَنْ لاَ یُعْطُوا الْجِزْیَهَ عَنْ یَدٍ وَهُمْ صَاغِرُونَ.

وَمِنْهُ: عَنْ أَبِی هُرَیْرَهَ قَالَ: أَبْصَرَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ عَلِیَّاً وَحَسَناً وَحُسَیْناً وَفَاطِمَهَ فَقالَ: أنَا حَرْبٌ لِمَنْ حَارَبَکُمْ وَسِلْمٌ لِمَنْ سَالَمَکُمْ.

‘Ali Compared to Surah al-Ikhlas, the Holy Ka’bah, and the head of the Holy Prophet; and the duty towards him is like the duty towards fathers The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Nu’man ibn Bashir as saying: The likeness of ‘Ali among this Ummah is the likeness of

“say: He, Allah, is one” (112:1).(1)

Ibn Abbas has quoted the Messenger of Allah as having said to

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1- Manaqib ‘Ali, Ibn Maghazili, pp. 69, Hadith 100

‘Ali: O ‘Ali, your position among people is like the position of

“say: He, Allah, is one”

in the Qur’an. Whoever recites this Surah once, it is as if he has recited one third of the Holy Qur’an. Whoever recites it twice, it is as if he has recited two thirds of the Holy Qur’an and whoever recites it thrice, it is as if he has recited the whole Qur’an. Whoever loves you verbally, he has indeed loved one third of Islam. Whoever loves you verbally and whole-heartedly, he has loved two thirds of Islam and whoever loves you with his tongue, heart, and hands and fights the enemies of Islam on your order, his love for Islam is perfect. I swear by One who has rightfully appointed me as prophet, if those living on the earth love you like the dwellers of heaven, God will not punish them with the fire.(1)

The Messenger of Allah has said: The likeness of ‘Ali among you is the likeness of the hidden and manifest Ka’bah; looking at it is worship and circumambulating it is the greater Hajj.(2)

The Holy Prophet (S) has been quoted by Ibn Abbas as saying: The relation of ‘Ali to me is like the relation of my head to my body.(3) The Messenger of Allah has also been reported by Ibn Abbas as saying: The position of ‘Ali to me is like the position of my head to my body.(4) The Holy Prophet has been quoted by ‘Ali as saying: ‘Ali’s

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1- Yanabi al-Mawaddah, part 42, pp. 125
2- Manaqib, ibn Maghazili, pp. 106, Hadith 149
3- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 14, pp. 87
4- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 14, pp. 91

right to Muslims is like a father’s right to his son.(1)

‘Ali’s Ablution with Heavenly Water

Anas ibn Malik has reported that the Messenger of Allah said to Abu-Bakr and Umar: Go to ‘Ali and ask him about the last night event. I will follow you too. Anas further reports: Abu-Bakr, Umar and I headed for ‘Ali’s house. Reaching there, we asked Abu-Bakr:

فِی تَشْبِیهِهِ بِسُورَهِ الإِخْلاَصِ وَالْکَعْبَهِ وَرَأْسِ النَّبِیِّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَتَشْبِیهِ حَقِّهِ بِحَقِّ الْوَالِدِ: مِنْ کِتابِ المَناقِبِ لِلْخَوَارِزْمِیِّ: عَنِ النُّعْمَانِ بْنِ بَشیرٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: إِنَّمَا مَثَلُ عَلِیٍّ فِی هَذِهِ الأُمَّهِ مَثَلُ ?قُلْ هُوَ اللهُ أَحَدٌ? فِی الْقُرْآنِ.

وَعَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ لِعَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: یَا عَلِیُّ، مَا مَثَلُکَ فِی النَّاسِ إلاَّ کَمَثَلِ ?قُلْ هُوَ اللهُ أَحَدٌ? فِی الْقُرْآنِ. مَنْ قَرَأَهَا مَرَّهً فَکَأَنَّمَا قَرَأَ ثُلُثَ الْقُرْآنِ. وَمَنْ قَرَأَهَا مَرَّتَیْنِ فَکَأَنَّمَا قَرَأَ ثُلُثَیِ الْقُرْآنِ. وَمَنْ قَرَأَهَا ثَلاَثاً فَکَأَنَّمَا قَرَأَ الْقُرْآنَ کُلَّهُ. کَذَا أَنْتَ یَا عَلِیُّ، مَنْ أَحَبَّکَ بِلِسَانِهِ فَقَدْ أَحَبَّ ثُلُثَ الإسْلاَمِ. وَمَنْ أَحَبَّکَ بِلِسَانِهِ وَقَلْبِهِ فَقَدْ أَحَبَّ ثُلُثَیِ الإسْلاَمِ. وَمَنْ أَحَبَّکَ بِلِسَانِهِ وَقَلْبِهِ وَیَدَیْهِ فَقَدْ أَحَبَّ الإسْلاَمَ کُلَّهُ. وَالَّذِی بَعَثَنِی بِالْحَقِّ نَبِیَّاً، لَوْ أَحَبَّکَ أَهْلُ الأَرْضِ کَحُبِّ أَهْلِ السَّمَاءِ لَمَا عُذِّبَ أَحَدٌ مِنْهُمْ بِالنَّارِ.

وَعَنْ أَبِی ذَرٍّ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَثَلُ عَلِیٍّ فِیکُمْ (أَوْ قَالَ: فِی هَذِهِ الأُمَّهِ) کَمَثَلِ الْکَعْبَهِ الْمَسْتُورَهِ (أَو الْمَشْهُورَهِ)؛ النَّظَرُ إِلَیْها عِبَادَهٌ وَالْحَجُّ إلَیْها فَرِیضَهٌ. وَعَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: عَلِیٌّ مِنِّی مِثْلُ رَأْسِی مِنْ بَدَنِی. وَعَنْهُ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: عَلِیٌّ مِنِّی کَرَأْسِی مِنْ بَدَنِی. وَعَنْ

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 19, pp. 219

عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: حَقُّ عَلِیٍّ عَلَی الْمُسْلِمینَ کَحَقِّ الْوَالِدِ عَلَی وِلْدِهِ.

فِی السَّطْلِ:

رَوَی الخَوارِزْمِیُّ بِإسْنادِهِ إلَی أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِکٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ لأَبِی بَکْرٍ وَعُمَرَ: إمْضِیَا إلَی عَلِیٍّ حَتَّی یُحَدِّثَکُمَا بِمَا کَانَ مِنْهُ فِی لَیْلَتِهِ وَأَنَا عَلَی أَثَرِکُمَا. قَالَ أَنَسُ: فَمَضَیَا وَمَضَیْتُ مَعَهُمَا فَاسْتَأْذَنَ أَبُو بَکْرٍ وَعُمَرُ عَلَی عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ، فَخَرَجَ إلَیْهِمَا. فَقالَ: یَا أَبَا بَکْرٍ، حَدَثَ شَیْءٌ؟ قَالَ: لاَ، وَمَا حَدَثَ إلاَّ خَیْرٌ. قَالَ:

Has anything happened? Abu-Bakr said: If anything has happened, it is fair. Then, he said: The Messenger of Allah said to Umar and me: Go to ‘Ali to inform you of the event which happened to you last night. At this time, the Messenger of Allah arrived and asked ‘Ali to tell us about the event of the last night. ‘Ali said: O Messenger of Allah! I am ashamed of telling the story.

The Holy Prophet (S) said: Tell us the event, for God is not ashamed of telling the truth. ‘Ali said: O Messenger of Allah! Last night I was in need of water for purification but I could not find any. I was afraid my morning prayer be defaulted. Hence, I hastily sent Hasan and Husayn to two different directions to search for water but they were late and there was no sign of water. A kind of sorrow overwhelmed me for not having access to water. All of a sudden, I realized that the ceiling of the room cleft and

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a pail covered with a piece of cloth came down. When I uncovered the pail, I saw that it was full of water. Having purified myself with that water and having performed my prayer, I saw the pail of water going up to heaven and the cleft ceiling turned back to its former position! The Holy Prophet rejoicingly said: The pail was from heaven, the water was from Kawthar, and the cover was heavenly silk. Then, the Holy Prophet added: O ‘Ali, who could be like you last night when Gabriel was serving you?(1)

‘Ali, a Great Master

Ibn Abbas reports: the Messenger of Allah looking at ‘Ali’s face, said: You are a master in the world and the hereafter! Whoever loves you has loved me. Someone who is my friend is God’s friend too. Your enemy is my enemy and my enemy is God’s enemy. Woe to one who is your enemy after me.(2) The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Akhtab ibn Muhammad as saying: During my night journey, I observed a palace made up of red rubies. At that time, God Almighty revealed to me that the palace belonged to ‘Ali who is the master of Muslims, the leader of the pious and the fortunate ones.(3)

The Holy Prophet (S) has been reported by Asad ibn Zurarah as saying: During my night journey when I reached the lote-tree (Sidrat al-Muntaha) God Almighty revealed to me three times, saying: ‘Ali is the leader of the pious, the master of Muslims, and the one

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1- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 19, pp. 216
2- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 19, pp. 234
3- Manaqib, ibn Maghazili, pp. 104, Hadith 146

who guides the fortunate ones to paradise.(1)

قَالَ لِی رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَلِعُمَرَ إمْضِیَا إلَی عَلِیٍّ حَتَّی یُحَدِّثَکُمَا بِمَا کَانَ مِنْهُ فِی لَیْلَتِهِ. وَجَاءَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَقالَ: یَا عَلِیُّ حَدِّثْهُمَا مَا کَانَ مِنْکَ فِی لَیْلَتِکَ. فَقالَ: أَسْتَحْیِی یَا رَسولَ اللهِ. فَقالَ: حَدِّثْهُمَا فَإنَّ اللهَ لاَ یَسْتَحْیِی مِنَ الْحَقِّ. فَقالَ عَلِیٌّ: أَرَدْتُ الْمَاءَ لِلطَّهَارَهِ وَأَصْبَحْتُ وَخِفْتُ أنْ تَفُوتَنِی الصَّلاَهُ، فَوَجَّهْتُ الْحَسَنَ فِی طَرِیقٍ وَالْحُسَیْنَ فِی طَرِیقٍ فِی طَلَبِ الْمَاءِ فَأَبْطَآ عَلَیَّ، فَأَحْزَنَنِی ذَلِکَ. فَرَأَیْتُ السَّقْفَ قَدِ انْشَقَّ وَنَزَلَ عَلَیَّ مِنْهُ سَطْلٌ مُغَطّی بِمِنْدِیلٍ، فَلَمَّا صَارَ فِی الأَرْضِ نَحَّیْتُ الْمِنْدِیلَ عَنْهُ وَإذَا فِیهِ مَاءٌ، فَتَطَهَّرْتُ لِلصَّلاَهِ وَاغْتَسَلْتُ وَصَلَّیْتُ. ثُمَّ ارْتَفَعَ السَّطْلُ وَالْمِنْدِیلُ وَالْتَأَمَ السَّقْفُ. فَقالَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ لِعَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: أَمَّا السَّطْلُ فَمِنَ الْجَنَّهِ وَأَمَّا الْمَاءُ فَمِنْ نَهْرِ الْکَوْثَرِ وَأَمَّا الْمِنْدِیلُ فَمِنْ إسْتَبْرَقِ الْجَنَّهِ. مَنْ مِثْلُکَ یَا عَلِیُّ فِی لَیْلَتِکَ وَجِبْرِیلُ یَخْدِمُکَ.

فِی وَصْفِهِ بِالسِّیَادَهِ:

رَوَی الخَوارِزْمِیُّ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: نَظَرَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ إلَی عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طَالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَقالَ: أَنْتَ سَیِّدٌ فِی الدُّنْیَا وَسَیِّدٌ فِی الآخِرَهِ. مَنْ أَحَبَّکَ فَقَدْ أَحَبَّنِی وَحَبِیبِی حَبِیبُ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجلَّ، وَعَدُوُّکَ عَدُوِّی وَعَدُوِّی عَدُوُّ الله عَزَّ وَجلَّ. وَیْلٌ لِمَنْ أَبْغَضَکَ مِنْ بَعْدِی. وَعَنْ أخْطَبَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: لَمَّا کَانَ لَیْلَهَ أُسْرِیَ بِی إلَی السَّمَاءِ إذَا قَصْرٌ أَحْمَرُ مِنْ یَاقُوتَهٍ تَتَلأْلأُ فَأُوحِیَ إلَیَّ فِی عَلِیٍّ أنَّهُ سَیِّدُ الْمُسْلِمینَ وَإمَامُ الْمُتَّقِینَ وَقَائِدُ الْغُرِّ الْمُحَجَّلِینَ.

وَعَنْ أسْعَدَ بْنِ زُرارَهَ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: إنْتَهَیْتُ لَیْلَهَ أُسْرِیَ بِی إلَی سِدْرَهِ الْمُنْتَهَی فَأَوْحَی إلَیَّ رَبِّی فِی عَلِیٍّ ثَلاثاً: إنَّهُ إمَامُ

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1- Manaqib, ibn Maghazili, pp. 105, Hadith 147

الْمُتَّقِینَ وَسَیِّدُ الْمُسْلِمینَ وَقَائِدُ الْغُرِّ الْمُحَجَّلِینَ إلَی جَنَّاتِ النَّعِیمِ.

More Merits of Imam ‘Ali

point

‘Ali is the supervisor of the Kawthar Pond, the giver of permission to enter Paradise, the bearer of the standard on the Resurrection Day and during crossing the Discriminating Bridge (Sirat), and his two angels takes pride in him on the other angels(1) The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Ibn Abbas as saying: On the Day of Judgment, ‘Ali stands by the Pond of Kawthar. No one enters paradise without his permission.(2)

The Holy Prophet (S) has been reported by Jabir as saying: The two angels who are in charge of taking up ‘Ali’s deeds are more proud than other angels, for they present to God not any one of ‘Ali’s deeds which brings about Allah’s wrath. So they have a privilege over other angels.(3) The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Ibn Abbas as saying: On the Day of Judgment, on God’s order, Gabriel sits at the gate of paradise and blocks people’s entrance into paradise except those having a clean record signed by ‘Ali.(4)

Jabir ibn Samarah has reported: The Holy Prophet (S) was asked: O Messenger of Allah! Who is your banner bearer on the Day of Judgment? He said: My banner bearer on that day will be my banner bearer in the world. He is no one but ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib.(5) The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Abdullah ibn Anas as saying: On the Day of Judgment when The Discriminating Bridge will

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1- Manaqib, ibn Maghazili, pp. 156, Hadith 119
2- Manaqib, ibn Maghazili, pp. 167, Hadith 127
3- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 19, pp. 228
4- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 19, pp. 228
5- Manaqib, Khawarizmi, chap. 22, pp. 258

be put over hell, no one can cross it unless he has a document in hand showing his love for ‘Ali.(1)

Virtues of ‘Ali’s Children

The sons of Amir al-Mu’minin, two of whom, are Imam Hasan and Imam Husayn have merits which cannot be counted. The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Abdullah ibn Masud as saying: Hasan and Husayn are two masters and leaders of youths in paradise.(2) The Holy Prophet (S) has been reported by Abu-Hurayrah as saying: An angel was permitted to come to visit me and to give good tidings to me. The good tidings were: Fatimah is the princess of the women of my Ummah, and Hasan and Husayn are two masters of the youths in paradise.

فِی أنَّهُ صَاحِبُ الْحَوْضِ وَالإذْنِ فِی دُخُولِ الْجَنَّهِ وَصَاحِبُ اللِّوَاءِ یَوْمَ الْقِیَامَهِ وَالصِّرَاطِ وَافْتِخَارُ مَلَکَیْهِ عَلَی الْمَلائِکَهِ: رَوَی الخَوارِزْمِیُّ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: قَالَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: عَلِیٌّ یَوْمَ الْقِیَامَهِ عَلَی الْحَوْضِ. لاَ یَدْخُلُ الْجَنَّهَ إلاَّ مَنْ جَاءَ بِجَوَازٍ مِنْ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ.

وَعَنْ جَابِرٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: إنَّ مَلَکَیْ عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طَالِبٍ لَیَفْتَخِرَانِ عَلَی سَائِرِ الأَمْلاکِ لِکَوْنِهِمَا مَعَ عَلِیٍّ، لأَِنَّهُمَا لَمْ یُصْعِدا إلَی اللهِ عَزَّ وَجلَّ مِنْهُ قَطُّ بِشَیْءٍ یُسْخِطُهُ. وَعَنْ مُجاهِدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: إذَا کَانَ یَوْمُ الْقِیامَهِ أَمَرَ اللهُ تَعالَی جِبْرِیلَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ أَنْ یَجْلِسَ عَلَی بَابِ الْجَنَّهِ فَلا یَدْخُلُهَا إلاَّ مَنْ مَعَهُ بَرَاءَهٌ مِنْ عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ.

وَعَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ سَمَرَهَ قَالَ: قِیلَ: یَا رَسولَ اللهِ، مَنْ صَاحِب لِوَائِکَ فِی الآخِرَهِ؟ قَالَ:

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1- Manaqib, ibn Maghazili, pp. 242, Hadith 289
2- Maqtal, Khawarizmi, chap. 6, pp. 92,139

صَاحِبُ لِوَائِی فِی الآخِرَهِ صَاحِبُ لِوَائِی فِی الدُّنْیَا؛ عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طَالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. وَعَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ أَنَسٍ عَنْ جَدِّهِ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: إذَا کَانَ یَوْمُ الْقِیَامَهِ وَنُصِبَ الصِّرَاطُ عَلَی شَفِیرِ جَهَنَّمَ لَمْ یَجُزْ عَلَیْهِ إلاَّ مَنْ مَعَهُ کِتَابٌ بِوِلاَیَهِ عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طَالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. فِی أوْلادِهِ:

کَانَ أَوْلادُ أمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ مِنْ جُمْلَتِهِمُ الإمَامَانِ الحَسَنُ وَالْحُسَیْنُ عَلَیْهِمَا السَّلامُ وَفَضَائِلُهُمَا لاَ تُحْصَی کَثْرَهً.

رَوَی الخَوارِزْمِیُّ بِإسْنادِهِ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: الْحَسَنُ وَالْحُسَیْنُ سَیِّدَا شَبَابِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّهِ. وَعَنْ أَبِی هُرَیْرَهَ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: إنَّ مَلَکاً إسْتَأْذَنَ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجلَّ فِی زِیَارَتِی فَبَشَّرَنِی بِمَا بَشَّرَنِی، وَأَخْبَرَنِی بِمَا أَخْبَرَنِی أنَّ فَاطِمَه سَیِّدَهُ نِسَاءِ أُمَّتِی وَأَنَّ الحَْسَنَ وَالْحُسَیْنَ سَیِّدَا شَبَابِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّهِ.

The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Yali Amiri as saying: Husayn is from me and I am from Husayn. God loves one who loves Husayn. He is one of my grandsons.(1) It has been reported on the authority of Ibn Abbas: Gabriel came to the presence of the Holy Prophet, saying: Verily God Almighty annihilated seventy thousand persons against martyrdom of the innocent Yahya (John), the son of Zachariah, but He will annihilate twice this number against the martyrdom of your daughter’s son, Husayn.(2)

The Holy Prophet of Islam has said: Beyond doubt, the abode of the killer of Husayn is in a coffin of fire and his punishment is as much as that of half the world people. This torment is

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1- Maqtal, Khawarizmi, chap. 7, pp. 146
2- Maqtal, Khawarizmi, chap. 12, pp. 83

at a time when his hands and feet are tied to hot chains thrown into the fire on face in a way that he is placed in the abyss. This evil criminal has stinking smell from which the dwellers of hell seek refuge to God. He abides in the fire of hell, is tormented, cannot get rid of it even for an hour and the fetid water of hell is poured into his throat. Woe to the killers of Husayn from the chastisement on the Day of Judgment.(1)

Musab has reported: Imam Husayn went on Hajj pilgrimage on foot for twenty five times.(2)

Bara has reported: I saw the Messenger of Allah carrying Hasan on his shoulder, saying: O Lord! I love Hasan. You love him too.(3) Hudhayfah ibn Yaman has reported: I saw the Messenger of Allah holding Husayn’s hand in his hand, saying: O people! This is Husayn ibn ‘Ali! Hold him in high esteem! This is Husayn whose grandfather, grandmother, father, mother, maternal uncle and aunt, brother and himself are in paradise. Their devotees and followers of their devotees are in paradise too.(4)

Abu-Hurayrah has reported: I saw the Messenger of Allah relishing the saliva of Hasan and Husayn like one who relishes dates.(5) Usamah ibn Zayd reports: One of the other nights, I knocked the door of the Holy Prophet’s house for a need. The Holy Prophet came out of the house and met what I needed. At this time, I saw the Holy Prophet wrap with something which

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1- Maqtal, Khawarizmi, chap. 12, pp. 83
2- Maqtal, Khawarizmi, chap. 7, pp. 155
3- Manaqib, ibn Maghazili, pp. 374, Hadith 422
4- Maqtal, Khawarizmi, chap. 5, pp. 67
5- Manaqib, ibn Maghazili, pp. 373, Hadith 420

I did not know what it was. So I said: O Messenger of Allah! What is it? The Holy Prophet unwrapped himself.

وَعَنْ یَعْلِیّ العامِرِیِّ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: حُسَیْنٌ مِنِّی وَأَنَا مِنْ حُسَیْنٍ. أَحَبَّ اللهُ مَنْ أَحَبَّ حُسَیْناً. حُسَیْنٌ سِبْطٌ مِنَ الأَسْبَاطِ. وَعَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: نَزَلَ جَبْرَئِیلُ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ عَلَی مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: إنَّ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجلَّ قَتَلَ بِیَحْیَی بْنِ زَکَرِیَّا سَبْعِینَ أَلْفاً وَإنَّهُ قَاتِلٌ بِابْنِ ابْنَتِکَ الْحُسَیْنِ عَلَیْهِمَا السَّلامُ سَبْعِینَ أَلْفاً وَسَبْعِینَ أَلْفاً.

وَقَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: قَاتِلُ الْحُسَیْنِ فِی تَابُوتٍ مِنْ نَارٍ عَلَیْهِ نِصْفُ عَذَابِ أَهْلِ النَّارِ، أَوْ أَهْلِ الدُّنْیَا، وَقَدْ شُدَّ یَدَاهُ وَرِجْلاَهُ بِسَلاَسِلَ مِنْ نَارٍ، مُنَکَّسٌ فِی النَّارِ حَتَّی یَقَعَ فِی قَعْرِ جَهَنَّمَ، وَلَهُ رِیحٌ یَتَعَوَّذُ أَهْلُ النَّارِ إلَی رَبِّهِمْ عَزَّ وَجلَّ مِنْ شِدَّهِ رِیحِ نَتْنِهِ، وَهُوَ فِیهَا خَالِدٌ ذَائِقُ الْعَذَابِ الأَلِیمِ، لاَ یُفَتَّرُ عَنْهُ سَاعَهً، وَیُسْقَی مِنْ حَمِیمِ جَهَنَّمَ. الْوَیْلُ لَهُ مِنْ عَذَابِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجلَّ. وَعَنْ مُصْعَبٍ قَالَ: حَجَّ الْحُسَیْنُ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ خَمْساً وَعِشْرِینَ حِجَّهً مَاشِیاً. وَعَنِ البَراءِ قَالَ: رَأَیْتُ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ حَامِلاً الْحَسَنَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَهُوَ یَقُولُ: اللَّهُمَّ إنِّی أُحِبُّهُ فَأَحِبَّهُ.

وَعَنْ حُذَیْفَهَ بْنِ الْیَمَانِ قَالَ: رَأَیْتُ النَّبِیَّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ آخِذاً بِیَدِ الْحُسَیْنِ بْنِ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِمَا السَّلام وَقالَ: یَا أَیُّهَا النَّاسُ، هَذَا الْحُسَیْنُ بْنُ عَلِیٍّ؛ ألاَ فَاعْرِفُوهُ وَفَضِّلُوهُ، فَوَاللهِ لَجَدُّهُ أَکْرَمُ عَلَی اللهِ تَعالَی مِنْ جَدِّ یُوسُفَ بْنِ یَعْقُوبَ عَلَیْهِمَا السَّلامُ. هَذَا الْحُسَیْنُ بْنُ عَلِیٍّ؛ جَدُّهُ فِی الْجَنَّهِ وَجَدَّتُهُ فِی الْجَنَّهِ وَأُمُّهُ فِی الْجَنَّهِ وَأَبُوهُ فِی الْجَنَّهِ وَعَمُّهُ فِی الْجَنَّهِ وَعَمَّتُهُ فِی الْجَنَّهِ وَخَالُهُ فِی الْجَنَّهِ وَخَالَتُهُ فِی الْجَنَّهِ وَأَخُوهُ

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فِی الْجَنَّهِ وَهُوَ فِی الْجَنَّهِ وَمُحِبُّوهُمْ فِی الْجَنَّهِ وَمُحِبُّو مُحِبِّیهِمْ فِی الْجَنَّهِ. وَعَنْ أَبِی هُرَیْرَهَ قَالَ: رَأَیْتُ رَسُول اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَمُصُّ لُعَابَ الْحَسَنِ وَالْحُسَیْنِ کَمَا یَمُصُّ الرَّجُلُ اللَّبَنَ.

وَعَنْ أُسَامَهَ بْنِ زَیْدٍ قَالَ: طَرَقْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ ذَاتَ لَیْلَهٍ لِحَاجَهٍ، فَخَرَجَ وَهُوَ مُشْتَمِلٌ عَلَی شَیْءٍ لاَ أَدْرِی مَا هُوَ. فَلَمَّا فَرَغْتُ مِنْ حَاجَتِی قُلتُ: مَا هَذَا الَّذِی أَنْتَ

I saw that he was holding Hasan and Husayn in his arms. Then, he said: These are my sweethearts and the sweethearts of my daughter! O Lord! You know that I love them. You too do not deny them love. He repeated this three times.(1) Jabir reports: One day I went to the presence of the Holy Prophet while Hasan and Husayn were riding on his back. He was saying: You are riding on a good horse and you two are good riders!(2)

Abu-Sa’id Khidri reports: I and a group of people were in the presence of the Holy Prophet (S) speaking to one another till it was the time of siesta. Given that the conversation prolonged and the Holy Prophet (S) was accustomed to siesta, seeing the signs of tiredness on his face, we left the meeting place. But at this time, we saw Lady Fatimah knocking at the door. ‘Ali who was among us said to her: O Fatimah! Why are you out at this hot time of the day? She said: Hasan and Husayn have not come back home. I thought they were at their grandfather’s

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1- Maqtal, Khawarizmi, chap. 6, pp. 92
2- Maqtal, Khawarizmi, chap. 6, pp. 98

house. I am here for this reason. ‘Ali said: They are not at their grandfather’s house. Go back home and do not bother your father. The Holy Prophet who was inside heard them. Despite being tired, he came out. Seeing her father Fatimah said: O Messenger of Allah! Your sons, Hasan and Husayn have not returned home. I thought they were in your house. I came here to be sure of it!

The Messenger of Allah said: God Almighty will protect them from any harm. Now, go back home with peace of mind. We deserve more to go and look for them. So Fatimah went back home while the Messenger of Allah and ‘Ali went in different directions. We all went to look for them and after a short while, we found them near a wall while one was lying in the shelter of another from the sunlight. As soon as the Holy Prophet’s look fell on them, he started weeping. He bint, took them up and while kissing them put Hasan on his right shoulder and Husayn on his left shoulder and headed for the house. It was a hot day then and the Holy Prophet did not let his two sons put their feet on the hot ground lest their feet be hurt. He carried them on his shoulders throughout the way.

Sulayman ibn Salim reported Amash as saying: The errand boy of Abu-Jafar Mansur called me to see him at midnight, saying: Abu-Jafar wants to see you immediately.

مُشْتَمِلٌ عَلَیْهِ؟

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فَإذَا هُوَ حَسَنٌ وَحُسَیْنٌ عَلَی وِرْکَیْهِ. فَقالَ: هَذَانِ ابْنَایَ وَابْنَا ابْنَتِی. اللَّهُمَّ إنَّکَ تَعْلَمُ أَنِّی أُحِبُّهُمَا فَأَحِبَّهُمَا - ثَلاثَ مَرَّاتٍ -. وَعَنْ جَابِرٍ قَالَ: دَخَلْتُ عَلَی النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَعَلَی ظَهْرِهِ الْحَسَنُ وَالْحُسَیْنُ وَهُوَ یَقُولُ: نِعْمَ الْجَمَلُ جَمَلُکُمَا وَنِعْمَ الْعَدْلانِ أَنْتُمَا.

وَعَنْ أَبِی سَعِیدٍ الْخِدْرِیِّ قَالَ: کُنَّا نَتَحَدَّثُ عِنْدَ رَسُول اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ حَتَّی دَنَتِ الْقَائِلَهُ، فَجَعَلَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَمِیلُ مَرَّهً عَنْ یَمِینِهِ وَمَرَّهً عَنْ یِسَارِهِ، فَلَمَّا رَأَیْنَا ذَلِکَ قُمْنَا عَنْهُ. فَلَمَّا خَرَجْنَا إلَی الْبَابِ إِذَا نَحْنُ بِفَاطِمَهَ ابْنَتِهِ عَلَیْهَا السَّلامُ. فَقالَ لَهَا عِلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ: یَا فَاطِمَهُ مَا أَزْعَجَکِ هَذِهِ السَّاعَهَ مِنْ رَحْلِکِ؟ قَالَتْ: ابْنَاکَ الْحَسَنُ وَالْحُسَیْنُ فَقَدْتُهُمَا مُنْذُ أَصْبَحْتُ وَمَا کُنْتُ أَظُنُّهُمَا إلاَّ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ. قَالَ: مَا هُمَا عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ، فَارْجِعِی وَلاَ تُؤْذِیهِ فَإنَّهَا لَیْسَتْ بِسَاعَهِ إذْنٍ. فَسِمَعَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ کَلاَمَ عَلِیٍّ وَفَاطِمَهَ فَخَرَجَ فِی إزَارٍ لَیْسَ عَلَیْهِ غَیْرُهُ فَقالَ: مَا أَزْعَجَکِ فِی هَذِهِ السَّاعَهِ مِنْ رَحْلِکِ؟ فَقَالَتْ: یَا رَسولَ اللهِ، ابْنَاکَ الْحَسَنُ وَالْحُسَیْنُ خَرَجَا مِنْ عِنْدِی فَلَمْ أَرَهُمَا حَتَّی السَّاعَهَ وَکُنْتُ أَحْسَبُهُمَا عِنْدَکَ وَقَدْ دَخَلَنِی وَجَلٌ شَدِیدٌ. قَالَ: فقَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: یَا فَاطِمَهُ إنَّ اللهَ وَلِیُّهُمَا وَحَافِظُهُمَا، لَیْسَ عَلَیْهِمَا ضَیْعَهٌ إنْ شَاءَ اللهُ. إرْجِعِی یَا بُنَیَّهُ فَنَحْنُ أَحَقُّ بِالطَّلَبِ. فَرَجَعَتْ فَاطِمَهُ إلَی بَیْتِهَا فَأَخَذَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فِی وَجْهٍ وَعَلِیٌّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فِی وَجْهٍ آخَرَ فَابْتَغَیَاهُمَا فَانْتَهَیَا إلَیْهِمَا وَهُمَا فِی أَصْلِ حَائِطٍ قَدْ أَحْرَقَتْهُمَا الشَّمْسُ وَأَحَدُهُمَا مُسْتَتِرٌ بِصَاحِبهِ. فَلَمَّا رَآهُمَا فِی تِلْکَ الْحَالَهِ خَنَقَتْهُ الْعَبْرَهُ وَأَکَبَّ عَلَیْهِمَا یُقَبِّلُهُمَا. ثُمَّ

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حَمَلَ الْحَسَنَ عَلَی مَنْکِبِه الأَیْمَنِ وَالْحُسَیْنِ عَلَی مَنْکِبِهِ الأَیْسَرِ. ثُمَّ أَقْبَلَ بِهِمَا رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَرْفَعُ قَدَماً وَیَضَعُ أُخْرَی مِمَّا یُکَابِدُ مِنْ حَرِّ الرَّمْضَاءِ، وَکَرِهَ أَنْ یَمْشِیَا فَیُصِیبَهُمَا مَا أَصَابَهُ فَوَقَاهُمَا بِنَفْسِهِ.

وَعَنْ سُلَیْمَانَ بْنِ سَالِمٍ قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِی الأَعْمَشُ قَالَ: بَعَثَ إلَیَّ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ الْمَنْصُورُ یَطْلُبُنِی.

I said: For what reason has Amir al-Mu’minin summoned me at this time of night? He said: I have no idea. I said: Tell him that I will come to see you after a few minutes. But I said to myself: To be summoned at this hour of night is certainly not for something fair. Perhaps, he wants to ask me something about the virtues and merits of ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib. If I tell the truth, he will kill me. Hence, I purified myself (performed Ghusl), put on my shroud, applied Camphor, wrote my last will and testament, gave it to my family and headed for the palace of Mansur. When I entered the palace, I found my old friend, Amr ibn Ubayd Basri with him. Hence, I was relieved of anxiety, for I knew he would defend me in all conditions. At any rate, after exchange of greetings, I took a seat in a corner. Mansur said: Leave that place and come near me. I went near to him while exchanging a few words with Amr ibn Ubayd. However the smell of camphor had spread in that palace. Mansur asked: What is the smell for? I said: For something urgent.

Mansur said: Should

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you not tell the truth, I will have you killed! I said: O Amir al-Mu’minin, your errand boy called on me at midnight. I said to myself, this untimely call has no reason other than asking questions about the virtues of ‘Ali. Since I am not going to conceal them, it will result in my being killed! For this reason, I performed Ghusl, applied camphor, put on my shroud, and came to you. This is the whole truth! Sitting on his knees and reclining as if he was announcing his readiness to hear me, Mansur said: I seek refuge to God to have an innocent person killed. Now tell me what is my name and do you know my name at all? I said: yes, your name is Abdullah ibn Mansur, the son of Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Abdullah Ibn Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib. He said: That is true. Now, by God and by my relation to the Messenger of Allah, what do you and other scholars know about ‘Ali’s virtues and merits? I said: My knowledge is little. I know about ten thousand Hadiths and a little more! Mansur said: O Sulayman, I will now recite two Hadiths about ‘Ali’s virtues which will overshadow all the Hadiths you and other jurisprudents know provided that you will not tell it to anyone of the Shi’ite Muslims and take an oath for your undertaking. I said: I do not take an oath, but I will not tell it to anyone. Then

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he said: When I feared the rule of Banu-Marwan and I was running from one city to another, I was trying to narrate ‘Ali’s virtues to attract the love of ‘Ali’s devotees to spreading his merits.

فَقُلْتُ لِلرَّسُولِ: مَا یُرِیدُ مِنِّی أَمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ؟ قَالَ: لاَ أَعْلَمُ. فَقُلْتُ لَهُ: أَبْلِغْهُ أَنِّی آتِیهِ. ثُمَّ تَفَکَّرْتُ فِی نَفْسِی فَقُلْتُ: مَا دَعَانِی فِی هَذَا الْوَقْتِ مُتَخَیِّراً، وَلَکِنْ عَسَی أَنْ یَسْأَلَنِی عَنْ فَضَائِلِ أمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طَالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ. فَإنْ أَخْبَرْتُهُ قَتَلَنِی. قَالَ فَتَطَهَّرْتُ وَلَبِسْتُ أَکْفَانِی وَتَحَنَّطْتُ ثُمَّ کَتَبْتُ وَصِیَّتِی ثُمَّ سِرْتُ إلَیْهِ فَوَجَدْتُ عِنْدَهُ عَمْرُو بْنُ عُبَیْدٍ فَحَمِدْتُ اللهَ عَلَی ذَلِکَ وَقُلْتُ: وَجَدْتُ عِنْدَهُ عَوْناً صَادِقاً مِنْ أَهْلِ الْبَصْرَهِ. فَقالَ لِی: أُدْنُ یَا سُلَیْمَانُ. فَدَنَوْتُ. فَلَمَّا قَرُبْتُ مِنْهُ أَقْبَلْتُ عَلَی عَمْرِو بْنِ عُبَیْدٍ أَسْأَلُهُ، وَفَاحَ رِیحُ الْحَنُوطِ مِنِّی. فَقالَ: یَا سُلَیْمَانُ، مَا هَذِهِ الرَّائِحَهُ؟ وَاللهِ لَتَصْدُقُنِی وَإلاَّ قَتَلْتُکَ. قُلتُ: یَا أمِیرَ المُؤْمِنِینَ، أَتَانِی رَسُولُکَ فِی جَوْفِ اللَّیْلِ فَقُلْتُ فِی نَفْسِی: مَا بَعَثَ أمِیرُ المُؤْمِنِینَ إلَیَّ فِی هَذِهِ السَّاعَهِ إلاَّ لِیَسْأَلَنِی عِنْ فَضَائِلِ أمِیرِ المُؤْمِنِینَ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ؛ فَإنْ أَخْبَرْتُهُ قَتَلَنِی، فَکَتَبْتُ وَصِیَّتِی وَلَبِسْتُ کَفَنِی وَتَحَنَّطْتُ.

فَأَهْوَی جَالِساً وَهُوَ یَقُولُ: لاَ حَوْلَ وَلاَ قُوَّهَ إلاَّ بِاللهِ الْعَلِیِّ الْعَظِیمِ. ثُمَّ قَالَ: أَتَدْرِی یَا سُلَیْمَانُ مَا اسْمِی؟ قُلتُ: نَعَمْ ، یَا أمِیرَ المُؤْمِنِینَ. قَالَ: مَا اسْمِی؟ قُلتُ: عَبْدُ اللهِ الْمَنْصُورُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِیِّ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ الْعَبَّاسِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ. قَالَ: صَدَقْتَ، فَأَخْبِرْنِی بِاللهِ وَبِقَرَابَتِی مِنْ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ، کَمْ رَوَیْتَ فِی عَلِیٍّ مِنْ فَضِیلَهٍ عَنْ جَمِیعِ الْفُقَهَاءِ وَکَمْ یَکُونُ؟ قُلتُ: یَسِیراً یَا أمِیرَ المُؤْمِنِینَ؛ نَحْوَ عَشَرَهِ آلاَفِ حَدِیثٍ وَمَا زَادَ.

قَالَ: یَا

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سُلَیْمَانُ، لأُحَدِّثَنَّکَ فِی فَضَائِلِ عَلِیٍّ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ حَدِیثَیْنِ یَأْکُلاَنِ کُلَّ حَدِیثٍ رَوَیْتَهُ عَنْ جَمِیعِ الْفُقَهَاءِ. فَإنْ حَلَفْتَ لِیَ الآنَ ألاَّ تَرْوِیَهُمَا لأَحَدٍ مِنَ الشِّیعَهِ حَدَّثْتُکَ بِهِمَا. فَقُلْتُ: لاَ أَحْلِفُ وَلا أُخْبِرُ بِهِمَا أَحَداً مِنْهُمْ. فَقالَ: کُنْتُ هَارِباً مِنْ بَنِی مَرْوَانَ وَکُنْتُ أَدُورُ

People highly respected me inviting me to their houses and received me in the best way till I reached Syria. Contrary to other places, the people of Syria were Khawarij and the followers of Muawiyah. They would curse ‘Ali in their mosques every morning. One day, I arrived in a mosque at noon disguised as a poor man. Knowing about the people of Syria, I feared that they might know me and surrender me to the ruling authorities. The congregational noon prayer started. Wearing a worn-out cloak, I too prayed with them. When the prayer was completed, the prayer leader leant against the wall; the worshipers circled around him and did not say anything out of respect for him.

At this time, two boys entered the mosque. Seeing them, the prayer leader opened his arms, saying: My sons! Come here. He gave them a hug, called their names respectfully, saying: By God, the names I have given you was motivated only by my love for Muhammad and his household. I heard him calling them Hasan and Husayn. I rejoiced, saying to myself my wish has been realized. To be on the safe side, I asked a young man who was near to me: Who is the prayer leader and what

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is the relation of these two boys with him?

He said: This sheikh is the two boy’s grandfather. In this city no one has the love for ‘Ali except him. It is for this reason he has named them Hasan and Husayn. This added to my joy. So I rose up quickly and said to myself: Today I am a sharp sword and do not fear anyone. Approaching the sheikh, I said: O sheikh, I find you a devotee of Ahl al-Bayt. If you like I will relate to you a narration about them which will please you. He said: I am very much fond of it. Should you gladden me by telling it, I will gladden you too.

I said: My father has related it on the authority of my grandfather, and he too on the authority of his father has quoted the Messenger of Allah but the sheikh interrupted me by saying: Who is your father, your grandfather, and father of your grandfather? I said: Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Abdullah Ibn Abbas, and then related the tradition.

Ibn Abbas reported: I and a group of people were in the presence of the Holy Prophet (S) when all of a sudden, Fatimah while weeping came to the presence of her father. The Messenger of Allah said: My daughter, why are you weeping? May your eyes never be tearful! She said: Dear father! Hasan and Husayn have disappeared since morning. I searched for them in the houses of your wives and

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other places but I could not find any trace of them.

الْبُلْدَانَ أَتَقَرَّبُ إلَی النَّاسِ بِحُبِّ عَلِیِّ بْنِ أَبِی طَالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَفَضَائِلِهِ، وَکَانُوا یَرْوُونِی وَیُطْعِمُونِی وَیَزُورُونِی وَیُکْرِمُونِی وَیَخْدِمُونِی وَیَحْمِلُونِی حَتَّی وَرَدْتُ بِلادَ الشَّامِ. فَکَانُوا إذَا أَصْبَحُوا لَعَنُوا عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فِی مَسَاجِدِهِمْ لأَنَّ کُلَّهُمْ خَوَارِجُ وَأَصْحَابُ مُعَاوِیَهَ. فَدَخَلْتُ مَسْجِداً وَفِی نَفْسِی مِنْهُمْ شَیْءٌ، فَأُقِیمَتِ الصَّلاَهُ فَصَلَّیْتُ الظُّهْرَ وَعَلَیَّ کِسَاءٌ خَلِقٌ. فَلَمَّا سَلَّمَ الإمَامُ اتَّکَأَ عَلَی الْحَائِطِ وَأَهْلُ الْمَسْجِدِ حُضُورٌ، فَجَلَسْتُ فَلَمْ أَرَ أَحَداً مِنْهُمْ یَتَکَلَّمُ تَوْقِیراً لإمَامِهِمْ.

فَإِذَا بِصَبِیَّیْنِ قَدْ دَخَلاَ الْمَسْجِدَ. فَلَمَّا نَظَرَ إلَیْهِمَا الإمَامُ قَالَ: إدْخُلاَ مَرْحَباً بِکُمَا وَمَرْحَباً بِمَنْ سُمِّیتُمَا بِاسْمَیْهِمَا. وَاللهِ مَا سَمَّیْتُکُمَا بِاسْمَیْهِمَا إلاَّ لِحُبِّ مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ. فَإِذا أَحَدُهُمَا یُقَالُ لَهُ الْحَسَنُ وَالآخَرُ الْحُسَیْنُ. فَقُلْتُ فِیمَا بَیْنِی وَبَیْنَ نَفْسِی: قَدْ أَصَبْتُ الْیَوْمَ حَاجَتِی، وَلاَ قُوَّهَ إلاَّ بِاللهِ. وَکَانَ شَابٌّ إلَی جَنْبِی فَسَأَلْتُهُ: مَنْ هَذَا الشَّیْخُ وَمَنْ هَذَانِ الصَّبِیَّانِ؟ فَقالَ: الشَّیْخُ جَدُّهُمَا وَلَیْسَ فِی هَذِهِ الْمَدِینَهِ أَحَدٌ یُحِبُّ عَلِیَّاً غَیْرُهُ؛ وَلِذَلِکَ سَمَّاهُمَا الْحَسَنَ وَالْحُسَیْنَ. فَقُمْتُ فَرِحاً وَإِنِّی یَوْمَئِذٍ لَصَارِمٌ لاَ أَخَافُ الرِّجَالَ، فَدَنَوْتُ مِنَ الشَّیْخِ فَقُلْتُ: هَلْ لَکَ فِی حَدِیثٍ أُقِرُّ بِهِ عَیْنَکَ؟ فَقالَ: مَا أَحْوَجَنِی إلَی ذَلِکَ! وَإنْ أَقْرَرْتَ عَیْنِی أَقْرَرْتُ عَیْنَکَ. فَقُلْتُ: حَدَّثَنِی أَبِی عَنْ جَدِّی عَنْ أَبِیهِ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ… فَقالَ: مَنْ وَالِدُکَ وَجَدُّکَ؟ قُلتُ: مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِیِّ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ الْعَبَّاسِ. قَالَ: إنَّا کُنَّا مَعَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَإذَا فَاطِمَهُ عَلَیْها السَّلامُ قَدْ أَقْبَلَتْ تَبْکِی. فَقالَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَا یُبْکِیکِ یَا فَاطِمَهُ؟ قَالَتْ: یَا أَبَهُ، إنَّ الْحَسَنَ وَالْحُسَیْنَ قَدْ غَدَوْا فَذَهَبَا مُنْذُ الْیَوْمِ وَقَدْ طَلَبْتُهُمَا وَلاَ أَدْرِی أَیْنَ هُمَا، وَإنَّ عَلِیَّاً

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عَلَیْهِ

‘Ali has been irrigating the trees for the past five days and has not come home to search for them. The Messenger of Allah assigned Abu-Bakr who was sitting on his right side to search for them and assigned Umar, Salman, Abu-Dharr, and a group of companions whose number amounted to seventy to search for Hasan and Husayn who were, in the words of the Holy Prophet, the apple of his eye. They all searched for Hasan and Husayn but they could not find them and returned without any news! The Messenger of Allah was upset with this unexpected event so he headed for the mosque to pray for them. Raising his hands, he said: O Lord! Through the position of Ibrahim, your friend! And through the position of Adam, your chosen one, protect the apple of my eye and return them safely to me whether they are on sea or land!

At this time Gabriel appeared saying: O Messenger of Allah, your Lord hailed you and said: Do not grieve! These two children have merits in this world and the hereafter, having abode in paradise. I have assigned an angel over them to guard them in sleep and wakefulness. Being gladdened by this news, the Messenger of Allah set out while Gabriel, the trustworthy, was on the right side and Muslims were around him till they reached the orchard of Banu-Najjar. The Messenger of Allah hailed the guardian angel, kneeled down, finding that Hasan had put his hand around Husayn’s

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neck and they had both gone to sleep. The guardian angel too had spread one wing as bed and the other wing as cover. The Holy Prophet (S) kept on kissing them till they woke up. He took up Hasan and Gabriel took up Husayn and went out of orchard.

Ibn Abbas reports: After exit from orchard, I saw Hasan on the right side and Husayn on the left side of the Messenger of Allah who showered them with kisses, saying: Whoever loves you has loved the Messenger of Allah and whoever has rancor against you is the enemy of the Messenger of Allah. Abu-Bakr said: O Messenger of Allah! Allow me to carry one of them on my shoulder but the Holy Prophet said: What good riders they are and what a good horse they have. Umar requested the same thing and received the same answer.

السَّلامُ یَسْقِی عَلَی الدَّالِیَهِ مُنْذُ خَمْسَهِ أَیَّامٍ یَسْقِی الْبُسْتَانَ. وَإِنِّی طَلَبْتُهُمَا فِی مَنَازِلِکَ فَمَا حَسَسْتُ لَهُمَا أَثَراً. وَإذَا أَبُو بَکْرٍ، فَقالَ: یَا أَبَا بَکْرٍ، قُمْ فَاطْلُبْ قُرَّتَیْ عَیْنِی. ثُمَّ قَالَ: یَا عُمَرُ، قُمْ فَاطْلُبْهُمَا. یَا سَلْمَانُ، یَا أَبَا ذَرٍّ، یَا فُلانُ، یَا فُلانُ. قَالَ: فَأَحْصَیْنَا عَلَی رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ سَبْعِینَ رَجُلاً بَعَثَهُمْ فِی طَلَبِهِمَا وَحَثَّهُمْ. فَرَجَعُوا وَلَمْ یُصِیبُوهُمَا، فَاغْتَمَّ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ غَمَّاً شَدِیداً. وَوَقَفَ عَلَی بَابِ الْمَسْجِدِ وَهُوَ یَقُولُ: بِحَقِّ إِبْرَاهِیمَ خَلِیلِکَ وَبِحَقِّ آدَمَ صَفِیِّکَ إنْ کَانَا قُرَّتَا عَیْنِی وَثَمَرَتَا فُؤَادِی أُخِذَا بَرَّاً أَوْ بَحْراً فَاحْفَظْهُمَا وَسَلِّمْهُمَا. قَالَ: فَإذَا جِبْرِیلُ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ هَبَطَ فَقالَ: یَا رَسولَ اللهِ، إنَّ اللهَ

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تَعالَی یُقْرِئُکَ السَّلامَ وَیَقُولُ لَکَ: لاَ تَحْزَنْ وَلاَ تَغْتَمَّ، الصَّبِیَّانِ فَاضِلاَنِ فِی الآخِرَهِ وَهُمَا فِی الْجَنَّهِ، قَدْ وَکَّلْتُ بِهِمَا مَلَکاً یَحْفَظُهُمَا إذَا نَامَا وَإذَا قَامَا. فَفَرِحَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَرَحاً شَدِیداً وَمَضَی جِبْرِیلُ عَنْ یَمِینِهِ وَالْمُسْلِمونَ حَوْلَهُ حَتَّی دَخَلَ حَظِیرَهَ بَنِی النَّجَّارِ فَسَلَّمَ عَلَی ذَلِکَ الْمَلَکِ الْمُوَکَّلِ بِهِمَا. ثُمَّ جَثَی النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ عَلَی رُکْبَتَیْهِ وَإذَا الْحَسَنُ مُعَانِقٌ الْحُسَیْنَ وَهُمَا نَائِمَانِ وَذَلِکَ الْمَلَکُ قَدْ جَعَلَ جَنَاحَهُ تَحْتَهُمَا وَالآخَرَ فَوْقَهُمَا وَعَلَی کُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمْا دَرَّاعَهٌ مِنْ شَعْرٍ أَوْ صُوفٍ وَالْمِدادُ عَلَی شَفَتَیْهِمَا. فَمَا زَالَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَلْثِمُهُمَا حَتَّی اسْتَیْقَظَا. فَحَمَلَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ الْحَسَنَ وَحَمَلَ جَبْرَئِیلُ الْحُسَیْنَ وَخَرَجَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ مِنَ الْحَظِیرَهِ.

قَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ: وَجَدْنَا الْحَسَنَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ عَنْ یَمِینِ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَالْحُسَیْنَ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ عَنْ یِسَارِهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَهُوَ یُقَبِّلُهُمَا وَیَقُولُ: مَنْ أَحَبَّکُمَا فَقَدْ أَحَبَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ، وَمَنْ أَبْغَضَکُمَا فَقَدْ أَبْغَضَ رَسُولَ اللهِ. فَقالَ أَبُو بَکْرٍ: یَا رَسولَ اللهِ، أَعْطِنِی أَحَدَهُمَا أَحْمِلُهُ. فقَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: نِعْمَ الْحُمُولَهُ وَنِعْمَ الْمَطِیَّهُ تَحْتَهُمَا. فَلَمَّا أَنْ صَارَ إلَی بَابِ الْحَظِیرَهِ لَقِیَهُ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ فَقالَ لَهُ مِثْلَ مَقَالَهِ أَبِی بَکْرٍ فَرَدَّ عَلَیْهِ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ کَمَا رَدَّ عَلَی أَبِی بَکْرٍ. فَرَأَیْتُ الْحَسَنَ مُتَشَبِّثاً بِثَوْبِ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ وَوَجَدْنَا یَدَ النَّبِیِّ عَلَی رَأْسِهِ.

The Holy Prophet then entered the mosque while Hasan was clutching his shirt and leaning against his arm, saying: Today, I will elaborate on the dignity that God has given to these two endeared sons

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of mine. Bilal was ordered to announce to people to be gathered in mosque. Addressing them, the Holy Prophet said: Shall I guide you today to the best people in terms of grandfather and grandmother? They said: Yes, O Messenger of Allah. He said: Do not leave Hasan and Husayn alone, for their grandfather is the Messenger of Allah and their grandmother is Khadijah, the daughter of Khuwaylid, the lady of the women in paradise! Shall I guide you to the best persons who have dignified father and mother? The people said: Yes, O Messenger of Allah! He said: Resort to Hasan and Husayn, for their father is ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib who is better than his sons, a youth who loves God and His messenger, and God and His messenger too love him. He has benefited Islam and possesses merits. Their mother is Fatimah, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah and the princess of women in paradise. O people, shall I guide you to the best people who have dignified uncle and aunt? The people said: Yes, O Messenger of Allah! The Holy Prophet said: The uncle of Hasan and Husayn is Jafar Tayyar who flies in paradise with two wings. Their aunt is Ummu-Hani, the daughter of Abu-Talib. O people, shall I guide you to the maternal uncle and aunt of the best people? The people said: Yes, O Messenger of Allah! The Holy Prophet said: The best people are Hasan and Husayn whose maternal uncle is Qasim,

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the son of the Messenger of Allah and whose maternal aunt is Zayinab, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah.

O people! I hereby declare that the grandfather, the grandmother, the parents, the paternal and maternal uncles and aunts of Hasan and Husayn are in paradise. Whoever loves the sons of ‘Ali will be with us in paradise and whoever is their enemy will be in hell. One of the honors God has given to Hasan and Husayn is that their names have been mentioned in the Torah as Shubbar and Shubayr.

Mansur reports: When that clergyman heard this Hadith from me, honored me much, saying: Now that you have related this narration about ‘Ali, it does not befit you to have such a worn-out shirt. He immediately offered me a precious garment and a horse which later I sold for a hundred Dinars.

فَدَخَلَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ الْمَسْجِدَ فَقالَ: لأُشَرِّفَنَّ الْیَوْمَ ابْنَیَّ کَمَا شَرَّفَهُمَا اللهُ تَعالَی. وَقالَ: یَا بِلاَلُ، عَلَیَّ بِالنَّاسِ. فَنَادَی فِیهِمْ فَاجْتَمَعُوا. فَقالَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: یَا مَعْشَرَ أَصْحَابِی، بَلِّغُوا عَنْ نَبِیِّکُمْ مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ سَمِعْنَا رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ یَقُولُ: أَلاَ أَدُلُّکُمْ عَلَی خَیْرِ النَّاسِ جَدَّاً وَجَدَّهً؟ قالوا: بَلَی یَا رَسولَ اللهِ. قَالَ: عَلَیْکُمْ بِالْحَسَنِ وَالْحُسَیْنِ، فَإنَّ جَدَّهُمَا رَسُولُ اللهِ وَجَدَّتَهُمَا خَدِیجَهُ بِنْتُ خُوَیْلِدٍ سَیِّدَهُ نِسَاءِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّهِ.

مَعْشَرَ النَّاسِ، هَلْ أَدُلُّکُمْ عَلَی خَیْرِ النَّاسِ أَباً وََأُمَّاً؟ قَالُوا: بَلَی یَا رَسولَ اللهِ. قَالَ: عَلَیْکُمْ بِالْحَسَنِ وَالْحُسَیْنِ، فَإنَّ أَبَاهُما عَلِیُّ بْنُ أَبِی طَالِبٍ عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ وَهُوَ خَیْرٌ مِنْهُمْا شَابٌّ یُحِبُّ اللهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَیُحِبُّهُ

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اللهُ وَرَسُولُهُ ذُو الْمَنْفَعَهِ وَالْمَنْقَبَهِ فِی الإسْلامِ. وَأُمُّهُمَا فَاطِمَهُ بِنْتُ رَسُولِ اللهِ سَیِّدَهُ نِسَاءِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّهِ. مَعْشَرَ النَّاسِ، أَلاَ أَدُلُّکُمْ عَلَی خَیْرِ النَّاسِ عَمَّاً وَعَمَّهً؟ قَالُوا: بَلَی یَا رَسولَ اللهِ. قَالَ: عَلَیْکُمْ بِالْحَسَنِ وَالْحُسَیْنِ، فَإنَّ عَمَّهُمَا جَعْفَرٌ ذُو الْجَنَاحَیْنِ یَطِیرُ بِهِمَا فِی الْجَنَّهِ مَعَ الْمَلاَئکَِهِ وَعَمَّتُهُمَا أُمُّ هَانَئٍ بِنْتُ أَبِی طَالِبٍ.

مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، أَلاَ أَدُلُّکُمْ عَلَی خَیْرِ النَّاسِ خَالاً وَخَالَهً؟ قَالُوا: بَلَی یَا رَسولَ اللهِ. قَالَ: عَلَیْکُمْ بِالْحَسَنِ وَالْحُسَیْنِ، فَإنَّ خَالَهُمَا الْقَاسِمُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ رَسُولِ اللهِ. وَخَالَتُهُمَا زَیْنَبُ بِنْتُ رَسُول اللهِ. ألاَ یَا مَعْشَرَ النَّاسِ، أُعْلِمُکُمْ أَنَّ جَدَّهُمَا فِی الْجَنَّهِ، وَجَدَّتُهُمَا فِی الْجَنَّهِ، وَأَبُوهُمَا فِی الْجَنَّهِ، وَأُمُّهُمَا فِی الْجَنَّهِ، وَعَمُّهُمَا فِی الْجَنَّهِ، وَعَمَّتُهُمَا فِی الْجَنَّهِ، وَخَالُهُمَا فِی الْجَنَّهِ، وَخَالَتُهُمَا فِی الْجَنَّهِ، وَهُمَا فِی الْجَنَّهِ. وَمَنْ أَحَبَّ ابْنَیْ عَلِیٍّ فَهُوَ مَعَنَا فِی الْجَنَّهِ. وَمَنْ أَبْغَضَهُمَا فَهُوَ فِی النَّارِ. وَإنَّ مِنْ کَرَامَتِهِمَا عَلَی اللهِ تَعالَی أنَّهُ سَمَّاهُمَا فِی التَّوْرَاهِ: شُبَّراً وَشُبَیْراً. فَلَمَّا سَمِعَ الشَّیْخُ الإمَامُ هَذَا مِنِّی قَدَّمَنِی وَقالَ: هَذِهِ حَالُکَ وَأَنْتَ تَرْوِی فِی عَلِیٍّ هَذَا؟

Then he said: Now, I will guide you to two of my brothers. One is the leader of a group who curse ‘Ali a thousand times in this city from morning till night and curse him four thousand times on Fridays. Recently, God has denied him His blessings and has made him an example for public and now he has become a devotee of ‘Ali. I will now guide you to the other brother who is a devotee of ‘Ali from his childhood. I am sure you will receive benefits from him.

Now, rise up and move towards

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him. O Sulayman, by God, I rode on the horse and the sheikh and the people who were in the mosque accompanied me to the door of his brother’s house. The sheikh had already stressed that I should not keep silent when meeting his brother.

When the companions left me, I knocked at the door. A tall man with dark complexion rushed to receive me. Looking at my horse, he welcomed me and said: This horse belongs to him. If he has favored you, it is due to your love for God and His messenger. Should you gladden me by relating a Hadith, you will be nicely rewarded. O Suleiman, by God, I related to him the most valuable narration which you have heard before and I will now relate to you. I said: My father and my grandfather reported their father as saying: I and a group of people were sitting in the presence of the Messenger of Allah when Fatimah, carrying Husayn on her shoulder entered weeping. The Holy Prophet welcomed his daughter, took Husayn from her and asked the reason of her weeping.

Fatimah said: My dear father! The women of Quraysh reproach me, saying: Your father has married you to one who has no wealth! The Holy Prophet said: Calm down, my daughter. Never repeat these words again, for your marriage was not in my hand, rather God Almighty decreed to marry you to ‘Ali after He had married you to ‘Ali with Gabriel, Michael, and Seraphiel

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as witnesses. O Fatimah, the Lord of universe had a look at the world with His infinite knowledge, and chose your father as a prophet. He once again looked at creatures and appointed ‘Ali as my executor on God’s order, for his illuminated heart was the most susceptible, his forbearance more than others, his belief in Islam, the foremost, his generosity above others, and his temper and morality better than others.

My daughter! On the Day of Judgment I will mission ‘Ali to quench the thirst of anyone of my followers whom he knows. O Fatimah! Your sons, Hasan and Husayn are the masters of the youths in paradise. Their names had been mentioned in the Torah as Shubbar and Shubayr even before my prophethood. They have been named Hasan and Husayn due to the dignity which their grandfather and they themselves have with God.

وَکَسَانِی خُلْعَهً وَحَمَلَنِی عَلَی بَغْلَهٍ بِعْتُهَا بِمِائَهِ دِینَارٍ. ثُمَّ قَالَ لِی: أَدُلُّکَ عَلَی مَنْ یَفْعَلُ بِکَ خَیْراً؛ هَاهُنَا أَخَوَانِ فِی هَذِهِ الْمَدِینَهِ: أَحَدُهُمَا کَانَ إمَامَ قَوْمٍ وَکَانَ إذَا أَصْبَحَ لَعَنَ عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ أَلْفَ مَرَّهٍ کُلَّ غَدَاهٍ، فَغَیَّرَ اللهُ تَعالَی مَا بِِِهِ مِنْ نِعْمَهٍ فَصَارَ آیَهً لِلسَّائِلِینَ، وَهُوَ الْیَوْمَ یُحِبُّهُ. وَأَخٌ لِی یُحِبُّهُ مُنْذُ خَرَجَ مِنْ بَطْنِ أُمِّهِ، فَقُمْ إلَیْهِ وَلاَ تَحْتَبِسْ عِنْدَهُ.

وَاللهِ یَا سُلَیْمَانُ لَقَدْ رَکِبْتُ الْبَغْلَهَ وَإنِّی یَوْمَئِذٍ لَجَائِعٌ. فَقَامَ مَعِیَ الشَّیْخُ وَأَهْلُ الْمَسْجِدِ حَتَّی صِرْنَا إلَی الدَّارِ، وَقالَ الشَّیْخُ: إنِّی أَنْتَظِرُکَ. فَدَقَقْتُ الْبَابَ وَقَدْ ذَهَبَ مَنْ کَانَ مَعِی فَإِذَا شَاٌّب أدِمٌ قَدْ خَرَجَ إلَیَّ. فَلَمَّا رَأَی الْبَغْلَهَ قَالَ: مَرْحَباً بِکَ، وَاللهِ مَا کَسَاکَ أَبُو

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فُلانٍ خُلْعَتَهُ وَلاَ حَمَلَکَ عَلَی بَغْلَتِهِ إلاَّ أَنَّکَ تُحِبُّ اللهَ وَرَسُولَهُ. إنْ أَقْرَرْتَ عَیْنِی لأُقِرَّنَّ عَیْنَکَ. وَاللهِ یَا سلیمان إنِّی لاَ أَلْبَسُ بِهَذا الْحَدِیثِ الَّذِی سَمِعْتَهُ وَتَسْمَعُهُ.

أَخْبَرَنِی أَبِی عَنْ جَدِّی عَنْ أَبِیهِ قَالَ: کُنَّا مَعَ النَّبِیِّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ جُلُوساً بِبَابِ دَارِهِ فَإِذَا فَاطِمَهُ عَلَیْها السَّلامُ قَدْ أَقْبَلَتْ وَهِیَ حَامِلَهٌ الْحُسَیْنَ وَهِیَ تَبْکِی بُکَاءً شَدِیداً. فَاسْتَقْبَلَهَا رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ فَتَنَاوَلَ الْحُسَیْنَ مِنْهَا وَقالَ لَهَا: مَا یُبْکِیکِ یَا فَاطِمَهُ؟ قَالَتْ: یَا أَبَهُ، عَیَّرَتْنِی نِسَاءُ قُرَیْشٍ وَقُلْنَ: زَوَّجَکِ أَبُوکِ مُعْدَماً لاَ مَالَ لَهُ. فَقالَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَهْلاً، وَإیَّایَ أَنْ أَسْمَعَ هَذَا مِنْکِ، فَإنَّنِی لَمْ أُزَوِّجْکِ حَتَّی زَوَّجَکِ اللهُ تَعالَی مِنْ فَوْقِ عَرْشِهِ وَشَهِدَ عَلَی ذَلِکَ جِبْرِیلُ. وَإنَّ اللهَ تَعالَی إطَّلَعَ عَلَی الدُّنْیَا فَاخْتَارَ مِنَ الْخَلاَئِقِ أَبَاکِ فَبَعَثَهُ نَبِیَّاً. ثُمَّ إطَّلَعَ ثَانِیَهً فَاخْتَارَ مِنَ الْخَلاَئِقِ عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ فَأَوْحَی إلَیَّ فَزَوَّجْتُکِ إیَّاهُ وَاتَّخَذْتُهُ وَصِیَّاً وَوَزِیراً. فَعَلِیٌّ أَشْجَعُ النَّاسِ قَلْباً، وَأَعْلَمُ النَّاسِ عِلْماً، وَأَحْلَمُ النَّاسِ حِلْماً، وَأَقْدَمُ النَّاسِ إسْلاَماً، وَأَسْمَحُهُمْ کَفَّاً، وَأَحْسَنُهُمْ خُلُقاً. یَا فَاطِمَهُ، آخُذُ لِوَاءَ الْحَمْدِ وَمَفَاتِیحَ الْجَنَّهِ بِیَدِی فَأَدْفَعُهُمَا إلَی عَلِیٍّ، فَیَکُونُ آدَمُ

O Fatimah, on the Day of Judgment, your father will be dressed with two garments of heavenly garments. ‘Ali too will be adorned with such vestments. On that day, I will give the banner of al-Hamd to ‘Ali and due to the dignity he has with God, my followers will stand under his banner. At that time, the herald will declare: O Muhammad, your ancestor Ibrahim is the best man and your brother ‘Ali is the best brother. Once the Lord of

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universe calls me, He will call ‘Ali too. If I sit on my knees, ‘Ali will do the same. If I intercede for anyone, ‘Ali will intercede for him too. If my prayer is answered ‘Ali’s prayer will be answered too. He will not only cooperate with me in intercession but also in giving the keys of paradise to people. O Fatimah! Rejoice and know that ‘Ali and his followers attain salvation on the Day of Judgment.

Mansur reports: Another narration is that one day when Fatimah was sitting in a corner sorrowful, the Messenger of Allah came and sat near her asking the reason she was sad. Fatimah said: May I be ransom for you. How should I not be sorrowful while I know you will depart from this world? The Messenger of Allah said: Do not grieve, my daughter, for death is a certain issue and there is no doubt about it. With this, Fatimah started weeping more, saying: Dear father, where can we meet again?

The Messenger of Allah said: On mount al-Hamd where I will intercede for my Ummah with my Lord! She said: What if we do not meet there? He said: on The Discriminating Bridge where Gabriel is on my right side, Michael on my left side, Seraphiel is clutching my lap and angels move behind me and I humbly say: O Lord! My Ummah, my Ummah. Make the reckoning easy for them. At that time, I will look at my Ummah on the right

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and left side and see all prophets are busy with themselves, saying: Woe to me, woe to me! It is only I who say woe to my Ummah, woe to my Ummah! The first ones of my Ummah who will join me are: You, ‘Ali, Hasan, and Husayn. Then God will say: O Muhammad! If your Ummah have sinned as much as the height of lofty mountains but have not associated anything with Me and they are not under the leadership of my enemies, I will forgive them.

وَمَنْ وَلَدَ تَحْتَ لِوَائِهِ. یَا فَاطِمَهُ، إنِّی مُقِیمٌ غَداً عَلِیَّاً عَلَیْهِ السَّلامُ عَلَی حَوْضِی یَسْقِی مَنْ عَرَفَ مِنْ أُمَّتِی. یَا فَاطِمَهُ، وَابْنَاکِ الْحَسَنُ وَالْحُسَیْنُ سَیِّدَا شَبَابِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّهِ، وَکَانَ قَدْ سَبَقَ اسْمُهُمَا فِی تَوْرَاهِ مُوسَی، وَکَانَ اسْمُهُمَا فِی التَّوْرَاهِ شُبَّراً وَشُبَیْراً، فَسَمَّاهُمَا الْحَسَنَ وَالْحُسَیْنَ لِکَرَامَهِ مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ عَلَی اللهِ تَعالَی وَلِکَرَامَتِهِمَا عَلَیْهِ. یَا فَاطِمَهُ، یُکْسَی أَبُوکِ حُلَّتَیْنِ مِنْ حُلَلِ الْجَنَّهِ وَیُکْسَی عَلِیٌّ حُلَّتَیْنِ مِنْ حُلَلِ الْجَنَّهِ وَلِوَاءُ الْحَمْدِ فِی یَدِی وَأُمَّتِی تَحْتَ لِوَائِی، فَأُنَاوِلُهُ عَلِیَّاً لِکَرَامَتِهِ عَلَی اللهِ تَعالَی. وَیُنَادِی مُنَادٍ: یَا مُحَمَّدُ نِعْمَ الْجَدُّ جَدُّکَ إبْرَاهِیمُ وَنِعْمَ الأَخُ أَخُوکَ عَلِیٌّ. وَإذَا دَعَانِی رَبُّ الْعَالَمِینَ دَعَا عَلِیَّاً مَعِی فَإذَا جَثَوْتُ جَثَی عَلِیٌّ مَعِی، وَإِذَا شَفَعْتُ شَفَعَ عَلِیٌّ مَعِی، وَإذَا أُجِبْتُ أُجِیبَ عَلِیٌّ مَعِی، وَإنَّهُ فِی الْمَقَامِ عَوْنِی عَلَی مَفَاتِیحِ الْجَنَّهِ. قُومِی یَا فَاطِمَهُ، إنَّ عَلِیَّاً وَشِیعَتَهُ هُمُ الْفَائِزُونَ غَداً.

وَقالَ بَیْنَا فَاطِمَهُ جَالِسَهٌ إذْ أَقْبَلَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ حَتَّی جَلَسَ إلَیْها فَقالَ: یَا فَاطِمَهُ مَا لِی أَرَاکِ بَاکِیَهً حَزِینَهً؟ قَالَتْ: بِأَبِی وَأُمِّی یَا رَسولَ اللهِ، کَیْفَ لاَ أَبْکِی

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وَتُرِیدُ أَنْ تُفَارِقَنِی؟ فَقالَ لَهَا: یَا فَاطِمَهُ لاَ تَبْکِی وَلاَ تَحْزَنِی، فَلاَ بُدَّ مِنْ مُفَارَقَتِکِ. فَاشْتَدَّ بُکَاؤُهَا. ثُمَّ قَالَتْ: یَا أَبَهُ، أَیْنَ أَلْقَاکَ؟ قَالَ: تَلْقِینِی عَلَی تَلِّ الْحَمْدِ أَشْفَعُ لأُمَّتِی. قَالَتْ: یَا أَبَهُ، فَإنْ لَمْ أَلْقَکَ؟ قَالَ: تَلْقِینِی عَلَی الصِّرَاطِ وَجَبْرَئِیلُ عَنْ یَمِینِی وَمِیکَائِیلُ عَنْ شِمَالِی وَإسْرَافِیلُ آخِذٌ بِحُجْزَتِی وَالْمَلاَئِکَهُ خَلْفِی وَأَنَا أُنَادِی: یَا رَبِّ أُمَّتِی أُمَّتِی؛ هَوِّنْ عَلَیْهِمُ الْحِسَابَ. ثُمَّ أَنْظُرُ یَمِیناً وَشِمَالاً إلَی أُمَّتِی وَکُلُّ نَبِیٍّ یَوْمَئِذٍ مُشْتَغِلٌ بِنَفْسِهِ یَقُولُ: یَا رَبِّ نَفْسِی نَفْسِی. وَأَنَا أَقُولُ: یَا رَبِّ أُمَّتِی أُمَّتِی. فَأَوَّلُ مَنْ یَلْحَقُ بِی یَوْمَ الْقِیَامَهِ مِنْ أُمّ